September 2006 Newsletter from
"This Day in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2006)

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Start of Phil Konstantin's September 2006 Newsletter - Part 1
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Greetings,

I am going to break things up again this month. There
will be three, at least, newsletters this month. This one
is a very detailed look at this which happened in September.
In fact, this is almost everything in my book, plus many
events which the editors removed because the book was too
long.

Phil

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September 1:    
     504: Maya Queen "Lady of Tikal" is born.
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/mexico20.html
     1640: A treaty agreement covering land cessions between
the Mohegans and Connecticut is reached.
     1675: According to some sources, a group of Indians
stages an attack on the village of Hadley, Massachusetts.
According to local legend, a man unknown to the village
rushes into the church and rallies the settlers to defeat
the Indians. After the fighting, the man disappears. Other
sources say there was no battle, just a call to arms. Other
sources say nothing of any note happened on this date in
Hadley.
     1776: On July 20, 1776, Chickamauga warriors attack
Eaton Station, Tennessee. Based on this attack, a force of
more than 2,000 militia and some Catawba Indians, led by
General Griffith Rutherford, march into the Tennessee
mountains. While they only kill a dozen Cherokee warriors,
they destroy most of the Cherokee villages in Tennessee and
South Carolina.
     1788: Even after the Treaty of Hopewell, whites continue
to settle on Cherokee lands along the Holston and French
Broad Rivers. Congress issues a proclamation prohibiting
whites from settling on Cherokee lands.
     1813: A Creek war party attacks several farms near
Fort Sinquefield, Alabama. They kill several of the settlers.
One woman, Sarah Merrill, left for dead by the Creeks,
staggers through the woods for miles carrying her baby,
also left for dead. Her ordeal sparks additional fury among
the local Americans.
     1826: Today is the Creeks’ deadline to go west from
their lands east of the Mississippi River.
     1830: After discussing President Jackson's removal
proposal, Chickasaw leaders sign a provisional agreement
to be removed. Several of the Chiefs present are offered
additional lands. The treaty never goes into effect because
it is based on the premise that the Chickasaws share lands
with the Choctaws. The Choctaws do not agree to give up
their Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) lands.
     1845: Tired of the continuing feud between the "Old
Settlers" and the "New Emigrants" factions of the Cherokee
Nation, fifty-four Cherokee families leave the Indian
Territory (present day Oklahoma) reservation to join
relatives in Texas.
     1858: Colonel George H. Wright and 600 men battle
500 Coeur d’Alene, and allies at the Battle of Four Lakes,
in western Washington. Equipped with rifled barrels and
new ammunition, Wright's men kill five dozen Indians while
suffering no mortal wounds themselves. They fight another
battle on the Spokane Plains, in Washington, on the fifth.
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/2003.html
     1866: Manuelito and twenty-three of his Navajo
followers surrender to the army at Fort Wingate.
     1868: Stage Agent J.H. Jones, of Lake Station,
Colorado, reports to the military that a woman and child
are killed and scalped by Indians near the station.
According to military reports, three people are killed,
and three people are wounded near Reed Springs. In
Spanish Fort, Texas, four people are killed, eight people
scalped, and three women "outraged" by Indians. One of
the women is "outraged" by thirteen Indians, who later
scalp and kill her, and her four small children.
     1868: Army records indicate that settlers fight with
a band of Indians near Lake Station, Colorado. Two settlers
are killed, wounded, and captured.
     1868: Army records indicate that three settlers are
killed and three are wounded in a fight with a band of
Indians near Reed's Springss, Colorado.
     1871: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from
the Ninth Cavalry and the Twenty-Fourth Infantry near Fort
McKavett, Texas, according to official army records. No
casualties are reported.
     1880: Ninth Cavalry and Fifteenth Infantry soldiers
fight a group of Indians near Aqua Chiquita in the
Sacramento Mountains of New Mexico. According to army
documents, two soldiers are killed.
     1881: Apaches attack Fort Apache, in eastern Arizona.
They are upset because Colonel Eugene Carr has tried to
arrest an Apache shaman. The medicine man is killed in a
fight two days ago.
     1911: Executive Order number 1406 is issued. This
sets aside certain lands in New Mexico "for the benefit
of the Indians of the Jemez Pueblo."
     1965: An election for an amendment to the Constitution
and By-Laws of the Moapa Band of Paiute Indians is
authorized by Assistant Secretary of the Interior, Harry
Anderson. The election is held on November 20th.

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     September 2:    
     579: Maya King Scroll Serpent ascends to the throne
of Calukmal.
     1732: The first treaty between the Iroquois
Confederation, and the Pennsylvania Provincial Council is
signed in Philadelphia. The parties agree to peaceful
relations between them. The Iroquois also promise to try
to persuade the Shawnees to leave Allegheny Valley. The
Principal Indian Chief present is Shikellamy of the Onondaga.
     1777: Settlers have built a sizable stockade in
Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia). The area is the
scene of several skirmishes during the next several weeks.
A force of 200 Mingo and Wyandot warriors lay in wait
outside the stockade. A few Indians lure a small force of
fifteen militia out of the fort into the woods. Here the
trap is sprung, and most of the soldiers are killed. A
relief force of thirteen soldiers attempts a rescue. They
are attacked as well. A total of fifteen soldiers are
killed, while only one Indian sustains a fatal injury.
     1779: General John Sullivan, and his force of 4,500
men continue their attacks on Indians in New York who he
suspects are British Allies. His forces level Catherine's
Town.
     1815: In Portage des Sioux, William Clark, Auguste
Chouteau, Ninian Edwards make a peace treaty (7 stat. 130)
with the Kickapoos for the war of 1812.
     1838: The Republic of Texas signs a treaty with the
Kichai, Taovaya, Tawakoni, and Wacos in modern Fannin County.
     1838: Lydia Paki Kamekeha Liliuokalani, who is the
last sovereign Queen of Hawai'i, is born.
     1844: Tonight in Wilmington, Delaware, Cherokee
Principal Chief John Ross gets married to Mary B. Stapler.
     1862: Santee Sioux engage in another fight in the
Minnesota Uprising. Called the “Birch Coulee Battle,” it
happens three miles north of Morton, Minnesota. The
Minnesota forces are led by Major Joseph Brown. The Sioux
are led by Big Eagle, Mankato, and Red Legs. The army has
been on a burial detail. At dawn, the Sioux attack. The
soldiers lose thirteen killed and forty-seven wounded.
     1868: Sergeant George J. Dittoe, Company A, Third
Infantry, and four soldiers are transporting a wagon along
Little Coon Creek, when they are attacked by about three
dozen Indians. Three of the soldiers are seriously wounded,
while three Indians are killed and one wounded. One
soldier goes to Fort Dodge, in southwestern Kansas, for
help. Lieutenant Thomas Wallace, Third Infantry, and
troops respond to relieve Sergeant Dittoe's men, and chase
off the Indians. One of the four soldiers, Corporal
Leander Herron, is awarded the Congressional Medal of
Honor for his part in the action.
     1875: Indians fight with soldiers from the Third
Cavalry along the North Platte River north of Sidney,
Nebraska. According to army documents, no casualties are
reported in this encounter which started on August 28th.
     1876: The Nez Perce tell settlers they have one week
to leave their lands.
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/2003a.html
     1877: Victorio flees the San Carlos Reservation.
     1948: An Adoption Ordinance for the Coeur d’Alene Tribe
as been passed by the Tribal Council. It is approved by
the Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
     1958: An official tribal roll is listed for the Lower
Brule Sioux Tribe of the Lower Brule Reservation.
     Every: Acoma Pueblo festival.

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     September 3:    
     523: Maya King Ahkal Mo' Naab' II is born. Eventually,
he rules over Palenque, Mexico
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/mexico14.html
     1680: Don Antonio de Otermin is the Governor of the
province which contains modern Santa Fe, New Mexico. The
Pueblo Indians staged a revolt in August. Otermin enters
Isleta Pueblo and discovers it is abondoned.
     1719: Frenchman Bernard de la Harpe, discovers an
Indian village on the Arkansas River, near Muskogee. La
Harpe has traveled up the Red River, then gone overland
across Oklahoma. He describes the land as fertile, and the
people (probably a Caddoan tribe) as friendly, and hard
working. La Harpe claims the land for France.
     1783: The Treaty of Paris is signed.
     1822: The Sac and Fox sign a treaty (7 stat. 223) at
Fort Armstrong dealing with lands in Wisconsin and Illinois.
     1836: The 2300 Creek prisoners reach Fort Gibson in
eastern Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Approximately
eighty-one Creeks die during the journey from Alabama.
     1836: Colonel Henry Dodge, and the Menominee Indians
sign a peace treaty (7 stat. 506) at Cedar Point, Wisconsin.
In exchange for an annuity of $20,000, the Menominee cede
most of their lands along the Menominee, Wolf, and
Wisconsin Rivers.
     1855: Little Thunder has taken over as Chief after
the killing of Conquering Bear in the fight with Lieutenant
Grattan’s men. He has almost 250 warriors in his camp on
the Blue River. General William S. Harney has 600 soldiers.
After the fighting, there are 100 dead Sioux, and five dead
soldiers, according to Harney. Harney takes seventy
prisoners, almost all women and children. Based on his
actions, the Sioux gives Harney the name "The Butcher".
     1863: At Whitestone, General Alfred Sully, and 1,200
soldiers, attacks Inkpaduta's Santee Sioux village. 300
warriors are killed. 250 women and children are captured.
Sully loses twenty-two soldiers in the fighting.
     1868: According to Major Joseph Tilford, Seventh
Cavalry, commander at Fort Reynolds, in southeastern
Colorado, four people are killed by Indians, near Colorado
City. Indians also attack the station at Hugo Springs, but
are repelled by the occupants.
     1907: In Oklahoma, Principal Chief of the Creek
Nation, Pleasant Porter (Talof Harjo) dies.
     1966: The Assistant Secretary of the Interior, Harry
Anderson, has authorized an election for amendments to the Constitution
and By-Laws of the Lac Courte Oreilles Band
of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin. The
amendment is approved by a vote of 152 to 2.

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     September 4:    
     698: As part of a series of attacks on neighboring
cities in Guatemala, Maya warriors from Naranjo attack
Ucanal.
     1724: Indians attack Dunstable village in Maine.
They take two captives.
     1801: A two-day conference begins at Southwest Point,
located at the juncture of the Tennessee and the Clinch
Rivers. Representatives of the United States and the
Cherokees discuss more roads through Cherokee lands.
Because of a lack of enforcement by the United States of
previous treaties, the Cherokees do not agree to any U.S.
proposals.
     1854: A peace treaty is signed with the Modocs of
Tule Lake. They are out of supplies, by this time. The
fighting started on August 18, 1854.
     1863: The Concow-Maidu had ancestral homes in the
Butte County area of northern California. Eventually, they
were forced to move to different lands. Many die or are
killed along the way to these distant, hostile places. One
group of 461 Concows leaves Chico, but only 277 will
survive the two-week trip to Round Valley.
     1864: At Fort Lyon, Major E.W. Wynkoop holds a
council with One Eye, Manimick, Cheyennes, one other
Indian, and interpreter John S. Smith. Carrying a message
written by George Bent, the Cheyenne and Arapaho agree
to turn over any whites they hold as prisoners. Wynkoop
will leave the fort to go meet the tribal leaders on
September 6th.
     1868: Army records indicate that members of the First
and Eighth Cavalry, and Indian scouts, fight with a band
of Indians near Tonto Creek, Arizona. One Indian is
killed, and another is captured.
     1872: Indians skirmish with a group of settlers near
Camp Mojave, Arizona, according to official army records.
One settler is killed.
     1878: Colonel Nelson Miles, 150 men of the Fifth
Infantry, and thirty-five Crow scouts, have been
traveling up Clark's Fork of the Yellowstone, near
Heart Mountain, looking for hostile Bannock Indians,
reported to be in the area. The soldiers come up on a
camp, and attacking the residents. Eleven Bannocks are
killed, and thirty-one are captured. 200 horses and mules
are seized. An interpreter, an Indian scout, and Captain
Andrew Bennett are killed in the fighting. One soldier
is wounded.
     1879: Members of Captain Ambrose Hooker's Troop E,
Ninth Cavalry, are guarding the cavalry horses near Ojo
Caliente, New Mexico, when they are attacked by Indians.
Eight soldiers are killed, and the Indians capture
forty-six of the soldier's mounts. The dead soldiers are
African-Americans. They are commonly referred to as
"buffalo soldiers" by the Indians.
     1882: At Whipple Barracks, General George Crook
officially takes over command of the Department of
Arizona. The veteran Indian fighter is brought in to
deal with the Apaches.
     1886: Geronimo, and thirty-eight of his
followers, surrenders to General Nelson Miles at Skeleton
Canyon south of Apache Pass in Arizona.
     Every: The St. Augustine feast is observed by many
Pueblos.

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     September 5:    
     523: Palenque Maya Lord Chaacal II is born according
to the museum at Palenque.
     1779: General John Sullivan's forces continue their
attack on suspected pro-British forces in New York. They
demolish Kendaia (Appletown).
     1785: Georgians continue to trespass on Creek lands.
Chief Alexander McGillivray writes Congress demanding that
they protect his people from the settlers which previous
treaties has promised.
     1814: Today sees the start of the two day battle
of Credit Island, near present day Davenport, Iowa.
Major Zackary Taylor, and 334 American soldiers are
making their way up the Mississippi River attacking
British positions with considerable success. They
encounter a force of 1000 Indians and British. The allied
army forces Taylor to withdraw to safety in Saint Louis.
     1836: A fifth group of "friendly" Creeks, numbering
1984, under command of Lieutenant J.T. Sprague, leave
Tallassee (northwest of modern Tuskegee), for Indian
Territory (present day Oklahoma).
     1858: Colonel George Wright, commanding the local
army, fights with the Coeur d’Alene, Columbia River,
Colville, Kalispel and Spokane Indians on the Spokane
Plains. The army defeats the Indians.
     1862: Little Crow hears news of Big Eagle and
Mankato's battle with Colonel Henry "Long Trader"
Sibley's troops at Birch Coulee. They manage to bottle
up the troops for an entire day, only cannon being
brought up ends the fighting on the second day.
     1865: Almost 1,000 Sioux, Cheyene and Arapaho fight
with American forces under Colonel Cole at the Little
Powder River.
     1868: Indians steal five cattle at Hugo Springs
Station. Later, they also attack and burn Willow Springs
Station.
     1868: According to army records, members of the
Twenty-Third Infantry and some Indian scouts fight with
a band of Indians in the Juniper Mountains of Idaho.
During the campaign which started on August 8th, sixteen
Indians are captured.
     1869: Troops from Fort Stanton, in southern New
Mexico chase a group of "hostiles.” During the ensuing
fight, three Indians are killed, and seven are wounded.
Two troopers are wounded.
     1869: Army records indicate that members of the
Eighth Cavalry and the Twelfth Infantry fight with a
band of Indians near Camp Date Creek, Arizona. Three
Indians are killed.
     1871: The White Mountain Reservation is chosen as
the site where the Apache Indians of Arizona can be
"collected, fed, clothed...provided for, and protected."
This decision is made by Vincent Colyer, Commissioner,
Board of Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior.
     1871: Indians skirmish with a group of settlers in
Chino Valley, Arizona, according to official army records.
One settler is killed.
     1877: Many sources say Crazy Horse is fatally
wounded while in captivity at Fort Robinson, Nebraska.
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/2003p.html
     1878: Bannocks fight with Howard's soldiers at
Clark's Ford.
     1968: The Assistant Commissioner of Indian Affairs
authorizes an election for amendments to the Constitution
and By-Laws of the Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake
Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin. The election is
held on January 25, 1969.
     1975: Morris Thompson, the Commissioner of Indian
Affairs authorizes an election to approve a new
Constitution and By-Laws for the Cherokee Nation of
Oklahoma.

