September 2009 Newsletter from
"This Day in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2010)

Click Here To Return To The Previous Website

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Phil Konstantin's September 2009 Newsletter #1
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Greetings,

I have been very busy working on a lot of projects at
home and online. To make up for my recent delays in getting
out these newsletters in a time manner (sounds like a legal
brief), I am including the entire September dates listing from
my book.

Something I have done recently is start to redesign my website.
This is a long, slow process. One of the things I have tried
to do is create a new menu. If you have a chance, please check
out the new menu at the top of my main page:

http://americanindian.net

Let me know if you have any problems, or any suggestions.

I'll have more later in the month....

Phil

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September Dates in American Indian History

September 1
1640: A treaty agreement covering land cessions between the Mohegans
and Connecticut was reached.
1675: According to some sources, a group of Indians staged an attack on
the village of Hadley, Massachusetts. According to local legend, a man
unknown to the village rushed into the church and rallied the settlers
to defeat the Indians. After the fighting, the man disappeared. Other
sources said there was no battle, just a call to arms. Other sources
said nothing of any note happened on this date in Hadley.
1776: On July 20, 1776, Chickamauga warriors attacked Eaton Station,
Tennessee. Based on this attack, a force of more than 2,000 militia and
some Catawba Indians, led by General Griffith Rutherford, marched into
the Tennessee Mountains. They killed a dozen Cherokee warriors and
destroyed most of the Cherokee villages in Tennessee and South Carolina.
1788: Even after the Treaty of Hopewell, whites continued to settle on
Cherokee lands along the Holston and French Broad Rivers. Congress
issued a proclamation prohibiting whites from settling on Cherokee
lands.
1813: A Creek war party attacked several farms near Fort Sinquefield,
Alabama. They killed several of the settlers. One woman, Sarah Merrill,
left for dead by the Creeks, staggered through the woods for miles
carrying her baby, also left for dead. Her ordeal sparked additional
fury among the local Americans.
1826: Today was the deadline for Creeks to go west from their lands east
of the Mississippi River.
1830: After discussing President Jackson’s removal proposal, Chickasaw
leaders signed a provisional agreement to be removed. Several of the
chiefs present were offered additional lands. The treaty never went into
effect because it was based on the premise that the Chickasaws would
share lands with the Choctaws. The Choctaws did not agreed to give up
their lands in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).
1845: Tired of the continuing feud between the “old settler” and “new
emigrant” factions of the Cherokee Nation, fifty-four Cherokee families
left the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) reservation to join
relatives in Texas.
1858: Colonel George H. Wright and 600 men battled 500 Coeur d’Alene
Indians and allies at the Battle of Four Lakes in western Washington.
Equipped with rifled barrels and new ammunition, Wright’s men killed
five dozen Indians while suffering no mortal wounds themselves. They
fought another battle on the Spokane Plains in Washington on September
5.
1866: Manuelito and twenty-three of his Navajo followers surrendered to
the army at Fort Wingate.
1868: Stage agent J. H. Jones of Lake Station, Colorado, reported to the
military that a woman and child were killed and scalped by Indians near
the station. According to military reports, three people were killed and
three people were wounded near Reed Springs. In Spanish Fort, Texas,
four people were killed, eight people scalped, and three women assaulted
by Indians. One of the women was assaulted by thirteen Indians, who
later scalped and killed her and her four small children.
1868: According to army records, settlers fought with a band of Indians
near Lake Station, Colorado. Two settlers were killed, wounded, and
captured.
1868: According to army records, three settlers were killed and three
were wounded in a fight with a band of Indians near Reed’s Springs,
Colorado.
1871: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Ninth Cavalry
and the Twenty-Fourth Infantry near Fort McKavett, Texas, according to
official army records. No casualties were reported.
1880: Ninth Cavalry and Fifteenth Infantry soldiers fought a group of
Indians near Aqua Chiquita in the Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico.
According to army documents, two soldiers were killed.
1881: Apaches attacked Fort Apache in eastern Arizona. They were upset
because Colonel Eugene Carr had tried to arrest an Apache shaman. The
medicine man was killed in a fight two days earlier.
1911: Executive Order No. 1406 was issued. It set aside certain lands in
New Mexico “for the benefit of the Indians of the Jemez Pueblo.”
1965: An election for an amendment to the constitution and bylaws of the
Moapa Band of Paiute Indians was authorized by Assistant Secretary of
the Interior Harry Anderson. The election was held on November 20.


September 2



September 2



September 2
1732: The first treaty between the Iroquois Confederation and the
Pennsylvania Provincial Council was signed in Philadelphia. The parties
agreed to peaceful relations between them. The Iroquois also promised to
try to persuade the Shawnees to leave Allegheny Valley. The principal
Indian chief present was Shikellamy of the Onondaga.
1777: Settlers had built a sizable stockade in Wheeling, Virginia (now
West Virginia). The area was the scene of several skirmishes during the
next several weeks. A force of 200 Mingo and Wyandot warriors laid in
wait outside the stockade. A few Indians lured a small force of fifteen
militia out of the fort into the woods, where the trap was sprung; most
of the soldiers were killed. A relief force of thirteen soldiers
attempted a rescue. They were attacked as well. A total of fifteen
soldiers were killed; only one Indian sustained a fatal injury.
1779: General John Sullivan and his force of 4,500 men continued their
attacks on Indians in New York he suspected were British Allies. His
forces leveled Catherine’s Town.
1815: In Portage des Sioux, William Clark, Auguste Chouteau, and Ninian
Edwards made a peace treaty (7 Stat. 130) with the Kickapoo for the War
of 1812.
1838: The Republic of Texas signed a treaty with the Kichai, Taovaya,
Tawakoni, and Waco at a site that is in modern Fannin County.
1838: Lydia Paki Kamekeha Liliuokalani, the last sovereign queen of
Hawaii, was born.
1844: Tonight in Wilmington, Delaware, Cherokee Principal Chief John
Ross married Mary B. Stapler.
1862: Santee Sioux engaged in another fight in the Sioux Uprising.
Called the Birch Coulee Battle, it happened three miles north of Morton,
Minnesota. The Minnesota forces were led by Major Joseph Brown. The
Sioux were led by Big Eagle, Mankato, and Red Legs. The army had been on
a burial detail. At dawn, the Sioux attacked. The soldiers lost thirteen
killed and forty-seven wounded.
1868: Sergeant George J. Dittoe, Company A, Third Infantry, and four
soldiers were transporting a wagon along Little Coon Creek when they
were attacked by about three dozen Indians. Three of the soldiers were
seriously wounded; three Indians were killed and one wounded. One
soldier went to Fort Dodge in southwestern Kansas for help. Lieutenant
Thomas Wallace, Third Infantry, and troops responded to relieve Sergeant
Dittoe’s men and chase off the Indians. One of the four soldiers,
Corporal Leander Herron, was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor
for his part in the action.
1875: Indians fought with soldiers from the Third Cavalry along the
North Platte River north of Sidney, Nebraska. According to army
documents, no casualties were reported in this encounter, which started
on August 28.
1876: The Nez Perce told settlers they had one week to leave their
lands.
1877: Victorio fled the San Carlos Reservation.
1948: An adoption ordinance for the Coeur d’Alene Tribe had been passed
by the tribal council. It was approved by the acting commissioner of
Indian affairs.
Every: Acoma Pueblo festival.


September 3



September 3



September 3
1680: Don Antonio de Otermin was the governor of the province that would
eventually contain modern Santa Fe, New Mexico. The Pueblo Indians
staged a revolt in August. Otermin entered Isleta Pueblo and discovered
it was abandoned.
1719: Frenchman Bernard de la Harpe discovered an Indian village on the
Arkansas River near Muskogee. La Harpe had traveled up the Red River,
then went overland across Oklahoma. He described the land as fertile and
the people (probably a Caddo tribe) as friendly and hard-working. La
Harpe claimed the land for France.
1783: The Treaty of Paris was signed.
1822: The Sac and Fox signed a treaty (7 Stat. 223) at Fort Armstrong
dealing with lands in Wisconsin and Illinois.
1836: The 2,300 Creek prisoners reached Fort Gibson in eastern Indian
Territory (present-day Oklahoma). Approximately eighty-one Creeks died
during the journey from Alabama.
1836: Colonel Henry Dodge and the Menominee Indians signed a peace
treaty (7 Stat. 506) in Cedar Point, Wisconsin. In exchange for an
annuity of $20,000, the Menominee ceded most of their lands along the
Menominee, Wolf, and Wisconsin Rivers.
1855: Little Thunder had taken over as chief after the killing of
Conquering Bear in the fight with Lieutenant Grattan’s men. He had
almost 250 warriors in his camp on the Blue River. General William S.
Harney had 600 soldiers. After the fighting, there were 100 dead Sioux
and five dead soldiers, according to Harney. Harney took seventy
prisoners, almost all women and children. Based on his actions, the
Sioux called Harney “the Butcher.”
1863: At Whitestone, General Alfred Sully and 1,200 soldiers attacked
Inkpaduta’s Santee Sioux village. About 300 warriors were killed, 250
women and children captured. Sully lost twenty-two soldiers in the
fighting.
1868: According to Major Joseph Tilford, Seventh Cavalry, the commander
at Fort Reynolds in southeastern Colorado, four people were killed by
Indians near Colorado City. Indians also attacked the station at Hugo
Springs but were repelled by the occupants.
1907: In Oklahoma, the principal chief of the Creek Nation, Pleasant
Porter (Talof Harjo), died.
1966: Assistant Secretary of the Interior Harry Anderson had authorized
an election for amendments to the constitution and bylaws of the Lac
Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin. The
amendment was approved by a vote of 152-2.


September 4



September 4



September 4
1724: Indians attacked Dunstable village in Maine. They took two
captives.
1801: A two-day conference began at Southwest Point, located at the
confluence of the Tennessee and Clinch Rivers. Representatives of the
United States and the Cherokees discussed more roads through Cherokee
lands. Because of a lack of enforcement by the United States of previous
treaties, the Cherokees did not agree to any U.S. proposals.
1854: A peace treaty was signed with the Modoc of Tule Lake. They were
out of supplies by this time. The fighting had started on August 18,
1854.
1863: The Concow-Maidu had ancestral homes in the Butte County area of
Northern California. Eventually, they were forced to move to different
lands. Many died or were killed along the way to these distant, hostile
places. One group of 461 Concow left Chico, but only 277 would survive
the two-week trip to Round Valley.
1864: At Fort Lyon, Major E. W. Wynkoop held a council with One Eye,
Manimick, Cheyenne, one other Indian, and interpreter John S. Smith.
Carrying a message written by George Bent, the Cheyenne and Arapaho
agreed to turn over any whites they held as prisoners. Wynkoop would
leave the fort to go meet the tribal leaders on September 6.
1868: According to army records, members of the First and Eighth Cavalry
and Indian scouts fought with a band of Indians near Tonto Creek,
Arizona. One Indian was killed and another was captured.
1872: Indians skirmished with a group of settlers near Camp Mojave,
Arizona, according to official army records. One settler was killed.
1878: Colonel Nelson Miles, 150 men of the Fifth Infantry, and
thirty-five Crow scouts had been traveling up Clark’s Fork of the
Yellowstone, near Heart Mountain, looking for hostile Bannock Indians
reported to be in the area. The soldiers came up on a camp and attacked
the residents. Eleven Bannock were killed and thirty-one were captured.
About 200 horses and mules were seized. An interpreter, an Indian scout,
and Captain Andrew Bennett were killed in the fighting. One soldier was
wounded.
1879: Members of Captain Ambrose Hooker’s Troop E, Ninth Cavalry, were
guarding the cavalry horses near Ojo Caliente, New Mexico, when they
were attacked by Indians. Eight soldiers were killed, and the Indians
captured forty-six of the soldier’s mounts. The dead soldiers were
African Americans, commonly referred to as buffalo soldiers by the
Indians.
1882: At Whipple Barracks, General George Crook officially took over
command of the Department of Arizona. The veteran Indian fighter was
brought in to deal with the Apaches.
1886: Geronimo and thirty-eight of his followers surrendered to General
Nelson Miles at Skeleton Canyon south of Apache Pass in Arizona.
Every: St. Augustine Feast for many Pueblos.


