October 2008 Newsletter from
"This Day in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2010)

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Start of Phil Konstantin's October 2008 Newsletter - Part 1
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Greetings,

I know it has been some time since my last newsletter.
Things have been a bit hectic, and I have been putting
some things off. I'm sorry it has taken me so long to
get back to you.

I'm still trying to replace all of the files I lot when
my computer crashed. This is one of the reasons I still
haven't sent out a newsletter like I used to send out.
So, to somewhat make up for the lapse, I have included
the entire October dates section from my book. This is
much more detailed than my normal newsletter submission.
I have also added links to websites about many of these
listings. No, they are not all links to my websites.
Some of these websites are only slightly related to the
subject. Others have very specific details about the event.
So, have fun exploring these other websites.

Due to the transferring of data between formats, the dates
section below may have several gaps in it. I just wanted
to warn you in advance.

As I mentioned in my last newsletter, I had what appears
to have been a Transcient Cerebrial Ischemic episode.
They call it TIA or TCI. Since then, I have had an MRI,
an echocardiogram (think sonogram for the heart), and
several other less dramatic tests. The echo results say
my heart looks good. The MRI found nothing in my head.
I could have told them that (ha-ha). The neurologist is
considering that I may have had an occular migraine. I've
never had a migraine. For those of you who have, this is
the kind that affects your vision, but does not hurt.

I have one final test tomorrow. So far, there has been
nothing to indicate that I will have a repeat of the
incident. That is good, but it makes me think. In many
ways, I almost wanted them to find something. This would
have told them exactly what the problem is. Of course,
that would have also meant that I had something specific
and it needed to be taken care of. The positive side of
them not finding anything is that it means that I
probably don't have a real problem. But just because
they don't find anything, doesn't mean there isn't
something (or some potential problem) there. I guess
not finding anything is the better of the two options.
I tend to think like this all the time. I don't let
it occupy all of my time, but I do ponder over the
possibilities of things.

Thank you to all of you who sent me e-mails of encouragement.
If I haven't written you back yet, it is on my list of
things to do.

I am one of the council members for the San Diego Cherokee
Community. We are now an official satellite community of
the Cherokee Nation. We had a nice meeting a few weeks
ago. Several people came out from Oklahoma to talk about
Cherokee history, genealogy, and tribal activities. It
is nice to be able to get this group growing and to help
the local Cherokee stay in touch with the folks back east.
Many of us grew up away from the old Cherokee areas, and
we have not had the luxury of being exposed to Cherokee
traditions, language and what I often call "the old ways."
I hope to make that connection through this group. There
are similar groups in (and around) Los Angeles, Orange,
& Riverside Counties in California. California also hosts
other groups in the Bay area & Bakersfield. Albuquerque
has had an active Cherokee community for a long time.
There is also a big group in Houston. If you live in any
of these areas, and are interested, check them out.

I actually did get something accomplished last month
(a freebie for a friend). Jo Eager is one of my best
friends. She is a broadcaster and author. One of her
specialties is writing resumes. I put together a not-
so-fancy website (that's what she wanted) for her to
advertise her service. If you (or anyone you know) are
in need of a professional resume, I highly recommend
her work. You can find her website at:

http://eagerwriter.com

I'll try to send out another newsletter later this month.

Stay safe,

Phil

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October 1

1539: Hernando de Soto’s expedition reached the Apalachee village of
Ivitachuco (also called Ibitachuco) in northeastern Florida. The Spanish
set up camp near the village. Throughout the evening, the Indians shot
arrows at the Spanish, with little effect. The Narvaez expedition had
also visited the village in June 25, 1528, which may somewhat account
for the hostile reception Hernando de Soto’s expedition received.

http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/apalacheehist.htm


1728: According to some sources, a conference on alliance and land
cessions was held for the next four days between the British in New York
and the Six Nations.

1776: About 1,800 Virginians arrived in the Overhill towns and demanded
Dragging Canoe and Alexander Cameron. The two men were leaders of the
Cherokees in anti-U.S. activities during the Revolutionary War. The
Cherokees refused to give them up. The Virginians burned several towns.

http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=C007


1792: Just after midnight, almost 300 Cherokees, Chickamauga,
Creek, and Shawnee attacked Buchanan’s Station in the
Cumberland region of Tennessee near Nashville. They were
led by Chickamauga Chief John Watts, Kiachatalee, and
Creek Chief Talotiskee. There were only a little over a
dozen defenders in the fort. In what turned out to be a
futile effort, many of the Indians were killed by the crack
shots within the fort. Almost all of the Indian leaders
were killed except John Watts, who was seriously wounded.
When the Indians heard the sounds of a relief column
coming from Nashville, they retired. None of the defenders
of the fort were killed.

http://www.mudtavern.net/ShowHistory.aspx?CatID=5&ID=3


1800: The San Ildefonso Treaty was signed. A secret part of this treaty
(signed by France and Spain) was for Spain to return to France the lands
in Louisiana west of the Mississippi River.

http://www.masterliness.com/a/Treaty.of.San.Ildefonso.htm


1838: John Benge and 1,103 Cherokees left one of the concentration camps
near the Tennessee Cherokee Agency. Benge’s group was the first of
several groups who supervised their own removal to the Indian Territory
(present-day Oklahoma).

http://www.tourdekalb.com/tot.shtml


1858: Colonel Albert Sidney, four companies from the Second Cavalry, 135
Indian scouts, and Texas Rangers—all told, 350 men—fought Buffalo Hump’s
500 Comanche at Rush Springs in south-central Oklahoma. Another source
said the army was led by Captain Earl Van Dorn. Fifty-six Indians and
five soldiers were killed in the fighting. All 120 of the Comanche
lodges were burned. This campaign was part of what the army called the
Wichita expedition.

http://home.flash.net/~mvincent/history.htm


1859: The Sac and Fox signed a treaty (15 Stat. 467). The United States
was represented by Alfred Greenwood. The Indians ceded a large section
of their reservation to the United States.

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sau0796.htm


1865: According to a government report, the expense of sustaining Navajo
and Apache at the Bosque Redondo Reservation from March 1,
1864, to October 1, 1865, was about $1.1 million.

http://www.southernnewmexico.com/Articles/Southeast/De_Baca/FortSumner/BosqueRedondo-destination.html



1867: According to army records, members of the Ninth Cavalry on
mail-escort duty fought with a band of Indians near Howard’s Well,
Texas. Two soldiers were killed.

http://www.texasbob.com/travel/tbt_howardspn.html


1873: There were numerous fights throughout the Southwest. Captain G. W.
Chilson and Troop C, Eighth Cavalry, killed three Indians and wounded
one in a fight in the Guadalupe Mountains in New Mexico Territory.
Sergeant Benjamin Mew and soldiers from Company K, 25th Infantry,
skirmished with Indians at Central Station, Texas. Also in Texas, a
sergeant and thirteen soldiers fought with a band of Comanche. One
Indian was reported wounded in this fight.

http://www.guadalupe.mountains.national-park.com/info.htm


1879: Captain Francis Dodge and Troop D, Ninth Cavalry, were on patrol
when couriers from Major Thornburgh’s troops met them. Dodge sent the
message along and then pretended to camp for the evening in case his
actions were being observed. After dark, he issued rations for three
days and 225 rounds of ammunition. Dodge and his thirty-seven soldiers
and four civilians then headed for Thornburgh’s position.

http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/ttthornburgh.htm


1879: Army scouts captured a woman and a child from Victorio’s band. The
scouts then learned the location of Victorio’s camp from the female
captive. The army sped to the camp and captured lots of provisions, but
the Apaches escaped into the night.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorio


1886: By executive order of President Grover Cleveland, certain land in
Washington Territory was withdrawn from sale or other disposition and
set aside for the use and occupation of the Chehalis Indians.

http://www.chehalistribe.org/


1962: The Institute of American Indian Arts opened.

http://www.iaia.edu/


1962: The Tundra Times was first published.

http://tundratimes.ilisagvik.cc/TTHome.htm


1962: The Mi’kmaq Bear River First Nation Reserve of Bear River No. 6B
was established in Nova Scotia.

http://www.bearriverculturalcenter.com/brfnreserve.aspx


1969: In Ridgeville, South Carolina, U.S. Marshals turned away Indian
parents and children from a local school. The Indians wanted to be
desegregated. A court order prohibited the Indians from attending white
schools.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ridgeville,_South_Carolina


1969: The commissioner of Indian affairs authorized an election for
amendments to the constitution of the Oglala Sioux of the Pine Ridge
Indian Reservation.

http://www.dickshovel.com/Aim.Pine.html


1975: Commissioner of Indian Affairs Morris Thompson ratified a
constitution and bylaws approved by the Southern Ute Indian Tribe of the
Southern Ute Reservation in Colorado.

http://www.southern-ute.nsn.us/


1990: Starting today, the Cherokee Nation became one of six tribes that
have assumed responsibility for the disbursement of Bureau of Indian
Affairs funds for their tribe. Prior to this Indian self-governance
agreement, the bureau decided how the funds should be spent.

http://www.cherokee.org


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October 2

1535: Cartier arrived in the area of what eventually became Montreal. He
encountered the Wyandot there.

http://www.nanations.com/wyandot/history.htm


1685: According to some sources, an agreement was reached for the
Delaware Indians to cede some lands to Pennsylvania.

http://www.bigorrin.org/lenape_kids.htm


1696: According to some sources, a peace and alliance agreement was
reached between representatives of the British in New York and the Five
Nations.

1775: George Galphin was appointed commissioner of Indian affairs for
the Southern District by the Continental Congress.

http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2873


1798: A treaty (7 Stat. 62) with the Cherokees was signed in Tellico.
The treaty referred to the July 2, 1791, Holston River Treaty and
attempted to correct some misunderstandings. It also referred to the
June 26, 1794, treaty signed in Philadelphia. All treaties prior to this
date were still in effect. Some Cherokee lands on the Tennessee River
were ceded. Each party appointed one person to walk the new survey line.
The Cherokees got $5,000 in goods up front and $1,000 annually
thereafter. The Kentucky Road from the Cumberland Mountains to the
Tennessee River was to remain safe and open. The Cherokee could hunt on
their old lands if they did so peacefully. Thirty-nine Indians signed
the treaty.

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che0051.htm


1818: Lewis Cass, Jonathan Jennings, and Benjamin Parke, representing
the United States, signed a treaty (7 Stat. 185) with the Potawatomi and
Wea Indians at St. Mary’s River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The tribe
exchanged vast holdings in Indiana for an annual payment of $2,500.

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/pot0168.htm


1833: Joel Bryan Mayes would become chief justice of the Cherokee
supreme court. In 1887, he was elected principal chief. He was born near
Cartersville, Georgia.

http://libraries.ou.edu/etc/westhist/mayesjb.htm


1853: As a part of the Walker War in southern Utah, several Utes sought
refuge in the local fort. Instead of protecting the Indians, they were
killed by the settlers.

1858: Having been held prisoner by army forces under Colonel George
Wright since September 23, Yakama Chief Owhi attempted to escaped from
Fort Dalles. Chief Owhi was shot and killed.

http://www.inlander.com/inlandway/307808759593181.php


1868: General William Hazen reported that 100 Indians had attacked Fort
Zarah (near modern Great Bend) in central Kansas. The Indians then
attacked a provision train and a ranch eight miles away. The Indians
made off with almost 200 animals. General Alfred Sully reported that
Indians had attacked a wagon train between Fort Larned and Fort Dodge in
Kansas. Three citizens were killed and three wounded.

http://skyways.lib.ks.us/history/zarah.html


1872: Fort McKeen (later called Fort Abraham Lincoln) in central North
Dakota was attacked by approximately 300 Sioux Indians. According to
army reports, one soldier was wounded and three Ree Indian scouts were
killed.

http://www.ndparks.com/parks/Lincoln/History.htm


1879: Captain Francis Dodge reached the survivors of Major Thornburgh’s
troops, under siege by hostile Ute Indians on the Milk River in
Colorado. Sergeant Henry Johnson, Company D, would be awarded the
Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions during the next several
days.

http://www.homeofheroes.com/photos/1_indian/dodge_francis.html


1972: The commissioner of Indian affairs authorized an election to
approve a constitution for La Posta Band of Diegueno (Mission) Indians
of the La Posta Indian Reservation, California. The election was held on
January 26, 1973.

http://www.lptribe.net/


--------------



October 3

1763: As a part of Pontiac’s Uprising, Indians ambushed a force of five
dozen Rangers in western Virginia. Fifteen of the soldiers were killed
in the fighting. After tracking the Indians, a force of 150 Virginia
militia and volunteers, led by Charles Lewis, found them on the South
Fork of the Potomac River. The Europeans killed twenty-one of the
Indians without suffering a single loss.

http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Pontiacs.html


1764: Leaving Fort Pitt with more than 1,500 soldiers and militia,
Colonel Henry Bouquet led his men into Ohio in search of hostile
Indians.

http://www.nsf.gov/news/speeches/colwell/rc02_asm/tsld004.htm


1786: A group of thirty settlers, organized by the McNitt family, were
moving from Virginia to Kentucky. Tonight at a sight near modern London,
Kentucky, they were attacked by a Chickamauga war party. Twenty-one of
the Europeans were killed and five were captured. Of the four people who
escaped, one, a pregnant woman, hid in a hollow log, where she gave
birth.

http://www.londonky.com/CATEGORIES/enter/tourist/tourist.htm


1790: John Ross, destined to become one of the most famous Cherokee
chiefs, was born in Rossville, Georgia. Although Ross was only
one-eighth Cherokee, he spent his entire life working for the tribe.

http://ngeorgia.com/ang/John_Ross


1818: Lewis Cass, representing the United States, and the Delaware
Indians signed a treaty (7 Stat. 188) on the St. Mary’s River on the
Indiana-Ohio border. The treaty traded all of the Indians’ lands in
Indiana for land west of the Mississippi, supplies, and an increase in
annual payments from previous treaties.