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     September 6:    
     1689: Two hundred Indian survivors of King Philip’s
War have found refuge with the local Indians around
Cochecho (modern Dover), New Hampshire. Boston wants the
Indians back in Massachusetts. Local settlers have signed
a treaty with the local Indians. In what local legend
calls a mock battle, forces under Richard Walderne
(Waldron) surround the local and refugee Indians. They
remove the 200 refugees and march them back to Boston. In
Boston, most of the Indians are killed or become slaves.
     1823: Seventy Seminoles meet with peace commissioners
from the United States. This is the first such efforts to
reach an agreement with the Seminoles by the United States
after having bought Florida from the Spanish in 1819. A
treaty is signed on September 18th.
     1839: A conference is held by both the "old
settlers" and the "new emigrant" Cherokees in Tahlequah,
Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). John Ross is
elected Principal Chief of the newly rejoined Cherokee
Nation. David Vann is elected Second Chief. A new
constitution is adopted. The convention continues until
October 10, 1839. Many "old settlers" disavow any actions
taken by this convention. They believe that the old
settler government is still in power.
     1856: Cheyenne and Arapaho attack a wagon train of
Mormons on the Platte River. Two men, a woman, and a
child are killed. One woman is kidnaped during the fighting.
     1861: A Yamparika Chief and another Comanche sign a
treaty with Union representative at Fort Wise, Colorado.
     1864: Fort Zarah, is established on Walnut Creek,
near the Santa Fe Trail and the main Indian trail in the
section of Kansas. The fort serves as a base of operations
against "hostile Indians" until December 1869.
     1864: Major Edward "Tall Chief" Wynkoop is the
commander at Fort Lyon, southeastern Colorado. Black
Kettle, and as many as 2200 Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Sioux
are camped with him on Smoky Hill River. Black Kettle
send outs messengers saying he will deliver white
prisoners in exchange for Indian prisoners, and to
discuss moving to the reservation. Wynkoop receives a
copy of this message from One Eye, and Eagle Head.
Hopelessly outnumbered, he has 127 soldiers, Wynkoop
decides to go to the Smokey Hill camp to talk with Black
Kettle. Wynkoop eventually takes the four white children
held captive, and seven Chiefs, including Black Kettle,
to Denver to discuss ways to end the fighting in Colorado.
     1867: According to army records, members of the
First Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the Silver
River in Oregon. One Indian is killed, and five are captured.
     1868: Army records indicate that Indians attack
settlers in several locations in "Colorado Territory."
Twenty-five settlers die in the fighting between today
and tomorrow.
     1877: Army records show Crazy Horse died on the night
of September 6th at Fort Robinson, Nebraska.
     1967: Amendments are made to the Constitution of the
Pawnee Indian Tribe of Oklahoma.
     1967: Amendments to the Wisconsin Winnebago
Constitution are approved by the U.S. Government.
     1973: The Oklahoma Human Rights Commission requests
state schools drop rules requiring Indian students to cut
their long hair. They feel the rules will "promote racial
friction and community divisiveness."
     1978: The Anazasi ruins at Mesa Verde are declared
a “World Heritage Site.”
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/utah2006f.html

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     September 7:    
     1732: According to some sources, a land cession
agreement is made by representatives of the Delaware
Indians and Pennsylvania.
     1778: Today through the 17th, the Shawnee attack
Boonesborough. Captain Antoine Dagneaux de Quindre, with
eleven soldiers, and 444 Shawnees, including Chief
Blackfish (Chinugalla), demand the surrender of
Boonesborough. Daniel Boone is commanding the sixty
American sharpshooters in the fort. After losing thirty-
five warriors to the Kentucky fighters, the Indians quit
on the 20th. Boone's forces report only four men killed
in the fighting. Some sources put the settlers' numbers
at thirty men, and twenty young men, with a few women and
children. The losses are also reported at thirty-seven
Shawnee, and two settlers.
     1831: Major Francis Armstrong is appointed Agent to
the Choctaws in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma).
He assists in their move to the Indian Territory.
     1849: Colonel J.M. Washington, with soldiers, and
"friendly" Indians, confront the Navajos in Canyon de
Chelly. Mariano Martinez, and Cahpitone, agree to return
stolen property, and Mexican prisoners.
     1850: The “Robinson Treaty with the Ojibewa Indians
of Lake Superior Conveying Certain Lands to the Crown” is
signed in Canada.
     1862: Little Crow writes a letter to Colonel Henry
Sibley. He explains why the fighting started, that he
has white prisoners, and he wants to negotiate. Sibley's
reply is to release the prisoners, and then they talk.
Little Crow is concerned for the Santee's safety because
he has heard Governor Alexander Ramsey wants the Santee
dead or banished from Minnesota. Because Sibley has been
a trader among the Indians, they call him "Long Trader.”
     1868: The "Hon. Schuyler Colfax" telegraphs the army
that twenty-five people have been killed, and a general
uprising is going on in southern Colorado.
     1880: Fourth Cavalry soldiers fight a group of Indians
near Fort Cummings, New Mexico. According to army documents,
one soldier is killed, and three are wounded.
     1917: By Executive Order, President Woodrow Wilson
"reserves from entry, sale or other disposal, and set aside
for administrative purposes in connection with tribal
grazing leases" 320 acres on the Crow Reservation in Montana.
     1939: The Assistant Secretary of the Interior, Oscar
Chapman, ratifies an election for a constitution and bylaws
for the Port Gamble Band of Clallam Indians.
     1957: An Act of Congress gives the Chilkat Indians
mineral rights to their lands near Klukwan. They are one
of only a very small number of Alaskans with this provision.
     1968: The Indian Council Fire awards this year's
Indian Achievement Award to Rev. Dr. Roe B. Lewis, of
Phoenix, Arizona. Lewis, a Pima-Papago, is cited for his
efforts in educational counseling for Indians.
     1972: A decision is given which says North Dakota
cannot tax Indians on reservation.
     1979: The Acting Deputy Commission of Indian Affairs
authorizes an election for a new constitution for the
Skokomish Indian Tribe. The election is held on January 15, 1980.

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     September 8:    
     1535: Cartier reaches Stadacone, where the modern
city Quebec is located.
     1565: Pedro Menendez de Aviles, accompanied by 1,500
soldiers and colonists establishes the town of St.
Augustine, Florida. St. Augustine is the oldest constantly
occupied European town in the United States. To secure
his foothold in the area, de Aviles attacks the French
settlements on the nearby St. Johns River.
     1598: Juan de Oñate, and his nephew and second in
command, Vincente de Zaldivar, complete, and dedicate a
church called San Gabriel, north of present day Espanola,
New Mexico. Other sources say the church is called San
Juan Bautist.
     1755: The Battle of Lake George is fought between
French and Indian forces under the command of Ludwig
August Dieskau and Mohawk war chief, King Hendrick, and
British and Colonial troops under Sir William Johnson
     1756: Colonel John Armstrong, leads approximately
300 Pennsylvania soldiers against the Delaware village
of Kittanning, in retaliation for their attack on Fort
Granville on July 30th. Delaware Chief, Captain Jacob,
is trapped in his house. He is ordered to surrender,
and he refuses. His house is set on fire, and he is
burned to death. Armstrong estimates Delaware losses at
40 killed, and his own at 18. He recovers many English
prisoners.
     1779: General John Sullivan's force of 4500 men
continue their retaliatory strikes against suspected
pro-British Indian villages. They destroy Canadasaga,
Kittanning and other nearby villages in New York.
     1815: William Henry Harrison, Duncan McArthur, and
John Graham, representing the United States, and the
Delaware, Miami, Seneca, Shawnee, and Wyandot tribes
signed a treaty (7 stat. 131) ending the warfare in the
area. The treaty is signed near Detroit at Spring Wells,
Michigan.
     1865: A grand council of the formerly pro-Union,
and pro-Confederacy Indians is held at Fort Smith,
Arkansas. The newly appointed Commissioner of Indian
Affairs, Dennis N. Cooley, chairs the meeting. Most of
the Indians are told that they have forfeited their lands,
and annuities by their traitorous support of the south.
Each tribe has to plead its case for mercy.
     1867: According to army records, members of the
First Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the
Silver River in Oregon. Two soldiers are wounded. Twenty
three Indians are killed, and fourteen are captured
     1868: Captain Henry Bankhead, commander of Fort
Wallace, reports twenty-five Indians killed and scalped
two citizens near Sheridan (near modern Winona), Kansas.
Indians also stole seventy-six horses and mules from
Clark's wagon train on Turkey Creek.
     1868: Lieutenant David Wallingford, Seventh Cavalry,
arrives to help a wagon train of fifty men and thirty-
five wagons, who have been fighting Indians for the last
four days at Cimmaron Crossing. Two men have been killed,
and the Indians escape with seventy-five head of cattle.
Five miles to the west, the soldiers discover the remnants
of another wagon train. Fifteen men in this train are
burned to death.
     1876: An army advance guard under Captain Miles
captures American Horse and his band of Teton Sioux at
Slim Buttes, South Dakota.
     1872: Elements of Company E, Fifth Cavalry, are
engaging "hostile Apaches" at Date Creek in Arizona.
Sergeant Frank E. Hill manages to "secure the person of
a hostile Apache Chief, although while holding the Chief
he is severely wounded in the back by another Indian." For
his actions, Hill will be awarded the Congressional Medal
of Honor.
     1877: Sixth Cavalry soldiers and some Indian scouts
fight a group of Indians near the San Francisco River in
New Mexico. According to army documents, twelve Indians
are killed, and thirteen are captured. The fighting lasts
through September 10th.
     1880: At Fort Keogh, in eastern Montana, Big Road,
and 200 Sioux surrender.
     1883: In Bismarck, Dakota, the Northern Pacific
Railroad celebrates the completion of their
transcontinental railroad line. They invite Sitting
Bull to make a speech to welcome the dignitaries at
the celebration, as a representative of the Indians.
Sitting Bull, speaking through an interpreter, instead
says the whites are liars and thieves, and he hates all
of them, while smiling throughout the entire speech. The
shocked interpreter, a young army officer, delivers the
planned speech, instead of Sitting Bull's real words.
Sitting Bull is a great success, and receives a standing
ovation. Railroad officials ask Sitting Bull to make
additional speeches elsewhere based on his reception
today.
     1909: The confines of the Robinson Rancheria in
California are modified.
     1960: The United States Solicitor sends Senator Mike
Mansfield a memo. The Solicitor has determined that county
officials are not allowed to charge four Indians of the
Flathead Reservation personal property taxes. The four
men work for the Montana Power Company at the Federal
Kerr Dam on the reservation. The county has tried to
collect personal property taxes on the men because, while
their job is on reservation land, it is not reservation
related.
     1970: The Ramah Chapter of Navajo Indians, in western
New Mexico, establish their own independent school board
after the local public school is closed.
     1972: The Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, consisting of
the Chippewa Indians of the White Earth, Leech Lake, Fond
du Lac, Bois Forte (Nett Lake) and Grand Portage
Reservations, vote to approve several amendments to their
constitution by average margins of 1,500 to 300.


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     September 9:    
     426: Yax K’uk Mo establishes a Maya dynesty at Copán,
Honduras.
     435: Maya King Casper ascends to the throne in
Palenque, Mexico.
     1598: Juan de Oñate summons the Chiefs from the
local Pueblos, and makes them swear oaths of allegiance
to god, and the King of Spain. New Mexico is divided
into parishes by the Franciscans as well.
     1836: Alexander Le Grand is appointed by Texas
leader David Burnet as Indian Commissioner. He is charged
with negotiating a peace treaty with the Comanches and
the Kiowas.
     1837: Seminole Chief Philip is captured. He, and a
few family members, are transported to St. Augustine,
Florida.
     1849: The United States and the a few Navajo sign
a treaty (9 stat.974). Mariano Martinez and Chapitone
are among the Navajos who sign the treaty.
     1850: The “Robinson Treaty with the Ojibewa Indians
of Lake Huron Conveying Certain Lands to the Crown” is
signed in Canada.
     1850: The Navajo treaty (9 stat.974) signed on
September 9, 1849 is ratified.
     1868: Indians kill six people and burn a ranch
between Fort Wallace and Sheridan (near modern Winona),
western Kansas. The ranch house had been burned two weeks
ago, and is rebuilt.
     1868: Army records indicate that members of the
Eighth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians on the Tonto
Plateau in Arizona. Two Indians are killed, and four are
captured.
     1871: Cherokee leader Stand Waite dies.
     1872: When Lone Wolf is asked to go to Washington to
discuss the Government's plans for the Kiowa's Reservation,
he insists that he councils with Satanta and Big Tree
first. They are in prison in Texas for their participation
in the fighting on the Butterfield Trail on May 18, 1871.
After heated negotiations with Texas officials, the U.S.
got permission to take Satanta and Big Tree to Saint Louis,
a place with few Indians, to meet Lone Wolf. They leave
the prison in Huntsville, Texas.
     1873: The confines of the Swinomish Reservation
in Washington are established by Executive Order.
     1874: Captain Wyllys Lyman, and sixty men from the
Fifth Infantry, are escorting a supply wagon train for
Colonel Nelson Miles at the Washita River, Indian Territory
(present day Oklahoma), when they are attacked by Indians.
The soldiers remain barricaded for several days, until
relief arrives from Camp Supply, in the panhandle of Indian
Territory. One soldier is killed, three other whites,
including Lieutenant Granville Lewis, are wounded during
the fight. First Sergeant John Mitchell, Sergeants William
de Armond, Fred S. Hay, George Kitchen, John Knox, William
Koelpin and Frederick Neilon, Corporals John James, John
J. H. Kelly, and William Morris, and Private Thomas Kelly,
Company I, will earn the Congressional Medal of Honor for
"gallantry in action" during this engagement. Some sources
list this as occurring on September10th.
     1876: Nez Perce Chief Joseph talks with Major Wood.
The deadline to surrender passes.
     1876: Captain Anson Mills, and 150 men from : Second,
Third and Fifth Cavalry and Fourth, Ninth and Fourteenth
Infantry soldiers, attack American Horse’s village of
thirty-seven lodges, at Slim Buttes, Dakota, early this
morning without warning. The entire village is captured.
One soldier is killed, and seven are wounded. Five
Indians are killed, including American Horse. Numerous
personal items from the soldiers of the Seventh Cavalry
are discovered in the camp, including a pair of gloves
belonging to Colonel Myles Keogh. After the initial
morning victory, Indians from nearby villages gather, and
attack the soldiers, who have been reinforced by General
George Crook's main force. Seven soldiers are wounded in
the later fighting, including . Lt. A.H. Von Luettwitz.
One white scout, and one soldier are killed. According to
army reports, seven or eight Indians are killed in the
second fight. Sergeant John Kirkwood and Private Robert
Smith, Company M, will be awarded the Congressional Medal
of Honor because they..."bravely endeavored to dislodge
some Sioux Indians secreted in a ravine."
     1876: “Treaty 6 Between Her Majesty The Queen and
The Plain and Wood Cree Indians and Other Tribes of
Indians at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt and Battle River with
Adhesions” is signed in Canada.
     1877: Fleeing from the army through the Yellowstone
area, the Nez Perce Indians change direction to Clark's
Fork Canyon.
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/2003f.html
     1878: According to army reports, on this night,
eighty-nine Northern Cheyenne men, 112 women, and 134
children, abandon their lodges, and escape from the
Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency at Fort Reno, in central
Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Dull Knife,
Wild Hog, and Little Wolf are some of the leaders of
the escapees. They are attempting to return to their
old homelands to the north.
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/2003p.html
     1881: Crazy Horse's family takes his body for
burial.
     1891: Two Kickapoo Chiefs, chosen to accompany
Americans to the Capitol to obtain some money owed to
them, are forced, in their words, to sign an "agreement"
by Secretary of the Interior John W. Noble. This
agreement sells the United States, the Kickapoo's
"surplus lands" at thirty cents an acre. Many forgeries,
and the signatures of dead Indians, and signatures of
fictitious Indians are added to the agreement. Congress
approves the agreement on March 30, 1893.
     1946: The Constitution and Bylaws of the Nisqually
Indian Community of the Nisqually Reservation Washington
are approved by Girard Davidson Assistant Secretary of
the Interior.
     1989: The Cherokee Tribal Council makes a change
in the official tribal flag. A seven-pointed black star
is added to the upper right corner as a reminder of the
Cherokees who lose their lives on the "Trail of Tears."