September 5



September 5



September 5
1779: General John Sullivan’s forces continued their attack on suspected
pro-British forces in New York. They demolished Kendaia (Appletown).
1785: Georgians continued to trespass on Creek lands. Chief Alexander
McGillivray wrote Congress demanding that they protect his people from
the settlers as previous treaties had promised.
1814: Today marked the start of the two-day Battle of Credit Island
(near modern Davenport, Iowa). Major Zackary Taylor and 334 American
soldiers were making their way up the Mississippi River, attacking
British positions with considerable success. They encountered a force of
1,000 Indians and British. The allied army forced Taylor to withdraw to
safety in St. Louis.
1836: A fifth group of friendly Creeks, numbering 1,984, under the
command of Lieutenant J. T. Sprague, left Tallassee (northwest of modern
Tuskegee) for Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).
1858: Colonel George Wright, commanding the local army, fought with
Coeur d’Alene, Columbia River, Colville, Kalispel, and Spokane Indians
on the Spokane Plains. The army defeated the Indians.
1862: Little Crow heard news of Big Eagle and Mankato’s battle with
Colonel Henry “Long Trader” Sibley’s troops at Birch Coulee. They
managed to bottle up the troops for an entire day; cannons brought up in
support ended the fighting on the second day.
1865: Almost 1,000 Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho fought with American
forces under Colonel Cole at the Little Powder River.
1868: Indians stole five cattle at Hugo Springs Station. Later they also
attacked and burned Willow Springs Station.
1868: According to army records, members of the Twenty-Third Infantry
and some Indian scouts fought with a band of Indians in the Juniper
Mountains of Idaho. During the campaign, which started on August 8,
sixteen Indians were captured.
1869: Troops from Fort Stanton in southern New Mexico chased a group of
hostile Indians. During the ensuing fight, three Indians were killed and
seven were wounded. Two troopers were wounded.
1869: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry and the
Twelfth Infantry fought with a band of Indians near Camp Date Creek,
Arizona. Three Indians were killed.
1871: The White Mountain Reservation was chosen as the site where the
Apache Indians of Arizona could be “collected, fed, clothed … provided
for, and protected.” This decision was made by Vincent Colyer,
commissioner, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior.
1871: Indians skirmished with a group of settlers in Chino Valley,
Arizona, according to official army records. One settler was killed.
1877: according to many sources, Crazy Horse was fatally wounded while
in captivity at Fort Robinson, Nebraska.
1878: Bannock fought with Howard’s soldiers at Clark’s Ford.
1968: The assistant commissioner of Indian affairs authorized an
election for amendments to the constitution and bylaws of the Lac Courte
Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin. The
election was held on January 25, 1969.
1975: Commissioner of Indian Affairs Morris Thompson authorized an
election to approve a new constitution and bylaws for the Cherokee
Nation of Oklahoma.


September 6



September 6



September 6
1689: Two hundred Indian survivors of King Philip’s War had found refuge
with the local Indians around Cochecho (modern Dover), New Hampshire.
Boston wanted the Indians back in Massachusetts. Local settlers had
signed a treaty with the local Indians. In what local legend called a
mock battle, forces under Richard Walderne (Waldron) surrounded the
local and refugee Indians. They removed the 200 refugees and marched
them back to Boston. In Boston, most of the Indians were killed or
became slaves.
1823: Seventy Seminoles met with peace commissioners from the United
States. This was the first such effort by the United States to reach an
agreement with the Seminoles after having bought Florida from Spain in
1819. A treaty was signed on September 18.
1839: A conference was held by the “old settler” and “new emigrant”
Cherokees in Tahlequah, Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). John
Ross was elected principal chief of the newly rejoined Cherokee Nation.
David Vann was elected second chief. A new constitution was adopted. The
convention continued until October 10, 1839. Many old settlers disavow
any actions taken by this convention. They believed that the old
settlers’ government was still in power.
1856: Cheyenne and Arapaho attacked a wagon train of Mormons on the
Platte River. Two men, a woman, and a child were killed. One woman was
kidnapped during the fighting.
1861: A Yamparika chief and another Comanche signed a treaty with Union
representatives at Fort Wise, Colorado.
1864: Fort Zarah was established on Walnut Creek near the intersection
of the Santa Fe Trail and the main Indian trail in Kansas. The fort
served as a base of operations against hostile Indians until December
1869.
1864: Major Edward “Tall Chief” Wynkoop was the commander at Fort Lyon
in southeastern Colorado. Black Kettle and as many as 2,200 Cheyenne,
Arapaho, and Sioux were camped with him on Smoky Hill River. Black
Kettle sent out messengers saying he would deliver white prisoners in
exchange for Indian prisoners and to discuss moving to the reservation.
Wynkoop received a copy of this message from One Eye and Eagle Head.
Hopelessly outnumbered (he had only 127 soldiers), Wynkoop decided to go
to the Smoky Hill camp to talk with Black Kettle. Wynkoop eventually
took the four white children held captive and seven chiefs, including
Black Kettle, to Denver to discuss ways to end the fighting in Colorado.
1867: According to army records, members of the First Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near the Silver River in Oregon. One Indian was
killed and five were captured.
1868: According to army records, Indians attacked settlers in several
locations in Colorado Territory. Twenty-five settlers died in the
fighting during today and the next day.
1877: Army records showed that Crazy Horse died on the night of
September 6 at Fort Robinson, Nebraska.
1967: Amendments were made to the constitution of the Pawnee Indian
Tribe of Oklahoma.
1967: Amendments to the Wisconsin Winnebago constitution were approved
by the U.S. government.
1973: The Oklahoma Human Rights Commission requested state schools to
drop rules requiring Indian students to cut their long hair. They felt
the rules would “promote racial friction and community divisiveness.”
1978: The Anazasi ruins at Mesa Verde were declared a World Heritage
Site.


September 7



September 7



September 7
1732: According to some sources, a land-cession agreement was made by
representatives of the Delaware Indians and Pennsylvania.
1778: Today through September 17, the Shawnee attacked Boonesborough.
Captain Antoine Dagneaux de Quindre, with eleven soldiers and 444
Shawnees, including Chief Blackfish (Chinugalla), demanded the surrender
of Boonesborough. Daniel Boone was commanding the sixty American
sharpshooters in the fort. After losing thirty-five warriors to the
Kentucky fighters, the Indians quit on September 20. Boone’s forces
reported only four men killed in the fighting. Some sources recorded the
settlers’ numbers as thirty men and twenty young men, with a few women
and children. The losses were also reported as thirty-seven Shawnee and
two settlers.
1831: Major Francis Armstrong was appointed agent to the Choctaws in
Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). He assisted in their move to
the Indian Territory.
1849: Colonel J. M. Washington, with soldiers and friendly Indians,
confronted the Navajos in Canyon de Chelly. Mariano Martinez and
Cahpitone agreed to return stolen property and Mexican prisoners.
1850: The “Robinson Treaty with the Ojibewa Indians of Lake Superior
Conveying Certain Lands to the Crown” was signed in Canada.
1862: Little Crow wrote a letter to Colonel Henry Sibley. He explained
why the fighting started, that he had white prisoners, and that he
wanted to negotiate. Sibley’s reply was to release the prisoners and
then talk. Little Crow was concerned for the Santee Indians’ safety
because he had heard that Governor Alexander Ramsey wanted the Santee
dead or banished from Minnesota. Because Sibley had been a trader among
the Indians, they called him “Long Trader.”
1868: The “Hon. Schuyler Colfax” telegraphed the army that twenty-five
people had been killed and a general uprising was going on in southern
Colorado.
1880: Fourth Cavalry soldiers fought a group of Indians near Fort
Cummings, New Mexico. According to army documents, one soldier was
killed and three were wounded.
1917: By executive order, President Woodrow Wilson “reserve[d] from
entry, sale or other disposal, and set aside for administrative purposes
in connection with tribal grazing leases,” 320 acres on the Crow
Reservation in Montana.
1939: Assistant Secretary of the Interior Oscar Chapman ratified an
election for a constitution and bylaws for the Port Gamble Band of
Clallam Indians.
1957: An act of Congress gave the Chilkat Indians mineral rights to
their lands near Klukwan. They were one of only a very small number of
Alaskans with this provision.
1968: The Indian Council Fire awarded this year’s Indian Achievement
Award to Reverend Dr. Roe B. Lewis of Phoenix, Arizona. Lewis, a
Pima-Papago, was cited for his efforts in educational counseling for
Indians.
1972: A decision was given that said North Dakota could not tax Indians
on reservations.
1979: The acting deputy commissioner of Indian affairs authorized an
election for a new constitution for the Skokomish Indian Tribe. The
election was held on January 15, 1980.


September 8



September 8



September 8
1535: Cartier reached Stadacone, where the modern city of Quebec was
located.
1565: Pedro Menendez de Aviles, accompanied by 1,500 soldiers and
colonists, established the town of St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest
constantly occupied European town in the United States. To secure his
foothold in the area, de Aviles attacked the French settlements on
nearby St. Johns River.
1598: Juan de Oñate and Vincente de Zaldivar, his nephew and second in
command, completed and dedicated a church called San Gabriel (north of
modern Espanola, New Mexico). Other sources said the church was called
San Juan Bautist.
1755: The Battle of Lake George was fought between French and Indian
forces under the command of Ludwig August Dieskau and Mohawk War Chief
King Hendrick, and British and colonial troops under Sir William
Johnson.
1756: Colonel John Armstrong led approximately 300 Pennsylvania soldiers
against the Delaware village of Kittanning in retaliation for their
attack on Fort Granville on July 30. Delaware Chief Captain Jacob was
trapped in his house. He was ordered to surrender, and he refused. His
house was set on fire, and he was burned to death. Armstrong estimated
Delaware losses at forty killed and his own at eighteen. He recovered
many English prisoners.
1779: General John Sullivan’s force of 4,500 men continued their
retaliatory strikes against suspected pro-British Indian villages. They
destroyed Canadasaga, Kittanning, and other nearby villages in New York.
1815: William Henry Harrison, Duncan McArthur, and John Graham,
representing the United States, and the Delaware, Miami, Seneca,
Shawnee, and Wyandot tribes signed a treaty (7 Stat. 131) ending the
warfare in the area. The treaty was signed near Detroit at Spring Wells,
Michigan.
1865: A grand council of the formerly pro-Union and pro-Confederacy
Indians was held at Fort Smith, Arkansas. The newly appointed
commissioner of Indian affairs, Dennis N. Cooley, chaired the meeting.
Most of the Indians were told that they had forfeited their lands and
annuities by their traitorous support of the South. Each tribe had to
plead its case for mercy.
1867: According to army records, members of the First Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near the Silver River in Oregon. Two soldiers
were wounded. Twenty three Indians were killed and fourteen were
captured.
1868: Captain Henry Bankhead, commander of Fort Wallace, reported that
twenty-five Indians killed and scalped two citizens near Sheridan (near
modern Winona), Kansas. Indians also stole seventy-six horses and mules
from Clark’s wagon train on Turkey Creek.
1868: Lieutenant David Wallingford, Seventh Cavalry, arrived to help
fifty men with thirty-five wagons who had fought Indians for the last
four days at Cimmaron Crossing. Two men had been killed, and the Indians
escaped with seventy-five head of cattle. Five miles to the west, the
soldiers discovered the remnants of another wagon train. Fifteen men in
this train were burned to death.
1876: An advance guard under Captain Miles captured American Horse and
his band of Teton Sioux at Slim Buttes, South Dakota.
1872: Elements of Company E, Fifth Cavalry, were engaging hostile
Apaches at Date Creek in Arizona. Sergeant Frank E. Hill managed to
“secure the person of a hostile Apache Chief, although while holding the
Chief he is severely wounded in the back by another Indian.” For his
actions, Hill would be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
1877: Sixth Cavalry soldiers and some Indian scouts fought a group of
Indians near the San Francisco River in New Mexico. According to army
documents, twelve Indians were killed and thirteen were captured. The
fighting lasted through September 10.
1880: At Fort Keogh in eastern Montana, Big Road and 200 Sioux
surrendered.
1883: In Bismarck, the Northern Pacific Railroad celebrated the
completion of its transcontinental railroad line. The company invited
Sitting Bull, as a representative of the Indians, to make a speech to
welcome the dignitaries at the celebration. Sitting Bull, speaking
through an interpreter, instead said the whites were liars and thieves
and that he hated all of them, smiling throughout the entire speech. The
shocked interpreter, a young army officer, delivered the planned speech
instead of Sitting Bull’s real words. Sitting Bull was a great success
and received a standing ovation. Railroad officials asked Sitting Bull
to make additional speeches elsewhere based on his reception today.
1909: The confines of the Robinson Rancheria in California were
modified.
1960: The U.S. Solicitor sent Senator Mike Mansfield a memo. The
Solicitor had determined that county officials were not allowed to
charge four Indians of the Flathead Reservation personal property taxes.
The four men worked for the Montana Power Company at the federal Kerr
Dam on the reservation. The county had tried to collect taxes from the
men because, even though their job was on reservation land, it was not
reservation-related.
1970: The Ramah chapter of Navajo Indians in western New Mexico
established its own independent school board after the local public
school was closed.
1972: The Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, consisting of the Chippewa Indians
of the White Earth, Leech Lake, Fond du Lac, Bois Forte (Nett Lake), and
Grand Portage Reservations, voted to approve several amendments to their
constitution by average margins of 1,500–300.