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del0170.htm


1836: A total of 165 of Captain F. S. Belton’s original 210 Creek
“prisoners” were delivered to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).
Seventeen were given over to civil authorities. The rest either died in
transit or were unaccounted for.

http://www.arkansaspreservation.org/preservation-services/trail-of-tears/pdfs/creeks.pdf



1838: Black Hawk died in Davis County, Iowa.

http://www.madison.k12.wi.us/blackhawk/bio.htm


1854: Major Granville Owen Haller marched to avenge Indian agent A. J.
Bolon’s death. He encountered the Yakama (southwest of modern 10/3,
Washington) on October 5.

http://www.washingtonhistoryonline.org/leschi/indianwars/henrietta-haller.htm



1861: The Uintah and Ouray Reservation was established by executive
order.

http://www.utetribe.com/


1866: Elements of the Fourteenth Infantry fought some Indians near Cedar
Valley, Arizona. Fifteen Indians were killed and ten were captured,
according to Fourteenth Infantry records.

1866: According to army records, soldiers with the Third Cavalry
skirmished with a group of Indians near Trinidad, Colorado. One soldier
was killed and three were wounded. Thirteen Indians were killed.

http://www.trinidadco.com/storyindex/history_tales.html


1866: In Long Valley, Nevada, the First Cavalry killed eight Indians in
a fight, according to army records.

http://books.google.com/books?id=5ZExU-tGSz8C&pg=PA176&lpg=PA176&dq=%22Long+Valley,+Nevada%22+1866&source=web&ots=VRkO0ic6n3&sig=xNLf2vC56qaeUpdjvGUk2uiJXR4&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result



1868: According to army records, members of the Third Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians in the Miembres Mountains in New Mexico. One
soldier was wounded.

1872: Lieutenant Eben Crosby, Seventeenth Infantry, Lieutenant L. D.
Adair, Twenty-Second Infantry, and a citizen were hunting near the Heart
River in Dakota when they were attacked by Sioux Indians. In a fight
that lasted until the next day, all three were killed.

http://siris-archives.si.edu/ipac20/ipac.jsp?uri=full=3100001~!93927!0


1873: According to army reports, Tonkawa Indian scouts attacked a
Comanche camp in Jones County, Texas. No other details were listed in
the report.

http://www.texasindians.com/tonk.htm


1873: “Treaty 3 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The Saulteaux Tribe of
the Ojibbeway Indians at the Northwest Angle On The Lake of the Woods
with Adhesions” was signed in Canada.

http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/pr/trts/trty3_e.html


1873: Captain Jack was hanged at Fort Klamath Oregon for his part in the
Modoc War.

http://www.nativeamericans.com/Modoc.htm


1936: The secretary of the interior had authorized an election to
approve a constitution and bylaws for the Fort McDowell Mohave–Apache
Community in Arizona. It was approved by a vote of 61-1.

http://thorpe.ou.edu/IRA/ftmcdowcons.html


1950: Assistant Secretary of the Interior Willam Warne authorized an
election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the United Keetoowah
Band of Cherokee Indians of Oklahoma. It was approved by a vote of
1,414-1.

http://www.keetoowahcherokee.org/


1961: An election approved Amendment 6 to the constitution and bylaws of
the Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin.

http://www.lacduflambeauchamber.com/culture.htm


1962: An act was passed that allowed the federal government to acquire
land on the Crow Creek Sioux Reservation in South Dakota for the Big
Bend Dam.

https://www.nwo.usace.army.mil/html/Lake_Proj/bigbend/welcome.html


1981: The rules for the election of delegates to the Official Central
Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska were amended.

http://www.ccthita.org/


Every: Papago festival.




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October 4

1693: In 1680, Tewa leader Popé spurred an uprising of the Pueblos
against the Spanish mission in New Mexico. Diego de Vargas led an
expedition to reconquer the area. His force consisted of 100 soldiers,
seventy-three settler families, eighteen priests, and some Indian
allies.

http://legendarysurfers.com/naw/blog/2006/08/pueblo-revolt-1680.html


1779: Colonel David Rogers and some men with five boatloads of
ammunition and powder were working their way up the Ohio River. As they
reached the Licking River in Kentucky, Colonel Rogers spotted some
Indians on the shore. He sent his four dozen men after the Indians.
Lying in wait for Rogers were more than 130 Delaware, Mingo, Shawnee,
and Wyandot warriors, led by Mathew Elliot and Simon Girty. All but a
few of the Americans were killed in the ambush. The Indians lost only
two men.

1838: Elijah Hicks and 748 Cherokees were the second group of Cherokees
to leave the Tennessee Cherokee Agency area under their own supervision.
They were part of the forced removal of the Cherokees to the Indian
Territory (present-day Oklahoma). They arrived on January 4, 1839.

1868: Major Henry Douglass reported that Indians had wounded a Mexican
near Lime-Kiln. They also attacked a wagon train, killing two men and
wounding two more. An attack at Asher Creek settlement got the Indians
seven horses and mules.

1868: According to army records, settlers fought with a band of Indians
near Fort Dodge, Kansas. Two settlers were killed and one was wounded.

1874: Indians fought with soldiers from the Ninth Cavalry Infantry near
Fort Sill, Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). According to army
documents, one Indian was killed during this engagement, which lasted
until October 31.

http://www.chickasawhistory.com/FTA6.htm


1876: Sixth Cavalry and some Indian scouts fought a group of Indians on
the Tonto Plateau in Arizona. According to army documents, eight Indians
were killed and two were captured.

1877: Between today and the next day, 418 Nez Perce surrendered to the
army.

1878: Dull Knife and his band of Northern Cheyenne crossed the Union
Pacific line at Alkali Station, Nebraska. Stationed in Fort Sidney in
western Nebraska, Major T. T. Thornburgh and 140 soldiers boarded a
waiting train in an attempt to catch up to Dull Knife.

1922: Arizona’s Fort Apache, 7,579.75 acres in size, had been
established by executive order on February 1, 1877; it was expanded on
this date.

1937: An election for the adoption of a constitution and bylaws for the
Stockbridge Munsee Community of Wisconsin was authorized by the
assistant secretary of the interior. The election was held on October
30, 1937.

1944: Van T. Barfoot got the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Every: Feast of St. Francis celebrated (Ak-chin).

http://www.medalofhonor.com/VanBarfoot.htm



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October 5

1675: As a part of King Philip’s War, Springfield, Massachusetts, was
attacked by Agawam and Nipmuck Indians. A scout warned the village, and
most of the settlers made it to fortified dwellings. Two settlers were
killed and thirty buildings were burned during the fighting.

http://www.bio.umass.edu/biology/conn.river/philip.html


1724: French peace envoy Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont had been charged
with making peace among the Indians of what became Kansas, then part of
the French Territory of Louisiana. He held a council. The council
included representatives of the “Canza, Padouca, Aiaouez [Iowa?], and
the Othouez [Otto?].” The various chiefs and representative all agreed
to peace and smoked each other’s peace pipes.

1731: Natchez warriors led by Chief Farine attacked a Natchitoches
village (near modern Natchitoches, Louisiana). The Natchez took over the
village. The Caddo and the French, under Louis Juchereau de St. Denis,
retreated to nearby Fort St. Jean. During the fighting over the next
eight days, more than six dozen Natchez were killed. The Natchez fled
into the woods and were never a cohesive force again.
1813: Near the Thames River in Canada, American forces led by General
William Henry Harrison, and British-Indian forces led by Henry Proctor
and Tecumseh, fought a decisive battle. Harrison’s forces were much
stronger. Setting up an ambush, the British and Indian forces took up
different positions. When Harrison’s forces attacked the 700 British
soldiers, they caved almost immediately. Tecumseh’s Indians, fighting in
a swamp, held out until Tecumseh was killed. At the end of the fighting,
600 British were captured and eighteen were killed. Thirty-three Indians
were killed, and none were captured. The American forces lost eighteen
men. (Also recorded as happening on October 15.)

1838: Reverend Jesse Bushyhead and almost 1,000 Cherokees began their
emigration to the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). Many of the
Cherokees in the group were Baptists. They were allowed to stop on
Sundays so they could conduct religious services. Their march was
delayed almost a month because of thick ice on the Mississippi River.
Eighty-two members of this group died before they reached Indian
Territory on February 23, 1839.

1841: Recently, some Cayuse had broken some windows in Marcus Whitman’s
house in Waiilatpu. Whitman demanded reparations from Cayuse
Waptashtamakt. Waptashtamakt declined, but later a feast was attended by
all.

1854: Troops under Major Granville Owen Haller battled the Yakama to
avenge Indian agent A. J. Bolon’s death. The fighting took place
southwest of what is modern Yakima, Washington.

1858: The last execution by Colonel George Wright as a consequence of
the Spokane War was held.

1859: A treaty (12 Stat. 1111) was concluded at the Kansas Agency
between the United States and the Kansa Indians. Representing the United
States was Alfred Greenwood.

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/kan0800.htm


1866: Elements of the First Oregon Infantry fought some Indians near
Fort Klamath, Oregon. Four Indians were killed, according to army
records.

1869: According to army records, members of the Twenty-First Infantry
fought with a band of Indians near Dragoon Springs, Arizona. Four
soldiers were killed.

1870: According to army records, members of Company M, Sixth Cavalry
engage hostile Indians at Holliday Creek along the Little Wichita River
in Texas. For their “gallantry in pursuit of and fight with Indians,”
Sergeant Michael Welch, Corporals Samuel Bowden and Daniel Keating,
Private Benjamin Wilson, and post guide James B. Doshier would be
awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

1877: Chief Joseph, according to army reports, eighty-seven warriors,
eighty-four squaws, and 147 children surrendered near Bear Paw, Montana.
They were within fifty miles of their goal—the Canadian border. It was
here that the chief spoke the famous words: “From where the sun now
stands, I will fight no more.”

http://americanindian.net/2003w.html


1878: According to the commander of Fort Clark (near modern Del Rio,
Texas), four children of the Dowdy family were killed by Indians on
Johnson’s Fork of the Guadalupe River.

1879: After marching 170 miles in a little over forty-eight hours,
Colonel Wesley Merritt and Troops A, B, I, and M, Fifth Cavalry,
numbering 350 men, reached Major T. T. Thornburgh’s encircled men on the
Milk River in Colorado at 5:00 A.M. During the fight, which started on
September 30, 1879, the army reported that twelve men, including Major
Thornburgh, were killed. Forty in Thornburgh’s command were wounded. The
army estimated the size of the Ute force to be 300–350. Indian sources
reported the death of thirty-seven Utes during the fighting. A
subsequent search at the White River Agency revealed the bodies of seven
men, including the agent, Nathan C. Meeker.

1898: “For distinguished bravery in action against hostile Indians,”
Private Oscar Burkard, Hospital Corps, U.S. Army, would be awarded the
Congressional Medal of honor. This fighting was a part of the Chippewa
(Ojibwa) Uprising at Lake Leech in northern Minnesota. This was the last
Congressional Medal of Honor to be awarded for fighting Indians.

1966: The official approved tribal roll for the San Pasqual Band of
Mission (Diegueno) Indians in the San Pasqual Reservation was issued.

1974: Commissioner of Indian Affairs Morris Thompson had authorized an
election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the Upper Skagit
Indian Tribe. It was approved by a vote of 65-2.

http://www.fedvendor.com/contractor/CRR00000000000203973/profile.htm


1985: The constitution and the rules for the election of delegates to
the Official Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of
Alaska were amended.




--------------


October 6

1539: Hernando de Soto reached the Apalachee town of Iniahica (near
modern Tallahassee). He picked this town as his winter quarters. He
maintained this camp until March 3, 1540.

1598: Juan de Oñate left his base in San Juan Pueblo. He was en route to
“visit” the Pueblos to the west.

http://jeff.scott.tripod.com/onate.html


1713: Indians attacked Captain Richard Hunnewel and nineteen men working
in the fields outside Black Point, Maine. Only one European survived
this fight, on Prout’s Neck in Scarborough. A nearby pond was called
Massacre Pond because of this battle.

1759: In retribution for Abenaki attacks on New England settlements,
Major Robert Rogers, 180 of his Rangers, and a few Stockbridge scouts
staged a predawn attack on the Abenaki village at St. Francis, Quebec.
Rogers claimed to have killed 200 Abenaki at the loss of one scout. He
recovered five captives and 600 “English” scalps.

1774: In Lord Dunmore’s War, Virginia Governor John Murray, Earl of
Dunmore, authorized an army of Virginians to go into Shawnee territory
despite a royal proclamation dated October 7, 1763, that prohibited
European settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains. Dunmore had
granted lands to veterans in the prohibited area, and he planned on
helping them get it. Today around 800 Shawnees under Chief Cornstalk
attacked Dunmore’s force of 850 men at Point Pleasant on the Ohio and
Kanawha Rivers (the western part of modern West Virginia). The fighting
lasted all day. Both sides suffered numerous casualties. Cornstalk lost
the battle and eventually signed a peace treaty with the Virginians.
(Also recorded as happening on October 10.)

http://www.tu-endie-weistatepark.com/battle.html


1786: A large force of primarily Kentucky militiamen attacked a peaceful
Shawnee village on the Mad River (not far from modern Bellefontaine,
Ohio). The force was led by Benjamin Logan. One of the Colonels was
Daniel Boone. Many Indians were killed, including Chief Molunthy, and a
few prisoners were recovered.

1818: Lewis Cass, Jonathan Jennings, and Benjamin Parke, representing
the United States, signed a treaty (7 Stat. 189) with the Miami Indians
at the Saint Mary’s River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The Miami gave up
a large section of their lands for an annuity.

1851: One in a series of treaties was signed with California Indians on
the Lower Klamath. The document promised lands for the Indians and to
protect them from angry Americans.

1862: “ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT and convention made and concluded at
Manitowaning, or the Great Manitoulin Island in the Province of Canada,
the sixth day of October, Anno Domini, 1862, between the Hon. William
McDougall, Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, and William
Spragge, Esq., Deputy Superintendent of Indian Afflirs, on the part of
the Crown and Government of said Province, of the first part, and
Mai-she-quong.-gai, Okemah-be-ness, J. B. Assiginock, Benjamin
Assiginock, Nai-be nesse-me, She-ne-tah-guw, George Ah-be-tos-o-mai,
Paim-o-quo-naish-gung, Abence, Tai-bose-gai, A-to-nish-cosh,
Nai-wau-dai-ge-zhik, Wau-kau-o- say, Keesh-kewanbik, Chiefs and
Principal Men of the Ottawa, Chippewa and other Indians occupying the
said island, on behalf of the said Indians, of the second part.”

http://ubcic.bc.ca/gsdl/collect/firstna1/index/assoc/HASH91b4.dir/doc.pdf



1867: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Trout Creek, Arizona. Seven Indians were
reported killed.