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     September 10:    
     655: Another war by Balam Ahaw of Tortuguero is
started according to Mayan records.
    1683: Susquehanna Chief Kekelappan sells William Penn
half of his lands between the Susquehanna and the
Delaware River.
     1753: The Winchester Conference begins with
representatives of the Delaware and Iroquois Indians.
     1782: A force of forty British Rangers and 250
Indians attack the fort built in Wheeling, Virginia
(now West Virginia). None of the soldiers are killed
on either side. A few Indians die in the fighting. Some
historians feel this is the last battle of the American
Revolutionary war.
     1791: Today marks the start of some major fort
construction projects in the Ohio Valley.
     1836: The Sioux of Wahashaw’s Tribe sign a treaty
(7 stat. 510).
     1853: A treaty (10 stat. 1018) with the Rogue River
Indians is signed by Indians at Table Rock.
     1864: Major E.W. Wynkoop meets with Cheyenne and
Arapaho chiefs, including Black Kettle to discuss the
release of prisoners.
     1866: Soldiers from the Eighteenth Infantry fight
with a band of Indians near Fort Phil Kearny in Dakota
Territory through September 16th. The army reports two
enlisted men are killed and two are wounded. The soldiers
are led by Captain William J. Fetterman.
     1867: According to army records, members of the
Fourth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Live
Oak Creek, Texas. No injuries are reported on either
side.
     1868: Settlements along the Purgatorie (sic) River
are attacked by Indians. Captain William Penrose, and
Third Infantry troops from Fort Lyon, in southeastern
Colorado, arrive at the scene, and pursue the marauders.
The army catches up to the Indians at Rule Creek, Colorado.
Four Indians and two soldiers are killed in the fight.
Five army horses die from exhaustion due to the pursuit.
Four miles east of Lake Station, Indians shoot at a stage.
     1868: Army records indicate that members of the
Eighth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the
Lower Aqua Fria in Arizona. Four Indians are killed, and
three are captured.
     1872: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from
the Second Cavalry between Beaver Creek and Sweet Water,
Wyoming, according to official army records. One Indian
is wounded. The fighting lasts through the 13th.
     1874: Captain Wyllys Lyman, and sixty men from the
Fifth Infantry, are escorting a supply wagon train for
Colonel Nelson Miles at the Washita River, Indian
Territory (present day Oklahoma), when they are attacked
by Indians. The soldiers remain barricaded for several
days, until relief arrives from Camp Supply, in the
panhandle of Indian Territory. One soldier is killed,
three other whites, including Lieutenant Granville Lewis,
are wounded during the fight. First Sergeant John
Mitchell, Sergeants William de Armond, Fred S. Hay,
George Kitchen, John Knox, William Koelpin and Frederick
Neilon, Corporals John James, John J. H. Kelly, and
William Morris, and Private Thomas Kelly, Company I,
will earn the Congressional Medal of Honor for "gallantry
in action" during this engagement. Some sources list this
as occurring on September 9th.
     1877: Sixth Cavalry soldiers and some Indian scouts
fight a group of Indians near the San Francisco River in
New Mexico. According to army documents, twelve Indians
are killed, and thirteen are captured. The fighting started
on September 8th.
     1879: Settlers soldiers fight a group of Indians
near McEver’s Ranch and Arroyo Seco, New Mexico. According
to army documents, nine citizens are killed.
     1879: White River Utes Agent, N.C. Meeker, writes to
the Governor of Colorado requesting troops. Meeker believes
the lives of settlers are in grave danger. He requests
for the Governor, General John Pope, and Colorado Senator
Teller confer on the matter. Meeker wants, at least, 100
troops to be sent, post haste, to his locale.
     1885: According to a marker in the Fort Bowie
cemetary in Arizona, Geronimo’s two year old son Little
Robe dies.
     I948: The Assistant Secretary of the Interior has
authorized an election to approve a Constitution and By-
Laws for the Organized Village of Holikachuk, Alaska. It
is passed by a vote of 21 to 0.
     1967: An election to approve amendments to the
Constitution and Bylaws for the Kashia Band of Pomo Indians
of the Stewarts Point Rancheria is held. They are approved
by a majority of the thirty-seven people voting.
     1974: An amendment is made to the Fort Berthold
Reservation Constitution.
     1982: Amendments XII, XIII and XIV to the
Constitution and Bylaws of the Lac Du Flambeau Band of
Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin are approved
and becomes effective.

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     September 11:    
     600: The eventual Maya King of Calukmal, Yuknoom The
Great, is born.
     693: As part of a series of attacks on neighboring
cities in Guatemala, Maya warriors from Naranjo attack
Tuub'al.
     1609: Explorer Henry Hudson arrives at the "Hudson"
River.
     1855: A treaty is signed between the United States
and the Mohuache Band of Utah Indians.
     1856: Lasting through the 17th, the second Walla Walla
conference begins.
     1858: Colonel Miles, with five companies of soldiers,
and fifty Mexicans, enter the Canyon de Chelly, in north
eastern Arizona. The Navajos have not produced the Fort
Defiance murderer of July 12, 1858. In fact, the Navajos
have tried to pass off a killed Mexican prisoner as the
sought for Navajo. The soldiers kill a few Navajos in the
canyon. The soldiers camp in the canyon that night. The
Navajos launch an ineffectual attack from the canyon walls.
A captured Navajo convinces the other Navajos to stop the
attack.
     1868: Indians steal eighty-one head of cattle at
Lake Creek from Clarke and Company hay contractors.
     1868: Army records indicate that members of the
Eighth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the Rio
Verde in Arizona. Five Indians are killed.
     1868: Army records indicate that members of the
Seventh Cavalry and Third Infantry, under Lt. Colonel
Alfred Sully, fight with a band of Indians near the Sand
Hills in Indian Territory. The fighting lasts through
September 15th. Three soldiers and twenty-two Indians are
killed. Five soldiers and twelve Indians are wounded.
     1874: Two scouts, and four soldiers, acting as
couriers between Colonel Nelson Miles, and Major William
Price are attacked by Indians near the Washita River, in
Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). During a two-day
fight, four of the six are wounded, one mortally. Troops
rescue the survivors, tomorrow. Sergeant Josiah Pennsyl,
Company M, Sixth Cavalry, will be awarded the Congressional
Medal of Honor for his actions during the fighting.
     1877: General Howard finds the Nez Perce trail and
joins Sturgis' forces.
     1881: Because of his actions in a battle near Fort
Apache, Private First Class Will C. Barnes, Signal Corps,
will eventually be awarded the Congressional Medal of
Honor for "bravery in action."
     1893: The territory of the Hoh Indian Reservation is
set aside by an Executive Order.

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     September 12:    
     379: Maya King Yax Nuun Ayiin I (Curl Nose) takes the
throne of Tikal, Guatemala. He is quite young.
     640: Palenque Maya Lady Zac - Kuk dies according to
the Palenque museum.
     1609: Henry Hudson arrives at the Bay of New York.
     1675: After Sunday services, English settlers are
going from the Deerfield meetinghouse to facilities in
Stockwell. A group of Pocumtucks attack them, killing
one man. The Pocumtucks quickly disappear into the
surrounding countryside.
     1675: In Maine, according to settlers’ records, the
Abenaki attack John Wakely’s farmhouse in Falmouth. Seven
people are killed, two are taken captive.
     1815: The Osage sign a treaty (7 stat. 133) at Portage
des Sioux..
     1862: Little Crow writes to Colonel Sibley again. He
says he has been treating his white prisoners kindly, and
he wants to know how they can end the fighting. Sibley only
replys that not giving up the white captives is not the
way to peace.
     1868: General Nichols while traveling to Fort Reynolds,
in southeastern Colorado, is attacked by Indians. His escort
runs them off. The Indians then steal 85 head of cattle near
Bent's Old Fort, and four more from a ranch near Point of
Rocks.
     1869: Troops acting as an escort to a wagon train,
skirmish with Indians near Laramie Peak, Wyoming. One
soldier is wounded, and another is killed.
     1874: Major William Price, and three troops of
the Sixth Cavalry with a few "mountain howitzers", have
a battle with a sizable group of Indians between the
Sweetwater and the Dry Fork of the Washita River, in
Texas. Two Indians are reported killed, and six wounded.
Fourteen of the cavalry's mounts are killed or wounded.
Twenty of the Indians horses are captured. Army scouts
Amos Chapman and William Dixon will be awarded the
Congressional Medal of Honor for "gallantry in action."
In a related action, Private John Harrington, Company H,
is transporting dispatches from the battle scene when he,
and several other couriers, are attacked by 125 Indians.
"He was severely wounded in the hip and unable to move.
He continued to fight, defending an exposed dying man."
For his actions, Private Harrington would be awarded the
Congressional Medal of Honor. Private Peter Roth,
Company A, Corporal Edward Sharpless, Company H, Private
George W. Smith, Company M, and Sergeant Zachariah Woodall,
Company I, would also earn the country's highest award
during the same fight. Private Smith will succumb to his
wounds the next day. This is sometimes called ”The
Buffalo Wallow Fight.”
     1878: Lieutenant H.S. Bishop, with thirty troopers,
and a few Shoshone scouts, attack a band of Bannock
Indians on the Big Wind or the Dry Fork of the Snake River,
southwest of Yellowstone Lake, in Wyoming. One Indian is
killed, and seven are captured during the fighting. The
captive say they are from the Boise Reservation, and have
escaped from the fight on September 4, 1878 on Clark's
Fork with Colonel Miles. While the army reports eleven
Indians killed, the captives say the correct figure is 28.
This is the last significant battle of the Bannock War.
According to an official government report, forty whites,
and seventy-eight Indians are killed during the war.
     1928: The Secretary of the Interior approves the
allotment rolls of the Mission Creek Band of Indians from
Mission Creek, California according to their Constitution.
     1936: The Secretary of the Interior, Harold Ickes,
authorizes an election to approve a Constitution and
Bylaws for the Quileute Tribe of Washington. The election
is held on October 10, 1936.
     1965: The Assistant Secretary of the Interior has
authorized an election to approve an amendment to the
Constitution and By-Laws of the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians
of Florida. Twenty-seven vote in favor, two voter against.
     1969: The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe of
the Flathead Reservation pass a resolution prohibiting the
hunting or killing of Mountain Sheep.

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     September 13:    
     1700: According to some sources, a land cession
agreement is reached between representatives of the
Susquehannock Indians and Pennsylvania.
     1759: The Battle of Quebec takes place. The French
lose.
     1794: A force of 550 Kentucky and Tennessee Militia,
led by Major James Ore, attacks the Chickamauga village
of Nickajack on the Tennessee River. Many women and
children are captured. Seventy braves are killed,
including the village Chief "The Breath." Ore's forces
torches most of the village after the fighting.
     1815: William Clark, Auguste Chouteau, Ninian
Edwards hold a conference at Portage des Sioux, Missouri
(St. Charles County). They get Missouri Sauk and Foxes
to promise not to join up with the Rock Island Sauks or
to fight the U.S.
     1868: Army records indicate that members of the
Eighth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians on the
Dragoon Fork of the Verde River. In Arizona. soldiers
Indians are killed, wounded, and captured.
     1871: Indians skirmish with a group of settlers
near Tucson, Arizona, according to official army records.
Two settlers are killed.
     1872: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from
the Second Cavalry between Beaver Creek and Sweet Water,
Wyoming, according to official army records. One Indian
is wounded. The fighting started on the 10th.
     1873: Part of the Ute Reservation goes to the U.S..
     1877 First and Seventh Cavalry soldiers, under
Colonel S.D. Sturgis, fight a group of Nez Perce Indians
near Canyon Creek, Montana, west of Billings, Montana.
According to army documents, three soldiers and twenty-
one Indians are killed. Captain T.H. French and ten
soldiers are wounded.
     1878: Dull Knife, and his Northern Cheyenne
followers, have left their reservation in Indian Territory
(present day Oklahoma). They are heading back to their
old homelands. They cross the Cimarron River, 150 miles
north of Fort Reno, near Turkey Springs in central
Indian Territory, and establish a camp in some canyons.
A group of Arapahos, talk with Dull Knife, and tell
him the nearby soldiers want them to return to the
reservation. Dull Knife refuses, and the soldiers attack.
The Indians have the best strategic positions, and they
pin down the soldiers. After making their escape, the
Cheyennes are pursued along their entire northward journey.
     1890: First Cavalry soldiers fight a group of Indians
on the Tongue River Agency in Montana. According to army
documents, two Indians are killed.
     1984: Activist Dennis Banks surrenders.