September 9



September 9



September 9
1598: Juan de Oñate summoned the chiefs from the local Pueblos and made
them swear oaths of allegiance to god and the king of Spain. New Mexico
was divided into parishes by the Franciscans.
1836: Alexander Le Grand was appointed by Texas leader David Burnet as
Indian commissioner. He was charged with negotiating a peace treaty with
the Comanche and the Kiowa.
1837: Seminole Chief Philip was captured. He and a few family members
were transported to St. Augustine, Florida.
1849: The United States and the a few Navajo signed a treaty (9 Stat.
974). Mariano Martinez and Chapitone were among the Navajos who signed
the treaty.
1850: The “Robinson Treaty with the Ojibewa Indians of Lake Huron
Conveying Certain Lands to the Crown” was signed in Canada.
1868: Indians killed six people and burned a ranch between Fort Wallace
and Sheridan (near modern Winona) in western Kansas. The ranch house had
been burned two weeks earlier and was rebuilt.
1868: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians on the Tonto Plateau in Arizona. Two Indians were
killed and four were captured.
1871: Cherokee leader Stand Waite died.
1872: When Lone Wolf was asked to go to Washington to discuss the
government’s plans for the Kiowa Reservation, he insisted that he
council with Satanta and Big Tree first. They were in prison in Texas
for their participation in the fighting on the Butterfield Trail on May
18, 1871. After heated negotiations with Texas officials, the United
States got permission to take Satanta and Big Tree to St. Louis, a place
with few Indians, to meet Lone Wolf. They left the prison in Huntsville,
Texas.
1873: The confines of the Swinomish Reservation in Washington were
established by executive order.
1874: Captain Wyllys Lyman and sixty men from the Fifth Infantry were
escorting a supply wagon train for Colonel Nelson Miles at the Washita
River, Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), when they were attacked
by Indians. The soldiers remained barricaded for several days until
relief arrived from Camp Supply in the Panhandle of Indian Territory.
One soldier was killed; three other whites, including Lieutenant
Granville Lewis, were wounded during the fight. First Sergeant John
Mitchell, Sergeants William de Armond, Fred S. Hay, George Kitchen, John
Knox, William Koelpin, and Frederick Neilon, Corporals John James, John
J. H. Kelly, and William Morris, and Private Thomas Kelly, Company I,
would earn the Congressional Medal of Honor for “gallantry in action”
during this engagement. (Also recorded as happening on September 10.)
1876: Nez Perce Chief Joseph talked with Major Wood. The deadline to
surrender passed.
1876: Captain Anson Mills and men from the Second, Third, and Fifth
Cavalries and Fourth, Ninth, and Fourteenth Infantries, attacked
American Horse’s village of thirty-seven lodges at Slim Buttes, Dakota,
early this morning without warning. The entire village was captured. One
soldier was killed and seven were wounded. Five Indians were killed,
including American Horse. Numerous personal items from the soldiers of
the Seventh Cavalry were discovered in the camp, including a pair of
gloves belonging to Colonel Myles Keogh. After the initial morning
victory, Indians from nearby villages gathered and attacked the
soldiers, who had been reinforced by General George Crook’s main force.
Seven soldiers were wounded in the later fighting, including Lieutenant
A. H. Von Luettwitz. One white scout and one soldier were killed.
According to army reports, seven or eight Indians were killed in the
second fight. Sergeant John Kirkwood and Private Robert Smith, Company
M, would be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor because they
“bravely endeavored to dislodge some Sioux Indians secreted in a
ravine.”
1876: “Treaty 6 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The Plain and Wood
Cree Indians and Other Tribes of Indians at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt and
Battle River with Adhesions” was signed in Canada.
1877: Fleeing from the army through the Yellowstone area, the Nez Perce
Indians changed direction to Clark’s Fork Canyon.
1878: According to army reports, on this night eighty-nine Northern
Cheyenne men, 112 women, and 134 children abandoned their lodges and
escaped from the Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency at Fort Reno in central
Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). Dull Knife, Wild Hog, and
Little Wolf were some of the leaders of the escapees. They were
attempting to return to their old homelands to the north.
1881: Crazy Horse’s family took his body for burial.
1891: Two Kickapoo chiefs, chosen to accompany Americans to the capital
to obtain some money owed to them, were forced (in their words) to sign
an “agreement” by Secretary of the Interior John W. Noble. This
agreement sold the United States the Kickapoo “surplus lands” at thirty
cents per acre. Many forgeries and the signatures of dead Indians and
signatures of fictitious Indians were added to the agreement. Congress
approved the agreement on March 30, 1893.
1946: The constitution and bylaws of the Nisqually Indian Community of
the Nisqually Reservation Washington were approved by Assistant
Secretary of the Interior Girard Davidson.
1989: The Cherokee tribal council made a change in the official tribal
flag. A seven-pointed black star was added to the upper right corner as
a reminder of the Cherokees who lost their lives on the Trail of Tears.


September 10



September 10



September 10
1683: Susquehanna Chief Kekelappan sold William Penn half of his lands
between the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers.
1753: The Winchester Conference began with representatives of the
Delaware and Iroquois Indians.
1782: A force of forty British Rangers and 250 Indians attacked the fort
built in Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia). No soldiers were killed
on either side, but few Indians died in the fighting. Some historians
consider this the last battle of the Revolutionary War.
1791: This day marked the start of some major fort construction projects
in the Ohio Valley.
1864: Major E. W. Wynkoop met with Cheyenne and Arapaho chiefs,
including Black Kettle, to discuss the release of prisoners.
1866: Soldiers from the Eighteenth Infantry fought with a band of
Indians near Fort Phil Kearny in Dakota Territory through September 16.
The army reported that two enlisted men were killed and two were
wounded. The soldiers were led by Captain William J. Fetterman.
1867: According to army records, members of the Fourth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Live Oak Creek, Texas. No injuries were
reported on either side.
1868: Settlements along the Purgatory River were attacked by Indians.
Captain William Penrose and Third Infantry troops from Fort Lyon in
southeastern Colorado arrived at the scene and pursued the marauders.
The army caught up to the Indians at Rule Creek, Colorado. Four Indians
and two soldiers were killed in the fight. Five army horses died from
exhaustion due to the pursuit. Four miles east of Lake Station, Indians
shot at a stage.
1868: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near the Lower Aqua Fria in Arizona. Four Indians
were killed and three were captured.
1872: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Second
Cavalry between Beaver Creek and Sweet Water, Wyoming, according to
official army records. One Indian was wounded. The fighting lasted
through September 13.
1874: Captain Wyllys Lyman and sixty men from the Fifth Infantry were
escorting a supply wagon train for Colonel Nelson Miles at the Washita
River, Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), when they were attacked
by Indians. The soldiers remained barricaded for several days until
relief arrived from Camp Supply in the Panhandle of Indian Territory.
One soldier was killed; three other whites, including Lieutenant
Granville Lewis, were wounded during the fight. First Sergeant John
Mitchell, Sergeants William de Armond, Fred S. Hay, George Kitchen, John
Knox, William Koelpin, and Frederick Neilon, Corporals John James, John
J. H. Kelly, and William Morris, and Private Thomas Kelly, Company I,
would earn the Congressional Medal of Honor for “gallantry in action”
during this engagement. (Also recorded as happening on September 9.)
1877: Sixth Cavalry soldiers and some Indian scouts fought a group of
Indians near the San Francisco River in New Mexico. According to army
documents, twelve Indians were killed and thirteen were captured. The
fighting started on September 8.
1879: Settlers and soldiers fought a group of Indians near McEver’s
Ranch and Arroyo Seco, New Mexico. According to army documents, nine
citizens were killed.
1879: White River Ute Agent N. C. Meeker wrote to the governor of
Colorado requesting troops. Meeker believed the lives of settlers were
in grave danger. He requested that the governor, General John Pope, and
Colorado Senator Teller confer on the matter. Meeker wanted at least 100
troops to be sent immediately to his locale.
1885: According to a marker in the Fort Bowie cemetery in Arizona,
Geronimo’s two-year-old son Little Robe died.
I948: The assistant secretary of the interior had authorized an election
to approve a constitution and bylaws for the Organized Village of
Holikachuk, Alaska. It was passed by a vote of 21-0.
1967: An election to approve amendments to the constitution and bylaws
for the Kashia Band of Pomo Indians of the Stewarts Point Rancheria was
held. They were approved by a majority of the thirty-seven people
voting.
1974: An amendment was made to the Fort Berthold Reservation
constitution.
1982: Amendments 12, 13, and 14 to the constitution and bylaws of the
Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin were
approved and became effective.


September 11



September 11



September 11
1609: Explorer Henry Hudson arrived at the “Hudson” River.
1856: Lasting through September 17, the second Walla Walla conference
began.
1858: Colonel Miles, with five companies of soldiers and fifty Mexicans,
entered the Canyon de Chelly in northeastern Arizona. The Navajos had
not produced the Fort Defiance murderer of July 12, 1858. In fact, the
Navajos had tried to pass off a killed Mexican prisoner as the culprit.
The soldiers killed a few Navajos in the canyon. The soldiers camped in
the canyon that night. The Navajos launched an ineffectual attack from
the canyon walls. A captured Navajo convinced the other Navajos to stop
the attack.
1868: Indians stole eighty-one head of cattle at Lake Creek from Clarke
and Company hay contractors.
1868: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near the Rio Verde in Arizona. Five Indians were
killed.
1868: According to army records, members of the Seventh Cavalry and
Third Infantry, under Lieutenant Colonel Alfred Sully, fought with a
band of Indians near the Sand Hills in Indian Territory. The fighting
lasted through September 15. Three soldiers and twenty-two Indians were
killed. Five soldiers and twelve Indians were wounded.
1874: Two scouts and four soldiers, acting as couriers between Colonel
Nelson Miles and Major William Price, were attacked by Indians near the
Washita River in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). During a
two-day fight, four of the six were wounded, one mortally. Troops
rescued the survivors the next day. Sergeant Josiah Pennsyl, Company M,
Sixth Cavalry, would be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his
actions during the fighting.
1877: General Howard found the Nez Perce trail and joined Sturgis’s
forces.
1881: Because of his actions in a battle near Fort Apache, Private First
Class Will C. Barnes, Signal Corps, would eventually be awarded the
Congressional Medal of Honor for “bravery in action.”
1893: The territory of the Hoh Indian Reservation was set aside by an
executive order.


September 12



September 12



September 12
1609: Henry Hudson arrived at the Bay of New York.
1675: After Sunday services, English settlers were going from the
Deerfield meeting house to facilities in Stockwell. A group of Pocumtuck
attacked them, killing one man. The Pocumtuck quickly disappeared into
the surrounding countryside.
1675: In Maine, according to settlers’ records, the Abenaki attacked
John Wakely’s farmhouse in Falmouth. Seven people were killed; two were
taken captive.
1862: Little Crow wrote to Colonel Sibley again. He said he had been
treating his white prisoners kindly and wanted to know how they could
end the fighting. Sibley replied that not giving up the white captives
was not the way to peace.
1868: General Nichols, while traveling to Fort Reynolds in southeastern
Colorado, was attacked by Indians. His escort ran them off. The Indians
then stole eighty-five head of cattle near Bent’s Old Fort and four more
from a ranch near Point of Rocks.
1869: Troops acting as an escort to a wagon train skirmished with
Indians near Laramie Peak, Wyoming. One soldier was wounded and another
was killed.
1874: Major William Price and three troops of the Sixth Cavalry with a
few “mountain howitzers” battled a sizable group of Indians between the
Sweetwater and the Dry Fork of the Washita River in Texas. Two Indians
were reported killed and six wounded. Fourteen of the cavalry’s mounts
were killed or wounded. Twenty of the Indians’ horses were captured.
Army scouts Amos Chapman and William Dixon would be awarded the
Congressional Medal of Honor for “gallantry in action.” In a related
action, Private John Harrington, Company H, was transporting dispatches
from the battle scene when he and several other couriers were attacked
by 125 Indians. “He was severely wounded in the hip and unable to move.
He continued to fight, defending an exposed dying man.” For his actions,
Private Harrington would be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Private Peter Roth, Company A, Corporal Edward Sharpless, Company H,
Private George W. Smith, Company M, and Sergeant Zachariah Woodall,
Company I, would also earn the country’s highest award during the same
fight. Private Smith would succumb to his wounds the next day. This was
sometimes called the Buffalo Wallow Fight.
1878: Lieutenant H. S. Bishop, with thirty troopers and a few Shoshone
scouts, attacked a band of Bannock Indians on the Big Wind or the Dry
Fork of the Snake River southwest of Yellowstone Lake in Wyoming. One
Indian was killed and seven were captured during the fighting. The
captives said they were from the Boise Reservation and had escaped from
the fight on September 4, 1878, on Clark’s Fork with Colonel Miles.
Although the army reported eleven Indians killed, the captives said the
correct figure was twenty-eight. This was the last significant battle of
the Bannock War. According to an official government report, forty
whites and seventy-eight Indians were killed during the war.
1928: The secretary of the interior approved the allotment rolls of the
Mission Creek Band of Indians from Mission Creek, California, according
to their constitution.
1936: Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes authorized an election to
approve a constitution and bylaws for the Quileute Tribe of Washington.
The election was held on October 10, 1936.
1965: The assistant secretary of the interior had authorized an election
to approve an amendment to the constitution and bylaws of the Miccosukee
Tribe of Indians of Florida. Twenty-seven voted in favor, two voted
against.
1969: The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe of the Flathead
Reservation passed a resolution prohibiting the hunting or killing of
mountain sheep.