1870: Troop K, Second Cavalry, was now stationed at the Carlisle
School.

1892: The Jerome Agreement was signed by the United States and the
Apache, Comanche, and Kiowa Tribes in the Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma). It divided much of their land into individual plots. The
signatories included: David H. Jerome, Alfred M. Wilson, and Warren G.
Sayre, the commissioners on the part of the United States. It was also
signed by 456 others, including Quanah Parker, Lone Wolf, and Big Tree.

http://www.geocities.com/athens/aegean/7707/comanche.htm


1972: An official tribal census for the Yankton Sioux was listed.

1986: Congress designated the path the Nez Perce took in their flight
from the army in 1877 as the Nez Perce Historical Trail.




--------------


October 7

1672: White Mountain Apaches raided the Zuni pueblo of
Hawikuh and killed a priest named Pedro de Abila y Ayala.

1691: The Charter of Massachusetts Bay was issued.

1701: In a farewell address to William Penn, Susquehanna
Chief Oretyagh, along with other Shawnee leaders, again
requested that traders be prevented from selling alcohol
to the local Indians. Penn assured them that the Pennsylvania assembly
was doing just that.

http://books.google.com/books?id=QE0OAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA17&lpg=PA17&dq=%22Oretyagh%22&source=web&ots=1SDpduzBg7&sig=yE59IiQRvSPwrug3IT2Qt22_CqU&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result



1719: An expedition of 800 soldiers and Indian allies and
1,000 horses were being led by Spanish Governor Antonio
de Valverde. They were searching for groups of Ute and
Comanche who had been raiding ranches and settlements in
Colorado. Along Fountain Creek, one of their scouts, Chief
Carlana, found signs of a recent campsite used by the raiders.

1759: Last year, Tawehash Indians helped to destroy the
Spanish Mission of San Sabá de la Santa Cruz in eastern Texas.
The Spanish had finally gathered a punitive expedition;
leading 1,000 Spanish and pro-Spanish Indians, Diego Ortiz
Parrilla attacked the Tawehash village. With their allies,
the Comanche and the Tawakoni, the Tawehash fought back.
The Tawehash won the day and forced the retreat of the
Spanish allied forces, killing as many as 100 men in the
process.

1763: As a result of Pontiac’s Rebellion, the British
government issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763,
prohibiting Europeans from settling west of the Appalachian
Mountains.

1775: In what became the Pittsburgh Treaty, congressional commissioners
met with several Indian tribes. They agreed
to the Ohio River as the local boundary line. The Indians
agreed to release some prisoners and not to get involved
in the Revolutionary War.

1844: A treaty conference was held between Texans headed
by Sam Houston and the Anadarko, Lipan Apache, Caddo,
Cherokee, Comanche, Delaware, Hainai, Kichai, Shawnee,
Tawakoni, and the Waco.

1861: With Albert Pike, the Cherokees signed a treaty
with the Confederacy in Park Hill on the Cherokee
Reservation in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).
The agreement was almost the same as that of the Creeks
signed on July 10, 1861. Living up to their word, three
Indian delegates sat in the Confederate Congress
throughout the war, something hinted at by the United
States but never implemented. Pike presented the
Cherokees with a special flag for their use during the war.

1863: The Tabeguache Band of Utah Indians signed a treaty
(13 Stat. 673).

http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Treaties/TreatyWithTheUtah-TabeguacheBand1863.html



1868: According to army records, settlers fought with a
band of Indians near the Purgatory River in Colorado. One
settler was killed.

1880: A Campo Indian had been found guilty of stealing a
blanket in San Diego, California. County Justice of the
Peace Gaskill ordered his punishment to be 100 lashes.
Gaskill was quoted as saying: “After one of these Indians
had been whipped once, he will never steal again. It
makes ‘a good Indian’ of him.” The lashing almost killed
the Indian.

1947: Legislation was proposed that sold the “Wyandote
Indian burial ground” in Kansas City, Kansas.

1952: An election approved Amendment 4 to the
constitution and bylaws of the Lac Du Flambeau Band
of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin.

1965: An amendment to the constitution and bylaws of
the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida was approved
by Assistant Secretary of the Interior Harray Anderson.

1969: Senator Ted Kennedy called for a White House
conference on Indian problems in a speech. He criticized
Bureau of Indian Affairs efforts.

1971: The commissioner of Indian affairs designated four
people (Grace Cuero Banegas, Maria Sevella La Chappa,
Cynthia Victoria Sevella, and Gwendolyn Ludwina Sevella)
as members of the La Posta Band of Mission Indians of
the La Posta Indian Reservation, California. Based on
their constitution, members of the tribe were either
linear descendants of these four people or adopted people.
1974: Commissioner of Indian Affairs Morris Thompson
authorized an election for amendments to the Pawnee of
Oklahoma constitution.




--------------


October 8

1541: Hernando de Soto fought with Caddo Indians in Tula, Arkansas.

1758: Running through October 26, the Council of Easton began in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Eventually, the Iroquois and Delaware signed
peace treaties. Large parts of the much-hated Treaty of Albany were
abrogated.

https://eidr.wvu.edu/files/5155/Boback_John_dissertation.pdf


1779: El Mocho was born an Apache, but he was captured by the Tonkawas.
His bravery and natural leadership abilities eventually led the Tonkawas
to make him their principal chief. He met with Spanish Governor Athanase
de Mezieres in San Antonio. They signed a peace treaty, and El Mocho
(Spanish for mutilated) was honored with a Medal of Honor. The peace
lasted only for a few years.

1832: The Eastern Cherokees met a second time to discuss Elisha
Chester’s proposal for their removal to the Indian Territory
(present-day Oklahoma). Although some of the lesser-bloods favor the
proposal, the full-bloods vote it down. Chester warned them that if they
did not agreed to move they faced the wrath of the state of Georgia.

1855: James Lupton led whites against friendly Rogue River Indians in
California. They killed eight men and fifteen women and children.
Survivors fled to Fort Lane in southwestern Oregon for safety.

1869: According to army records, members of the First Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians in Chiricahua Pass in Arizona. Two soldiers were
wounded. Twelve Indians were killed.

1873: Big Tree and Satanta was released from prison with the proviso
that the Kiowa remained peaceful. After some raids by the Kiowa, Satanta
was eventually returned to prison.

http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/SS/fsa33.html


1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the Eighth Cavalry in the
Chiricahua Mountains in Arizona, according to army documents. No
casualties were reported.

1938: An election was held to approve a constitution and bylaws for the
Sokaogon (Mole Lake Band) Chippewa Community of Wisconsin. It passed by
a vote of 61-1.

1958: An election for the adoption of a constitution and bylaws for the
Pueblos of Laguna in New Mexico was held. It was approved by a vote of
1,331-92.

1964: The assistant secretary of the interior had authorized an election
to approve a constitution and bylaws for the Cocopah Tribe of Somerton,
Arizona. It was approved by a vote of 16-0.

http://www.cocopah.com/


1970: The commissioner of Indian affairs authorized and election for a
new constitution for the Reno-Sparks Indian Community.

1983: The constitution and the rules for the election of delegates to
the Official Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of
Alaska were amended.

1984: Activist Dennis Banks was sentenced to jail for three years.

1993: A Conservation Code was amended, passed, and approved by the Bay
Mills General Tribal Council in Bay Mills by a vote of 63-4, with two
abstentions.



--------------



October 9

1776: The Mission at San Francisco was started.

1844: A trade and peace treaty was signed between Texas and the
Anadarko, Lipan Apache, Caddo, Cherokee, Comanche, Delaware, Hainai,
Kichai, Shawnee, Tawakoni, and the Waco at Tehuacana Creek.

1855: Tecumton (Elk Killer) and other Rogue River Indians retaliated for
the attack the day before. They destroyed farms near Evan’s Ferry. They
attacked and killed eighteen people at Jewett’s Ferry, Evan’s Ferry, and
Wagoner’s Ranch. The whites call it the Wagoner Massacre.

http://wardata.net/wardata_indian_wars_timeline.htm


1861: Cherokee Chief John Ross presented a treaty with the Confederate
States of America to the Cherokee National Assembly for their
consideration and ratification.

1868: According to army records, members of the First and Eighth
Cavalries, the Fourteenth and Thirty-Second Infantries, and some Indian
scouts fought with a band of Indians near the Salt River and Cherry
Creek in Arizona. Thirteen Indians were killed.

1871: Comanche under Quanah Parker stole horses from soldiers under
Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie.

http://www.sonofthesouth.net/american-indians/comanche-indians.htm


1874: Lieutenant Colonel George Buell and Companies A, E, F, H, and I,
Eleventh Infantry, attacked a camp of Kiowa on the Salt Fork of the Red
River in Texas. One Indian was killed and the camp was destroyed. The
escaping survivors were pursued for some distance. Many lodges along the
way were destroyed as well.

1876: Settlers fought some Indians near Eagle Springs, Texas. According
to army documents, one settler was killed.

1890: Kicking Bear visited with Sitting Bull. They talked about the
ghost dance.

1940: A permit was now required for alcohol to be used as medicine in
the Kiowa Indian hospital.

1940: An act (54 Stat. 1057) was passed by Congress to “allow for the
leasing of any Indian lands on the Port Madison and Snohomish or Tulalip
Indian Reservations in the State of Washington by the Indians with the
approval of the Secretary of the Interior for a term not exceeding
twenty-five years.”

1955: Membership rules and regulations for the Wichita Indian Tribe of
Oklahoma were adopted.

1978: The Cherokee Tribal Council adopted an official flag, designed by
Stanley John.

1985: An amendment to the constitution and bylaws of the Fort Belknap
Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in Montana was
adopted.





--------------

October 10

1540: Hernando de Soto entered a village called Athahachi, where he met
the village chief, Tascaluca. Tascaluca was taken as a hostage by de
Soto to ensure the cooperation of the chief’s followers.

1615: Champlain fought with the Onondaga north of what is modern
Syracuse, New York.

1678: Governor Frontenac led a meeting in Quebec that debated the merits
of allowing Indians to have alcohol.

1759: Shawnee Chief Cornstalk and his followers attacked settlements at
Carr’s Creek in Rockbridge County, Virginia. They killed a half-dozen
Europeans.

http://www.wvculture.org/HISTORY/notewv/corn1.html


1771: Spanish soldiers attacked the wife of a Kumeyaay chief. The chief
attacked the soldiers and was himself killed.

1774: On a piece of land where the Great Kanawha River joined the Ohio
River, called Point Pleasant, one of the biggest battles of the French
and Indian War took place. Some 800 Shawnees led by Chief Cornstalk
attacked a force of 850 Virginians led by Colonel Andrew Lewis at dawn.
Sniping led to hand-to-hand combat. By the end of the fighting, after
dark, Shawnee losses were estimated at as many as 200 warriors (some
sources said forty). The Virginians had seventy-five soldiers killed,
including many officers, and 140 wounded. This significant loss of
warriors was a contributing force in Cornstalk’s eventual decision to
give up the war. (Also recorded as happening on October 6.)

1777: According to some sources, Shawnee Chief Cornstalk (Hokolesqua)
was killed in Fort Randolf. He had gone to seek a peace conference and
was placed in a cell. Captain John Hall and several others came into the
cell and shot and killed Cornstalk.

1817: John C. Calhoun was offered the job of secretary of war by
President James Monroe. In this position, Calhoun oversaw Indian
affairs.

1839: The convention of Cherokees, which began on September 6, 1839,
finally came to an end. During the meetings, a new constitution was
adopted, new chiefs were elected, judges were appointed, and many new
laws were made. However, many of the “old settlers” disavowed any
actions taken at this convention. They believed the old-settler
government was still in power.

1858: The Butterfield Stage arrived in San Francisco.

1865: The Miniconjou Band Sioux Treaty (14 Stat. 695) was signed.
Through the October 28, the Bozeman Trail Treaties would be signed.

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sio0883.htm


1867: According to army records, members of the Fourteenth Infantry
fought with a band of Indians near Camp Lincoln, Arizona. One Indian was
killed.

1867: According to army records, members of the Thirty-First Infantry
fought with a band of Indians near Fort Stevenson, Dakota Territory. One
soldier was wounded.

1868: According to army records, settlers fought with a band of Indians
near Fort Zarah, Kansas. No injuries were reported.

1871: According to army records, members of the Fourth Cavalry under
Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie engaged hostile Indians on the Brazos River
in Texas. For his efforts in stopping the Indians from overrunning his
position, Second Lieutenant Robert G. Carter was awarded the
Congressional Medal of Honor. This was a part of the action that led to
the Battle of Blanco Canyon.

http://www.freerepublic.com/~ranaldsmackenzie/


1876: Captain C. W. Miner and Companies H, G, and K, Twenty-Second
Infantry, and Company C, Seventeenth Infantry, were guarding ninety-four
wagons en route from the camp at the mouth of Glendive Creek, Montana,
to the force at the mouth of the Tongue River. The wagon train was
attacked by several hundred Indians and retreated to the Glendive base.
Soldiers replaced the drivers, and with reinforcements, including
Lieutenant Colonel E. S. Otis, the force of 237 soldiers proceeded to
the soldiers’ camp on the Tongue River.

1878: After being forced to abandon his supply wagons four days earlier
due to deep sand, Major T. T. Thornburgh’s troops were out of supplies.
The major gave up his pursuit of Dull Knife’s Cheyenne near the Niobrara
River and retreated to Camp Sheridan in northwestern Nebraska.

1883: The first Lake Mohonk-Friends conference took place.

1885: Fourth Cavalry couriers fought a group of Indians near Lang’s
Ranch, New Mexico. According to army documents, one soldier was killed.

1894: Indian School Superintendent Samuel Hertzog reported that thirty
Hopi hostiles had seized several plots of land in Munqapi. The hostiles
planted wheat in the fields.

http://www.nps.gov/archive/alcatraz/tours/hopi/hopi-h1.htm


1918: The First American (Indian) Church was incorporated in El Reno,
Oklahoma. Original members included Cheyenne, Apache, Ponca, Comanche,
Kiowa, and Otto.