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     September 14:    
     1712: French King Louis XIV grants exclusive trade and governmental
rights in Louisiana for fifteen years to rich,
merchant Antoine Crozat, Marquis de Chatel.
     1726: According to some sources, a land cession
agreement is reached by representatives of Great Britain
and the Cayuga, Onondaga and the Seneca Indians.
     1755: Last month, Virginia Governor Robert Dinwiddie
appointed George Washington Commander in Chief of all forces
in Virginia. The Governor orders him to establish his base
of operations in northern Virginia in Winchester. Today,
Washington arrives in Winchester. The villagers are either
preparing for war with the local Indians, or they are in
the process of moving to a safer area. Next year,
Washington begins the construction of Fort Loudoun in
Winchester.
     1758: British Major James Grant attacks the apparently
lightly defended French Fort Duquesne with 800 soldiers.
However, the French have set a trap by hide a large force
of soldiers and Indian warriors. The French and Indians
defeat the British with Major Grant and 107 of his soldiers
taken prisoner. 270 British are killed and a little more
than forty are wounded in the fighting. The French and
Indians losses are substantially less.
     1763: Senecas fight with a supply wagon train just
south of Niagara, as part of the Pontiac Rebellion. The
train is carrying supplies from Fort Schlosser to Fort
Niagara. One source cites this as the worst defeat of the
war for the army.
     1777: Spanish Governor Galvez issues an act, in New
Orleans. He orders the military, and Spanish subjects to
"respect the rights of these Indians in the lands they
occupy and to protect them in the possession thereof."
     1779: General John Sullivan, and his force of 4500
American soldiers continue their attack on suspected pro-
British Indian villages in New York. They strike
Gathtsegwarohare on the Genesee River. After destroying
most of the village, Sullivan's troops move on to other
villages. In all of his battles since August, he loses
only forty men.
     1780: Creek and British forces, under British Creek
Indian Superintendent Thomas Browne, have captured Augusta,
Georgia. A force of 500 Americans attempt to retake the
town. The Creeks sustain severe losses.
     1814: A force of British soldiers and Red Stick
Creeks Creek Indians, led by Captain George Woodbine,
attack Mobile, Alabama. Although they have four war ships
at their disposal, the American forces holds out until
the British and Creek force give up the fight.
     1815: The Fox sign a treaty (7 stat. 135) at Portage
des Sioux.
     1816: This treaty (7 stat. 148) cedes the Cherokee
lands in Muscle Shoals and Great Bend areas of northern
Alabama for $11,000 annual payments for ten years. It is
signed at the Chickasaw Council House.
     1858: Colonel Miles has moved out of the Canyon de
Chelly twelve miles to an area where the Navajos keep
their flocks of sheep. Miles' soldiers have captured 6000
of the sheep. The Navajos attack Miles' camp, but it is
only a minor engagement. The troops return to the fort
tomorrow. There will continue to be minor skirmishes
during the next several months.
     1859: Robert S. Neighbors has a great deal of respect
for Indians. He served as an Indian Agent for both the
Republic of Texas, and the United States. His compassion
for the Indians made him an enemy to many Texans who
hated Indians. Neighbors is murdered for being an "Indian-
lover" by Edward Cornett at Fort Belknap.
     1866: Soldiers from the First Cavalry fight with a
band of Indians near Camp Wilson in Oregon. The army
reports one Indian is killed, and one is captured.
     1868: Army records indicate that members of the Ninth
Cavalry fight with a band of Indians in the Horse Head
Hills of Texas. One soldiers is wounded and two Indians
are killed.
     1869: Army records indicate that members of the
Second Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Popo
Agie, Wyoming. Two soldiers and seven Indians are wounded.
Two Indians are killed.
     1869: James Camp, and Private John Holt, Company K,
Seventh Cavalry, are killed by Indians near the Little
Wind River, Wyoming. On the Popoagie River, Wyoming,
Lieutenant Charles Stambaugh, and Troop D, Second Cavalry
skirmish with Indians. Two soldiers, and two Indians are
killed. Ten Indians are wounded in the fight.
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/2003g.html
     1876: Fifth Cavalry soldiers fight some Indians on
Owl Creek (Belle Fourche River) in Dakota Territory.
According to army documents, one soldier is killed.
     1878: Fourth Cavalry soldiers fight a group of Indians
near Red Hill, Indian Territory. According to army documents,
one soldier is killed.
     1961: An Act (75 tat. 505) is passed by Congress to
“authorize the exchange of lands for the Pueblo Indians.
Title to lands acquired will be in trust status.”
     1970: An election to approve a Constitution and
By-Laws for the San Pasqual Band of Mission (Diegueno)
Indians in the San Pasqual Reservation is authorized by
the Acting Assistant Commissioner of Indian Affairs. The
election is held on November 29, 1970.
     1975: An amendment to the Constitution and Bylaws
of the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester
Rancheria is approved in an election by a vote of 60 to 4.
     1989: The Post Office issues a Sitting Bull stamp.
     Every: (through the 15th) Jicarilla Apache fair.

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     September 15:
     320: According to the Leyden Plaque, which is made
of jade, a Maya leader in Tikal (Guatemala) takes office.
     629: Maya King Bird Jaguar III takes the throne in
Yaxchilan, Mexico.
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/mexico17.html
     1655: Esopus Indians attack New Amsterdam in sixty-four
war canoes. This retaliatory raid is for the killing of an
Indian woman by a settler for stealing peaches. It is called
"The Peach War" by many, and casualties are slight on both
sides as the Dutch drive the Indians out of the settlement.
Leaving New Amsterdam, the Indians attack Staten Island and
the Pavonia settlements in modern Jersey City, New Jersey.
Here the casualties are considerably higher. Fifty settlers
are killed, and almost 100 are captured.
     1797: The Seneca sign a treaty with Robert Morris, and
Jeremiah Wadsworth, on the Genesee River, in Ontario County,
New York, to get a two square mile piece of the Tuscarora
Reservation
     1830: Secretary of War John Eaton, and John Coffee,
arrive at Dancing Rabbit Creek to talk to the Choctaws about
selling their lands, and moving west. They tell the Choctaws
that the Federal government cannot stop state laws that
require them to move. They also tell the Choctaws that if
they resist, the white armies will outnumber them.
     1832: The Winnebago sign a treaty (7 stat.370).
     1858: The Butterfield Overland Mail route begins
operation from St. Louis, Missouri and Memphis, Tennessee,
through Fort Smith, Arkansas, to San Francisco, California.
Contrary to many movie storylines, the mail is attacked by
the Apaches only one time.
     1868: Approximately 100 Indians attack Tenth Cavalry
troops led by Captain George Graham on the Big Sandy Creek,
Colorado. The troops claim eleven Indians killed, and
fourteen wounded, while only sustaining seven injuries
themselves.
     1868: Army records indicate that members of the Seventh
Cavalry and Third Infantry, under Lt. Colonel Alfred Sully,
fight with a band of Indians near the Sand Hills in Indian
Territory. The fighting started on through September 11th.
Three soldiers and twenty-two Indians are killed. Five
soldiers and twelve Indians are wounded.
     1869: Lieutenant J.H. Spencer, leading Company B,
Fourth Infantry, is attacked by 300 Indians near Whiskey
Gap, Wyoming. One soldier is captured, and presumed dead.
     1874: “Treaty 4 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The
Cree and Saulteaux Tribe of Indians at the Qu’appelle and
Fort Ellice” is signed in Canada.
     1876: Troop F, Ninth Cavalry, under Captain Henry
Carroll, fight with Indians in the Florida Mountain of New
Mexico. One Indian is killed, and one soldier is wounded.
Eleven head of livestock are recovered.
     1884: Sitting Bull appears at Eden Musee in New York
City.
     1903: By Executive Order, the Fort McDowell Indian
Reservation is established, northeast of Phoenix, Arizona.
It covers 24,680 acres, and be home to Yavapai, Mohave-
Apache and Apache Indians.
     1976: An amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws
of the Manzanita Band of Mission Indians is ratified.

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     September 16:    
     1684: Naumkeag Indian, and son of fomrer Sachem
Wenepoykin, James Quannapowit petitioned the English of
Marblehead Massachusetts on July 14, 1684. He complained
they were givng out lands which rightfully belonged to him.
A deed is finally signed by all parties in order for the
English to hold “rightful title” to the land.
     1804: A Navajo war party attacks the village of
Cebolleta in northwestern New Mexico. The war party of
500 to 1,000 Navajos find the village's three foot thick,
ten foot high wall difficult to breach. After a four day
siege, with numerous casualties on both sides, the Navajos
leave the area. The thirty Spanish families who have
settled the village in 1800 see many more raids in the
future.
     1815: The Iowa sign a peace treaty (7 stat.136) at
Portage des Sioux (modern St. Charles County, Missouri).
The United States is represented by William Clark,
Ninian Edwards and Auguste Choteau.
     1850: In a letter to the President of the United
States, Senator John Fremont states Spanish law gave
Indians rights to their lands. He feels the United States
has to enact some laws to revoke the Indians' rights.
Under the treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, the United States
agreed to recognize Spanish land titles in the newly
acquired California.
     1867: According to army records, members of the
Fourth Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Fort
Inge, Texas. No injuries are reported on either side.
     1867: The Tenth Cavalry fights with a group of
Indians near the Salinas River in Kansas. Two civilians
are killed, and one soldier is wounded, according to
army records.
     1869: Army records indicate that members of the
Ninth Cavalry and the Forty-First Infantry fight with
a band of Indians near Salt Fork of the Brazos River in
Texas. Three soldiers are wounded.
     1878: According to a report by Lieutenant Colonel
William Lewis, of Fort Dodge, in southwestern Kansas,
Dull Knife and his 300 plus followers have been seen
raiding local ranches near Bluff Creek, Indian Territory
(present day Oklahoma).
     1879: Tenth Cavalry and Twenty-Fifth Infantry
soldiers fight a group of Indians in the Van Horn
Mountains, in west Texas. According to army documents,
no casualties are reported.
     1879: The Secretary of War orders the military to
send troops to the White River Ute Agency, to protect
the local (white) inhabitants, and to arrest the Indians
instigating troubles in the region.
     1893: 100,000 people participate in the "run" for
land in the recently purchased Cherokee Strip of Indian
Territory (present day Oklahoma). The Cherokees were
pressured into selling the land to the Federal Government.
     1974: An United States Court dismisses the charges
Dennis Banks, and Russell Means, for their activities at
the Wounded Knee, South Dakota, occupation. The judge
cited that the F.B.I. has "lied and suborned purjury"
during the trial.
     1974: Raymond Lightfoot, Area Director of the
Minneapolis Office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs,
authorizes an election for an amendment to the
Constitution of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians
of Minnesota.

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     September 17:    
     1718: According to some sources, a land cession
agreement is reached by representatives of the Delaware
Indians and Pennsylvania.
     1778: The Delaware sign a treaty (7 stat. 13). Delaware
Principal Chief Koquethagechton (White Eyes) is appointed
as a Colonel at the treaty signing. He works to see the
Delaware Nation become the 14th American State. The treaty
is signed in Pittsburgh, by three Chiefs: White Eyes, The
Pipe, and John Killbuck, and Andrew and Thomas Lewis.
     1799: Commissioners have established a camp at the
juncture of the Flint and the Chattahoochee Rivers in
Creek territory. They are there to eventually draw a
treaty line through Creek lands. During the summer many
Creeks have visited the camp to complain of the land
cession. Chief Hopoheilthle Micco, and some Tallassee
followers, attack the camp. They steal supplies and insult
the commissioners. Later, Creek Chiefs beat the Tallassee
Chief to death for his actions.
     1812: After a series of raids into Georgia, a local
militia led by Colonel Daniel Newnan, enters Spanish held
Florida looking for Seminoles. They start a running battle
with the Alachua Band of Seminoles led by King Payne. This
fight lasts until the militia is reinforced on October
11th.
     1818: Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur, representing
the United States, sign a treaty (7 stat. 178) with the
Ottawa, Seneca, Shawnee, and Wyandot tribes on the St.
Mary’s River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The treaty covers
reservation boundaries and annuities.
     1836: According to a treaty (7 stat. 511), the
Missouri Sac and Fox and Iowa tribes are given the
following lands: "the small strip of land on the south
side of the Missouri River, lying between the Kickapoo
northern boundary line and the Grand Nemahaw River, and
extending from the Missouri back and westwardly with the
said Kickapoo line and the Grand Nemahaw, making 400
sections, to be divided between the said Iowas and Missouri
Sacs and Foxes; the upper half to the Iowas, the lower half
to the Sacs and Foxes." Years later, much of this land is
ceded back to the U.S.
     1851: The "Fort Laramie Treaty" (15 stat. 635) is
signed by more tribes. The area mentioned eventually covers
1,382.5 square miles and be occupied by "Arikara, Grosventre
and Mandan" Indians. It is called the Fort Berthold
Reservation.
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/2003p.html
     1858: Colonel George Wright meets with some Coeur
d’Alene Chiefs at the Sacred Heart Mission to sign the
first of a series of peace and friendship treaties.
     1868: In Colorado, Brevet Colonel G.A. Forsyth (Ninth
Cavalry), and fifty scouts are following the trail of
Indians who have been marauding near Sheridan City. As
they approach the "Arickaree" Fork of the Republican River,
they are attacked by 700 Indians. The soldiers move to an
island which is 125 yards long by fifty yards wide. The
army claims killing thirty-five Indians, while losing only
six, including Lieutenant F.H. Beecher and Surgeon Moore.
Forsyth, and his men live on horseflesh until the 25th,
when a relief column of “buffalo soldiers” arrives. Roman
Nose dies in the fighting. This is called the "Battle of
Beecher's Island" by the soldiers.
     1868: Indians attack and burn Ellis Station in Kansas,
killing one station employee in the process. The Saline
settlements are attacked again. The Indians are driven
off by Seventh Cavalry troops. Three miles from Fort
Bascom, in eastern New Mexico, Indians kill a herder, and
steal his thirty mules. Troops from the fort pursue the
Indians for 125 miles, but cannot catch them.
     1868: Army records indicate that settlers fight with
a group of Indians near Fort Bascom, New Mexico. One
settler is killed, and one is wounded.
     1869: Indians steal a some livestock, and soldiers
from Fort Stanton, in central New Mexico, pursue them.
The soldiers follow a trail to an Indian village, which
the subsequently destroy. In the process, three Indians
are wounded. No one is killed. At Point of Rocks, Wyoming,
a stagecoach is attacked, and the driver is killed. On
Twin Creek, in Wyoming, soldiers escorting the mail are
attacked and pursued into the mountains by Indians.
     1877: Colonel Miles gets order to cut off the Nez
Perce's attempt to reach Canada.
     1878: Indian scouts for the army fight a group of
Indians near Bear Creek, New Mexico. According to army
documents, one soldier and two Indians are killed.
     1879: According to a report by Major Albert Morrow,
Ninth Cavalry, Indians fight settlers in the Black Range
near Hillsboro, New Mexico. "Hostiles" kill ten citizens,
and seize all of their livestock.
     1884: Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas, is
dedicated for educating Indian youth.
     1966: According to newspaper story in the Washington
Post, “a flaming meteorite lit up the skies across the
north central United States last night, frightening hundreds
of persons who saw it before it broke up in bits of smoking
debris over northern Indiana.” The meteorite causes a few
small fires, as well. According to another source, "On New
York State's official "Indian Day,” Sept. 17, 1966, the
Hopi delegation journeyed to the Tuscarora Reserve to join
the assembled seventeen Indian Tribes and guests from all
over the world. Many had asked for a sign and several
expressed that hope audibly. It came that evening about
8:35 in the form of a tremendous rose-colored fireball
lighting the scene as though by day, streaking across the
sky above them."
     1975: The Area Director of the Sacramento Area Office
of the Bureau of Indian Affairs ratifies an amendment to
the Constitution and Bylaws of the Manchester Band of Pomo
Indians of the Manchester Rancheria.
     1975: Morris Thompson, Commissioner of Indian Affairs,
ratifies an amendment to the constitution of the Minnesota
Chippewa Tribe, consisting of the Chippewa Indians of the
White Earth, Leech Lake, Fond du Lac, Bois Forte (Nett
Lake) and Grand Portage Reservations.
     1975: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Morris
Thompson, ratifies a Constitution and By-Laws for the
Sauk-Suiattle Indian Tribe