September 13



September 13



September 13
1700: According to some sources, a land-cession agreement was reached
between representatives of the Susquehannock Indians and Pennsylvania.
1759: The Battle of Quebec took place. The French lost.
1794: A force of 550 Kentucky and Tennessee militia led by Major James
Ore attacked the Chickamauga village of Nickajack on the Tennessee
River. Many women and children were captured. Seventy braves were
killed, including the village chief, The Breath. Ore’s forces torched
most of the village after the fighting.
1815: William Clark, Auguste Chouteau, and Ninian Edwards held a
conference at Portage des Sioux, Missouri (St. Charles County). They got
Missouri Sac and Foxes to promise not to join up with the Rock Island
Sacs or to fight the United States.
1868: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians on the Dragoon Fork of the Verde River in
Arizona. An unknown number of soldiers and Indians were killed,
wounded, or captured.
1871: Indians skirmished with a group of settlers near Tucson, Arizona,
according to official army records. Two settlers were killed.
1872: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Second
Cavalry between Beaver Creek and Sweet Water, Wyoming, according to
official army records. One Indian was wounded. The fighting started on
September 10.
1873: Part of the Ute Reservation went to the United States.
1877 First and Seventh Cavalry soldiers under Colonel S. D. Sturgis
fought a group of Nez Perce Indians near Canyon Creek west of Billings,
Montana. According to army documents, three soldiers and twenty-one
Indians were killed. Captain T. H. French and ten soldiers were wounded.
1878: Dull Knife and his Northern Cheyenne followers had left their
reservation in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). They were
heading back to their old homelands. They crossed the Cimarron River,
150 miles north of Fort Reno, near Turkey Springs in central Indian
Territory and established a camp in some canyons. A group of Arapaho
talked with Dull Knife and told him the nearby soldiers wanted them to
return to the reservation. Dull Knife refused, and the soldiers
attacked. The Indians had the best strategic positions and pinned down
the soldiers. After making their escape, the Cheyenne were pursued along
their entire northward journey.
1890: First Cavalry soldiers fought a group of Indians on the Tongue
River Agency in Montana. According to army documents, two Indians were
killed.
1984: Activist Dennis Banks surrendered.


September 14



September 14



September 14
1712: French King Louis XIV granted exclusive trade and governmental
rights in Louisiana for fifteen years to wealthy merchant Antoine
Crozat, Marquis de Chatel.
1726: According to some sources, a land-cession agreement was reached by
representatives of Great Britain and the Cayuga, Onondaga, and Seneca
Indians.
1755: Last month, Virginia Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed George
Washington commander in chief of all forces in Virginia. The governor
ordered him to establish his base of operations in northern Virginia in
Winchester. Today, Washington arrived in Winchester. The villagers were
either preparing for war with the local Indians, or they were in the
process of moving to a safer area. Next year, Washington would begin the
construction of Fort Loudoun in Winchester.
1758: British Major James Grant attacked the apparently lightly defended
French Fort Duquesne with 800 soldiers. However, the French had set a
trap by hiding a large force of soldiers and Indian warriors. The French
and Indians defeated the British, with Major Grant and 107 of his
soldiers being taken prisoner. All told, 270 British were killed and a
little more than forty were wounded in the fighting. The French and
Indian losses were substantially less.
1763: Seneca fought with a supply wagon train just south of Niagara as
part of Pontiac’s Rebellion. The train was carrying supplies from Fort
Schlosser to Fort Niagara. One source cited this as the worst defeat of
the war for the army.
1777: Spanish Governor Galvez issued an act in New Orleans. He ordered
the military and Spanish subjects to “respect the rights of these
Indians in the lands they occupy and to protect them in the possession
thereof.”
1779: General John Sullivan and his force of 4,500 American soldiers
continued their attack on suspected pro-British Indian villages in New
York. They struck Gathtsegwarohare on the Genesee River. After
destroying most of the village, Sullivan’s troops moved on to other
villages. In all of his battles since August, he lost only forty men.
1780: Creek and British forces under British Creek Indian Superintendent
Thomas Browne had captured Augusta, Georgia. A force of 500 Americans
attempted to retake the town. The Creeks sustained severe losses.
1814: A force of British soldiers and Red Stick Creek Indians led by
Captain George Woodbine attacked Mobile, Alabama. Although they had
four warships at their disposal, the American forces held out until the
British and Creek forces gave up the fight.

1816: A treaty (7 Stat. 148) ceded Cherokee lands in Muscle Shoals and
Great Bend areas of northern Alabama for $11,000 annual payments for ten
years. It was signed at the Chickasaw Council House.
1858: Colonel Miles had moved out of the Canyon de Chelly twelve miles
to an area where the Navajos kept their herds of sheep. Miles’s soldiers
had captured 6,000 of the sheep. The Navajos attacked Miles’s camp, but
it was only a minor engagement. The troops returned to the fort the next
day. There would continue to be minor skirmishes during the next several
months.
1859: Robert S. Neighbors had a great deal of respect for Indians. He
served as an Indian agent for the Republic of Texas and for the United
States. His compassion for the Indians made him an enemy to many Texans
who hated Indians. Neighbors was murdered for being an “Indian-lover” by
Edward Cornett at Fort Belknap.
1866: Soldiers from the First Cavalry fought with a band of Indians near
Camp Wilson in Oregon. The army reported that one Indian was killed and
one was captured.
1868: According to army records, members of the Ninth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians in the Horse Head Hills of Texas. One soldier was
wounded and two Indians were killed.
1869: According to army records, members of the Second Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Popo Agie, Wyoming. Two soldiers and seven
Indians were wounded. Two Indians were killed.
1869: James Camp and Private John Holt, Company K, Seventh Cavalry, were
killed by Indians near the Little Wind River, Wyoming. On the Popoagie
River, Wyoming, Lieutenant Charles Stambaugh and Troop D, Second
Cavalry, skirmished with Indians. Two soldiers and two Indians were
killed. Ten Indians were wounded in the fight.
1876: Fifth Cavalry soldiers fought some Indians on Owl Creek (Belle
Fourche River) in Dakota Territory. According to army documents, one
soldier was killed.
1878: Fourth Cavalry soldiers fought a group of Indians near Red Hill,
Indian Territory. According to army documents, one soldier was killed.
1961: An act (75 Stat. 505) was passed by Congress to “authorize the
exchange of lands for the Pueblo Indians. Title to lands acquired will
be in trust status.”
1970: An election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the San
Pasqual Band of Mission (Diegueno) Indians in the San Pasqual
Reservation was authorized by the acting assistant commissioner of
Indian affairs. The election was held on November 29, 1970.
1975: An amendment to the constitution and bylaws of the Manchester Band
of Pomo Indians of the Manchester Rancheria was approved in an election
by a vote of 60-4.
1989: The United States Post Office issued a Sitting Bull stamp.
Every: Jicarilla Apache fair (through September 15).


September 15



September 15



September 15
1655: Esopus Indians attacked New Amsterdam in sixty-four war canoes.
This retaliatory raid was for the killing of an Indian woman by a
settler for stealing peaches. It was called the Peach War by many, and
casualties were slight on both sides as the Dutch drove the Indians out
of the settlement. Leaving New Amsterdam, the Indians attacked Staten
Island and the Pavonia settlements in modern Jersey City, New Jersey.
There the casualties were considerably higher. Fifty settlers were
killed, and almost 100 were captured.
1797: The Seneca signed a treaty with Robert Morris and Jeremiah
Wadsworth on the Genesee River in Ontario County, New York, to get a
two-square-mile piece of the Tuscarora Reservation.
1830: Secretary of War John Eaton and John Coffee arrived at Dancing
Rabbit Creek to talk to the Choctaws about selling their lands and
moving west. They told the Choctaws that the federal government could
not stop state laws that required them to move. They also told the
Choctaws that if they resisted the white armies would outnumber them.
1858: The Butterfield Overland mail route began operation from St.
Louis, Missouri, and Memphis, Tennessee, through Fort Smith, Arkansas,
to San Francisco, California. Contrary to many story lines in film and
elsewhere, the mail was attacked by the Apaches only one time.
1868: Approximately 100 Indians attacked Tenth Cavalry troops led by
Captain George Graham on the Big Sandy Creek, Colorado. The troops
claimed eleven Indians killed and fourteen wounded while sustaining only
seven injuries themselves.
1868: According to army records, members of the Seventh Cavalry and
Third Infantry under Lieutenant Colonel Alfred Sully fought with a band
of Indians near the Sand Hills in Indian Territory. The fighting started
on September 11. Three soldiers and twenty-two Indians were killed. Five
soldiers and twelve Indians were wounded.
1869: Lieutenant J. H. Spencer, leading Company B, Fourth Infantry, was
attacked by 300 Indians near Whiskey Gap, Wyoming. One soldier was
captured and presumed dead.
1874: “Treaty 4 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The Cree and Saulteaux
Tribe of Indians at the Qu’appelle and Fort Ellice” was signed in
Canada.
1876: Troop F, Ninth Cavalry, under Captain Henry Carroll fought with
Indians in the Florida Mountains of New Mexico. One Indian was killed
and one soldier was wounded. Eleven head of livestock were recovered.
1884: Sitting Bull appeared at Eden Musee in New York City.
1903: By executive order, the Fort McDowell Indian Reservation was
established northeast of Phoenix, Arizona. It covered 24,680 acres and
was home to Yavapai, Mohave-Apache, and Apache Indians.
1976: An amendment to the constitution and bylaws of the Manzanita Band
of Mission Indians was ratified.


September 16



September 16



September 16
1684: Naumkeag Indian and son of former Sachem Wenepoykin, James
Quannapowit petitioned the English of Marblehead Massachusetts on July
14, 1684. He complained they were giving out lands that rightfully
belonged to him. A deed was finally signed by all parties in order for
the English to hold “rightful title” to the land.
1804: A Navajo war party attacked the village of Cebolleta in
northwestern New Mexico. The war party of 500–1,000 Navajos found the
village’s three-foot-thick, ten-foot-high wall difficult to breach.
After a four-day siege, with numerous casualties on both sides, the
Navajos left the area. The thirty Spanish families who had settled the
village in 1800 saw many more raids in the future.
1815: The Iowa signed a peace treaty (7 Stat. 136) at Portage des Sioux
(modern St. Charles County, Missouri). The United States was represented
by William Clark, Ninian Edwards, and Auguste Choteau.
1850: In a letter to the president of the United States, Senator John
Fremont stated Spanish law gave Indians rights to their lands. He felt
the United States had to enact some laws to revoke the Indians’ rights.
Under the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, the United States agreed to
recognize Spanish land titles in the newly acquired California.
1867: According to army records, members of the Fourth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Fort Inge, Texas. No injuries were reported
on either side.
1867: The Tenth Cavalry fought with a group of Indians near the Salinas
River in Kansas. Two civilians were killed and one soldier was wounded,
according to army records.
1869: According to army records, members of the Ninth Cavalry and the
Forty-First Infantry fought with a band of Indians near Salt Fork of the
Brazos River in Texas. Three soldiers were wounded.
1878: According to a report by Lieutenant Colonel William Lewis of Fort
Dodge in southwestern Kansas, Dull Knife and his 300-plus followers had
been seen raiding local ranches near Bluff Creek, Indian Territory
(present-day Oklahoma).
1879: Tenth Cavalry and Twenty-Fifth Infantry soldiers fought a group of
Indians in the Van Horn Mountains in western Texas. According to army
documents, no casualties were reported.
1879: The secretary of war ordered the military to send troops to the
White River Ute Agency to protect the local (white) inhabitants and to
arrest the Indians instigating troubles in the region.
1893: About 100,000 people participated in the run for land in the
recently purchased Cherokee Strip of Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma). The Cherokees were pressured into selling the land to the
federal government.
1974: A U.S. court dismissed charges against Dennis Banks and Russell
Means for their activities at the Wounded Knee, South Dakota,
occupation. The judge stated that the Federal Bureau of Investigation
had “lied and suborned purjury” during the trial.
1974: Raymond Lightfoot, area director of the Minneapolis office of the
Bureau of Indian Affairs, authorized an election for an amendment to the
constitution of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians of Minnesota.