1938: The acting secretary of the interior authorized an election to
approve a new constitution and bylaws for the Ottawa Indians of
Oklahoma. The election was held on November 30, 1938.

1939: An election for a constitution and bylaws of the Peoria Tribe of
Indians of Oklahoma was held.

1944: Public Land Order No. 248 transferred jurisdiction of 320 acres of
land in the Fort Peck Reservation in Montana from the secretary of
agriculture to the secretary of the interior as a part of the Milk River
Land Utilization Project.

1980: The Maine Indian Claims Act (94 Stat. 1786) took place. Its
purpose was to “extend Federal recognition, provides for State
jurisdiction with agreement of tribes, organization of tribal
governments, and enrollment of members.”

http://www.indianz.com/News/show.asp?ID=tc/7172000-1



--------------


October 11

1736: According to some sources, an agreement covering friendship and
land cessions was reached by representatives of the Cayuga, Oneida,
Onondaga, Seneca, and Tuscarora Indians and Pennsylvania.

1794: Tennessee Governor William Blount met with Chickamauga Chief John
Watts (Young Tassel) in the Tellico Blockhouse near the French Broad
River in eastern Tennessee. They agreed to have a conference in November
to discuss peace between the warring settlers and the Chickamauga.

1809: Meriwether Lewis died.

1812: After a series of Seminole attacks in Georgia, the local militia,
led by Colonel Daniel Newnan, invaded Spanish-held Florida seeking
revenge. Today they were reinforced. They had been fighting a running
battle with the Alachua Band of Seminoles led by King Payne since
September 17.

1838: Lieutenant Edward Deas departed with almost 700 Cherokees from the
Tennessee Cherokee Agency. This group of Cherokees supported the New
Echota Treaty and was given special treatment and allowances for their
emigration. They reached their new lands on January 7, 1839.

1842: John Chambers, representing the United States and the Sac and Fox
Indians, signed a treaty (7 Stat. 596) at their tribal headquarters in
Iowa. The Indians received more than $800,000 to cede their lands in
Iowa and to move to new lands along the Missouri River.

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sau0546.htm


1865: Fort Fletcher was established as a military outpost in central
Kansas. The fort was eventually renamed Fort Hays. It was the home of
the Seventh Cavalry for a while during the Indian Wars of the late
1860s. The fort was abandoned in 1889.

1869: A confrontation had developed between Canadian surveyors and Louis
Riel’s Metis cousin, Andre Nault. Andre did not want the surveyors on
his land. Riel and a dozen other Metis responded to help. Riel walked
up, stepped on the surveyor’s chain, and said, “You go no further.” This
was the start of a rebellion that rocked Canada.

1871: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Fourth
Cavalry Infantry on the Freshwater Fork of the Brazos River in Texas,
according to official army records. One soldier was killed. Colonel
Ranald Mackenzie was leading the troops.

1874: Satanta had become despondent about his life-term sentence the
Huntsville, Texas, prison. He had slashed his wrists, trying to kill
himself, but was unsuccessful. He was admitted to the prison hospital.
Satanta jumped from a second-floor balcony. He landed head first and
died.

1876: Fifteen and Twenty-Second Infantry soldiers fought some Indians
near Spring Creek, Montana. According to army documents, no casualties
were reported.



--------------



October 12

1492: According to some sources, Columbus landed in the New World.
According to the Taino, they were the first Native Americans to greet
Columbus on the island of Guanahani (San Salvador).

1676: Mugg was an Arosaguntacook chief. At the outbreak of King Philip’s
War, he sought out a peace treaty with the English for his and other
tribes. Rather than listen to him, the English threw him in jail.
Although he was soon released, his treatment made him an enemy of the
English. With 100 warriors, he attacked Black Point, Maine, in
retaliation. Most of the settlers escaped, and he burned many of the
structures. Mugg was killed in Black Point seven months later.

www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/abenaki/arosaguntacookhist.htm


1758: British soldiers had built a fort in southwestern Pennsylvania,
southwest of what is modern Johnston. The fort was named after the
British commander in chief, Lord Ligonier. A force of more 1,000 French
and a few hundred Indians attacked the fort. The attack was
unsuccessful. The French and Indians retreated to Fort Duquesne.

1761: The Mi’kmaq of Pictou signed a treaty with the British of Nova
Scotia, according to some sources.

1824: The Cherokee Legislative Council passed a law that required the
loser in any court cases appealed from the district level to the
Cherokee superior court to pay a fee equal to 6 percent of the judgment
in the case. This fee went into the Cherokee treasury.

1833: Captain John Page left Choctaw Agency, Mississippi, with 1,000
Choctaw for the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). Many of the
Choctaw were old, lane, blind, or sick.

1843: The Cherokee Nation set up police force.

1863: The Shoshone-Goshute signed a treaty (13 Stat. 681) at Tuilla
Valley. Goshute signers included Adaseim, Harry-nup, Tabby, and
Tintsa-pa-gin.

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sho0859.htm


1868: Lieutenant Edward Belger, Third Infantry, reported that Indians
had attacked near Ellsworth, Kansas. One white man had been killed and
several more were missing.

1868: According to army records, members of the Seventh Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians on the Arkansas River in Kansas. Two Indians were
killed.

1869: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Red Rock, Arizona. Two Indians were killed.

1888: Sioux Indians arrived in Washington, D.C., for a conference.
1936: An election was held to approve a constitution and bylaws for the
Quileute Tribe of Washington. The results were 37-12.




--------------


October 13

1528: According to some sources, Cabeza de Vaca and eighty other
Spaniards came across one of the mouths of the Mississippi River. They
were unable to enter the river, however, so they continued their journey
west.

1864: Little Buffalo, with 700 of his fellow Comanche and Kiowa,
launched a series of raids along Elm Creek, ten miles from the Brazos
River in northwestern Texas. Sixteen Texans and perhaps twenty Indians
were killed in the fighting with the settlers and the Rangers in the
area.

http://rebelcherokee.labdiva.com/milliedurgin.html


1868: According to army records, members of the Second Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near the White Woman’s Fork of the Republican
River in Kansas. The fighting lasted until October 30.. Two Indians were
killed and three were wounded.

1874: A group of Navajo scouts from New Mexico, attached to Major George
Price’s Eighth Cavalry, attacked a group of hostile Indians near Gageby
Creek, Indian Territory.

1875: Adam Paine, a private and Seminole black Indian scout, received
the Medal of Honor for his actions in September 1874 in the Texas
Panhandle.

1877: The Nez Perce and the army ferried across the Missouri River.

1879: Settlers fought a group of Indians near Slocum’s Ranch in New
Mexico. According to army documents, eleven citizens were killed.

1890: Kicking Bear was ordered to leave the reservation by Indian police
officers.

http://www.kickingbear.net/about.html


1950: The acting secretary of the interior authorized an election to
approve a constitution and bylaws for the Eskimos of the native village
of Buckland, Alaska. The election was held on December 30, 1950.

1972: The superintendent, Northern Idaho Agency, had authorized an
election to approve an amendment to the constitution and bylaws of the
Coeur d’Alene Tribe. The election was held on November 18, 1972.



--------------



October 14

1754: Anthony Henday represented the Hudson Bay Company. He was on an
expedition to try to set up trade between his company and the Blackfeet.
He had his first meeting with a chief of that tribe. The chief told
Henday the Blackfeet had everything they needed and there was no need to
trade with anyone.

1756: General Joseph de Montcalm, leading French and Indian warriors,
captured Fort Oswego in New York. Montcalm fired upon his Indian allies
when they attempted to kill the British forces after they surrendered.

1768: At Hard Labor, South Carolina, the British superintendent of
Indian affairs met with Cherokee chiefs. They made a treaty that ceded
100 square miles of Cherokee lands. The treaty was renegotiated in two
years.

1833: In Russell County, Alabama, a grand jury indicted U.S. Army
soldier James Emmerson for allegedly murdering Hardiman Owen during a
shootout. The army was assisting the U.S. Marshal in an attempt to
remove Owen from Creek land. Owen had filled his cabin with explosives
and tried to kill the marshal by setting it off. No one was killed, and
Owen escaped. When Owen was later surrounded, he was shot when he tried
to shoot a soldier. The army refused to give up Emmerson. Deputy Marshal
Jeremiah Austill was arrested as an accessory to murder.

http://books.google.com/books?id=Bx9DyLcNyyIC&pg=PA687&lpg=PA687&dq=%22Deputy+Marshal+Jeremiah+Austill%22&source=web&ots=40YI1xKhh1&sig=ULPXLape3eJAf_9oIVGuS-4Ufg4&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result



1837: The second group of Cherokees to emigrate from the east under the
New Echota Treaty left the Cherokee Agency in eastern Tennessee on the
Hiwassee River (present-day Calhoun). The 365 Cherokees were supervised
by B. B. Cannon. They traveled on land rather than boat for most of
their journey. They reached their new lands on December 30, 1837. During
the trip, four adults and eleven children died.

1846: The Cherokee made a new law that stated that anyone who burned
down a house would be sentenced to death.

1865: The Cheyenne and Arapaho signed a treaty (14 Stat. 703) with the
United States. The Little Arkansas River was included in tribal lands.
The treaty derided Colonel Chivington for the Sand Creek Massacre. The
U.S. Senate deleted this section. The United States was represented by
William W. Bent, Kit Carson, William Harney, Jesse Leavenworth, Thomas
Murphy, John Sanborn, and James Steele.

1866: Elements of the First Cavalry fought some Indians near Harney Lake
Valley, Oregon. One soldier was wounded, four Indians were killed, and
eight were captured, according to army records.

1868: Troop L, Fifth Cavalry, was camped on Prairie Dog Creek in Kansas.
A band of Indians attacked the camp. One soldier was killed, and the
Indians made off with twenty-six cavalry horses.

http://www.forttours.com/pages/prairiedogcreek.asp


1868: According to Captain Penrose of the Third Infantry, Satanta and
his Kiowa warriors attacked a wagon train on Sand Creek, Colorado. The
Indians took a Mrs. Blinn and her child captive. According to Penrose,
Blinn and her child were murdered by the Indians during General Custer’s
attack on Black Kettle’s camp on November 27, 1868, on the Washita.

1869: Elements of the Eighth Cavalry were on Lyry Creek, Arizona, this
morning when they encountered hostile Indians. For “bravery in action”
during the encounter, Privates David Goodman, John Raerick, and John
Rowalt, Company L, would be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

1871: Indians skirmished with a group of settlers near Cienega Sauz,
Arizona, according to official army records. One settler was killed and
another was wounded.

1872: Another large gathering of Sioux Indians attacked Fort McKeen in
central North Dakota. Soldiers from the Sixth and Seventeenth Infantries
and eight Ree Indian scouts charged the Sioux. Three Sioux and two
soldiers were killed.

1876: Men from Troop K, Second Cavalry, skirmished with a band of
Indians on Richard Creek in Wyoming. One soldier was killed.

1880: Victorio’s Apaches were attacked by the Mexican army near Tres
Castillos in Chihuahua, Mexico. Victorio was shot and killed by a
Mexican sharpshooter. Many of his followers were killed as well. The
Mexicans reported killing seventy-eight men and capturing sixty-eight
women and children. (Also recorded as happening on October 15.)

1891: Originally named Thocmetony (“Shell Flower” in Paiute), Sarah
Winnemucca was the granddaughter of Paiute Chief Truckee Winnemucca and
daughter of Chief Winnemucca. She worked tirelessly to have the
traditional Paiute lands returned to the tribe. She died from
tuberculosis.

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/today/oct14.html


1907: In Collinsville, Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), an event
called the Last Pow-Wow took place. It was intended as a ceremonial
farewell of surviving American Indian chiefs. The event continued
through October 19.

1924: Land was auctioned in Bismarck, North Dakota. The minimum bid was
$1.25 per acre.

1936: The secretary of the interior authorized an election for
amendments to the constitution and bylaws for the Oneida Tribe of
Indians of Wisconsin.

1980: An amendment to the constitution and bylaws of the Suquamish
Indian Tribe of the Port Madison Reservation in the state of Washington
was passed in an election.

1992: An act was passed in Congress (106 Stat. 2131) that established an
eighteen-member advisory committee to study policies and programs
affecting California Indians.

http://bulk.resource.org/courts.gov/juris/j0113_46.sgml


--------------


October 15

1606: Indians attacked Samuel de Champlain’s men at Chatham,
Massachusetts.

1615: Samuel de Champlain, twelve Frenchmen, and many of his Huron
allies attacked the Iroquois town of Onondaga. Champlain was wounded,
and several Huron were killed. Champlain gave up the attack. Because of
Champlain’s actions, the Iroquois fought the French for years to come.

1748: Lands were allotted to the Tuscarora Indians by an act of the
North Carolina general assembly at Newbern.

http://www.co.jones.nc.us/Indian.htm


1763: Earlier in the year, the father of Delaware Chief Captain Bull was
burned to death by white settlers. To retaliate, his son, Captain Bull,
and his followers attacked and destroyed most of the white settlements
in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania.

1779: After Cornstalk died, Black Fish (Chinugalla) became principal
chief of the Shawnee. He led an attack on Boonesbourgh starting on
September 7, 1778. He became the adopted father of Tecumseh, his four
brothers, and one sister. Black Fish died from wounds he suffered during
an attack on the village of Chalagawtha.

1802: Louisiana was transferred to France.

1813: Although most sources reported this as happening on October 5,
some sources reported the British battling Indians on the Thames River
in Canada. Tecumseh was killed in the fighting.

http://www.geocities.com/SouthBeach/Cove/8286/tdeath.html


1836: A treaty with five different Indian nations (“Otoes, Missouries,
Omahaws, and Yankton, and Santee Bands of Sioux”) was signed (7 Stat.
524).

1866: Elements of the First Oregon Infantry fought some Indians near
Fort Klamath, Oregon. Two soldiers were wounded, fourteen Indians were
killed, and twenty were wounded, according to army records.

1868: Indians attacked a house on Fisher and Yocucy Creeks. Four people
were killed and one wounded; one woman was taken captive.

1869: Troopers chased a band of Indians into the Mogollon Mountain, New
Mexico Territory. After a brief struggle, the troopers recovered thirty
stolen horses.