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     September 18:    
     524: Maya King Kan B'alam I (Great Sun Snake Jaguar)
is born. Eventually, he rules over Palenque, Mexico.
     1675: After several raids by King Philip's Indians,
Deerfield, in central Massachusetts, is abandoned. Eighty
residents, under Captain Lathrop, from Ipswich, in eastern
Massachusetts, ride over to Deerfield to harvest several
fields of grain. On their way home, the Europeans stop for
a rest at a small brook. They are attacked by several
hundred Indians, who have been following them for some
time. By the time a nearby militia can come to the rescue,
sixty-eight of the settlers have been killed.
     1759: The French surrender Quebec.
     1813: After the "massacre" at Fort Mims, Alabama, by
the " Red Stick" Creeks, the word of the Creek uprising
spreads. In Nashville, Tennessee, Governor William Blount
calls on the State Legislature to "teach these barbarous
sons of the woods their inferiority." The cry for
vengeance rings throughout the area. In a few weeks,
Andrew Jackson begins his campaign against the Creek.
     1823: Thirty-one Seminoles sign a treaty (7 stat.
224) on Moultrie Creek in Florida, with the United States.
Six Chiefs are given large estates to get them to agree
to the treaty. Those chiefs were: John Blunt, Eneah
Emathla, Emathlochee, Tuski Hadjo, Econchattemicco, and
Mulatto King. The Seminoles give up lands north of
Tampa Bay, and return runaway black slaves. They receive
an annuity of $5000. The lands set aside for the
Seminoles are poor, at best. The Americans are represented
by James Gadsden.
     1830: The Choctaw conference at Dancing Rabbit Creek,
officially begins, with Peter P. Pitchlynn as Chairman of
the Choctaw participants. Greenwood le Flore demands a
larger delegation of northern Choctaws. After two weeks
of arguments, many of the Choctaws go home. An agreement
is reached to send trusted people west to check out the
new lands. A census of the Choctaw, taken this month, shows
the population to be 19,554 (see September 27, 1830).
     1833: Choctaws still in the southern Mississippi
District hold a council and decide they will not move to
the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma).
     1851: One in a series of treaties with California
Indians is signed at Camp Colus and Camp Cosumnes. The
treaties are designed to reserve lands for the Indians,
and to protect them from Europeans.
     1862: General James H. Charlatan assumes command of
the Department of New Mexico. He is sent there to fight
the Confederate forces, and the "hostile" Indians.
     1864: Confederate Cherokees, led by Brigadier General
Stand Watie, and other Confederate forces, capture a Union
wagon train in modern Mayes County, Oklahoma. This supply
shipment has enough food and other goods for 2,000 soldiers
and is valued at one and a half million dollars. This is
the last significant Civil War engagement in Indian
Territory (present day Oklahoma).
     1873: Captain James Egan, and Troops K, and E, Second
Cavalry, attack a band of Sioux Indians on the North
Laramie River. The troops seize eighteen horses and mules.
     1876: Indian scouts fight some Indians in the “caves”
east of Verde, Arizona. According to army documents, five
Indians are killed, and thirteen are captured.
     1879: Captain Byron Dawson, and two troops from the
Ninth Cavalry, find, and attack, Victorio, and approximately
140 Warm Springs Apaches, at the source of the Las Animas
River, in New Mexico. Two more troops of cavalry arrive
under the command of Captain Charles Beyer; but, the army
is forced to withdraw. Five soldiers, one civilian, and
two Navajo scouts are killed by the Apaches. Second
Lieutenant Matthias W. Day will earn the Congressional
Medal of Honor for retrieving a wounded soldier while
under heavy fire. Sergeant John Denny, Company C, will
also win the Medal of Honor for the same actions. Second
Lieutenant Robert T. Emmet will also be awarded the Medal
of Honor for his actions in today's battle.
     1975: An amendment is made to the Constitution and
Bylaws of the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the
Manchester Rancheria.
     1978: The boundaries of the Pascua Yaqui Indian
Reservation are established by an Act of Congress, (Public
Law 95-375; 92 Stat. 712).
     1980: A “base membership roll” is established for
the Pascua Yaqui Indians.

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     September 19:   
     1737: Today is the start of the walking for the
"Walking Purchase" from the Delaware. The walkers are
Solomon Jennings, Edward Marshall, and James Yates. The
"walkers” barely stay below a run. By the next day at
noon, Edward Marshall has covered sixty-five miles. Yates,
who passes out from the exertion, dies three days later.
Jennings gives up the first day and is sickly for the
rest of his life. Many Indians complain the "walk" does
not live up to the spirit of the agreement.
     1827: At Fort St. Joseph, present-day Niles, Michigan,
a treaty (7 stat. 305) is signed by Lewis Cass, and the
Potawatomi Indians. Tribal lands are ceded, old boundaries
are redrawn, and the Indians receive an annuity.
     1845: A peace conference is held between representative
of Texas and local Indians.
     1867: In an effort to end Red Cloud's War, a new
peace commission comes to the end of the Union Pacific
tracks near Platte City, Nebraska. The commissioners
include General William Tecumseh Sherman, Indian
Commissioner Nathaniel Taylor, Indian Agent William
Harney, Indian Agent John Sanborn, General Alfred Terry,
and a few others. The Indians are represented by Man
Afraid, Pawnee Killer, Turkey Leg, Swift Bear, Standing
Elk, Big Mouth, Spotted Tail, and several others. The
Indians tell of the problems they are having due to people
invading their lands. Later, the commissioners tell the
Indians the "Great Father" wants them to move to
reservations on the Missouri and the Cheyenne River. The
Indians are not happy with this suggestion. The Indians
have their own names for most of the commissioners: "Great
Warrior" Sherman, "One Star Chief" Terry, "White Whiskers"
Harney, and "Black Whiskers" Sanborn. The conference ends
soon, and the commissioners ask the Indians to meet them
at Fort Laramie, in southeastern Wyoming, in November.
     1867: According to army records, members of the Fifth
Cavalry Infantry fight with a band of Indians near
Walker’s Creek (thirty five miles west of Fort Harker),
Kansas. One soldier is killed, and three are wounded.
Two Indians are killed in the fighting.
     1871: Indians attack a small detachment of troops
near Foster Springs and the Red River, Indian Territory
(present day Oklahoma). One soldier is wounded, three
Indians are wounded, and two Indians are killed according
to army files.
     1872: Fifty Comanche Indians are attacked by an army
patrol consisting of one sergeant, seven privates, and
two Tonkawa Indian scouts in Jones County, Texas.
According to the army report, "one Mexican Chief" is
killed, and eleven stolen horses are recovered.
     1879: Navajo army Indian scouts fight a group of
Indians in the Miembres Mountains of New Mexico. According
to army documents, two scouts are killed.
     1936: An order passed on February 14, 1913, which
allowed the homesteading of certain lands in the Standing
Rock Indian Reservation in the Dakotas, is modified.
     1974: Bonner's Ferry Kootenai Band, sixty-seven
members strong, declare war on the United States. They
demand payments for seized lands, hunting-fishing-water
rights, and an $128,000 acre reservation.
     1985: The Lac Du Flambeau Tribal Council enacts by
referendum the “Reservation Water and Shoreline Protection
and Enhancement Ordinance.”
     Every: Laguna Pueblo festival.

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     September 20:    
     524: Palenque Maya Lord Chan Bahlum I is born
according to the museum at Palenque.
     1654: A deed for Indian land is recorded in New England.
It says, “This writing witnesseth that I Ratiocan Sagamor
of Cow Harbor, have sold unto Samuel Mayo, Daniel Whitehead
and Peter Wright my neck of land which makes the east side of
Oyster Bay, and the west side of Cow Harbor on the north
side bounded with the sound, called by the Indians Camusett.”
     1782: Lieutenant Richard Johnston and the York County
Militia are ordered to go to Pittsburgh from their patrol
area in Bedford County, Pennsylvania. They join a force led
by General Hand against the Indians near Pittsburgh
     1805: Today through October 9th, Lewis and Clark meet
with the Nez Perce in the Weippe prairie, east of Weippe,
Idaho
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/2003b.html
     1816: The treaty (7 stat. 150) signed by the Chickasaw
pays them $16,500 a year, for ten years, for lands on both
sides of the Tennessee River and in the Great Bend area.
     1818: Lewis Cass, representing the United States, signs
a treaty (7 stat. 180) with members of the Wyandot Tribe on
the St. Mary’s River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The treaty
involves the release of property in Michigan.
     1822: Lakota Chief Red Cloud (Makhpiya-Luta) is born.
     1828: Lewis Cass and Pierre Menard, representing the
United States, and the Potawatomi Nation, signed a treaty
(7 stat. 317) at Fort St. Joseph, present-day Niles,
Michigan. Land near Lake Michigan in ceded for an increase
in the tribes annuity.
     1836: The Potawatomi sign a treaty (7 stat. 513) at Chippewanaung.
     1836: Lieutenant Colonel John F. Lane, 690 Creek
warriors, and ninety soldiers board transport from Alabama
en route to Tampa Bay, Florida to fight the Seminoles. They
reach Fort Drane on October 19th.
     1858: Camp Walbach is established near Cheyenne Pass.
It is in the southeastern corner of Wyoming.
     1866: Soldiers from the Eighteenth Infantry fight with
a band of Indians near Fort C.F. Smith in Montana. The army
reports one officer and one enlisted man are killed.
     1867: According to army records, members of the Fourth
Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the Devil’s River
in Texas. One Indian is killed.
     1869: Army records indicate that members of the Ninth
Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the Brazos River
in Texas. One soldier is wounded. The fighting lasts through
tomorrow.
     1873: Indians fight with soldiers from the Second
Cavalry near Fort Fetterman, Wyoming, according to army
documents. No casualties are reported.
     1874: According to his citation for the Medal of Honor,
"Seminole Negro Adam Paine for Gallantry on September 20th
(1874) when attacked by a hugely superior party of Indians.
This man is a scout of great courage." Most sources list
this as happening on September 26th.
     1875: The United States wants the Black Hills. The
President sends out a commission to negotiate the issue.
The United States representatives include Iowa Senator
William Allison, General Alfred Terry, trader John Collins,
and missionary Samuel Hinman. The meeting is held on the
White River between the Spotted Tail, and Red Cloud Agencies
in Dakota. When the commissioners arrive, they are astounded
by the number of Indians camping in the immediate area. It
is estimated there are more than 20,000 Sioux, Arapaho, and
Cheyenne. The commissioners have an escort of 120 troops
from nearby Fort Robinson, in northwestern Nebraska. As the
conference starts, thousands of Indian warriors appear and
ride around the commissioners in a dramatic show of force.
After the commissioners state their interest in the mineral
rights to the Black Hills, a representative from Red Cloud,
who refuses to attend, asks for an adjournment for a few days,
so the Indians can council among themselves. The commissioners
agree to return on the twenty-third. The United States names
their representatives the Allison commission.
     1875: “Treaty 5 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The
Saulteaux and Swampy Cree Tribes of Indians at Beren’s
River and Norway House with Adhesions” is signed in Canada.
     1922: An Act (42 Stat. 857) is passed by Congress. It
is to “allow lands reserved for schools and Agency purposes
and all other unallotted land on the Fort Peck and the
Blackfeet Reservations to be leased for mining purposes.”
     1950: William Warne, Assistant Secretary of the
Interior, authorizes an election for the adoption of a
Constitution and Bylaws for the Ponca Tribe of Indians of
Oklahoma. The election is held on September 20, 1950.
     1987: Pope John Paul II visits Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories.
Called “Yahtita” (Priest of Priests) in the
Dene language, his service is translated into Cree, Dene
and Slavey.

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     September 21:    
     1638: The Treaty of Hartford is signed. After losing
their battle with the English, and their Indians allies,
the Pequots surrender. The surviving members of the tribe
are given as servants to the Indian allies of the English.
     1721: According to some sources, the Tuscarora set out
to the nearby European settlements as a preparation for the
onset of their attacks tomorrow.
     1753: According to some reports an agreement to return
prisoners is reached by representatives of the British in Massachusetts
and the Penobscot Indians.
     1832: The Sac and Fox sign a treaty (7 stat. 374) at
Fort Armstrong.
     1833: The Oto and Missouri sign a treaty (7 stat. 429).
     1866: Soldiers from the Eighteenth Infantry fight with
a band of Indians on the Tongue River in Dakota Territory.
The army reports two enlisted men are wounded.
     1869: Army records indicate that members of the Ninth
Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near the Brazos River
in Texas. One soldier is wounded. The fighting started
yesterday.
     1878: Captains Joseph Rendlebrock, and Charles Morse,
with 150 soldiers and fifty local volunteers, finally find
part of Dull Knife's Cheyenne. The two forces fight on Sand
Creek, south of the Arkansas River sometime after sunset.
The Indians manage to escape.
     1879: Based on the order issued by the Secretary of War
on September 16, 1879, Major T.T. Thornburgh, Troops D,
and F, Fifth Cavalry, Troop E, Third Cavalry, and Company E,
Fourth Infantry, leave Fort Fred Steele, in southern Wyoming,
en route to the White River Agency in Colorado. This force
is approximately 200 strong.
     1904: Chief Joseph (Hinmaton-yalatkit or Hein-mot
too-ya-la-kekt) dies.
     1936: The Secretary of the Interior authorizes an
election for a Constitution and By-Laws for the Covelo
Indian Community of the Round Valley Reservation in
California. The election is held on November 7, 1936.

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     September 22:    
     1528: Having completed five boats, two days ago,
Panfilo de Narvaez loads the remaining 242 men of his
expedition and leave to search for his sailing ships.
They have been pursued by Apalachee Indians for some time.
Most of Narvaez' force is lost at sea. Cabeza de Vaca
lands on Galveston Island, in Texas, on November 6, 1528.
     1711: The Tuscarora Indians, under Chief Hencock,
join the Coree, Pamlico, Machapunga, and Bear River
Indians in an attack on the white settlements on the
Trent and Pamlico Rivers in North Carolina. Almost 130
white adults, and half that many children are killed. The
war springs from whites settling in Indian lands, and
Indian retaliations. A Swiss promoter, Baron Christoph von
Graffenried orders the Indians removed, when he discovers
them on lands he has obtained from the Crown, at New Bern,
in western North Carolina.
     1784: Today, marks the first "run-in" between a
Russian settlement in Alaska and the local inhabitants.
     1836: The Potawatomi sign a treaty (7 stat. 514) at
Chippewanaung
     1861: A series of horse races, with bets being placed
by soldiers and Navajos, takes place outside Fort Fauntleroy.
A dispute arises during the third race. The Indians say it
should be run again, the soldiers take their winnings and
go into the fort. The fort is closed and the Indians are
told to stay out. As one Navajo tries to enter the fort,
a shot rings out, and the Indian is killed. Pandamoniun
breaks loose and some soldiers begin attacking the Navajos
outside the fort. According to army records, a little over
a dozen Navajos are killed during the “Horse Race Fight.”
     1866: An Executive Order establishes the Shoalwater
Bay Indian Reservation in Washington State.
     1871: Indians attack, and kill, two men herding
livestock near Fort Sill, in southern Indian Territory
(present day Oklahoma). The Indians escape with fifteen
head of livestock.
     1877: Treaty 7 is signed by the Canadian government
and representatives of the Blackfeet, Blood, Peigan,
Sarcee and Stoney Bands in Alberta.
     1885: Army Indian scouts, under Captain Wirt Davis,
fight with a group of Indians in the Teres Mountains of
Mexico. According to army documents, one scout and one
Indians are killed. One scout and two Indians are wounded.