September 17



September 17



September 17
1718: According to some sources, a land-cession agreement was reached by
representatives of the Delaware Indians and Pennsylvania.
1778: The Delaware signed a treaty (7 Stat. 13). Delaware Principal
Chief Koquethagechton (White Eyes) was appointed as a colonel at the
treaty signing. He worked to see the Delaware Nation become the
fourteenth American state. The treaty was signed in Pittsburgh by three
chiefs: White Eyes, The Pipe, and John Killbuck, as well as Andrew and
Thomas Lewis.
1799: Commissioners had established a camp at the confluence of the
Flint and the Chattahoochee Rivers in Creek territory. They were there
to eventually draw a treaty line through Creek lands. During the summer
many Creeks had visited the camp to complain of the land cession. Chief
Hopoheilthle Micco and some Tallassee followers attacked the camp. They
stole supplies and insulted the commissioners. Later, Creek chiefs beat
the Tallassee chief to death for his actions.
1812: After a series of raids into Georgia, local militia led by Colonel
Daniel Newnan entered Spanish held Florida looking for Seminoles. They
started a running battle with the Alachua Band of Seminoles led by King
Payne. This fight lasted until the militia was reinforced on October 11.
1818: Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur, representing the United States,
signed a treaty (7 Stat. 178) with the Ottawa, Seneca, Shawnee, and
Wyandot Tribes on St. Mary’s River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The
treaty covered reservation boundaries and annuities.
1836: According to a treaty (7 Stat. 511), the Missouri Sac and Fox and
Iowa tribes were given the following lands: “the small strip of land on
the south side of the Missouri River, lying between the Kickapoo
northern boundary line and the Grand Nemahaw River, and extending from
the Missouri back and westwardly with the said Kickapoo line and the
Grand Nemahaw, making 400 sections, to be divided between the said Iowas
and Missouri Sacs and Foxes; the upper half to the Iowas, the lower half
to the Sacs and Foxes.” Years later, much of this land was ceded back to
the United States.
1851: The Fort Laramie Treaty (15 Stat. 635) was signed by more tribes.
The area mentioned eventually covered 1,382.5 square miles and was
occupied by the Arikara, Gros Ventre, and Mandan Indians. It was called
the Fort Berthold Reservation.
1858: Colonel George Wright met with some Coeur d’Alene chiefs at the
Sacred Heart Mission to sign the first of a series of peace and
friendship treaties.
1868: In Colorado, Brevet Colonel G. A. Forsyth (Ninth Cavalry) and
fifty scouts were following the trail of Indians who had been marauding
near Sheridan City. As they approached the “Arickaree” Fork of the
Republican River, they were attacked by 700 Indians. The soldiers moved
to an island that was 125 yards long by fifty yards wide. The army
claimed that it killed thirty-five Indians while losing only six,
including Lieutenant F. H. Beecher and surgeon Moore. Forsyth and his
men lived on horseflesh until September 25, when a relief column of
buffalo soldiers (black troops) arrived. Roman Nose died in the
fighting. This was called the Battle of Beecher’s Island by the
soldiers.
1868: Indians attacked and burned Ellis Station in Kansas, killing one
station employee in the process. The Saline settlements were attacked
again. The Indians were driven off by Seventh Cavalry troops. Three
miles from Fort Bascom in eastern New Mexico, Indians killed a herder
and stole his thirty mules. Troops from the fort pursued the Indians for
125 miles but could not catch them.
1868: According to army records, settlers fought with a group of Indians
near Fort Bascom, New Mexico. One settler was killed and one was
wounded.
1869: Indians stole a some livestock, and soldiers from Fort Stanton in
central New Mexico pursued them. The soldiers followed a trail to an
Indian village, which they subsequently destroyed. In the process, three
Indians were wounded. No one was killed. At Point of Rocks, Wyoming, a
stagecoach was attacked and the driver was killed. On Twin Creek in
Wyoming, soldiers escorting the mail were attacked and pursued into the
mountains by Indians.
1877: Colonel Miles received orders to cut off the Nez Perce’s attempt
to reach Canada.
1878: Indian scouts for the army fought a group of Indians near Bear
Creek, New Mexico. According to army documents, one soldier and two
Indians were killed.
1879: According to a report by Major Albert Morrow, Ninth Cavalry,
Indians fought settlers in the Black Range near Hillsboro, New Mexico.
Hostile Indians killed ten citizens and seized all of their livestock.
1884: The Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas, was dedicated for
educating Indian youth.
1966: According to newspaper story in the Washington Post, “A flaming
meteorite lit up the skies across the north central United States last
night, frightening hundreds of persons who saw it before it broke up in
bits of smoking debris over northern Indiana.” The meteorite caused a
few small fires as well. According to another source, “On New York
State’s official ‘Indian Day,’ Sept. 17, 1966, the Hopi delegation
journeyed to the Tuscarora Reserve to join the assembled seventeen
Indian Tribes and guests from all over the world. Many had asked for a
sign and several expressed that hope audibly. It came that evening about
8:35 in the form of a tremendous rose-colored fireball lighting the
scene as though by day, streaking across the sky above them.”
1975: The area director of the Sacramento area office of the Bureau of
Indian Affairs ratified an amendment to the constitution and bylaws of
the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester Rancheria.
1975: Commissioner of Indian Affairs Morris Thompson ratified an
amendment to the constitution of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe,
consisting of the Chippewa Indians of the White Earth, Leech Lake, Fond
du Lac, Bois Forte (Nett Lake), and Grand Portage Reservations.
1975: Commissioner of Indian Affairs Morris Thompson ratified a
constitution and bylaws for the Sauk-Suiattle Indian Tribe.


September 18



September 18



September 18
524: Maya King Kan B’alam I (Great Sun Snake Jaguar) was born.
Eventually, he ruled over Palenque (Mexico).
1675: Following several raids by King Philip’s Indians, Deerfield, in
central Massachusetts, was abandoned. Eighty residents under Captain
Lathrop, from Ipswich in eastern Massachusetts, rode over to Deerfield
to harvest several fields of grain. On their way home, the Europeans
stopped for a rest at a brook. They were attacked by several hundred
Indians, who had been following them for some time. By the time a nearby
militia could come to the rescue, sixty-eight of the settlers had been
killed.
1759: The French surrendered Quebec.
1813: After the massacre at Fort Mims, Alabama, by the Red Stick Creeks,
word of the Creek Uprising spread. In Nashville, Tennessee, Governor
William Blount called on the state legislature to “teach these barbarous
sons of the woods their inferiority.” Cries for vengeance rang
throughout the area. In a few weeks, Andrew Jackson began his campaign
against the Creeks.
1823: Thirty-one Seminoles signed a treaty with the United States (7
Stat. 224) on Moultrie Creek in Florida. Six chiefs were given large
estates to get them to agree to the treaty. Those chiefs were: John
Blunt, Eneah Emathla, Emathlochee, Tuski Hadjo, Econchattemicco, and
Mulatto King. The Seminoles gave up lands north of Tampa Bay and
returned runaway black slaves. They received an annuity of $5,000. The
lands set aside for the Seminoles were poor at best. The Americans were
represented by James Gadsden.
1830: The Choctaw conference at Dancing Rabbit Creek officially began,
with Peter P. Pitchlynn serving as chairman of the Choctaw participants.
Greenwood le Flore demanded a larger delegation of Northern Choctaws.
After two weeks of arguments, many of the Choctaws went home. An
agreement was reached to send trusted people west to check out the new
lands. A census of the Choctaw, taken this month, showed the population
to be 19,554. (See September 27, 1830.)
1833: Choctaws still in the southern Mississippi District held a council
and decided they would not move to the Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma).
1851: One in a series of treaties with California Indians was signed at
Camp Colus and Camp Cosumnes. The treaties were designed to reserve
lands for the Indians and to protect them from Europeans.
1862: General James H. Charlatan assumed command of the Department of
New Mexico. He was sent there to fight the Confederate forces and the
hostile Indians.
1864: Confederate Cherokees, led by Brigadier General Stand Watie, and
other Confederate forces captured a Union wagon train in modern Mayes
County, Oklahoma. This supply shipment had enough food and other goods
for 2,000 soldiers and was valued at $1.5 million. This was the last
significant Civil War engagement in Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma).
1873: Captain James Egan and Troops K and E, Second Cavalry, attacked a
band of Sioux Indians on the North Laramie River. The troops seized
eighteen horses and mules.
1876: Indian scouts fought some Indians in the caves east of Verde,
Arizona. According to army documents, five Indians were killed and
thirteen were captured.
1879: Captain Byron Dawson and two troops from the Ninth Cavalry found
and attacked Victorio and approximately 140 Warm Springs Apaches at the
source of the Las Animas River in New Mexico. Two more troops of cavalry
arrived under the command of Captain Charles Beyer, but the army was
forced to withdraw. Five soldiers, one civilian, and two Navajo scouts
were killed by the Apaches. Second Lieutenant Matthias W. Day would earn
the Congressional Medal of Honor for retrieving a wounded soldier while
under heavy fire. Sergeant John Denny, Company C, would also win the
Congressional Medal of Honor for the same actions. Second Lieutenant
Robert T. Emmet would also be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor
for his actions in today’s battle.
1975: An amendment was made to the constitution and bylaws of the
Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester Rancheria.
1978: The boundaries of the Pascua Yaqui Indian Reservation were
established by an act of Congress (92 Stat. 712).
1980: A base membership roll was established for the Pascua Yaqui
Indians.


September 19



September 19



September 19
1737: Today was the start of the walking for the Walking Purchase from
the Delaware. The walkers were Solomon Jennings, Edward Marshall, and
James Yates. The walkers barely stayed below a run. By the next day at
noon, Edward Marshall had covered sixty-five miles. Yates, who passed
out from the exertion, died three days later. Jennings gave up the first
day and was sickly for the rest of his life. Many Indians complained the
“walk” did not live up to the spirit of the agreement.
1827: At Fort St. Joseph (modern Niles, Michigan), a treaty (7 Stat.
305) was signed by Lewis Cass and the Potawatomi Indians. Tribal lands
were ceded, old boundaries were redrawn, and the Indians received an
annuity.
1845: A peace conference was held between representatives of Texas and
local Indians.
1867: In an effort to end Red Cloud’s War, a new peace commission came
to the end of the Union Pacific tracks near Platte City, Nebraska. The
commissioners included General William Tecumseh Sherman, Indian
Commissioner Nathaniel Taylor, Indian Agent William Harney, Indian Agent
John Sanborn, General Alfred Terry, and a few others. The Indians were
represented by Man Afraid, Pawnee Killer, Turkey Leg, Swift Bear,
Standing Elk, Big Mouth, Spotted Tail, and several others. The Indians
told of the problems they were having due to people invading their
lands. Later, the commissioners told the Indians that the “Great Father”
wanted them to move to reservations on the Missouri and Cheyenne Rivers.
The Indians were not happy with this suggestion. The Indians had their
own names for most of the commissioners: “Great Warrior” Sherman, “One
Star Chief” Terry, “White Whiskers” Harney, and “Black Whiskers”
Sanborn. The conference ended soon, and the commissioners asked the
Indians to meet them at Fort Laramie in southeastern Wyoming in
November.
1867: According to army records, members of the Fifth Cavalry Infantry
fought with a band of Indians near Walker’s Creek thirty-five miles west
of Fort Harker, Kansas. One soldier was killed and three were wounded.
Two Indians were killed in the fighting.
1871: Indians attacked a small detachment of troops near Foster Springs
and the Red River, Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). One soldier
was wounded, three Indians were wounded, and two Indians were killed,
according to army files.
1872: Fifty Comanche Indians were attacked by an army patrol consisting
of one sergeant, seven privates, and two Tonkawa Indian scouts in Jones
County, Texas. According to the army report, one Mexican chief was
killed and eleven stolen horses were recovered.
1879: Navajo army Indian scouts fought a group of Indians in the
Miembres Mountains of New Mexico. According to army documents, two
scouts were killed.
1936: An order passed on February 14, 1913, which allowed the
homesteading of certain lands in the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in
the Dakotas, was modified.
1974: Bonner’s Ferry Kootenai Band, sixty-seven members strong, declared
war on the United States. They demanded payments for seized lands,
hunting, fishing, and water rights, and a 128,000-acre reservation.
1985: The Lac Du Flambeau Tribal Council enacted by referendum the
“Reservation Water and Shoreline Protection and Enhancement Ordinance.”
Every: Laguna Pueblo festival.


September 20



September 20



September 20
1654: A deed for Indian land was recorded in New England. It said, “This
writing witnesseth that I Ratiocan Sagamor of Cow Harbor, have sold unto
Samuel Mayo, Daniel Whitehead and Peter Wright my neck of land which
makes the east side of Oyster Bay, and the west side of Cow Harbor on
the north side bounded with the sound, called by the Indians Camusett.”
1782: Lieutenant Richard Johnston and the York County militia were
ordered to go to Pittsburgh from their patrol area in Bedford County,
Pennsylvania. They joined a force led by General Hand against the
Indians near Pittsburgh.
1816: A treaty (7 Stat. 150) signed by the Chickasaw paid them $16,500 a
year for ten years for lands on both sides of the Tennessee River and in
the Great Bend area.
1818: Lewis Cass, representing the United States, signed a treaty (7
Stat. 180) with members of the Wyandot Tribe on the St. Mary’s River on
the Indiana-Ohio border. The treaty involved the release of property in
Michigan.
1822: Lakota Chief Red Cloud (Makhpiya-Luta) was born.
1828: Lewis Cass and Pierre Menard, representing the United States, and
the Potawatomi Nation signed a treaty (7 Stat. 317) at Fort St. Joseph
(modern Niles, Michigan). Land near Lake Michigan is ceded for an
increase in the tribe’s annuity.
1836: Lieutenant Colonel John F. Lane, 690 Creek warriors, and ninety
soldiers boarded a transport from Alabama en route to Tampa Bay,
Florida, to fight the Seminoles. They reached Fort Drane on October 19.
1858: Camp Walbach was established near Cheyenne Pass. It was in the
southeastern corner of Wyoming.
1866: Soldiers from the Eighteenth Infantry fought with a band of
Indians near Fort C. F. Smith in Montana. The army reported that one
officer and one enlisted man were killed.
1867: According to army records, members of the Fourth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Devil’s River in Texas. One Indian was
killed.
1869: According to army records, members of the Ninth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near the Brazos River in Texas. One soldier was
wounded. The fighting lasted through the next day.
1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the Second Cavalry near Fort
Fetterman, Wyoming, according to army documents. No casualties were
reported.
1874: According to his citation for the Congressional Medal of Honor,
“Seminole Negro Adam Paine for Gallantry on September 20th [1874] when
attacked by a hugely superior party of Indians. This man is a scout of
great courage.” Most sources listed this as happening on September 26.
1875: The United States wanted the Black Hills. The president sent out a
commission to negotiate the issue. The U.S. representatives included
Iowa Senator William Allison, General Alfred Terry, trader John Collins,
and missionary Samuel Hinman. The meeting was held on the White River
between the Spotted Tail and Red Cloud Agencies in Dakota. When the
commissioners arrived, they were astounded by the number of Indians
camping in the immediate area. It was estimated there were more than
20,000 Sioux, Arapaho, and Cheyenne. The commissioners had an escort of
120 troops from nearby Fort Robinson in northwestern Nebraska. As the
conference started, thousands of Indian warriors appeared and rode
around the commissioners in a dramatic show of force. After the
commissioners stated their interest in the mineral rights to the Black
Hills, a representative of Red Cloud (who refused to attend) asked for
an adjournment for a few days so the Indians could council among
themselves. The commissioners agreed to return on September 23. The
United States named these representatives the Allison Commission.
1875: “Treaty 5 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The Saulteaux and
Swampy Cree Tribes of Indians at Beren’s River and Norway House with
Adhesions” was signed in Canada.
1922: An act (42 Stat. 857) was passed by Congress. It was to “allow
lands reserved for schools and Agency purposes and all other unallotted
land on the Fort Peck and the Blackfeet Reservations to be leased for
mining purposes.”
1950: Assistant Secretary of the Interior William Warne authorized an
election for the adoption of a constitution and bylaws for the Ponca
Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. The election was held on September 20,
1950.
1987: Pope John Paul II visited Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories.
Called “Yahtita” (Priest of Priests) in the Dene language, his service
was translated into Cree, Dene, and Slavey.