1871: Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie’s troops had been seeking the Comanche
under Quanah Parker. They entered the Blanco Canyon. During the next
several days they had several skirmishes with Comanche. These fights
become known as the Battle of Blanco Canyon.

1872: During the first Yellowstone expedition, Indians fought with the
army on numerous occasions. The army units involved were from the
Eighth, Seventeenth, and Twenty-Second Infantries with some Indian
scouts. They were led by Colonel D. S. Stanley, according to official
army records. Over the entire expedition, two officers (Lieutenant Eben
Crosby and Lieutenant L. D. Adair) and one civilian were killed or
mortally wounded. The expedition started on July 26.

1876: Lieutenant Colonel E. S. Otis’s force of 237 soldiers and
ninety-six wagons of supplies for the soldiers at the mouth of the
Tongue River were attacked again on Spring Creek. This time the Indians
were approximately 800 strong, according to army reports. A running
battle continued. The Indians sent numerous sorties against the wagons.
They also set fire to the prairie grass, forcing the wagons to drive
through the flames. Several people were killed and wounded on both
sides.

http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~nalakota/wotw/military/chrono_wotw0737_jan221876-dec1876.htm



1880: Victorio’s Apaches were attacked by the Mexican army near Tres
Castillos in Chihuahua, Mexico. Victorio was shot and killed by a
Mexican sharpshooter. Many of his followers were killed as well. The
Mexicans reported killing seventy-eight men and capturing sixty-eight
women and children. (Also recorded as happening on October 14.)

1888: The Sioux Indian conference in Washington, D.C., began.

1890: Kicking Bird was removed from a reservation by Indian police.

1936: The secretary of the interior authorized an election to approve a
constitution and bylaws for the L'Anse, Lac Vieux Desert, and Ontoagon
Bands of Chippewa Indians residing within the original confines of the
L’Anse Reservation. The election was held on November 7, 1936.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%27Anse_Indian_Reservation


1979: The commissioner of Indian affairs authorized a vote for the
approval of a new constitution and bylaws for the Ottawa Tribe of
Indians of Oklahoma. The election was held on December 19, 1980.

1987: Assistant Secretary of Indian Affairs Ross Swimmer (Cherokee)
authorized an election for the approval of a constitution and bylaws for
the Pascua Yaqui Indians.



--------------



October 16

1755: A band of Delaware Indians, numbering a little over a dozen,
attacked the Penn’s Creek Village in Snyder County, Pennsylvania.
Depending on the source, nineteen to twenty-five settlers were killed
and a dozen were taken captive. This was the first uprising in the area
in living memory. The raids moved from settlements around New Berlin to
Selinsgrove, according to account given at the time by settlers from the
area.

1826: The Potawatomi Indians signed a treaty (7 Stat. 295) with the
United States on the Wabash. The Americans were represented by Lewis
Cass, James Ray, and John Tipton.

1833: Twenty-one Chickasaw leaders, including Levi Colbert, Henry Love,
and William McGillivrey, left Tuscumbia, Alabama, to assess the lands
offered to them in the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) as part
of their removal proposal from the U.S. government. They arrived in the
Indian Territory on December 4. The government wanted them to buy land
from the Choctaws.

http://www.chickasawhistory.com/walton.htm


1837: After having fought for the government in the Seminole Wars, Jim
Boy “Tustennuggee Emathla” (a Creek leader) and some other Creek chiefs
arrived in New Orleans en route to the Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma).

1867: The Medicine Lodge Creek peace conference began between the United
States and most of the Southern Plains Indians. The United States wanted
to establish one large reservation for all of these Indians. The
conference lasted until October 26.

http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/es/ks/medicine_1


1869: The Metis created the National Council of the Metis (Comité
National des Métis). This group was charged with representing the Metis
in negotiations with the Canadian government. Louis Riel was named
secretary of the group.

1870: Troop B, Eighth Cavalry, under Captain William McCleave skirmished
with Indians in the Guadalupe Mountains in New Mexico Territory. One
Indian was killed and eight were captured.

1876: The Black Hills Treaty was signed by some Indians on the Cheyenne
Reservation.

1876: Colonel E. S. Otis and his wagon train for the soldiers at the
Tongue River continued toward their destination. Indians continued to
snipe at Otis’s forces. An Indian was spotted leaving a message in the
wagon’s path. The message said: “I want to know what you are doing
traveling on this road. You scare all the buffalo away. I want to hunt
in this place. I want you to turn back from here. If you don’t I will
fight you again. I want you to leave what you have got here and turn
back from here. I am your friend, Sitting Bull. I mean all the rations
you have got and some powder. Wish you would write as soon as you can.”
Otis sent a reply stating he was going to the Tongue River and if the
Indians wanted a fight he would give them one. More sniping began on
both sides. Soon two Indians appeared under a flag of truce. They said
Sitting Bull wanted to talk with Otis, but both sides could not agreed
on the location. Three chiefs then came to Otis. They said they were
hungry and wanted peace. Otis gave them 150 pounds of bread and two
sides of bacon. Otis told them if they wish to surrender they could go
to the Tongue River camp and talk there.

1891: President Benjamin Harrison, by executive order, extended the
Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation along the Klamath River to the Pacific
Ocean except for lands ceded elsewhere.

1940: A large group of Navajos enlisted in the military.

1946: The original constitution and bylaws of the Sisseton Wahpeton
Sioux Tribe of South Dakota were approved by John McGue for the
commissioner of Indian affairs.




--------------


October 17

1776: In November of 1775, Kumeyaay Indians destroyed the Mission San
Diego de Alcala in what became San Diego, California. The mission was
now ready to be occupied again.

http://www.missionsandiego.com/history.htm


1782: Cherokee Indians signed the Long Swamp Treaty with General Andrew
Pickens in Selacoa, Georgia. They ceded land in Georgia as reparations
for the fighting during the Revolutionary War.

1788: Gillespie’s Station was located near Knoxville in Tennessee. It
was protected by a small group of local settlers and frontiersmen. A
force of Chickamauga, led by Bloody Fellow, Categisky, Glass, and John
Watts, attacked the station. The settlers were able to hold off the
attack until their ammunition ran out. The Chickamauga then entered the
buildings and killed all of the men and took the women as prisoners. Two
warriors claimed the daughter of Colonel Gillespie as a prisoner. To
settle the argument, the warriors stabbed her to death. Most of the
prisoners were eventually traded for captured Indians.

1802: A treaty (7 Stat. 73) with the Choctaw was concluded at Fort
Confederation on the Tombigbee River. The original British boundary line
was to be redrawn and established as the new boundary. Other parcels
were ceded for $1. Ten Indians signed the document.

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cho0063.htm


1840: Cherokee Judge John Martin died near Fort Gibson in eastern Indian
Territory (present-day Oklahoma). According to his gravestone, he was
the first chief justice of the Cherokee supreme court.

1855: The United States signed a treaty (11 Stat. 657) with three major
Indian nations. These were the Blackfeet Nation, consisting of the
Piegan, Blood, Blackfeet, and Gros Ventre Tribes; the Flathead Nation,
consisting of the Flathead, Upper Pend d’Oreille, and Kootenay Tribes;
and the Nez Perce Tribe. This treaty established the Fort Belknap
Reserve. It was occupied by the Gros Ventre and Assiniboin Tribes and
covered 840 square miles.

1858: Zuni warriors rescued twenty-five soldiers who were being attacked
by approximately 300 Navajos near Fort Defiance on the Arizona–New
Mexico border.

1863: Kit Carson had been conducting a campaign against the Navajos who
had not reported to their assigned reservation. This was called the
Canyon de Chelly campaign. Carson undertook a scorched-earth policy,
trying to starve the Navajos into submission. Two Navajos appeared at
Fort Wingate in western New Mexico under a flag of truce. One of the two
was El Sordo, brother to Navajo leaders Barboncito and Delgadito. He
proposed that the Navajos live next to the fort so that the soldiers
could keep an eye on them at all times. They still did not wish to move
away from their homelands to the Bosque Redondo Reservation. The army
turned down the proposal and insisted the Navajos go to the reservation.

(Note: I visited Canyon de Chelly in August. I'll be posting some more
pictures soon. There is one here at:
http://americanindian.net/2008/index.html)


1865: The United States signed a treaty (14 Stat. 713) with three
different Indian nations: “Where as the Apache Indians, who have been
heretofore confederated with the Kiowa and Comanche tribes of Indians,
are desirous of dissolving said confederation and uniting their fortunes
with the said Cheyenees and Arapahoes; and whereas the said last-named
tribes are willing to receive among themselves.”

1867: According to army records, members of the Sixth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Deep Creek, Texas. Three Indians were
reported killed and one was captured.

1868: Cheyenne Indians were involved in a fight at Beaver Creek.

1874: Indians fought with soldiers from the Sixth Cavalry near the
Washita River in Indian Territory. According to army documents, no
casualties were reported.

1877: The Fort Walsh conference began in Saskatchewan, Canada.
Participating in the conference were Sitting Bull, leader of the Lakota
Sioux, American General A. H. Terry, and Major James Walsh of the
North-West Mounted Police.

1890: Indian Agent James “White Hair” McLaughlin wrote a letter to the
government saying that Sitting Bull must be neutralized.

1894: Fort Bowie in southwestern Arizona was closed by the army.

http://www.nps.gov/fobo/


1939: A constitution and bylaws for the Alabama-Coushatta, which was
approved on August 19, 1938, was ratified.

1974: The acting deputy commissioner of Indian affairs authorized an
election to approve the revised constitution and bylaws of the
Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. The election was held on December
17, 1974.

1978: The Tribal Controlled Community College Assistance Act (106 Stat.
797) of October 17, 1978, was passed by Congress. Its purpose was to
“provide for grants for the operation and improvement of tribally
controlled community colleges to ensure continued and expanded
educational opportunities for Indian students. Encourages partnership
between institutes of higher learning and secondary schools serving low
income and disadvantaged students to improve retention and graduation
rates, improve academic skills, increase opportunities and employment
prospects of secondary students.”

1984: President Reagan signed the Indian Restoration Act.

1988: The Indian Gaming Regulation Act (102 Stat. 2468) of October 17,
1988, was passed by Congress. Its purpose was to “provide a statutory
basis for the operation of gaming by Indian tribes as a means of
promoting economic development, self-sufficiency; to regulate gaming to
shield it from organized crime and other corrupting influences so that
tribe is the primary beneficiary, to assure that gaming is fair and
honest by operator and players; to establish an independent Federal
regulatory authority for gaming, establish Federal standards for gaming,
and to protect gaming as a means of generating tribal revenue.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Gaming_Regulatory_Act


Every: St. Margaret Mary Day (Pueblos).




--------------

October 18

1540: Hernando de Soto arrived at the Mobile Indian village of Mabila in
present-day Clark County, Alabama. As they approached the village,
Tascaluca disappeared into a building. The Mobile Indians under Chief
Tuscaloosa (Tascaluca) attacked de Soto’s invading army. In the bloody
conflict, as many as 3,000 Indians were killed by the armored Spaniards.
Approximately twenty Spaniards were killed and 150 wounded, including de
Soto, according to their chroniclers.

1683: According to some sources, representatives of Pennsylvania
purchased several sections of land from the Delaware Indians.

1724: French peace envoy Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont had been sent from
Fort Orleans to establish peace among the Indians of what became Kansas
(then part of Louisiana). He met the Padouca in their home territory.

http://www.lewis-clark.org/content/content-article.asp?ArticleID=2652


1770: The Lochabar Treaty was negotiated between Virginia and the
Cherokees. This moved the Virginia boundaries to the west. Virginia was
represented by John Donelson, Alexander Cameron, and John Stuart.

1820: A treaty (7 Stat. 210) was negotiated between Andrew Jackson and
the Choctaws. The Choctaws gave up lands in Mississippi for land in
western Arkansas and what became Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma). Part of the lands Jackson promised to the Indians belonged to
Spain or were already settled by Europeans. This was called the Treaty
of Doak’s Stand. Chief Pushmataha was one of the signators. This was the
first treaty that involved the movement of tribes to Indian Territory.

1848: The Menominee signed a treaty (9 Stat. 952) at “at Lake
Pow-aw-hay-kon-nay in the State of Wisconsin.”

1865: The Comanche and the Kiowa signed a treaty on the Little Arkansas
River in Kansas (14 Stat. 717). Twenty-four Indians signed the treaty.
The United States was represented by John B. Sanborn, William S. Harney,
Thomas Murphy, Kit Carson, William W. Bent, Jesse H. Leavenworth, and
James Steele.

1867: Third Cavalry Soldiers from Fort Union (New Mexico) had been
tracking a group of Mescalero Apache who stole a herd of cattle from
near the fort. The soldiers, under Capt. Francis H. Wilson, finally
caught the Mescalero in Texas. A fought ensued and the Indians fled the
area.

http://www.nps.gov/foun/


1867: According to army records, members of the Third Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Sierra Diablo, New Mexico. One soldier was
killed and six were wounded. The army reported that twenty-five to
thirty Indians were killed.

1868: Captain L. H. Carpenter and cavalry troops from Companies H, I,
and M were on Beaver Creek in Kansas when they engaged a large group of
Indians. According to army reports, three soldiers were wounded and ten
Indians were killed.

1876: On this night, Colonel E. S. Otis’s wagon train was met by Colonel
Nelson Miles, who had brought out his regiment to escort them to the
camp. Otis delivered his goods and returned to the Glendive Creek camp
on October 26.

1886: Tenth Cavalry soldiers captured a group of eight Indians in the
Black River Mountains of Arizona, according to army documents.

1969: The acting assistant commissioner of Indian affairs had authorized
an election to amend the constitution and bylaws of the Oneida Tribe of
Indians of Wisconsin. The results were 304-95 in favor.

http://www.oneidanation.org/


1972: Amendment 1 to the revised constitution and bylaws of the Sisseton
Wahpeton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota became effective when it was
approved by Area Director Wyman Babby of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.



--------------



October 19

1675: Nipmuck, Norwottock, and Pocumtuck warriors under a Nipmuck sachem
attacked the British settlement of Hatfield in New England. The fight
was eventually terminated when neither side could get the upper hand.