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     September 23:    
     714: As part of a series of attacks on neighboring
cities in Guatemala, Maya warriors from Naranjo attack
Sakha'.
     1519: Hernán Cortés and his army arrive at the gates
to the Mexican city of Tlascala. A large crowd turns out
to the the Spaniards.
     1730: Seven Cherokee representatives in London, England,
sign "Articles of Agreement." This agreement establishes a
formal alliance with England for the next fifty years. This
gives the English exclusive trade rights with the Cherokees,
and makes the Cherokees military allies. The Cherokees are
led by Chiefs Oukah-ulah and Attakullaculla (Little Carpenter).
     1761: According to newspaper reports, Cherokee Chief Attakullaculla
(Little Carpenter) sign a peace treaty with
English Governor Bull. This ends the fighting which has been
going on for almost two years in Charlestown, South Carolina.
     1805: Pike buys land for Fort Snelling.
     1804: Lewis and Clark invite the Teton Sioux to a
meeting.
     1806: Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis, their
expedition ends.
     1836: The Potawatomi sign a treaty (7 stat. 515) at Chippewanaung.
     1839: The Cherokee Nation's Supreme Court is established.
     1842: In a public meeting in Champoeg in the Oregon
country, Elija White tells the crowd that he has been appointed
as the official U.S. Indian agent in Oregon.
     1853: Major Earl Van Dorn has Camp Radziminski builds
as a supply base for the army’s efforts against the “hostile”
local Indians. It is on the Otter Creek, in Indian Territory
(present day Oklahoma). It is used off and on for the next
seven years.
     1858: Yakama Chief Owhi rides in unescorted to meet
with Colonel George Wright. Owhi hopes to save his son from
being killed for his part in the recent fighting in the
Pacific Northwest. Owhi is unsuccessful in his efforts and
is placed under arrest.
     1862: Approximately 700 Santee Sioux, under Little
Crow, engage in a fight at Wood Lake, Minnesota. They face
Colonel Henry Sibley and approximately 1,500 soldiers.
     1867: According to army records, members of the Fifth
Infantry fight with a band of Indians nine miles west of
Cimarron Crossing, Kansas, on the Arkansas River. One soldier
is killed, and Lt. Ephraim Williams is wounded.
     1869: Elements of the Eighth Cavalry have been fighting
"hostile Indians" at Red Creek, Arizona. For "gallantry in
action" today, Privates George Ferrari and John Walker, and
Sergeant Charles D. Harris, Company D, will be awarded the Congressional
Medal of Honor.
     1869: After a long chase, soldiers from Fort Cummings,
in southwestern New Mexico, catch a band of Indians with
stolen horses. The troopers retrieve thirty of the mounts.
     1873: Indians fight with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry
and some Indian scouts near Hardscrabble Creek in Arizona,
according to army documents. Fourteen Indians are killed,
and five are captured.
     1875: As the Black Hills conference is reconvened,
Red Cloud is now present. None of the Indians are interested
in parting with their sacred "Maha Sopa," the Black Hills.
Before Red Cloud can speak, a band of 300 of Crazy Horse's
warriors rush in on horseback. Crazy Horse's representative,
Little Big Man exclaims he will kill any Chief who agrees
to give away the Black Hills. While the Sioux police move
Little Big Man away from the commissioners, the commissioners
realize that most of those present agree that the Black
Hills will not be given away. The commissioners decide to
return to Fort Robinson, in northwestern Nebraska.
     1876: The Black Hills Treaty is signed at the Spotted
Tail Agency.
     1877: The Nez Perce reach the Missouri River and Cow
Island landing. The landing is guarded by Sergeant William
Molchert, and a small detachment of twelve Seventh Cavalry
soldiers, and four civilians. This is north of modern
Winifred, Montana. According to army documents, one soldier
and two volunteers are killed.
     1918: Under authority of an Act of Congress (34 Stat.
325-326), an Executive Order is issued which extends the
trust period for ten years on allotments to the Iowa Indians
in Kansas.
     1954: Canadian Indians go to court over tariff issues.

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     September 24:    
     1676: Abenaki Indians attack settlers in Wells, Maine,
near the New Hampshire border. Three settlers are killed in
the fighting before the Indians retire.
     1819: Lewis Cass negotiates a treaty (7 stat. 203) for
the United States with the Chippewas. For $1000 a year, the
services of a blacksmith, and provisions, the Chippewa give
up a large section of land. The treaty is signed in Saginaw,
Michigan.
     1829: George Vashon, representing the United States,
and the Delaware Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 327) at the
St. Mary’s River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The Delaware
give up lands along the "White River" in exchange for land
along the Missouri and Kansas Rivers. The Delaware also
receive an annuity.
     1850: The Navajo treaty (9 stat.974) signed on
September 9, 1849 is proclaimed.
     1853: Command of Fort Phantom Hill, north of Abilene,
Texas, changes hands from Lieutenant Colonel Carlos A.
Waite to Major H.H. Sibley. The fort is often visited by
the local Comanches, Lipan-Apaches, Kiowas and Kickapoos.
     1857: The Pawnee sign a treaty (11 stat. 729).
     1858: Qualchan, son of Yakama Chief Owhi, rides into
Colonel George Wright's camp. Qualchan is wanted for what
the settlers consider as murder for his part in the recent
fighting. Qualchan is taken into custody and hanged later.
     1862: After realizing the futility of continuing to
fight Colonel Sibley’s troops, Little Wolf decides to speak
to his Santee Sioux followers. Little Wolf cannot understand
how they lost yesterday's battle. He still believes the
Sioux are brave, and the soldiers are weak. He feels
betrayed. Today, he, and Shakopee, Medicine Bottle, and
their followers leave to travel west. Many other Santee
surrender to Colonel Sibley.
     1867: According to army records, members of the
Thirty-Seventh Infantry fight with a band of Indians near
Nine Mile Ridge, Kansas. One soldier is wounded.
     1868: Representing the United States, W.J. Cullen,
commissioner and James Tufts, Secretary of Montana Territory,
and acting Governor and Superintendent of Indian Affairs,
sign a treaty with the "Shoshones, Bannacks and Sheepwaters."
One of the signers is Chief Tendoy of the Lemhi.
     1869: After raiding "Mexican ranches" near Fort Bayard,
in southwestern New Mexico, troopers follow the Indians
to their mountain village. In the fight there, three Indians
are wounded. The soldiers destroy the village and its
contents.
     1875: “Treaty 5 Between Her Majesty The Queen and
The Saulteaux and Swampy Cree Tribes of Indians at Beren’s
River and Norway House with Adhesions” is signed in Canada.
     1877: Major Ilges sights the Nez Perce. Miles' force
is at the Missouri River.
     1946: The Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs has
authorized an election to establish a Constitution and
By-Laws for the Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe of South
Dakota. It is approved by a vote of 300 to 146.
     1970: The Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs
authorizes an election to establish a Constitution and
By-Laws for the Winnemucca Shoshone Indian Colony of Nevada.
The election is held on December 12, 1970.
     1973: The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Interior,
W.L. Rogers, ratifies the Nooksack Indian Tribe of
Washington election for a Constitution and By-Laws.
     1973: An election which approved an amendment to the
Constitution and By-Laws for the Sokaogon Chippewa Community
of Wisconsin is ratified by W.L. Rogers, Deputy Assistant
Secretary of the Interior. The election is held on July
19, 1973.
     1988: A “Disenrollment Procedure” is added to the
Constitution of the Pechanga Indian Reservation - Temecula
Band of Luiseno Mission Indians.

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     September 25:    
     1539: Hernando de Soto's expedition builds a bridge to
cross the Suwannee River.
     1675: The first of several attacks by Indians on the
settlements on Cape Neddick, near York, Maine, begins.
     1714: The five Iroquois Nations send the Governor of
New York, a letter. They tell the Governor, that the
Tuscaroras join the Iroquois Confederacy. Long ago, they
had moved away. Now, they return.
     1793: Near Knoxville, Tennessee, a group of around
300 Chickamaugas, including Captain Bench, Doublehead and
John Watts, attack Alexander Cavett's fort. Cavett, and
three other men are guarding ten women and children. After
a few Chickamaugas are killed, John Watts calls for a
parley. He promises not to kill the settlers, if they
surrender. Finding their situation hopeless, the settlers
give up and open the fort. Against the wishes of Bench and
Watts, Doublehead kills all of the settlers except one boy
saved by Watts. The boy meets his own death a few days
later by another angry Indian.
     1804: Lewis and Clark have a council with the Teton
Sioux.
     1806: Zebulon Pike’s expedition reaches a Pawnee
village on the Solomon Fork River in what is modern Kansas.
     1818: The Osage sign a treaty (7 stat. 183) at St.
Louis.
     1868: On September 17th, Brevet Colonel Forsyth, and
fifty scouts are attacked by 700 Indians. Two scouts escape
to Fort Wallace, in western Kansas to get help. Brevet
Colonel H.C. Bankhead and 100 men of the Fifth Cavalry,
along with Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Louis Carpenter's
company from the Tenth Cavalry, arrive to relieve Forsyth.
Carpenter is awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for
his actions. General Luther Bradley, from the Department of
the Platte River, also arrives to help.
     1872: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from
the Fifth Cavalry in Muchos Canyon on the Santa Maria River
in Arizona, according to official army records. Forty
Indians are killed.
     1877: A group of local volunteers, under Major Guido
Ilges, fight a band of Nez Perce Indians near Cow Creek
Canyon, Montana. According to army documents, one volunteer
is killed, and two Nez Perce are wounded.
     1879: The 200 men under Major T.T. Thornburgh, arrive
at Fortification Creek, Colorado, en route to the White
River Agency. Their mission is to protect the local settlers
and arrest "hostile" Indians. Thornburgh's 30-man infantry
company stays at this location, and establish a base camp
for Major Thornburgh's expedition.
     1919: By a vote of of twenty-nine for, and one person
not voting, the Muskeg Lake Cree vote to sell 8,920 acres
of land in Saskatchewan.
     1935: The Constitution and By-Laws of the Fort Belknap
Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in
Montana are adopted.
     1975: The first Indian prayer in offered in the United
States Senate.
     1975: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs authorizes an
election for a Constitution for Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute Tribe
of the Benton Paiute Reservation in California. The election
is held on November 22, 1975.


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     September 26:    
     1675: Troops under Virginia Colonel John Washington
and Maryland Major Thomas Trueman surround the main base
of the Susquehannock Indians. They are there to discover if
the Indians are responsible for attacking colonial
settlements. Trueman calls out the Susquehannock for a
conference under a flag of truce. Five Chiefs come out of
their fortified position to talk. They deny being involved
in the attacks. Trueman has them led away and killed.
Trueman gets off with a minor fine from the Maryland
Assembly for this act.
     1706: Miskouaki, an Ottawa from Mackinaw, meets with
the Marquis de Vaudreuil. He tells him the Miami and the
Ottawa have bee fighting each other near Detroit.
     1760: Because of the recent fighting with British
forces, more than 2,000 Cherokees meet in Nequassee
(modern Franklin, North Carolina), to hear Chiefs
Oconostota and Ostenaco talk of "burying the hatchet."
It is agreed the fighting should end. The British still
want to fight in order to revenge their losses at Fort
Ludoun.
     1777: Early this morning, Captain William Foreman,
and his company of thirty-four militia leave Wheeling,
Virginia to patrol for Indians along Grave Creek. Following
the creek, the militia is ambushed by forty Wyandots.
Twenty-six of the militia, including Foreman, are killed
in the fighting.
     1804: Lewis and Clark and the Teton Sioux have a big
feast with music.
     1825: The Oto and Missouri sign a treaty (7 stat. 277).
     1833: In Chicago, George Porter, and the “United
Pottawatomies”, Ottawas and Chippewas sign a treaty (7
stat. 431) whereby they cede approximately five millions
of acres of land in Illinois and Wisconsin for land west
of the Mississippi River.
     1840: On the Creek Reservation in Indian Territory
(present day Oklahoma), eventual Principal Chief Pleasant
Porter (Talof Harjo), is born.
     1842: The Nez Perce missionaries are reorganized.
     1844: The first issue of the Cherokee Advocate is
published in Tahlaquah, Indian Territory (present day
Oklahoma). This is the second newspaper published by the
Cherokee Nation. It features articles in both Cherokee
and English.
     1867: Approximately 110 members of the First Cavalry, Twenty-Third
Infantry and fifteen Warm Springs Indian
(Boise Indian scouts) scouts, fight with approximately
seventy-five Paiute, thirty Pit River, and a few Modoc
Indians. band of Indians in Infernal Canyon, near Pitt
River, south of modern Alturas, California. Lt. Colonel
George Crook is commanding the military forces. Chief
Si-e-ta leads the combined Indian force. One officer, six
soldiers, and one civilian are killed in this three day
fight. Eleven soldiers are wounded. Indians losses are
twenty killed, twelve wounded and two captured.
     1868: Army records indicate that members of the
Twenty-Seventh Infantry fight with a band of Indians near
Fort Rice, Dakota Territory. One soldier is killed.
     1869: General Thomas Duncan, leading men from Troops
B, C, F, L, and M, Fifth Cavalry, Troops B, C, and M,
Second Cavalry, plus two companies of Pawnee scouts, after
a long march, set up camp on Prairie Dog Creek, Kansas.
Duncan's advance guard of twenty troopers, led by
Lieutenant William Volkmar, attack a group of Indians
trying to cut off Major North, and Chief Scout and Guide
William "Buffalo Bill" Cody. In the ensuing fight, the
cavalry chases the Indians to a village of fifty-six lodges,
which is being abandoned in great haste. One Indian is
captured, and he identifies the band as Sioux, led by
Whistler and Pawnee Killer, survivors of the Summit Springs
fight on July 11, 1869. In New Mexico, troopers chase a
war party into the San Francisco Mountains. The troopers
discover a village, which they destroy. They also kill
two Indians.
     1874: Colonel R.S. Mackenzie, and Troops A, D, E,
F, H, I, and K, Fourth Cavalry, have two skirmishes with
Indians before they find five camps of Southern Cheyenne,
Lone Wolf's Kiowas, Comanches, and other Indians, in Palo
Duro Canyon near Red River, Texas. The soldiers destroy
more than 100 lodges, and all of their supplies. 1,400
horses and mules are captured, many are taken to Tule
Valley, and killed. One soldier is wounded, and four
Indians are killed, according to army reports. Lone Wolf,
and 252 Kiowas escape. Many sources report this battle as
happening on the 28th, and not the 26th. Corporal Edwin
Phoenix, Privates Gregory Mahoney and William McCabe,
Company E, and Indian scout Adam Paine will be awarded
the Congressional Medal of Honor for their gallantry during
the fighting from the 26th to the 28th.
     1876: The Black Hills treaty is signed at Red Cloud
Agency.
     1877: Eighth and Tenth Cavalry Infantry soldiers
capture five Indians near “Saragossa, Mexico,” according
to army documents.
     1877: According to army reports, Major Guido Ilges,
a partial company of the Seventh Infantry, and thirty-six
volunteers, fight a two-hour battle with the Nez Perce.
Ilges eventually retreats to Cow Island, feeling outmanned
by the Nez Perce.
     1879: After leaving Fortification Creek, Major
T.T. Thornburgh, and three cavalry troops, makes camp on
Bear Creek, in Colorado, en route to the White River Ute
agency. While in camp, several Ute leaders meet Thornburgh,
and discuss his activities. The conversations are friendly,
and the Indians leave on a positive note.
     1879: Captain Albert Morrow, and 197 soldiers, attack
Victorio, and his Warm Springs Apache followers, in the
Black Range near Ojo Caliente, New Mexico. The fighting
lasts until September 30th. Three Apaches are killed. The
army reports they recovered sixty horses and mules.
     1975: An election on amendments to the Constitution
and Bylaws of the Southern Ute Indian tribe of the Southern
Ute Reservation in Colorado is held. Of the 268 eligible
voters, 92 vote in favor, 55 vote against.
     1986: The Nez Perce amend their Constitution and
By-Laws.