September 21



September 21



September 21
1638: The Treaty of Hartford was signed. After losing their battle with
the English and their Indians allies, the Pequot surrendered. The
surviving members of the tribe were given as servants to the Indian
allies of the English.
1721: According to some sources, the Tuscarora set out to nearby
European settlements in preparation for the onset of their attacks the
next day.
1753: According to some reports, an agreement to return prisoners was
reached by representatives of the British in Massachusetts and the
Penobscot Indians.
1866: Soldiers from the Eighteenth Infantry fought with a band of
Indians on the Tongue River in Dakota Territory. The army reported that
two enlisted men were wounded.
1869: According to army records, members of the Ninth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near the Brazos River in Texas. One soldier was
wounded. The fighting started the day before.
1878: Captains Joseph Rendlebrock and Charles Morse, with 150 soldiers
and fifty local volunteers, finally found part of Dull Knife’s Cheyenne.
The two forces fought on Sand Creek, south of the Arkansas River,
sometime after sunset. The Indians managed to escape.
1879: Based on the order issued by the secretary of war on September 16,
1879, Major T. T. Thornburgh, Troops D and F, Fifth Cavalry, Troop E,
Third Cavalry, and Company E, Fourth Infantry, left Fort Fred Steele in
southern Wyoming en route to the White River Agency in Colorado. This
force was approximately 200 strong.
1904: Chief Joseph (Hinmaton-yalatkit or Hein-mot too-ya-la-kekt) died.
1936: The secretary of the interior authorized an election for a
constitution and bylaws for the Covelo Indian Community of the Round
Valley Reservation in California. The election was held on November 7,
1936.


September 22



September 22



September 22
1528: Having completed five boats two days earlier, Panfilo de Narvaez
loaded the remaining 242 men of his expedition and left to search for
his sailing ships. They had been pursued by Apalachee Indians for some
time. Most of Narvaez’s force was lost at sea. Cabeza de Vaca landed on
Galveston Island in Texas on November 6, 1528.
1711: The Tuscarora Indians, under Chief Hencock, joined the Coree,
Pamlico, Machapunga, and Bear River Indians in an attack on the white
settlements on the Trent and Pamlico Rivers in North Carolina. Almost
130 white adults and half that many children were killed. The war sprang
from white settlement in Indian lands and Indian retaliations. A Swiss
promoter, Baron Christoph von Graffenried, ordered the Indians removed
when he discovered them on lands he had obtained from the Crown at New
Bern in western North Carolina.
1784: Today marked the first run-in between a Russian settlement in
Alaska and the local inhabitants.
1861: A series of horse races, with bets being placed by soldiers and
Navajos, took place outside Fort Fauntleroy. A dispute arose during the
third race. The Indians said it should be run again, but the soldiers
took their winnings and went into the fort. The fort was closed and the
Indians were told to stay out. As one Navajo tried to enter the fort, a
shot rang out and the Indian was killed. Pandemonium ensued, and some
soldiers began attacking the Navajos outside the fort. According to army
records, a little over a dozen Navajos were killed during the Horse Race
Fight.
1866: An executive order established the Shoalwater Bay Indian
Reservation in Washington State.
1871: Indians attacked and killed two men who were herding livestock
near Fort Sill in southern Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). The
Indians escaped with fifteen head of livestock.
1877: Treaty Number 7 was signed by the Canadian government and
representatives of the Blackfeet, Blood, Piegan, Sarcee, and Stoney
Bands in Alberta.
1885: Army Indian scouts under Captain Wirt Davis fought with a group of
Indians in the Teres Mountains of Mexico. According to army documents,
one scout and one Indian were killed. One scout and two Indians were
wounded.


September 23



September 23



September 23
1519: Hernán Cortés and his army arrived at the gates of the Mexican
city of Tlascala. A large crowd turned out to see the Spaniards.
1730: Seven Cherokee representatives in London, England, signed Articles
of Agreement that established a formal alliance with England for the
next fifty years. This gave the English exclusive trade rights with the
Cherokees and made the Cherokees military allies. The Cherokees were led
by Chiefs Oukah-ulah and Attakullaculla (Little Carpenter).
1761: According to newspaper reports, Cherokee Chief Attakullaculla
(Little Carpenter) signed a peace treaty with English Governor Bull.
This ended fighting that had been going on for almost two years in
Charlestown, South Carolina.
1805: Pike bought land for Fort Snelling.
1839: The Cherokee Nation’s supreme court was established.
1842: In a public meeting in Champoeg in the Oregon country, Elija White
told the crowd that he had been appointed as the official U.S. Indian
agent in Oregon.
1853: Major Earl Van Dorn had Camp Radziminski built as a supply base
for the army’s efforts against hostile local Indians. It was on the
Otter Creek in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). It was used off
and on for the next seven years.
1858: Yakama Chief Owhi rode in unescorted to meet with Colonel George
Wright. Owhi hoped to save his son from being killed for his part in the
recent fighting in the Pacific Northwest. Owhi was unsuccessful in his
efforts and was placed under arrest.
1862: Approximately 700 Santee Sioux under Little Crow engaged in a
fight at Wood Lake, Minnesota. They faced Colonel Henry Sibley and
approximately 1,500 soldiers.
1867: According to army records, members of the Fifth Infantry fought
with a band of Indians nine miles west of Cimarron Crossing, Kansas, on
the Arkansas River. One soldier was killed, and Lieutenant Ephraim
Williams was wounded.
1869: Elements of the Eighth Cavalry had been fighting hostile Indians
at Red Creek, Arizona. For “gallantry in action” today, Privates George
Ferrari and John Walker and Sergeant Charles D. Harris, Company D, would
be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
1869: After a long chase, soldiers from Fort Cummings in southwestern
New Mexico caught a band of Indians with stolen horses. The troopers
retrieved thirty of the mounts.
1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry and some
Indian scouts near Hardscrabble Creek in Arizona, according to army
documents. Fourteen Indians were killed and five were captured.
1875: As the Black Hills conference was reconvened, Red Cloud was now
present. No Indians were interested in parting with their sacred “Maha
Sopa”—the Black Hills. Before Red Cloud could speak, a band of 300 of
Crazy Horse’s warriors rushed in on horseback. Crazy Horse’s
representative, Little Big Man, exclaimed he would kill any chief who
agreed to give away the Black Hills. Although the Sioux police moved
Little Big Man away from the commissioners, the commissioners realized
that most of those present agreed that the Black Hills would not be
given away. The commissioners decided to return to Fort Robinson in
northwestern Nebraska.
1877: The Nez Perce reached the Missouri River and Cow Island Landing.
The landing was guarded by Sergeant William Molchert and a small
detachment of twelve Seventh Cavalry soldiers and four civilians. This
was north of what is today Winifred, Montana. According to army
documents, one soldier and two volunteers were killed.
1918: Under authority of an act of Congress (34 Stat. 325–326), an
executive order was issued that extended the trust period for ten years
on allotments to the Iowa Indians in Kansas.
1954: Canadian Indians went to court over tariff issues.


September 24



September 24



September 24
1676: Abenaki Indians attacked settlers in Wells, Maine, near the New
Hampshire border. Three settlers were killed before the Indians retired.
1819: Lewis Cass negotiated a treaty (7 Stat. 203) for the United States
with the Chippewa. For $1,000 a year, the services of a blacksmith, and
provisions, the Chippewa gave up a large section of land. The treaty was
signed in Saginaw, Michigan.
1829: George Vashon, representing the United States, and the Delaware
Indians signed a treaty (7 Stat. 327) at the St. Mary’s River on the
Indiana-Ohio border. The Delaware gave up lands along the White River in
exchange for land along the Missouri and Kansas Rivers. The Delaware
also received an annuity.
1853: Command of Fort Phantom Hill north of Abilene, Texas, changed
hands from Lieutenant Colonel Carlos A. Waite to Major H. H. Sibley. The
fort was often visited by the local Comanche, Lipan-Apaches, Kiowa, and
Kickapoo.
1858: Qualchan, son of Yakama Chief Owhi, rode into Colonel George
Wright’s camp. Qualchan was wanted for what the settlers considered
murder for his part in recent fighting. Qualchan was taken into custody
and later hanged.
1862: After realizing the futility of continuing to fight Colonel
Sibley’s troops, Little Wolf decided to speak to his Santee Sioux
followers. Little Wolf could not understand how they lost the battle the
day before. He still believed the Sioux were brave and the soldiers were
weak. He felt betrayed. Today, he and Shakopee, Medicine Bottle, and
their followers left to travel west. Many other Santee surrendered to
Colonel Sibley.
1867: According to army records, members of the Thirty-Seventh Infantry
fought with a band of Indians near Nine Mile Ridge, Kansas. One soldier
was wounded.
1868: Representing the United States, W. J. Cullen, commissioner, and
James Tufts, secretary of Montana Territory, acting governor, and
superintendent of Indian affairs, signed a treaty with the “Shoshones,
Bannacks, and Sheepwaters.” One of the signers was Chief Tendoy of the
Lemhi.
1869: After Indians raided Mexican ranches near Fort Bayard in
southwestern New Mexico, troopers followed the Indians to their mountain
village. In the fight there, three Indians were wounded. The soldiers
destroyed the village and its contents.
1875: “Treaty 5 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The Saulteaux and
Swampy Cree Tribes of Indians at Beren’s River and Norway House with
Adhesions” was signed in Canada.
1877: Major Ilges sighted the Nez Perce. Miles’s force was at the
Missouri River.
1946: The acting commissioner of Indian affairs had authorized an
election to establish a constitution and bylaws for the Sisseton
Wahpeton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota. It was approved by a vote of
300-146.
1970: The acting commissioner of Indian affairs authorized an election
to establish a constitution and bylaws for the Winnemucca Shoshone
Indian Colony of Nevada. The election was held on December 12, 1970.
1973: Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Interior W. L. Rogers ratified
an election by the Nooksack Indian Tribe of Washington for a
constitution and bylaws.
1973: An election that approved an amendment to the constitution and
bylaws for the Sokaogon Chippewa Community of Wisconsin was ratified by
Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Interior W. L. Rogers. The election
was held on July 19, 1973.
1988: A “Disenrollment Procedure” was added to the constitution of the
Pechanga Indian Reservation–Temecula Band of Luiseno Mission Indians.