1724: French peace envoy Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont finally
encountered the “Padouca” in their own lands the day before. On this day
he held a grand council with more than 2,000 Indians. According to a
journal of the expedition, he would “exhort them to live as brethren
with their neighbors, the Panimhas, Aiaouez, Othouez, Canzas, Missouris,
Osages and Illinois, and to traffic and truck freely together, and with
the French..”

1818: Andrew Jackson and Isaac Shelby represented American interests in
a treaty conference. The Chickasaws ceded their claims to lands in
Tennessee (7 Stat. 192).

1836: Lieutenant Colonel John Lane, with 690 Creek warriors and ninety
soldiers, reached Fort Drane northwest of present-day Ocala, Florida.
They were there to fight the Seminoles.

1841: Tallahassee Seminole Chief Tiger Tail (Thlocko Tustennuggee)
surrendered to American forces based on the intervention of Seminole
Chief Alligator (Hallpatter Tustennuggee). In only three months, though,
Tiger Tail escaped from government detention in Fort Brooke.

http://www.seminoletribe.com/tribune/96/oct/reflect.shtml


1846: The Mormon Battalion blazed a trail through Indian country.

1868: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near the Dragoon Fork of the Verde River in
Arizona. One soldier was wounded and seven Indians were killed.

1871: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Fourth
Cavalry Infantry on the Freshwater Fork of the Brazos River in Texas,
according to official army records. Two Indians were killed. Colonel
Ranald Mackenzie was leading the troops and was wounded in the fighting.

1888: The Sioux were engaged in a conference in Washington, D.C. They
made a counteroffer to a government proposal.

1935: The constitution and bylaws of the Fort Belknap Indian Community
of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in Montana were ratified.

1945: American Indian John N. Reese posthumously received the
Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions in World War II.

http://www.homeofheroes.com/moh/citations_1940_wwii/reese_john.html


1973: The Indian Tribal Funds Allotment and Distribution Act (39 Stat.
128, 87 Stat. 466, 101 Stat. 886) was passed. The act was intended “to
distribute funds appropriated in satisfaction of judgments of Indian
Claims Commission and the Court of Claims, and for other purposes.”




--------------


October 20

1539: Led by Juan de Ayasco, thirty cavalrymen left Hernando de Soto’s
winter quarters in Apalachee, Florida. They proceeded to Tampa to escort
the remainder of de Soto’s army to his winter quarters. En route, the
Spaniards had many battles with the local natives.

1774: Georgia Governor James Wright signed a treaty with the Creek
Indians in Savannah. They agreed to reestablish trade, which the Creeks
wanted. The Creeks agreed to give up some land along the Ocmulgee and
Oconee Rivers and to execute two Creek warriors accused of killing some
settlers. (Also recorded as being signed on October 2.)

1832: Marks Crume, John Davis, and Jonathan Jennings, representing the
United States, and Potawatomi Indians signed a treaty (7 Stat. 378) at
Tippecanoe. The Indians gave up lands near Lake Michigan for $15,000 a
year, debt relief, and supplies.

1832: The Chickasaws signed a treaty (7 Stat. 381) for their removal to
the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), at the Pontotoc Creek
Council House in Mississippi. Their lands (6,422,400 acres) were sold
and the government held the proceeds for them. General John Coffee
represented the United States.

1865: The Sans Arcs Sioux, Hunkpapa Sioux, and Yanktonai Sioux signed a
treaty (14 Stat. 731).

1869: While fighting with hostile Indians in the Chiricahua Mountains of
Arizona, Corporal Charles H. Dickens, Private John L. Donahue, Private
John Georgian, blacksmith Mosher A. Harding, Sergeant Frederick Jarvis,
Private Charles Kelley, trumpeter Bartholomew Keenan, Private Edwin L.
Elwood, Corporal Nicholas Meaher, Private Edward Murphy, First Sergeant
Francis Oliver, Private Edward Pengally, Corporal Thomas Powers,
Privates James Russell, Charles Schroeter, and Robert Scott, Sergeant
Andrew Smith, Privates Theodore Smith, Thomas Smith, Thomas J. Smith,
William Smith, William H. Smith, Orizoba Spence, George Springer,
saddler Christian Steiner, Privates Thomas Sullivan and James Sumner,
Sergeant John Thompson, Privates John Tracy, Charles Ward, and Enoch
Weiss, Companies B and G, Eighth Cavalry, would win the Congressional
Medal of Honor for “gallantry in action.” Two soldiers and eighteen
Indians were killed. Lieutenant John Lafferty and two enlisted men were
wounded.

1875: An executive order set aside certain lands in New Mexico to serve
as a reservation for Mescalero Apaches. This order canceled the
executive order of February 2, 1874.

1875: By an executive order, a tract of land in Montana was “withdrawn
from public sale and set apart for the use of the Crow tribe of Indians
… to be added to their reservation.” This tract covered 5,475 square
miles and was occupied by Mountain and River Crow, according to
government records.

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol1/HTML_files/MON0854.html


1876: After being informed by Colonel E. S. Otis of Sitting Bull’s
request to end the warring, Colonel Nelson Miles and his regiment of 398
men set out to find Sitting Bull. Colonel Miles found him near Cedar
Creek, Montana, north of the Yellowstone River. The Colonel and Sitting
Bull parley between the lines of the Indians and the soldiers, at
Sitting Bull’s request. Sitting Bull wanted to trade for ammunition so
he could hunt buffalo. He would not bother the soldiers if they did not
bother him. Miles told Sitting Bull of the government’s demands for a
surrender. Although neither side was pleased, both agreed to met the
next day.

1879: While leaders for the army and the Utes were negotiating the end
of hostilities, the handing-over of the hostile Ute leaders, and the
release of prisoners held by the Utes, soldiers and Utes clashed on the
White River in Colorado. First Lieutenant William P. Hall and a scouting
party of three men from the Fifth Cavalry were attacked by thirty-five
Indians about twenty miles from the White River. The fighting lasted
most of the day, until after sunset, when the soldiers retreated to
their main camp. The army reported two people killed on each side of the
battle. Lieutenant Hall would be awarded the Congressional Medal of
Honor for his actions.

1959: The revised constitution and bylaws of the Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux
Tribe of South Dakota was approved by a vote of 251-81.

1970: Today through October 22 the Indian Education Conference was held
in California.




--------------


October 21

1763: Pontiac ended the siege of Detroit.

1769: The Spanish arrived in San Francisco Bay.

1770: Spanish and Opata Indians forces, led by Bernardo de Gálvez,
crossed the Rio del Norte (Rio Grande) into Texas (near modern Ojinaga,
Chihuahua). This was a punitive expedition directed toward the Apache. A
former Apache captive was leading them to the village where he was held.

http://www.native-languages.org/opata.htm


1837: Two treaties (7 Stat. 540, 7 Stat. 541) were signed by the Sac and
Fox Indians. The Yankton Sioux also signed a treaty (7 Stat. 542).

1837: After helping to lead a large group of Seminoles out of a
relocation camp in Tampa Bay, Chief Osceola was pursued by American
forces under General Thomas Jesup. Although operating under direct
orders of General Jesup, soldiers invited Osceola to talk under a white
flag of truce. When Osceola joined them, he was taken captive. (Also
recorded as happening on October 27.)

1841: The Cherokees in Oklahoma outlawed the carrying of concealed
weapons.

1867: Today through October 28 started the biggest U.S.-Indian
conference ever held, near Fort Dodge, Kansas, near what was called
Medicine Lodge Creek. The name comes from a Kiowa medicine lodge that
was still standing from a recent Kiowa sun dance ceremony. For the Kiowa
and Comanche Treaty (15 Stat. 589), some of the ten Kiowa signers were:
Satanta, Satank, Black Bird, Kicking Bird, and Lone Bear. Ten Comanche,
including Ten Bears, signed, as would six Apaches. The United States was
represented by Commissioner N. G. Taylor, William Harney, C. C. Augur,
Alfred H. Terry, John B. Sanborn, Samuel F. Tappan, and J. B. Henderson.
Representing the Indians were ten Kiowa.

1868: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry and
Fourteenth Infantry fought with a band of Indians between Fort Verde and
Fort Whipple in Arizona. One soldier was wounded.

1876: The peace conference between Sitting Bull and Colonel Nelson Miles
continued. Both sides repeated their terms as stated the day before.
Neither side was willing to compromise. Sitting Bull was told that by
not accepting Miles’s terms he was committing a hostile act. Both sides
quickly separated, and fighting soon broke out. According to army
reports, the 1,000 Indians were driven back for forty-two miles. They
abandoned great quantities of supplies during their retreat, with five
dead. Miles was referred to as “Bear Coat” by the Indians because of his
fur jacket. For “gallantry in action” in the battle actions that began
today and ran through January 8, 1877, Private Christopher Freemeyer,
Company D, Fifth Infantry; musician John Baker, Company D; Private
Richard Burke, Company G; Sergeant Denis Byrne, Company G; Private
Joseph A. Cable, Company I; Private James S. Calvert, Company C;
Sergeant Aquilla Coonrod, Company C; Private John S. Donelly, Company G;
Corporal John Haddoo, Company B; First Sergeant Henry Hogan, Company G;
Corporal David Holland, Company A; Private Fred O. Hunt, Company A;
Corporal Edward Johnston, Company C; Private Philip Kennedy, Company C;
First Sergeant Wendelin Kreher, Company C; First Sergeant Michael
McCarthy, Troop H; Private Michael McCormick, Company G; Private Owen
McGar, Company C; Private John McHugh, Company A; Sergeant Michael
McLoughlin, Company A; Sergeant Robert McPhelan, Company E; Corporal
George Miller, Company H; Private Charles Montrose, Company I; First
Sergeant David Roche, Company A; Private Henry Rodenburg, Company A;
Private Edward Rooney, Company D; Private David Ryan, Company G; Private
Charles Sheppard, Company A; Sergeant William Wallace, Company C;
Private Patton Whitehead, Company C; and Corporal Charles Willson,
Company H, would all be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cedar_Creek_(1876)


1878: Red Cloud Agency Indians offered to capture Dull Knife’s Cheyenne
if they could keep the horses and weapons they captured.

1961: An election for a proposed amendment to the constitution of the
Standing Rock Sioux Tribe was held. The vote was 775-119 in favor of
passage.

1978: The area director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Vincent Little,
authorized an election for a fourth amendment to the constitution and
bylaws for the Shoalwater Bay Indian Organization in Washington State.
It was held, and the amendment passed.

1980: Commissioner of Indian Affairs William Hallett approved a
constitution for the “California Indians of the Robinson Rancheria.”

1996: Executive Order No. 13021 was issued by President Bill Clinton. It
dealt with Indian education. Among other things, it established in the
“Department of Education a Presidential advisory committee entitled the
President’s Board of Advisors on Tribal Colleges and Universities.”



--------------



October 22

1784: Richard Butler, Arthur Lee, and Oliver Walcott, representing the
United States, and twelve Iroquois Indians signed a treaty (7 Stat. 15)
ceding much of the Indian lands in New York, Pennsylvania, and west of
the Ohio River and reestablishing peace after the Revolutionary War. The
treaty, signed at Fort Stanwix (near modern Rome, New York), was
repudiated by most of the Iroquois.

1785: Boats carrying seventy soldiers, under the leadership of Captain
Walter Finney, landed at the confluence of the Great Miami and Ohio
Rivers. They build a fort there called Fort Finney.

http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/279026/the_theft_of_indian_autonomy_at_fort.html



1790: Little Turtle and his Miami followers fought with Josiah Harmar
and his 300 soldiers and 1,200 militia while they were attempting to
ford the Wabash River (near modern Fort Wayne, Indiana). The Americans
sustained more than 200 killed and wounded. This was a part of what was
called Little Turtle’s War.

1829: According to some sources, gold was found in Cherokee territory.

1859: The camp on Pawnee Fork that eventually became Fort Larned was
established in Kansas. The military base was established to protect
travelers on the Santa Fe Trail from hostile Indians. The fort was
abandoned almost twenty years later.

1864: General James Charlatan issued General Order No. 32 to Colonel
Christopher “Kit” Carson. Carson was ordered to proceed from New Mexico,
along the Canadian River, into the Texas Panhandle. He was to find and
“punish” the Comanche and Kiowa who had been raiding in the area.
Carson’s force included 335 soldiers and seventy-four Ute and Apache
Indians led by Ute Chief Kaniatze.

1874: J. J. Saville was the agent at the Red Cloud Agency. He had some
workers cut down a tree to make a flagpole. When the bare tree was laid
down at the agency headquarters, some Indians asked its purpose. The
Indians protested the idea of a flag flying at the agency. They say it
was a symbol of the army and they did not like it. Saville was not moved
by the Indians’ complaints.

1877: Settlers fought a group of Indians near Flat Rocks, Texas.
According to army documents, one settler was killed.

1878: Major George Ilges and Seventh Infantry soldiers from Fort Benton
in northern Montana captured a group of thirty-five “half-breed” British
Canadian Indians trespassing in Montana.

1890: Catherine Weldon left Standing Rock Agency.

1895: According to the Oklahoma Law Enforcement Memorial, a group of
U.S. Indian officers went to the Quapaw Reservation to evict members of
a family who had been removed once but returned. As the officers
approached the house, Amos Vallier, a friend of the family, opened fire
on the officers with a shotgun, shooting Officer Joe Big Knife in the
head and killing him.

1955: An election had been authorized to adopt an amended constitution
and bylaws for the Hualapai Tribe of the Haulapai Reservation in Arizona
by the assistant secretary of the interior. It was approved by a vote of
90-17.

1985: An election approved Amendments 16 and 17 to the constitution and
bylaws of the Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of
Wisconsin.



--------------



October 23

1518: Diego de Velásquez, the governor of Cuba, appointed Hernán Cortés
“captain-general” of an expedition to Mexico.

1823: According to Cherokee records, Creek Chief William McIntosh,
representing U.S. Indian commissioners, attempted to bribe Cherokee
leaders. For $12,000, McIntosh hoped Chiefs John Ross and Charles Hicks
and Council Clerk Alexander McCoy would try to convince the Cherokees to
cede lands to the United States. The Cherokee leaders refused the offer
with a show of indignation.

1862: Pro-Union Delaware and Shawnee warriors attacked the Wichita
Agency.