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     September 27:    
     1719:Charles Claude du Tisne (Du Tissenet) is in
northern Oklahoma near the Arkansas River. He claims the
territory for France. Eventually a trading post is built
here, near Newkirk.
     1749: According to some reports, an agreement
regarding peace and the return of prisoners is reached by
representatives of the British in Massachusetts and the
Norridgewock and Penobscot Indians.
     1778: Forces under General John Sullivan destroy
the Indian town of Tioga, near modern Athens,
Pennsylvania. The village is at the crossroads of
several Indian trails, and is considered the southern
entrance to the Iroquois lands.
     1789: The Fort Harmar-Wyandot Treaty of January 9,
1789 is publicly proclaimed.
     1827: According to some historians, today marks
the end of the "Winnebago Expedition." After the "Red
Bird War", which started on June 29, 1827, Winnebago
Chief Red Bird surrenders, in response to the army's
threat to destroy the entire tribe. Red Bird is found
guilty of murdering several settlers and rivermen; but,
he dies in prison before he is sentenced.
     1830: The "Dancing Rabbit Creek Treaty" (7 stat. 333)
is concluded, whereby, the Choctaws agree to sell lands
in Mississippi and to move to Indian Territory (present
day Oklahoma). Their new lands are bounded by Fort Smith
along the Arkansas River, to the source of the Canadian
Fork, to the Red River, to Arkansas Territory. This is
the first treaty after the passage of the Indian removal
act. Many Chiefs get large parcels of land or money for
signing, including Principal Chief Greenwood le Flore.
The Choctaws have three years to complete the move. The
United States is represented by Generals John Coffee
and John Eaton.
     1833: The Creeks are in council at Wetumpka, Alabama
(north of modern Montgomery). They draft a resolution to
Secretary of War Lewis Cass stating that not only have
the whites not been removed from their lands, but many
more have moved in. State courts have defied Federal laws,
and have ruled in favor of the local white intruders.
     1836: The Sac and Fox sign a treaty (7 stat. 516).
     1850: The "Donation Act" is passed by Congress. This
allows settlers to have lands in Washington Territory,
regardless of Indian claims.
     1861: 200 Apache warriors attack the mining town of
Pinto Alto. Captain Martin, and the Arizona volunteer
guards, help to fight them off.
     1867: Medicine Lodge Creek, is sixty miles south of
Fort Larned, in southwestern Kansas. A peace commission
has been established here to try to remove the Indians
from the area between the Arkansas and the Platte Rivers.
The government hoped to establish a reservation for the
southern plains Indians, including the Cheyenne, Arapahos,
Kiowas, Comanches, and the Apaches of the region.
Representing the United States government are Indian
Commissioner Nathaniel Taylor, John Henderson, Samuel
Tappen, Indian Agent John Sanborn, Indian Agent William
Harney, and General Alfred Terry. Some of the Indians who
attend the meeting are: Black Kettle, Ten Bears, Gray
Beard, Little Raven, Little Robe, Tall Bull, Buffalo Chief,
and Roman Nose. Roman Nose arrives in the Indians camp
for the meeting planned on October 16th. Eventually, 4000
Indians attend the conference.
     1867: According to army records, the fight which
started yesterday between the First Cavalry, Twenty-Third
Infantry and Boise Indian scouts, and a combined force
of Paiute, Pit River and Modoc Indians in Infernal Canyon,
near Pitt River, south of modern Alturas, California,
continues. Lt. J. Madigan is killed today.
     1869: General Duncan’s troops destroy the Indian
village and provision found after the fight on Prairie
Dog Creek yesterday. The troopers try unsuccessfully to
follow the village residents for several days. Surveyor's
tools, belonging to Mr. Nelson Buck are discovered in the
village. Buck, and eleven others in his surveying party,
were killed near this area several days ago.
     1879: While proceeding toward the White River Agency,
Major T.T. Thornburgh, and his three cavalry troops, meet
a White River Agency employee named Eskridge, and several
leading Ute Indians. Eskridge has a letter from White
River Agent, N.C. Meeker. The letter states the Utes are
agitated by Thornburgh's advance, and they wish for him
to stop. They suggest that Major Thornburgh, and five
soldiers, come into the agency, without the rest of the
troops, for a talk. Thornburgh agrees to come to the
agency on the 29th with a five-man escort, but he asks
for a representative group of Ute Chiefs to visit his camp
before the agency meeting. Thornburgh, then continues his
march.
     1894: The Bureau of Indian Affairs starts putting
Indian kids in school with whites.
     1917: By Executive Order #2711, President Wilson
establishes the Cocopah Indian Reservation south of Yuma,
Arizona. The reservation has 1,772 acres.
     1967: The Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin lists
an official membership roll, as per (81 Stat. 229), Public
Law 90-93.

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     September 28:   
     507: Maya leader in Palenque Kan Xul I dies, according
to some sources.       
     1542: Spanish explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo lands
at San Diego Bay, California
     1566: Father Pedro Martinez has sailed from Spain
in hopes of reaching St. Augustine, Florida. He hopes to
convert the Indians to Christianity. Unable to find the
Spanish settlement, the priest and several others set out
in a small boat to get directions from local Indians. A storm separates
them from the mother ship. While still seeking
directions to St. Augustine, they encounter a Timucua war
party. A fight ensues and all but four of the Spanish are
killed.
     1759: English Indian Superintendent Edmund Atkin meet
with Creeks at the upper village of Tuckabatchee, near
modern Tallassee, Alabama. During the meeting, one of the
Creeks tries to kill Atkin. Other Creeks stop the attack.
Atkin's trip raises suspicion among some of the Creeks,
and factionalism has broken out. Atkin survives, and spends
a month in the village.
     1778: A battle is fought between American forces, and
pro-British Indians near the Pennsylvania town of Wyalusing.
The Americans, led by Colonel Thomas Hartley, wins the fight.
     1836: Two treaties are signed by the Sac and Fox (7
stat.520).
     1839: Cherokee women can now legally marry white men.
     1841: Aagaunash (Billy Caldwell) is born the son of
an Indian mother and a British Officer. He lives with
Indians most of his life, and eventually becomes a
Potawatomi Chief. He serves as Tecumseh's secretary, and
as a liaison to the British until the end of the War of
1812. He fights for the United States against Red Bird,
and Black Hawk. He also signs several peace treaties for
the Potawatomis. He dies in Council Bluffs, Iowa.
     1864: Black Kettle holds a parley with Colorado
officials in Denver. Among the participants are: Governor
John Evans, Colonel Chivington, Colonel George Shoup, Major
E. Wynkoop, Indian Agent S. Whiteley, Cheyenne Chiefs White
Antelope and Bull Bear, Arapahoes Neva, Bosse, Heap of Buffalo,
and Na-ta-nee; and interpreter John S. Smith.
     1866: Soldiers from the First Cavalry fight with a
band of Indians on Dunder and Blitzen Creeks in Idaho. The
army reports one enlisted man is wounded.
     1866: According to army reports, soldiers from the
Second Cavalry fight some Indians along La Bonte Creek in
Montana. One soldier is wounded in the skirmish.
     1867: In the final day of a three day fight, the First
Cavalry, Twenty-Third Infantry and Boise Indian scouts, fight
with a combined force of Paiute, Pit River and Modoc Indians
in Infernal Canyon, near Pitt River, south of modern Alturas,
California. A total of one officer, six soldiers, and one
civilian are killed. Eleven soldiers are wounded. Indians
losses are twenty killed, twelve wounded and two captured.
     1869: Army records indicate that members of the Eighth
Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Red Creek, Arizona.
Approximately a dozen Indians are killed.
     1874: Brevet Major General (Colonel) Ranald
Mackenzie, with approximately 600 soldiers of the Fourth
Cavalry, leads an attack on the Indians residing in the
Palo Duro Canyon, in the Texas panhandle. Four Indians,
and no soldiers are reported killed. However, much of the
Indians provisions are destroyed, including as many as
1400 Indian horses killed by the soldiers. It is a major
psychological blow for the few southern plains Indians
still not living on reservations. This is called the
“Battle of Palo Duro Canyon.” It is the major battle of
the Red River War.
     1968: An Act (82 Stat. 884) is passed by Congress to
“authorize the purchase, sale exchange, mortgage, and long-
term leasing of land by the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community.”
     1977: The Phoenix Area Director of the Bureau of
Indian Affairs authorizes an election for Amendment III
to the Constitution for the Papago (Tohono O’odham). The
election is held on January 21, 1978.

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     September 29:    
     1671: According to some sources, a treaty of allegiance
is reached between representatives of the Plymouth
Plantations and the Wampanoag Indians.
     1753: According to some reports an agreement to return
captives is reached between representatives of the British
in Massachusetts and the Norridgewock Indians.
     1769: The expedition to explore the central California
coast led by Gaspar de Portolá has camped near modern
Monterey. Along the Salina River, members of the expedition
encounter a small Indian hunting party.
     1782: General Edward Hand has been leading an expedition
against the Indians in the area of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
General George Washington cancels the expedition.
     1806: Zebulon Pike holds a grand council with the
Pawnee. Pike estimates 400 Pawnee warriors attend. He
hopes to win their allegiance to the United States,
rather than Spain.
     1817: The Treaty of the Rapids of the Miami River is
signed. Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur, representing the
United States Government, sign a peace treaty (7 stat.
160) with the Chippewa, Potawatomi, Wyandot, Shawnee and
other tribes. The Indians get annual payments in exchange
for land cessions.
     1837: The Sioux sign a treaty (7 stat. 538) at
Washington, D.C.
     1843: A treaty is signed between the Republic of
Texas and the Anadarko, Biloxi, Cherokee, Chickasaw,
Delaware, Hainai, Kichai, Tawakoni and the Waco.
     1865: The Osage sign a treaty (14 stat.687)
     1866: Soldiers from the Eighteenth Infantry fight
with a band of Indians near Fort Phil Kearny in Dakota
Territory. The army reports one enlisted man is killed.
     1867: According to army records, members of the
Thirty-Seventh Infantry fight with a band of Indians
near Fort Garland, Colorado. Two soldiers are killed.
     1868: Indians attack a house on Sharp's Creek. They
kill the man living there, Mr. Bassett. The house is
burned down. Mrs. Bassett, and her two day old baby, are
taken captured. Mrs. Bassett is too week to travel, and
the Indians "outrage" her, then leave her, and her baby,
to die on the prairie.
     1869: After pursuing a band of Indians for a week,
troops from Fort Bayard, in southwestern New Mexico, find
their village. The troopers destroy the village, killing
three, and wounding three Indians. One soldier is wounded
in the fight.
     1872: Colonel R.S. Mackenzie, and Troops A, D, F, I,
and L, Fourth Cavalry, and some Tonkawa scouts are near
the North Fork of the Red River, near modern Lefors, Texas,
when they discover a Comanche camp of 200 lodges.
Mackenzie attacks, and destroys most of the encampment.
According to government reports, twenty-three Indians are
killed, approximately 125 warriors are captured. One soldier
is killed, and three are wounded. Many horses and mules are
seized by the army. For "gallantry in action," Private
Edward Branagan, Farrier David Larkin, Sergeant William
Foster, and First Sergeant William McNamara, Private William
Rankin, Company F, Corporal Henry McMasters, Company A,
Corporal William O'Neill, Company I, Blacksmith James Pratt,
Company I, and Sergeant William Wilson will be awarded the Congressional
Medal of Honor. This is Wilson's second Medal
of Honor. This will become known as the “Battle of the
North Fork of the Red River” Some sources report this to
be the Kotsoteka Comanche village of Mow-way.
     1872: After demanding their removal from prison, Lone
Wolf meets with Satanta, and Big Tree, in Saint Louis. They
discuss the Kiowa's stand when Lone Wolf goes to Washington,
D.C. to discuss treaty matters. After their meeting,
Satanta, and Big Tree return to prison in Texas.
     1873: Indians fight with soldiers from the Fifth
Cavalry, the Twenty-Third Infantry and some Indian scouts
at Sierra Ancha, Arizona, according to army documents. Two
Indians are killed, and four are captured
     1877: Lieutenant John Bullis, and a small force from
the Twenty-Fourth Infantry, attack a group of Lipan Indians
in a camp four miles from Saragossa, Mexico. The army
captures five women and children, twelve horses, and two
mules. The camp, and its' contents is destroyed.
     1879: After passing the Milk River, in Colorado, Major
Thomas T. Thornburgh splits his command of three troops
of cavalry. One troop continues down the road to the White
River Agency with the expedition's wagons. Thornburgh, and
his two remaining troops, follow a different route,
slightly to the left of road. After crossing a high ridge,
Thornburgh encounters a large group of Ute Indians.
According to his report, he attempts to communicate with
the Utes, but they open fire. Being out numbered, Thornburgh
retreats back toward the troops with the wagons. Skirmishes
take place while Thornburgh is retreating toward the wagons,
which are now on the Milk River. Within sight of the wagons, Thornburgh
is shot and killed. The wagons are formed into
a barricade, and the soldiers engage in a battle with the
Utes. The Utes set the grass on fire, and many of the
wagons catch fire. Successful efforts to put out the fire,
lead to the death of several soldiers. The battle lasted
from 3pm until well after dark, with many wounded, and
killed, on both sides. Couriers slip out of the barricade
after dark, to seek reinforcements. The fighting continues
until October 5, 1879. According to army records, nine
enlisted men, three civilians and thirty-seven Indians
are killed in the fighting. Two officers, forty-three
soldiers and three civilians are wounded. Captain Francis
S. Dodge, Troop D, Ninth Cavalry, will be awarded the
Congressional Medal of Honor for leading a force of forty
men who came to the relief of the besieged soldiers. For
retrieving ammunition for the soldiers while surrounded on
three sides and under point-blank fire, Sergeant Edward P.
Grimes is also awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Sergeant John Lawton, Company D, will also get the Medal
of Honor for "coolness and steadiness under fire;
volunteered to accompany a small detachment on a very
dangerous mission." First Sergeant Jacob Widmer, Sergeant
John Merrill, Corporals George Moquin and Edward Murphy,
blacksmith Wilhelm Philipsen, and Corporal Hampton Roach
will also win the Medal for gallantry.
     1973: The House Interior Committee votes to approve
a bill which reestablishes federal recognition of the
Menominees Indians.
     1983: The Area Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs
ratifies an amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of
the Suquamish Indian Tribe of the Port Madison Reservation
in the State of Washington.
     1984: An amendment to the Constitution of the Comanche
Indian Tribe is enacted.
     Every: (through the 30th) Taos Pueblo festival

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     September 30:    
     1730: In British Court in London, seven Cherokee
leaders sign the "Articles of Agreement" with the Lords
Commissioners. It is a formal alliance covering allegiance,
peace and the return of captives.
     1809: William Henry Harrison, representing the United
States, and the Delaware, Miami, Potawatomi and Eel River
Indians, sign a treaty (7 stat. 113) at Fort Wayne. Three
million acres in Indiana and Illinois are traded for larger
annuities, and $5,200 in supplies.
     1825: The Pawnee sign a treaty (7 stat. 279) at
Fort Atkinson.
     1850: Congress authorizes efforts to get treaties
with the Indians of California.
     1854: The Chippewa sign a treaty at La Pointe,
Wisconsin (10 stat.L.1109) .
     1865: Acoording to a report dated today, the following
number of Indians were present at the Fort Sumner, New
Mexico reservation in September: 402 Apache, 7,318 Navajo.
     1872: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from
the First Cavalry on Squaw Peak in Arizona, according to
official army records. Seventeen Indians are killed, and
one is captured. Also in Arizona, Company F of the Fifth
Cavalry fights with some Indians near Camp Crittenden.
Four soldiers are killed.
     1877: Today through October 5th, according to army
reports, elements of Colonel Nelson Miles' Second Cavalry,
capture 800 Nez Perce horses According to army documents,
Captain Owen Hale, Lt. J.W. Biddle, twenty-two soldiers
and seventeen Indians are killed. Captain Myles Moylan,
Captain E.S. Godfrey, Lt. G.W. Baird, Lt. Henry Romeyn,
thirty-eight soldiers, eight civilians and forty Nez
Perce are wounded. Almost 20% of the soldiers are wounded
or killed during the fighting at Bear Paw Mountain, near
modern Havre, Montana. The army will issue Congressional
Medals of Honor to the following soldiers during this
campaign: First Lieutenant George W. Baird, Fifth Infantry,
for "distinguished gallantry in action"; First Lieutenant
Mason Carter, Fifth Infantry, for leading a charge "under
a galling fire"; Second Lieutenant Oscar Long, Fifth
Infantry, for taking over command of a troop of cavalry
when their officers were killed; Second Lieutenant Edward
McClernand, Second Cavalry, for using "skill and boldness
when attacking a band of hostiles"; Captain Edward S.
Godfrey, Seventh Cavalry, for leading his men while severely
wounded; Captain Myles Moylan, for gallantry leadership
until he is severely wounded; First Sergeant Henry Hogan,
Company G, Fifth Infantry, for carrying severely wounded
Lieutenant Henry Romeyn out of the line of fire (this is
Hogan's second award, see October 21, 1876); First
Lieutenant Henry Romeyn, Fifth Infantry for vigorously
prosecuting the fight; Major (and surgeon) Henry Tilton
for rescuing wounded men.
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/2003u.html
     1879: Sixth and Ninth Cavalry soldiers and some
Indian scouts fight a group of Indians near Ojo Caliente
in the Black Range, New Mexico. According to army
documents, two scouts and three Indians are killed. The
fighting started on September 26th.
     1936: Harold Ickes, Secretary of the Interior,
authorizes an election for a proposed Constitution and
Bylaws of the Hopi Tribe. The election is held on
October 24, 1936.
     1973: Inuit artist and writer Peter Pitseolak dies
in Cape Dorset, Northwest Territories, Canada. Using his
artistic and photographic talents, he documents much of
the traditional ways of life of his people.