September 25



September 25



September 25
1539: Hernando de Soto’s expedition built a bridge to cross the Suwannee
River.
1675: The first of several attacks by Indians on the settlements on Cape
Neddick, near York, Maine, began.
1714: The five Iroquois Nations sent the governor of New York a letter.
They stated that the Tuscarora had joined the Iroquois Confederacy. Long
ago, they had moved away. Now, they had returned.
1793: Near Knoxville, Tennessee, a group of around 300 Chickamauga,
including Captain Bench, Doublehead, and John Watts, attacked Alexander
Cavett’s fort. Cavett and three other men were guarding ten women and
children. After a few Chickamauga were killed, John Watts called for a
parley. He promised not to kill the settlers if they surrendered.
Finding their situation hopeless, the settlers gave up and opened the
fort. Against the wishes of Bench and Watts, Doublehead killed all of
the settlers except one boy saved by Watts. The boy met his own death a
few days later by another angry Indian.
1868: On September 17, Brevet Colonel Forsyth and fifty scouts were
attacked by 700 Indians. Two scouts escaped to Fort Wallace in western
Kansas to get help. Brevet Colonel H. C. Bankhead and 100 men of the
Fifth Cavalry, along with Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Louis Carpenter’s
company from the Tenth Cavalry, arrived to relieve Forsyth. Carpenter
was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions. General
Luther Bradley, from the Department of the Platte River, also arrived to
help.
1872: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry
in Muchos Canyon on the Santa Maria River in Arizona, according to
official army records. Forty Indians were killed.
1877: A group of local volunteers under Major Guido Ilges fought a band
of Nez Perce Indians near Cow Creek Canyon, Montana. According to army
documents, one volunteer was killed and two Nez Perce were wounded.
1879: The 200 men under Major T. T. Thornburgh arrived at Fortification
Creek, Colorado, en route to the White River Agency. Their mission was
to protect the local settlers and arrest hostile Indians. Thornburgh’s
thirty-man infantry company stayed at this location and established a
base camp for Major Thornburgh’s expedition.
1919: The Muskeg Lake Cree voted to sell 8,920 acres of land in
Saskatchewan.
1935: The constitution and bylaws of the Fort Belknap Indian Community
of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in Montana were adopted.
1975: The first Indian prayer was offered in the U.S. Senate.
1975: The commissioner of Indian affairs authorized an election for a
constitution for Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute Tribe of the Benton Paiute
Reservation in California. The election was held on November 22, 1975.


September 26



September 26



September 26
1675: Troops under Virginia Colonel John Washington and Maryland Major
Thomas Trueman surrounded the main base of the Susquehannock Indians.
They were there to determine whether these Indians were responsible for
attacking colonial settlements. Trueman called out the Susquehannock for
a conference under a flag of truce. Five chiefs came out of their
fortified position to talk. They denied being involved in the attacks.
Trueman had them led away and killed. Trueman got off with a minor fine
from the Maryland assembly for this act.
1706: Miskouaki, an Ottawa from Mackinaw, met with the Marquis de
Vaudreuil. He told him that the Miami and the Ottawa had been fighting
each other near Detroit.
1760: Because of the recent fighting with British forces, more than
2,000 Cherokees met in Nequassee (modern Franklin, North Carolina) to
hear Chiefs Oconostota and Ostenaco talk of “burying the hatchet.” It
was agreed that the fighting should end. The British still wanted to
fight in order to avenge their losses at Fort Loudoun.
1777: Early this morning, Captain William Foreman and his company of
thirty-four militia left Wheeling, Virginia, to patrol for Indians along
Grave Creek. Following the creek, the militia was ambushed by forty
Wyandot. Twenty-six of the militia, including Foreman, were killed in
the fighting.
1833: In Chicago, George Porter and the “United Pottawatomies,” Ottawa,
and Chippewa signed a treaty (7 Stat. 431), whereby they ceded
approximately 5 million acres of land in Illinois and Wisconsin for land
west of the Mississippi River.
1840: On the Creek Reservation in Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma), eventual Principal Chief Pleasant Porter (Talof Harjo) was
born.
1842: The Nez Perce missionaries were reorganized.
1844: The first issue of the Cherokee Advocate was published in
Tahlaquah, Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). This was the second
newspaper published by the Cherokee Nation. It featured articles in both
Cherokee and English.
1867: Approximately 110 members of the First Cavalry, Twenty-Third
Infantry, and fifteen Warm Springs Indian scouts (Boise Indian scouts)
fought with approximately seventy-five Paiute, thirty Pit River, and a
few Modoc Indians in Infernal Canyon near Pitt River (south of modern
Alturas, California). Lieutenant Colonel George Crook was commanding the
military forces. Chief Si-e-ta led the combined Indian force. One
officer, six soldiers, and one civilian were killed in this three-day
fight. Eleven soldiers were wounded. Indians losses were twenty killed,
twelve wounded, and two captured.
1868: According to army records, members of the Twenty-Seventh Infantry
fought with a band of Indians near Fort Rice, Dakota Territory. One
soldier was killed.
1869: General Thomas Duncan, leading men from Troops B, C, F, L, and M,
Fifth Cavalry, Troops B, C, and M, Second Cavalry, plus two companies of
Pawnee scouts, after a long march, set up camp along Prairie Dog Creek,
Kansas. Duncan’s advance guard of twenty troopers, led by Lieutenant
William Volkmar, attacked a group of Indians trying to cut off Major
North and William “Buffalo Bill” Cody, the chief scout and guide. In the
ensuing fight, the cavalry chased the Indians to a village of fifty-six
lodges that was being abandoned in great haste. One Indian was captured,
and he identified the band as Sioux, led by Whistler and Pawnee Killer,
survivors of the Summit Springs fought on July 11, 1869. In New Mexico,
troopers chased a war party into the San Francisco Mountains. The
troopers discovered a village, which they destroyed. They also killed
two Indians.
1874: Colonel R. S. Mackenzie and Troops A, D, E, F, H, I, and K, Fourth
Cavalry, had two skirmishes with Indians before they found five camps of
Southern Cheyenne, Lone Wolf’s Kiowa, Comanche, and other Indians in
Palo Duro Canyon near Red River, Texas. The soldiers destroyed more than
100 lodges and all of the supplies. Some 1,400 horses and mules were
captured; many were taken to Tule Valley and killed. One soldier was
wounded and four Indians were killed, according to army reports. Lone
Wolf and 252 Kiowa escaped. Many sources reported this battle as
happening on September 28. Corporal Edwin Phoenix, Privates Gregory
Mahoney and William McCabe, Company E, and Indian scout Adam Paine would
be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for their gallantry during
the fighting (September 26–28).
1877: Eighth and Tenth Cavalry Infantry soldiers captured five Indians
near Saragossa, Mexico, according to army documents.
1877: According to army reports, Major Guido Ilges, a partial company of
the Seventh Infantry, and thirty-six volunteers fought a two-hour battle
with the Nez Perce. Ilges eventually retreated to Cow Island, feeling
outmanned by the Nez Perce.
1879: After leaving Fortification Creek, Major T. T. Thornburgh and
three cavalry troops made camp along Bear Creek in Colorado en route to
the White River Ute agency. While in camp, several Ute leaders met
Thornburgh and discussed his activities. The conversations were
friendly, and the Indians left on a positive note.
1879: Captain Albert Morrow and 197 soldiers attacked Victorio and his
Warm Springs Apache followers in the Black Range near Ojo Caliente, New
Mexico. The fighting lasted until September 30. Three Apaches were
killed. The army reported that it recovered sixty horses and mules.
1975: An election on amendments to the constitution and bylaws of the
Southern Ute Indian Tribe of the Southern Ute Reservation in Colorado
was held. Of the 268 eligible voters, 92 vote in favor, 55 against.
1986: The Nez Perce amended their constitution and bylaws.


September 27



September 27



September 27
1719: Charles Claude du Tisne (du Tissenet) was in northern Oklahoma
near the Arkansas River. He claimed the territory for France.
Eventually, a trading post was built near Newkirk.
1749: According to some reports, an agreement regarding peace and the
return of prisoners was reached by representatives of the British in
Massachusetts and the Norridgewock and Penobscot Indians.
1778: Forces under General John Sullivan destroyed the Indian town of
Tioga (near modern Athens, Pennsylvania). The village was at the
crossroads of several Indian trails and was considered the southern
entrance to the Iroquois lands.
1827: According to some historians, today marked the end of the
Winnebago expedition. After the Red Bird War, which started on June 29,
1827, Winnebago Chief Red Bird surrendered in response to the army’s
threat to destroy the entire tribe. Red Bird was found guilty of
murdering several settlers and rivermen; he died in prison before
sentencing.
1830: The Dancing Rabbit Creek Treaty (7 Stat. 333) was concluded,
whereby the Choctaws agreed to sell lands in Mississippi and to move to
Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). Their new lands were bounded by
Fort Smith along the Arkansas River, to the source of the Canadian Fork,
to the Red River, to Arkansas Territory. This was the first treaty after
the passage of the Indian Removal Act. Many chiefs got large parcels of
land or money for signing, including Principal Chief Greenwood le Flore.
The Choctaws had three years to complete the move. The United States was
represented by Generals John Coffee and John Eaton.
1833: The Creeks were in council at Wetumpka, Alabama (north of modern
Montgomery). They drafted a resolution to Secretary of War Lewis Cass
stating not only that whites had not been removed from their lands but
also that many more had moved in. State courts had defied federal laws
and ruled in favor of the local white intruders.

1850: The Donation Act was passed by Congress, allowing settlers to have
lands in Washington Territory regardless of Indian claims.
1861: About 200 Apache warriors attacked the mining town of Pinto Alto.
Captain Martin and the Arizona volunteer guards helped to fight them
off.
1867: Medicine Lodge Creek was sixty miles south of Fort Larned in
southwestern Kansas. A peace commission had been established there to
try to remove Indians from the area between the Arkansas and Platte
Rivers. The government hoped to establish a reservation for the Southern
Plains Indians, including the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, Comanche, and
the Apache of the region. Representing the U.S. government were Indian
Commissioner Nathaniel Taylor, John Henderson, Samuel Tappen, Indian
Agent John Sanborn, Indian Agent William Harney, and General Alfred
Terry. Some of the Indians who attended the meeting were: Black Kettle,
Ten Bears, Gray Beard, Little Raven, Little Robe, Tall Bull, Buffalo
Chief, and Roman Nose. Roman Nose arrived in the Indians camp for the
meeting planned on October 16. Eventually, 4,000 Indians attended the
conference.
1867: According to army records, the fight that started the day before
between the First Cavalry, Twenty-Third Infantry, and Boise Indian
scouts and a combined force of Paiute, Pit River, and Modoc Indians in
Infernal Canyon near Pitt River (south of modern Alturas, California)
continued. Lieutenant J. Madigan was killed today.
1869: General Duncan’s troops destroyed the Indian village and
provisions found after the fight on Prairie Dog Creek the day before.
The troopers tried unsuccessfully to follow the village residents for
several days. Surveyors’ tools belonging to Nelson Buck were discovered
in the village. Buck and eleven others in his surveying party were
killed near this area several days earlier.
1879: While proceeding toward the White River Agency, Major T. T.
Thornburgh and his three cavalry troops met a White River Agency
employee named Eskridge and several leading Ute Indians. Eskridge had a
letter from the White River agent, N. C. Meeker. The letter stated that
the Ute were agitated by Thornburgh’s advance and wished him to stop.
They suggested that Major Thornburgh and five soldiers come into the
agency without the rest of the troops for a talk. Thornburgh agreed to
come to the agency on September 29 with a five-man escort, but he asked
for a representative group of Ute chiefs to visit his camp before the
agency meeting. Thornburgh then continued his march.
1894: The Bureau of Indian Affairs started putting Indian kids in school
with whites.
1917: By Executive Order No. 2711, President Wilson established the
Cocopah Indian Reservation south of Yuma, Arizona. The reservation had
1,772 acres.
1967: The Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin listed an official
membership roll, as per federal statute (81 Stat. 229).


September 28



September 28



September 28
1542: Spanish explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo landed at San Diego Bay,
California.
1566: Father Pedro Martinez had sailed from Spain in hopes of reaching
St. Augustine, Florida. He hoped to convert the Indians to Christianity.
Unable to find the Spanish settlement, the priest and several others set
out in a small boat to get directions from local Indians. A storm
separated them from the mother ship. While still seeking directions to
St. Augustine, they encountered a Timucua war party. A fought ensued,
and all but four of the Spanish were killed.
1759: English Indian Superintendent Edmund Atkin met with Creeks at the
upper village of Tuckabatchee (near modern Tallassee, Alabama). During
the meeting, one of the Creeks tried to kill Atkin. Other Creeks stopped
the attack. Atkin’s trip raised suspicion among some of the Creeks, and
factionalism had broken out. Atkin survived and spent a month in the
village.
1778: A battle was fought between American forces and pro-British
Indians near the Pennsylvania town of Wyalusing. The Americans, led by
Colonel Thomas Hartley, won the fight.
1836: Two treaties were signed by the Sac and Fox (7 Stat. 520).
1839: Cherokee women could now legally marry white men.
1841: Aagaunash (Billy Caldwell) was born the son of an Indian mother
and a British Officer. He lived with Indians most of his life and
eventually became a Potawatomi chief. He served as Tecumseh’s secretary
and as a liaison to the British until the end of the War of 1812. He
fought for the United States against Red Bird and Black Hawk. He also
signed several peace treaties for the Potawatomis. He died on this day
in Council Bluffs, Iowa.
1864: Black Kettle held a parley with Colorado officials in Denver.
Among the participants were: Governor John Evans, Colonel Chivington,
Colonel George Shoup, Major E. Wynkoop, Indian Agent S. Whiteley;
Cheyenne Chiefs White Antelope and Bull Bear; Arapahos Neva, Bosse, Heap
of Buffalo, and Na-ta-nee; and interpreter John S. Smith.
1866: Soldiers from the First Cavalry fought with a band of Indians on
Dunder and Blitzen Creeks in Idaho. The army reported one enlisted man
wounded.
1866: According to army reports, soldiers from the Second Cavalry fought
some Indians along La Bonte Creek in Montana. One soldier was wounded in
the skirmish.
1867: In the final day of a three-day fight, the First Cavalry,
Twenty-Third Infantry, and Boise Indian scouts fought a combined force
of Paiute, Pit River, and Modoc Indians in Infernal Canyon near Pitt
River (south of modern Alturas, California). A total of one officer, six
soldiers, and one civilian were killed. Eleven soldiers were wounded.
Indians losses were twenty killed, twelve wounded, and two captured.
1869: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought a
band of Indians near Red Creek, Arizona. Approximately a dozen Indians
were killed.
1874: Brevet Major General (Colonel) Ranald Mackenzie, with
approximately 600 soldiers of the Fourth Cavalry, led an attack on the
Indians residing in the Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas Panhandle. Four
Indians and no soldiers were reported killed. However, much of the
Indians’ provisions were destroyed, including as many as 1,400 Indian
horses killed by the soldiers. It was a major psychological blow for the
few Southern Plains Indians still not living on reservations. This was
called the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon. It was the major battle of the
Red River War.
1968: An act (82 Stat. 884) was passed by Congress to “authorize the
purchase, sale exchange, mortgage, and long-term leasing of land by the
Swinomish Indian Tribal Community.”
1977: The Phoenix area director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs
authorized an election for Amendment 3 to the constitution for the
Papago (Tohono O’odham). The election was held on January 21, 1978.