1864: Sioux Indians and Captain Pell parleyed at Fort Dill.

1866: Elements of the Second Cavalry fought some Indians on the North
Fork of the Platte River near Fort Sedgwick, Colorado. Two soldiers were
wounded, four Indians were killed, and seven were wounded, according to
army records.

1868: In a skirmish at Fort Zarah (near modern Great Bend) in central
Kansas, two Indians and two whites were killed.

1869: Following a group of hostile Indians, troopers entered the
Miembres Mountains in New Mexico Territory. During a fight, three
Indians were killed and three were wounded. Only one soldier was
injured.

1874: This morning, a bunch of Sioux took axes to the stripped tree that
Red Cloud Agency Agent J. J. Saville had planned as a flagpole. The
Indians did not want a flag on their reservation. When Saville got no
help from Indian leaders in stopping the choppers, he sent a worker to
get help from Fort Robinson in northwestern Nebraska. As the two dozen
soldiers from the fort were riding toward the agency, a large group of
angry Sioux surrounded them. They tried to instigate a fight. Suddenly,
the Sioux police, led by Young Man Afraid of His Horses, rode up and
formed a cordon around the soldiers. The Sioux police escorted the
soldiers to the agency stockade, averting a possible fight. Many Sioux
were frustrated by the events and left the reservation.

http://www.dlncoalition.org/dln_nation/chief_young_man_afraid_of_his_horses.htm



1874: Indians fought with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry and some
Indian scouts near the Old Pueblo Fork of the Little Colorado River in
Arizona. According to army documents, sixteen Indians were killed and
one was captured.

1876: Having surrounded Red Cloud and Red Leaf’s camp overnight, Colonel
Ranald MacKenzie and eight troops of cavalry approached the camp after
daybreak. The Indians surrendered without a fight near Camp Robinson,
Nebraska. The camp had 400 warriors and numerous women and children.

1877: Miles and the Nez Perce arrived at Fort Keogh.

1878: Dull Knife and his Cheyenne followers were en route to the Red
Cloud Agency to get some food from Red Cloud’s people. A sudden
snowstorm hit them. Out of the snow comes Captain J. B. Johnson and
Troops B and D, Third Cavalry. After a brief parlay, the 149 Northern
Cheyenne, including Dull Knife, Old Crow, and Wild Hog, surrendered near
Fort Robinson in northwestern Nebraska. Little Wolf, with fifty-three
men and eighty-one women and children, had split off from Dull Knife
recently. They managed to avoid the soldiers and escaped into the Sand
Hills. Although Dull Knife’s people were marched to Fort Robinson, they
hid most of their best weapons. They gave up only their old rifles and
guns.

1953: Assistant Secretary of the Interior Orme Lewis ratified a
constitution and bylaws approved by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm
Springs Reservation of Oregon in an election held on August 8, 1953.

1978: The area director, Aberdeen area office, Bureau of Indian Affairs,
authorized an election to amend the revised constitution and bylaws for
the Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota. The election took
place on November 7, 1978.



--------------


October 24

1778: From today until December 3, 1786, Domingo Cabello y Robles served
as governor of Texas. During his term, he arranged a peace with the
Comanche.

1785: U.S. representatives attempted to hold a treaty conference with
the Creek. Few Indians attended the meeting.

1801: The Chickasaw Natchez Trace Treaty (7 Stat. 65) was endorsed by
the Chickasaw at Chickasaw Bluffs. The United States got the right to
make a road from the Mero District in Tennessee to Natchez in
Mississippi for a payment of $700 in goods. Seventeen Indians signed the
treaty.

1804: The Cherokee signed a treaty (7 Stat. 228) at Wafford’s Settlement
in the Tellico Garrison. The Cherokees ceded the area known as Wafford’s
Settlement. The Cherokee received $5,000 up front and $1,000 annually.
The treaty was signed by Return Meigs for the United States and by ten
Cherokees.

1816: The Treaty of Fort Stephens (7 Stat. 152) with the Choctaw paid
them $16,000 a year for twenty years for lands between the Alabama and
Tombigbee Rivers in Alabama.

1832: A treaty (7 Stat. 391) was signed at Castor Hill, the home of
William Clark, with the Kickapoo. They ceded their southwestern Missouri
lands for land in Kansas near Fort Leavenworth.

1834: According to government records, as part of a conference at Fort
King, Florida, to relocate the Seminoles, Chief Charlie Emathla gave a
speech. He said they had a treaty that allowed them to stay where they
were for twenty years. Only thirteen years had passed at the time of the
conference.

http://www.southernhistory.us/Counties/c4mari2.htm


1840: Colonel John Moore, with ninety Texans and twelve friendly Lipan
Indians, came upon a Comanche village on the Red Fork of the Colorado
River in central Texas. The Texans sneaked up on the village and
attacked. According to the Texans, 148 Comanche were killed and
thirty-four were captured. Only one Texan died. The Texans also seize
almost 500 horses. The village was burned.

1858: According to some sources, Lieutenant Howland and soldiers from
Fort Deliverance captured Navajo Chief Terribio and twenty other
Navajos.

1862: A fought took place in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma)
near Fort Cobb. Pro-Union Comanche, Kickapoo, Kiowa, and Shawnee
attacked the Indian agency. Then they struck the nearby Tonkawa village.
Chief Plácido and 137 of the 300 other Tonkawas were killed in the
fighting.

1871: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Third Cavalry
near Horseshoe Canyon, Arizona, according to official army records. One
civilian was killed and one soldier was wounded.

1874: Major G. W. Schofield and three troops from the Tenth Cavalry
charged a village on Elk Creek in Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma). The Indians surrendered under a flag of truce. Sixty-nine
warriors and 250 women and children were taken into custody. Almost
2,000 horses were recovered.

1924: An order was issued that modified the Jicarilla Apache lands that
had been opened for settlement. The order lasted until March 5, 1927.

1936: An election for a proposed constitution and bylaws for the Hopi
Tribe was held. The results were 651-104 in favor, according to the
constitution itself.

1936: An election for a proposed constitution and bylaws for the
Yavapai-Apache Tribe was held. The results were 86-0 in favor.

1963: An election for an amendment to the constitution for the Standing
Rock Sioux Tribe was held. The vote was 750-194 in favor.



--------------



October 25

1755: After the attack on the Penn’s Creek Village in Snyder County,
Pennsylvania on October 16, a group of men went to the area to bury the
dead. The Delaware who attacked the village also attacked this group,
killing several.

1764: Colonel Henry Bouquet had led a force of more than 1,500 soldiers
into Ohio looking for captives of the recent wars and hostile Indians.
Local Indians (near modern Coshocton, Ohio) delivered over 200 prisoners
to Bouquet. Many of the smaller children did not wish to leave their
“adopted” Indian parents.

http://clarke.cmich.edu/nativeamericans/mphc/pontiacsconspiracy.htm


1805: The Cherokee signed a treaty (7 Stat. 93) with Return Meigs on the
Duck River at Tellico, covering land north of the Tennessee River in
Kentucky and Middle Tennessee.

1841: The Cherokee council outlawed spirituous liquors.

1853: Captain John Gunnison and eight others with the Pacific Railroad
surveying along the 38th Parallel were killed during a fight with Paiute
Indians in the Sevier River Valley of Utah. The Paiute hunting party of
twenty was led by Moshoquop. Moshoquop’s father had been killed by other
whites only days before. The Mormons and the Paiute had been fighting
for some time. (Also recorded as happening on October 26.)

(Note: I visited the scene of this fighting in August. I'll be posting
some more pictures soon. There is one here at:
http://americanindian.net/2008/index.html)

1862: The Tonkawas were living on a reservation in the Washita River in
Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) after having been removed from a
reservation on the Brazos River in Texas. The Tonkawas had earned the
enmity of other tribes because they acted as scouts for the army.
Delaware, Shawnee, and Caddo Indians attacked the Tonkawa village. All
told, 137 of the 300 Tonkawas were killed in the raid. Some sources said
the Comanche, Kiowa, and Wichita were also involved.

1867: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Truxell Springs, Arizona. One Indian was
killed.

1868: Major E. A. Carr and Troops A, B, F, H, I, L, and M, Fifth
Cavalry, encountered a large group of Indians on Beaver Creek in Kansas.
During the fight, according to Carr, only one soldier was wounded;
thirty Indians were killed. The Indians also lost about 130 ponies
during the fight. The fight lasted two days.

1872: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry
Infantry in the Santa Maria Mountains and on Sycamore Creek in Arizona,
according to official army records. Nine Indians were killed in fighting
that lasted until November 3.

1878: Dull Knife and his 150 Cheyenne reached Fort Robinson in
northwestern Nebraska and surrendered to Major Caleb Carlton. After
Carlton was replaced by Captain Henry Wessells, Dull Knife discovered
his Cheyenne would be returned to Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma). They refused to leave voluntarily, and Dull Knife said he
would rather die than leave his homeland. The camp commander locked them
in a barracks and slowly tried to get their cooperation by cutting off
their provisions. This method did not work. (See January 9, 1879.)

http://americanindian.net/2003p.html


1890: Sitting Bull paid his last visit to the Standing Rock Agency.

1910: The rancheria for the Tuolumne Band of Me-Wok Indians was deeded,
according to their constitution.

1949: By Presidential Proclamation No. 2860, the Effigy Mounds in Iowa
were designated as a national monument.



--------------



October 26

1676: Indian fighter Nathaniel Bacon died.

1832: Marks Crume, John Davis, and Jonathan Jennings, representing the
United States, and Potawatomi Indians signed a treaty (7 Stat. 394) at
Tippecanoe. For $20,000 annually and $30,000 worth of supplies, the
Indians gave up large sections of land.

1832: The Shawnees and Delaware signed a treaty (7 Stat. 397) at Castor
Hill, William Clark’s home. They ceded their land at Cape Girardeau for
land in Kansas.

1853: Captain John Gunnison and eight others in the Pacific Railroad
surveying along the 38th Parallel were killed during a fight with Paiute
Indians in the Sevier River Valley of Utah. The Paiute hunting party of
twenty were led by Moshoquop. Moshoquop’s father had been killed by
other whites only days before. The Mormons and the Paiute had been
fighting for some time, considered a part of the Walker War. (Also
recorded as happening on October 25.)

1866: Elements of the First Cavalry fought some Indians near Lake
Albert, Oregon. Two soldiers were wounded, fourteen Indians were killed,
and seven were captured, according to army records.

1867: According to army records, members of the Second Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Shell Creek, Dakota Territory. No one was
reported injured in the skirmish.

1867: According to army records, members of the First and Eighth Cavalry
fought with a band of Indians near Camp Winfield Scott, Nevada. Three
Indians were reported killed and four captured.

1868: The Beaver Creek, Kansas, fight concluded. In Central City, New
Mexico, three citizens were killed by Indians.

1876: Pierre Falcon, Metis singer and songwriter, died.

http://www.telusplanet.net/public/dgarneau/metis29.htm


1877: Chief Joseph’s “I will fight no more” speech was first printed.

1880: At the Mescalero Agency in Fort Stanton Reservation in southern
New Mexico, seven Apache men and seventeen women and children
surrendered.

1882: The U.S. Navy shelled the Tlingit.


--------------




October 27

1795:: Spain signed the San Lorenzo Treaty with the United States. The
treaty allowed American boats to use the Mississippi River in Spanish
Territory. It also confirmed the northern boundary of the Spanish
Territories as the 31st Parallel. The Spanish were required to abandon
all forts and lands north of that line. Both countries agreed to
“control” the Indians within their boundaries.

http://www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/milestones/sanlorenzo/


1805: As a part of the Cherokee treaty (7 Stat. 95) at Kingston, the
area around modern Kingston, Tennessee, called Southwest Point during
that time was ceded. They also ceded the first island of the Tennessee
River. It was officially given up later on January 7, 1806. This treaty
was signed in Tellico.

1832: The Peoria, Lahokia, Michigamea, Tamaroa, and Kaskaskia Indians
signed a treaty (7 Stat. 403) at Castor Hill, William Clark’s home. They
swapped their Illinois lands for lands in Kansas.

1837: After helping to lead a large group of Seminoles out of a
relocation camp in Tampa Bay, Chief Osceola was pursued by American
forces under General Thomas Jesup. Today, while operating under direct
orders of General Jesup, soldiers invited Osceola to talk under a white
flag of truce. When Osceola joined them, he was taken captive. (Also
recorded as happening on October 21.)

1837: The second group of emigrating Cherokees reached Nashville,
Tennessee. A few of the Cherokee leaders in this group visited President
Jackson, who was visiting the area. They left the next day.

1867: After several delays, 500 Cheyenne warriors stormed down on the
Medicine Lodge Creek conference. After speeches on both sides, it became
apparent that the whites wanted all of the land north of the Arkansas
River.

1875: Troop H, Fifth Cavalry, under Captain J. M. Hamilton from Fort
Wallace in western Kansas attacked a group of Indians near Smoky Hill
River, Kansas. During the fight, two Indians were reported killed and
one soldier was wounded.

1876: According to army reports, 2,000 Indian men, women, and children,
some 400 lodges total, surrendered to Colonel Nelson Miles on the Big
Dry River in Montana.

1879: Captain Morrow followed Victorio and his Warm Springs Apaches into
Mexico. Twelve miles from the Corralitos River in the Guzman Mountains,
Morrow attacked. The army had one scout killed and two wounded. Being
low on food and water, Morrow withdrew to Fort Bayard in southwestern
New Mexico.

1948: In 1905, a large part of the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming,
occupied by the Shoshone and Arapaho tribes, was ceded to the United
States. They got a small part of that land back, according to Federal
Register No. 13FR08818.

http://americanindian.net/2003g.html


1952: The federal government was going to build the Yellowtail Dam and
Reservoir on a large part of the Crow Indian Reservation in Wyoming. The
land was condemned.

1970: The Pit River Indians engaged in a skirmish with local law
enforcement in Burney, California.

1973: The deputy assistant secretary of the interior had authorized an
election to approve an amendment to the constitution and bylaws of the
Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida. Amendment 3 was approved by a
vote of 44-8, Amendment 4 was approved 39-13, and Amendment 5 was
approved 42-10.

1986: The Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment
Act of 1986 (100 Stat. 3207-137) was passed. It was intended to “develop
a comprehensive, coordinated attack upon the illegal narcotics traffic
in Indian country and the deleterious impact of alcohol and substance
abuse upon Indian tribes and their members; provide direction and
guidance to program managers; modify or supplement existing programs;
provide authority and opportunity for tribal participation in program
management.”

http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/25/ch26.html



--------------



October 28

1815: The Kansa Indians concluded a treaty (7 Stat. 137) in St. Louis.
The United States was represented by Auguste Chouteau and Ninian
Edwards.

1851: The San Saba Treaty was signed at the Council Grounds between the
“United States, of the one part, and the undersigned chiefs counsellors
and head men of the Comanches, Lapans, & Mucalaroes tribes.”

http://www.oag.state.tx.us/opinions/opinions/50abbott/op/2005/htm/ga0339.htm



1852: Fort Chadbourne was established in western Texas (near modern
Bronte). It was designed to protect the local settlers and the
Butterfield Stage from the local Comanche.

1861: The Cherokee National Assembly declared war on the United States
of America. They had signed a treaty with the Confederated States of
America.

1863: The Cherokee capital was located in Tahlequah, Indian Territory
(modern Oklahoma). The Cherokee Nation had been divided by the U.S.
Civil War. Stand Watie supported the Confederacy. He and his followers
burned down the capital buildings.

1865: The Upper Yanktonai Sioux and the Oglala Sioux signed treaties
(14 Stat. 743, 7 Stat. 747) with the United States.

1867: The Cheyenne and Arapaho signed a treaty with the United States
(15 Stat. 593). The treaty affected approximately 2,250 Cheyenne and
2,000 Arapaho.

1869: While scouting the country surrounding the Brazos River in Texas,
Forty-First Infantry Lieutenant George E. Albee and two enlisted men
encountered a group of eleven hostile Indians, according to army
records. During the subsequent fighting, Albee’s group drove the Indians
from the area. Albee won the Congressional Medal of Honor for his
actions. Army records also indicated that members of the Fourth and
Ninth Cavalry, Twenty-Fourth Infantry, and some Indian scouts fought
with a band of Indians near the headwaters of the Brazos River in Texas.
Fifty Indians were killed and seven were captured. Eight soldiers were
wounded. The fighting lasted through the next day.

1869: According to army records, settlers fought with a band of Indians
in the Miembres Mountains of New Mexico. One soldier and three Indians
were wounded. Three Indians were killed in the fighting.

1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry, the
Twenty-Third Infantry, and some Indian scouts in the Mazatzal Mountains,
Sycamore Springs, and the Sunflower Valley in Arizona, according to army
documents. Twenty-five Indians were killed and six were captured. The
fighting lasted through October 30.

1874: Twenty warriors and their families, with livestock, surrendered to
soldiers at Fort Sill in southern Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma) after being pursued for several days by Captain Carpenter and
troops from the Tenth Cavalry. According to army documents, in total 391
Indians were captured in this expedition, led by Lieutenant Colonel J.
W. Davidson, which lasted until November 8.
1880: Tenth Cavalry soldiers fought a group of Indians near Ojo
Caliente, Texas. According to army documents, five soldiers were killed.

http://redriverhistorian.com/fortsill.html


1932: The mineral rights sales ban for the Papago Reservation was
cancelled.

1992: According to the Osage constitution, the U.S. District Court for
the Northern District of Oklahoma ruled in the case Fletcher v. United
States (90-C-248-E). The ruling allowed members of the Osage Nation to
hold an election on the adoption of a constitution. A constitution was
adopted on February 4, 1994, by a vote of 1,931-1,013.



--------------



October 29

1712: Settlers in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, held a conference to advise
belligerent Indians that Queen Anne’s War was over and the fighting
should stop. It took almost nine months before a local treaty was
signed.

http://www.gravematter.com/cem-nh-portsmouth2.asp


1832: The Piankashaw and Wea Indians concluded a treaty (7 Stat. 410) at
Castor Hill, William Clark’s home. They receive lands in Kansas in
exchange for their lands in Illinois and Missouri.

1837: A total of 1,600 Creeks under Lieutenant T. P. Sloan left New
Orleans on three steamboats.

1853: Alabama Chief Antone, several subchiefs, and leading citizens of
Polk County submitted a petition to the Texas legislature. The petition
requested that lands in the area be set aside as a reservation for the
tribe. The legislature set aside 1,110.7 acres.

http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/AA/bma19.html


1869: According to army records, members of the Fourth and Ninth
Cavalries, Twenty-Fourth Infantry, and some Indian scouts fought with a
band of Indians near the headwaters of the Brazos River in Texas. Fifty
Indians were killed and seven were captured. Eight soldiers were
wounded. The fighting started the day before.

1874: Indians fought with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry near Cave
Creek, Arizona. According to army documents, eight Indians were killed
and five were captured.

1880: According to army reports, almost fifty of Victorio’s Indians
attacked twelve Tenth Cavalry troopers near Ojo Caliente, Texas. Four
soldiers were killed. The Indians escaped into Mexico.

1926: Bannock Chief Race Horse, also known as Racehorse and John
Racehorse Sr., died. He was one of the Bannock representatives in the
lawsuit over the Fort Bridger Treaty that went to the U.S. Supreme
Court.

http://www.wyominggenealogy.com/uinta/jacksons_hole_wyoming.htm


1935: The secretary of the interior authorized an election for a
constitution for the Indians of the Tulalip Tribes in Washington.

1949: The land needed to make the Garrison Dam was ceded from the Fort
Berthold Reservation by an act of Congress (63 Stat. 1026).



--------------



October 30

1763: Pontiac informed Major Henry Gladwin, commander at Fort Detroit,
that he wanted peace and to end the fighting.
1833: Captain Page and 1,000 Choctaws arrived in Memphis. Some used
ferries while others marched to Rock Roe in Arkansas, the next leg of
their journey.

http://colonial-america.suite101.com/article.cfm/chief_pontiacs_war_1763


1866: Elements of the Twenty-third Infantry fought some Indians near
Malheur County, Oregon. Two Indians were killed, three were wounded, and
eight were captured, according to army records.

1868: Indians attacked Grinnell Station, Kansas. One Indian was wounded.

1868: According to army records, members of the Second Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near the White Woman’s Fork of the Republican
River in Kansas. The fighting lasted until October 30. Two Indians were
killed and three were wounded.

1870: Indians attacked a wagon train eighteen miles from Fort Stanton in
southern New Mexico Territory. They stampeded fifty-nine mules. Cavalry
eventually pursued them for 259 miles, destroyed their village,
recovered the mules, and captured three Indians.

1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry, the
Twenty-Third Infantry, and some Indian scouts in the Mazatzal Mountains,
Sycamore Springs, and the Sunflower Valley in Arizona, according to army
documents. Twenty-five Indians were killed and six were captured. The
fighting started on October 28.

1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the Eighth Cavalry near Pajarit
Springs, New Mexico, according to army documents. Eighteen Indians were
captured.

1876: President Grant, by executive order, revoked the White
Mountain–San Carlos (Chiricahua) Reserve. The area bounded by Dragoon
Springs to Peloncillo Mountain Summit to New Mexico to Mexico reverted
to the public domain. The reserve was established on December 14, 1872.

1937: An election for the adoption of a constitution and bylaws for the
Stockbridge Munsee Community of Wisconsin was held. The results were
119-13 in favor of passage.

1939: The Miami Indians of Oklahoma’s constitution was ratified.

http://thorpe.ou.edu/constitution/miami/index.html


1976: Commissioner of Indian Affairs Morris Thompson had authorized an
election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the Fort Sill Apache
Tribe of Oklahoma. It was approved by a vote of 35-11.

1990: The law denying Indians the right to speak their own language,
under certain circumstances, was repealed.

http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/BOISE.html


1991: Executive Order No. 6368, by President George Bush declared
November as National American Indian Heritage Month.




--------------



October 31

1755: Today marked the beginning of a raid by almost 100 Delaware and
Shawnees against settlers in Fulton and Franklin Counties, Pennsylvania.
Over the next several days, Indians attacked along Conolloway Creek and
adjoining areas, killing or capturing half of the 100 settlers in the
area. King Shingas, of the Delaware, led the raids.

1799: William Augustus Bowles, the self-proclaimed “Director General and
Commander-in-Chief of the Muskogee Nation,” issued a proclamation. He
stated that the Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1795 was null and void
because it covered ancestral Indian lands. Spain and the United States
had no right to trade sovereignty over lands that belonged to others.

http://www.southernhistory.us/wabowles.htm


1818: According to the U.S. Army, today marked the end of First Seminole
War.

1833: President Jackson sent Francis Scott Key to Alabama to investigate
the Owen affair and to assist in the defense of the soldiers. (See
October 14.)

1855: Soldiers from Fort Lane in southwestern Oregon fought Rogue River
Indians at Hungry Hill, Oregon.

1858: General Harney pronounced that the interior was now open to
settlers.

1869: The soon-to-be-named lieutenant governor of the Northwest
Territory of Canada, William McDougall, received a letter from the
National Council of the Metis. They told him he could not enter this
area without their permission.

1869: According to army records, members of the First and Eighth
Cavalries fought with a band of Indians in the Chiricahua Mountains of
Arizona. Two Indians were killed.

1871: Delshay, of the Tonto Apaches, met with Captain W. N. Netterville
in Sunflower Valley to discuss a peace treaty. Delshay said he wanted
peace, but he wanted both sides to live up to their promises, which the
whites seldom did. Delshay agreed to met Peace Commissioner Vincent
Colyer at Camp McDowell, near Phoenix, Arizona, on November 12, 1879.
But Colyer never responded to Delshay’s meeting proposal, so no peace
was made.

http://www.thenaturalamerican.com/bloody_basin_and_beyond.htm


1874: Indians fought with soldiers from the Ninth Cavalry Infantry near
Fort Sill, Indian Territory. According to army documents, one Indian was
killed during this engagement, which started on October 4.

1876: Hunkpapa Sioux went to Fort Peck.

1877: The Nez Perce started the boat trip to Fort Lincoln.

1879: After the Standing Bear trial, where it was ruled the government
could not force an Indian to stay in any one reservation against their
will, Big Snake decided to test the law. He asked for permission to
leave his reservation to visit Standing Bear. His request was denied. He
eventually left the Ponca Reservation to go to the Cheyenne Reservation,
also in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). Big Snake was returned
to the Ponca Reservation, when General Sherman decided the Standing Bear
ruling applied only to Standing Bear. Big Snake made the Ponca agent,
William Whiteman, very angry. Whiteman ordered Big Snake to be arrested.
On this day, Big Snake was arrested and charged with threatening
Whiteman. In Whiteman’s office, after denying any such actions, Big
Snake refused to go with the soldiers there to arrest him. A struggle
developed, and Big Snake was shot and killed.

http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/ntreaty/ncase001.htm


1880: Spotted Eagle and Rain-in-the-Face surrendered at Fort Keogh.

1887: Fort Logan was established in what would become Denver, Colorado.

1923: The “Treaty Between His Majesty the King and the Chippewa Indians
of Christian Island, Georgia Island, and Rama” was signed in Canada.






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That's it for now.

Have a great month.

Phil Konstantin
http://americanindian.net


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End of Phil Konstantin's October 2008 Newsletter - Part 1
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Four of the five books I have worked on. I either wrote, co-wrote, or contributed to each of these beeks

This is the cover to my first book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy. Click on the cover to order a copy or to get more info.
This Day in North American Indian History
This Day in North American Indian History is a one-of-a-kind, vastly entertaining and informative book covering over 5000 years of North American Indian history, culture, and lore. Wide-ranging, it covers over 4,000 important events involving the native peoples of North America in a unique day-by-day format.

The thousands of entries in This Day in North American Indian History weave a compelling and comprehensive mosaic of North American Indian history spanning more than five millennia-every entry an exciting opening into the fascinating but little- known history of American Indians.

Over 100 photographs and illustrations - This book has 480 pages, weighs 2.2 pounds and is 8" by 9.5" in size. The Dates, Names and "Moons" section of these pages are based on the book.

This is the cover to my 4th book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info.
This is the cover to my 4th book. Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info."


Native American History For Dummies

I wrote six of the twenty-four chapters in this book. I am credited with being the technical editor. Book Description:
Native American History For Dummies introduces readers to the thousand-year-plus history of the first inhabitants of North America and explains their influence on the European settlement of the continent. Covering the history and customs of the scores of tribes that once populated the land, this friendly guide features vivid studies of the lives of such icons as Pocahontas, Sitting Bull, and Sacagawea; discusses warfare and famous battles, offering new perspectives from both battle lines; and includes new archaeological and forensic evidence, as well as oral histories that show events from the perspective of these indigenous peoples. The authors worked in concert with Native American authorities, institutions, and historical experts to provide a wide range of insight and information.
This is the cover to my 3rd book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info.
This is the cover to my 3rd book. Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info
Treaties With American Indians I wrote an article and several appendix items for this book.
Clips from a review on Amazon.com: *Starred Review* In the 93 years from 1778 until 1871, there were more than 400 treaties negotiated by Indian agents and government officials. Editor Fixico and more than 150 contributors have crafted a three volume comprehensive tool that will soon become essential for anyone interested in the topic. A resource section with lists of ?Alternate Tribal Names and Spellings,? ?Tribal Name Meanings,? (<---- I wrote this part) Treaties by Tribe,? and ?Common Treaty Names? and a bibliography and comprehensive index are repeated in each volume. This impressive set has a place in any academic library that supports a Native American studies or American history curriculum. It is the most comprehensive source of information on Canadian-Indian treaties and U.S.-Indian treaties. Also available as an e-book.

"The Wacky World of Laws"
It was just released in May 2009.
The Wacky World of Laws. Click on the cover to order a copy or to get more info.

The Wacky World of Laws is a compilation of U.S. and International Laws that are out of the ordinary. With the U.S. churning out 500,000 new laws every year and 2 million regulations annually, this book is the ideal go-to book fro everyone who wants a good laugh at the expense of our legal system. Law so often can be boring! Now with The Wacky World of Laws, you can be the hit of any water cooler conversation, and amaze your friends with precious legal nuggets.

I wrote most of this book. It is my fifth book.


(copyright, © Phil Konstantin, 2010)






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