September 29



September 29



September 29
1671: According to some sources, a treaty of allegiance was reached
between representatives of the Plymouth Plantations and the Wampanoag
Indians.
1753: According to some reports, an agreement to return captives was
reached between representatives of the British in Massachusetts and the
Norridgewock Indians.
1769: The expedition to explore the Central California coast led by
Gaspar de Portolá had camped at a site near what is modern Monterey.
Along the Salina River, members of the expedition encountered a small
Indian hunting party.
1782: General Edward Hand had been leading an expedition against the
Indians in the area of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. General George
Washington cancelled the expedition.
1806: Zebulon Pike held a grand council with the Pawnee. Pike estimated
that 400 Pawnee warriors attended. He hoped to win their allegiance to
the United States rather than to Spain.
1817: The Treaty of the Rapids of the Miami River (7 Stat. 160) was
signed. Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur, representing the U.S.
government, signed the peace treaty with the Chippewa, Potawatomi,
Wyandot, Shawnee, and other tribes. The Indians got annual payments in
exchange for land cessions.
1843: A treaty was signed between the Republic of Texas and the
Anadarko, Biloxi, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Delaware, Hainai, Kichai,
Tawakoni, and the Waco.
1866: Soldiers from the 18th Infantry fought with a band of Indians near
Fort Phil Kearny in Dakota Territory. The army reported that one
enlisted man was killed.
1867: According to army records, members of the Thirty-Seventh Infantry
fought with a band of Indians near Fort Garland, Colorado. Two soldiers
were killed.
1868: Indians attacked a house on Sharp’s Creek. They killed the man
living there, Mr. Bassett. The house was burned down. Mrs. Bassett and
her two-day-old baby were taken captured. Mrs. Bassett was too weak to
travel; the Indians assaulted her, then left her and her baby to die on
the prairie.
1869: After pursuing a band of Indians for a week, troops from Fort
Bayard in southwestern New Mexico found their village. The troopers
destroyed the village, killing three and wounding three Indians. One
soldier was wounded in the fight.
1872: Colonel R. S. Mackenzie and Troops A, D, F, I, and L, Fourth
Cavalry, and some Tonkawa scouts were near the North Fork of the Red
River (near modern Lefors, Texas) when they discovered a Comanche camp
of 200 lodges. Mackenzie attacked and destroyed most of the encampment.
According to government reports, twenty-three Indians were killed;
approximately 125 warriors were captured. One soldier was killed and
three were wounded. Many horses and mules were seized by the army. For
“gallantry in action,” Private Edward Branagan, Farrier David Larkin,
Sergeant William Foster, First Sergeant William McNamara, Private
William Rankin, Company F, Corporal Henry McMasters, Company A, Corporal
William O’Neill, Company I, Blacksmith James Pratt, Company I, and
Sergeant William Wilson would be awarded the Congressional Medal of
Honor. This was Wilson’s second Medal of Honor. This would become known
as the Battle of the North Fork of the Red River. Some sources reported
this to be the Kotsoteka Comanche village of Mow-way.
1872: After demanding their removal from prison, Lone Wolf met with
Satanta and Big Tree in St. Louis. They discussed the Kiowa Indians’
stand when Lone Wolf went to Washington, D.C., to discuss treaty
matters. After their meeting, Satanta and Big Tree returned to prison in
Texas.
1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry, the
Twenty-Third Infantry, and some Indian scouts at Sierra Ancha, Arizona,
according to army documents. Two Indians were killed and four were
captured.
1877: Lieutenant John Bullis and a small force from the Twenty-Fourth
Infantry attacked a group of Lipan Indians in a camp four miles from
Saragossa, Mexico. The army captured five women and children, twelve
horses, and two mules. The camp and its contents were destroyed.
1879: After passing the Milk River in Colorado, Major Thomas T.
Thornburgh split his command of three troops of cavalry. One troop
continued down the road to the White River Agency with the expedition’s
wagons. Thornburgh and his two remaining troops followed a different
route, slightly to the left of road. After crossing a high ridge,
Thornburgh encountered a large group of Ute Indians. According to his
report, he attempted to communicate with the Ute, but they opened fire.
Being outnumbered, Thornburgh retreated back toward the troops with the
wagons. Skirmishes took place while Thornburgh was retreating toward the
wagons, which by now were on the Milk River. Within sight of the wagons,
Thornburgh was shot and killed. The wagons were formed into a barricade,
and the soldiers engaged in a battle with the Ute. The Ute set the grass
on fire, and many of the wagons caught fire. Successful efforts to put
out the fires led to the deaths of several soldiers. The battle lasted
from 3:00 P.M. until well after dark, with many wounded and killed on
both sides. Couriers slipped out of the barricade after dark to seek
reinforcements. The fighting continued until October 5, 1879. According
to army records, nine enlisted men, three civilians, and thirty-seven
Indians were killed in the fighting. Two officers, forty-three soldiers,
and three civilians were wounded. Captain Francis S. Dodge, Troop D,
Ninth Cavalry, would be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for
leading a force of forty men who came to the relief of the besieged
soldiers. For retrieving ammunition for the soldiers while surrounded on
three sides and under pointblank fire, Sergeant Edward P. Grimes was
also awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. Sergeant John Lawton,
Company D, would also get the Congressional Medal of Honor for “coolness
and steadiness under fire; volunteered to accompany a small detachment
on a very dangerous mission.” First Sergeant Jacob Widmer, Sergeant John
Merrill, Corporals George Moquin and Edward Murphy, blacksmith Wilhelm
Philipsen, and Corporal Hampton Roach would also be awarded the medal
for gallantry.
1973: The House Interior Committee voted to approve a bill that
reestablished federal recognition of the Menominee Indians.
1983: The area director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, ratified an amendment
to the constitution and bylaws of the Suquamish Indian Tribe of the Port
Madison Reservation in the state of Washington.
1984: An amendment to the constitution of the Comanche Indian Tribe was
enacted.
Every: Taos Pueblo festival (through September 30).


September 30



September 30



September 30
1730: In a British court in London, seven Cherokee leaders signed the
Articles of Agreement with the Lords Commissioners. It was a formal
alliance covering allegiance, peace, and the return of captives.
1809: William Henry Harrison, representing the United States, and the
Delaware, Miami, Potawatomi, and Eel River Indians signed a treaty (7
Stat. 113) at Fort Wayne. Three million acres in Indiana and Illinois
were traded for larger annuities and $5,200 in supplies.
1850: Congress authorized efforts to get treaties with the Indians of
California.
1865: According to a report dated today, 402 Apache and 7,318 Navajo
Indians were present at the Fort Sumner (New Mexico) Reservation in
September.
1872: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the First Cavalry
on Squaw Peak in Arizona, according to official army records. Seventeen
Indians were killed and one was captured. Also in Arizona, Company F,
Fifth Cavalry, fought some Indians near Camp Crittenden. Four soldiers
were killed.
1877: Today through October 5, according to army reports, elements of
Colonel Nelson Miles’s Second Cavalry captured 800 Nez Perce horses.
According to army documents, Captain Owen Hale, Lieutenant J. W. Biddle,
twenty-two soldiers, and seventeen Indians were killed. Captain Myles
Moylan, Captain E. S. Godfrey, Lieutenant G. W. Baird, Lieutenant Henry
Romeyn, thirty-eight soldiers, eight civilians, and forty Nez Perce were
wounded. Almost 20 percent of the soldiers were wounded or killed during
the fighting at Bear Paw Mountain (near modern Havre, Montana). The army
would issue the Congressional Medal of Honor to the following soldiers
during this campaign: First Lieutenant George W. Baird, Fifth Infantry,
for “distinguished gallantry in action”; First Lieutenant Mason Carter,
Fifth Infantry, for leading a charge “under a galling fire”; Second
Lieutenant Oscar Long, Fifth Infantry, for taking over command of a
troop of cavalry when their officers were killed; Second Lieutenant
Edward McClernand, Second Cavalry, for using “skill and boldness when
attacking a band of hostiles”; Captain Edward S. Godfrey, Seventh
Cavalry, for leading his men while severely wounded; Captain Myles
Moylan, for gallantry and leadership until he was severely wounded;
First Sergeant Henry Hogan, Company G, Fifth Infantry, for carrying
severely wounded Lieutenant Henry Romeyn out of the line of fire (this
was Hogan’s second award; see October 21, 1876); First Lieutenant Henry
Romeyn, Fifth Infantry, for vigorously prosecuting the fight; and Major
(surgeon) Henry Tilton for rescuing wounded men.
1879: Sixth and Ninth Cavalry soldiers and some Indian scouts fought a
group of Indians near Ojo Caliente in the Black Range, New Mexico.
According to army documents, two scouts and three Indians were killed.
The fighting started on September 26.
1936: Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes authorized an election for
a proposed constitution and bylaws of the Hopi Tribe. The election was
held on October 24, 1936.
1973: Inuit artist and writer Peter Pitseolak died in Cape Dorset,
Northwest Territories, Canada. Using his artistic and photographic
talents, he documented much of the traditional ways of life of his
people.



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End of Phil Konstantin's September 2009 Newsletter #1
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Four of the five books I have worked on. I either wrote, co-wrote, or contributed to each of these beeks

This is the cover to my first book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy. Click on the cover to order a copy or to get more info.
This Day in North American Indian History
This Day in North American Indian History is a one-of-a-kind, vastly entertaining and informative book covering over 5000 years of North American Indian history, culture, and lore. Wide-ranging, it covers over 4,000 important events involving the native peoples of North America in a unique day-by-day format.

The thousands of entries in This Day in North American Indian History weave a compelling and comprehensive mosaic of North American Indian history spanning more than five millennia-every entry an exciting opening into the fascinating but little- known history of American Indians.

Over 100 photographs and illustrations - This book has 480 pages, weighs 2.2 pounds and is 8" by 9.5" in size. The Dates, Names and "Moons" section of these pages are based on the book.

This is the cover to my 4th book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info.
This is the cover to my 4th book. Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info."


Native American History For Dummies

I wrote six of the twenty-four chapters in this book. I am credited with being the technical editor. Book Description:
Native American History For Dummies introduces readers to the thousand-year-plus history of the first inhabitants of North America and explains their influence on the European settlement of the continent. Covering the history and customs of the scores of tribes that once populated the land, this friendly guide features vivid studies of the lives of such icons as Pocahontas, Sitting Bull, and Sacagawea; discusses warfare and famous battles, offering new perspectives from both battle lines; and includes new archaeological and forensic evidence, as well as oral histories that show events from the perspective of these indigenous peoples. The authors worked in concert with Native American authorities, institutions, and historical experts to provide a wide range of insight and information.
This is the cover to my 3rd book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info.
This is the cover to my 3rd book. Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info
Treaties With American Indians I wrote an article and several appendix items for this book.
Clips from a review on Amazon.com: *Starred Review* In the 93 years from 1778 until 1871, there were more than 400 treaties negotiated by Indian agents and government officials. Editor Fixico and more than 150 contributors have crafted a three volume comprehensive tool that will soon become essential for anyone interested in the topic. A resource section with lists of ?Alternate Tribal Names and Spellings,? ?Tribal Name Meanings,? (<---- I wrote this part) Treaties by Tribe,? and ?Common Treaty Names? and a bibliography and comprehensive index are repeated in each volume. This impressive set has a place in any academic library that supports a Native American studies or American history curriculum. It is the most comprehensive source of information on Canadian-Indian treaties and U.S.-Indian treaties. Also available as an e-book.

"The Wacky World of Laws"
It was just released in May 2009.
The Wacky World of Laws. Click on the cover to order a copy or to get more info.

The Wacky World of Laws is a compilation of U.S. and International Laws that are out of the ordinary. With the U.S. churning out 500,000 new laws every year and 2 million regulations annually, this book is the ideal go-to book fro everyone who wants a good laugh at the expense of our legal system. Law so often can be boring! Now with The Wacky World of Laws, you can be the hit of any water cooler conversation, and amaze your friends with precious legal nuggets.

I wrote most of this book. It is my fifth book.


(copyright, © Phil Konstantin, 2010)






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