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I’ll have more in a day or two in Part 2 of the
newsletter.

That's it for now.

Have a great month.

Phil Konstantin
http://americanindian.net


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End of Phil Konstantin's September 2006 Newsletter - Part 1
============================================================
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Start of Phil Konstantin's September 2006 Newsletter - Part 2
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Greetings,

Here is the second part of this month's newsletter. I am breaking
things up a bit this month.

As many of you know, I work at a TV station in San Diego, California.
One of the nice things about my job is getting to meet lots of
interesting people. Occassionally, I also get to meet a few famous
ones. Recently, singer-songwriter Richie Havens came by to promote
a concert. You may remember Richie Havens from the original
Woodstock. Richie was really a great guy. He was friendly, played
several of his songs, and was willing to stick around to pose for
pictures with his fans. You can see the pictures I took of him on my
KUSI website at:   http://americanindian.net/kusi/havens/index.html

My daughter Heidi was also on the program, recently. She was
modeling a very fancy gown in a fashion show. She is the first
blonde you see on this page of pictures:
http://www.leonardsimpson.com/gallery/index2.html

Phil


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Link of the Month for September 2006 is "The Indian War of 1864:
Being a Fragment of the Early History of Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado
and Wyoming," by Eugene Ware. The material is a transcript of this
book which was published in 1911. It can give you some interesting
insights into the thinking of Indian fighters of the time. Chapter 30
covers a bit of the Sand Creek Massacre. I quote: "Among the
humanitarians of Boston it was called the "Chivington Massacre," but
there was never anything more deserved than that massacre. The only
difficulty was that there were about fifteen hundred Indian warriors
that didn't get killed."

You can find it here:
http://www.webroots.org/library/usamilit/1864iw00.html

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The Treaty of the Month is "TREATY WITH THE FLORIDA TRIBES
OF INDIANS, Sept. 18, 1823. | 7 Stat., 224." Some of the
section headings include: Said Indians to continue under
the protection of United States; Said Indians to be confined
to the following metes and bounds; United States to take
the Florida Indians under their care, etc.; United States
to guaranty peaceable possession of the district assigned
them, on certain conditions; Corn, meat, etc., to be
allowed them for twelve months; An agent, etc., to be
appointed to reside among them; Indians to prevent any
fugitive slaves from taking shelter among them, etc; A
commissioner and surveyor to be appointed; Grounds on
which the objections of said tribes to certain lands
are founded.

You can find a transcript here:
http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sem0203.htm


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Articles: (Posted for your information. I do not necessarily
agree with them.)

Juliana Diane Marez sent this one along.

MNN Mohawk Nation News
kahent-@mohawknationnews.com
For updates and to sign up go to
www.mohawknationnews.com

THE VAMPIRES STRIKE BACK: “ONE DEAD INDIAN” BLOOD
AND GORE TO CONDITION THE MASSES

MNN. Sept. 7, 2006. Why are CTV and APTN showing the
film, “One Dead Indian” over and over again? This
film is about the Ontario Provincial Police OPP attack
on the Stoney Point people who were defending their
land, known as “Ipperwash”. Dudley George was shot
and killed in cold blood.    

When they sit and watch this, who are the Canadians
identifying with? Many would be with the Indigenous
People, some would be neutral and a few would see the
viewpoint of the cops. Then there is the lunatic
fringe and some of the ordinary people who had no
previous interest in Indigenous issues. These two
groups would be drawn in subconsciously.   They are
the ones the establishment wants to reach and
influence. These people who might end up watching
this because they’re looking for a good action flick.

When people watch the bull fights, after seeing a few
bulls ritually executed with blood flying all over the
place and the matadors taking bows for the murders,
the crowd screams for more blood. There is no
therapeutic value in any of this.

Why aren’t they trying to stop the arousing of
anti-Indian feelings? Reasonable and rational
thinking about constructive ways to deal with
Indigenous people and our grievances should get equal
time on television, in the movies and on the media.

Canadians have been conditioned all along to see
Indigenous People as the lowest rung on their
hierarchical ladder. To this day they’re being taught
that people who live in the natural world are
“primitive”. We have been “spun” as someone they can
look down and trample on to make them feel superior.

Look at the 500 Indian women who have disappeared.
The police won’t do an investigation. Was this
because they think they’re primitive?   What about the
Indigenous boys who were left out in the snow to
freeze to death? The cops put them there. Only when
the Indigenous People made an outcry was something
done. The cops shot J.J. Harper on the streets of
Winnipeg . The subsequent film gives a sympathetic
view of the police officer who killed him. There were
discussions about how to cover this up right in the
film. After it was shown nationally, no
Parliamentarians were outraged nor did they condemn
such a depiction. During the Oka Mohawk Crisis of
1990 two old men were stoned to death which was shown
over and over again on national news to get people
used to how to treat “Indians”.

“One Dead Indian” depicts us as a problem. The
viewers are being conditioned to think that the
solution is to kill off all of us. They want to see
us suffer and bleed. They’re being conditioned to see
us as natural targets. For their fulfillment and to
set us up for the corporate/government agenda, movie
makers are being given millions of dollars of
government funds to make gory bloody films about
Indians. Never are they shown how we can sit together
as equals and discuss our legitimate relationship.

During the 1920’s and 30’s Germany put out propaganda
depicting Jews in cariacature. German people were
conditioned to accept the “final solution” which was
to exterminate a race.

When people see Indians being shot, abused, beaten up
and killed often enough, it makes them want to see
more Indian blood. This is the old Cowboys and
Indians movies paradigm.

About six months ago the New York Times did a scathing
article on the Mohawks of Akwesasne, which was
publicized all over the world. Their main message was
that we are criminals and deserve the bad treatment we
are getting and going to get more of. Akwesasne, they
say, is a haven for criminals and that Mohawks are
part of “organized crime”. The U.S. is trying to get
people to think that our warriors are “terrorists”.
Who planted the story? It’s part of the continual
assault against us. It’s meant to justify whatever
they do to us in their genocidal quest.     

A lot of the initiatives against us seem to be coming
from the United States . Why are they doing this?
It’s because Indigenous People stand in the way of
their exploitation of our resources. Don’t forget,
most of the companies operating in Canada today are
U.S. owned and controlled. They’re the same corporate
giants that control the U.S. government. They’ve
obviously taken control of some parts of the Canadian
government.    

The ATF (Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms) came to Canada
to work with the OPP. How long have they been here?
Maybe for 20 years! Our people catching them was
hardly mentioned in the corporate media. It would
have been a scandal to Canada a few decades ago. This
has got to be one of the biggest outcomes of the Six
Nations land reclamation issue.   We found out who our
enemies are, that Canadian institutions are just
puppets for corporate America . Who has been
organizing the attacks on us? Is it a U.S. procedure
that has been put in place by people in Canada who’ve
been bought off or manipulated?

Could this be similar to what happened back in 1812?
This is when Tecumseh and General Brock beat back the
American general who declared they were taking over
Canada , “Your choice is to join with us or
enslavement!” This was the first time the U.S. ever
invaded foreign soil. Invasions of this kind are a
continuing theme in Canada-US relations. It’s
obviously happening again?   This time what’s
shockingly different is that Canadians seem to neither
notice nor care. It’s being done through control of
the economy and by infiltrating the police and
governmental institutions. This is how the U.S. has
already marched into Canada and no one even knows.
The ruthlessness of the U.S. towards Indigenous People
will frighten Canadians so they will be too scared to
resist the takeover.

What are the politicians and their corporate bosses
getting the Canadian public ready for? They have
invaded Iraq and Afganistan. They appear to be
getting ready to invade Iran . The new “passport
control” is probably going to end up as a “bait and
switch” operation. People will get so upset about the
passports, they’ll accept the ‘smart cards’ that allow
control without even noticing how much freedom they’re
losing.

The U.S. is the only nation in the history of the
world that dropped nuclear bombs against another
nation. They are blood thirsty and brag about it when
they teach history, especially their ruthless takeover
of Turtle Island from the Indigenous People.

In the recent covert operations against the Six
Nations land reclamation, nothing goes back onto the
police forces, even though they’re behind it. Their
tactic is using (un)ordinary people to do their dirty
work, such as the skinheads, faschists, KKK, the Brown
Shirts and the heavily state funded Caledonia Citizens
Alliance to attack the Indigenous people. These
groups might all have died out had they not been
called back into service and funded by the state.
Just what is the justification in using tax money to
finance hate groups like these?    

“One Dead Indian” satiates the appetite for Indian
blood for this portion of the public.   It’s part of
their indoctrination. This is similar to the frenzy
of sharks when blood is thrown among them, called
“chumming the water”. The sharks can smell the blood
from miles away. They speed towards it./ It drives
them crazy. They eat everything except each other.
Then they need more and more blood. They’re driven to
attack again and again.    

The ancestors of the non-natives on Turtle Island did
kill off 99% of the Indigenous people in the Western
Hemisphere . These people today are their
descendants. They’re being indoctrinated to release
their self-control through video games and violent
films where multitudes of people are violently killed.

The police and army are trained to shoot at targets
that are replicas of their enemies. In Saskatchewn
the police were caught shooting at a replica of an
Indigenous woman.    It’s meant to stir up their
hatred for the targeted people.   

How do we protect ourselves? Making people realize
they have been set up as tools to eliminate the
descent within their society of totalitarianism.    

This is how the U.S. prepares their society for war
against helpless people around the world. They use
their military hardware to shoot innocent people as
practice to exercise their dominance over other human
beings.

At first some of the soldiers say they do not like
what they are ordered to do. However, these young
soldiers are trained to be sadists and are trigger
happy. They go to war as nonchalantly as kids go to
video arcades at the mall. To them going to Iraq is
like going to a local garbage dump and shooting rats.
They begin to enjoy menacing and killing defenseless
people. After a while they can’t control themselves.
Don’t forget, they’ve been given carte blanche to kill
people without impunity. Remember the public inquiry
on the Mai Lai massacre during the Vietnam War when
the soldiers went on a murderous rampage killing
countless innocent women and children?   

Today on Turtle Island we are being used as their
guinea pigs. The so-called super master race
(billionaires of the world) feels they can abuse and
kill those of other skin colors and languages whom
they have determined to be inferior to them.   

During the Oka Crisis of 1990, Canada brought over
Col. Musgrave who had developed the strategies for the
British in their conflict against the Irish. In a
newspaper article, he bragged that he could break down
the Mohawks in three weeks. They started flying jets
and choppers over us all night long so we could not
sleep, shot and detonated concussion bombs and flares,
held back food and then gave it to us, spread fear
among the public by showing threatening videos on
television about all the warheads we had, spread lies
and propaganda and shut lights and water off and on.
It didn’t work. In fact, it backfired! Some of the
soldiers involved had nervous breakdowns.

Their masters are experimenting on those they consider
to be inferior and whose life isn’t worth anything to
them. In fact, getting rid of us would be very
beneficial to them. Then they would complete their
illegal theft of our land.    

“One Dead Indian” shows us hundreds of menacing cops
“goose stepping” into Ipperwash, banging in unison on
their shields. This reminds us of the Gestapo in
movies about Nazi Germany where they marched into the
Jewish areas of the cities. They must be getting the
public ready for a total police state. A few former
OPP officers are absolutely disgusted with the
direction their force has gone.

Martial already exists in Indian country. As long as
we behave according to their dictates, we don’t see
the cops. As soon as we step out of line we see the
armed forces showing up in droves. Why can Canada and
other colonial nations that are squatting on
Indigenous territory defend their so-called
“sovereignty”? If we try to defend our human rights
and our sovereignty against their brutality, we are
called “terrorists” and criminalized.

Like the vampires, once they start drinking blood,
they can only stay alive by drinking more blood.
These corporate and government vampires are trying to
suck the blood out of the people who are preaching
peace to the world.

Canadians, you’re next!
Kahentinetha Horn
MNN Mohawk Nation News

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Notices:


Dear Tribal Leaders:

I was able to testify before the State Senate in favor
last year for SB 678 regarding the Indian Child Welfare
Act. This bill has passed the California Assembly 79 in
favor and 0 opposed and it has pased the California
Senate 35 in favor and 0 opposed.

Senate Bill 678 amends the California Family Code,
Probate Code and Welfare Institutions Code to codify
the minimum federal standards of the Indian Child Welfare
Act and to clarify the interplay of these standards and
existing law.

Please take the time to read the Tribal Alert and send
support letters to the Governor's Office as soon as
possible. The lead attorney at California Indain Legal
Service regarding this Senate Bill is Maureen Geary
at (866) 251-8016.

I can also be reached at (760) 807-4613 or the SY Tribal Office
(760) 765-0845 if there are questions.


Respectfully,

Brandie Taylor
Vice-Chairwoman
Santa Ysabel Band of Diegueno Indians


[SAMPLE LETTER OF SUPPORT FOR SB 678 --
PLEASE PLACE ON TRIBAL LETTERHEAD]
[Insert Date]

Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
State Capitol Building
Sacramento, CA 95814
ATTN: LEGISLATIVE UNIT

SIGNATURE REQUESTOR
RE: SB 678 - Indian Children
Dear Governor Schwarzenegger:

The [Tribal Council/Executive Committee] is the governing
body of the [Tribe’s Name], a federally recognized Indian
tribe that exercises jurisdiction over the [Tribe’s Name]
Reservation in [Insert County Name] County. The Tribe
strongly supports SB 678, a bill that will protect
Indian children and families. For the reasons set forth
below, we urge you to sign this important legislation
into law.

SB 678 will improve compliance by state courts and other
state and local agencies with the federal Indian Child
Welfare Act (ICWA), 25 U.S.C. §1901, et seq. ICWA is a
landmark federal statute that, among other things, allows
an Indian child’s Tribe the right to intervene and be a
party when a tribal child is the subject of a state court
child custody proceeding.

Because of a lack of cohesive and uniform state statutory
framework for handling Indian child custody proceedings,
there is widespread noncompliance with ICWA, as evidenced
by the huge number of appellate cases involving ICWA
issues. By codifying into state law the minimum federal
standards of the ICWA, SB 678 will help eliminate much
of this noncompliance, thereby decreasing the appellate
courts’ caseloads and ensuring that California’s Indian
children and families receive the full benefits of the
ICWA.

The [Tribe’s Name] believes, as Congress stated in the
preamble to the ICWA, that, “...there is no resource
that is more vital to the continued existence and
integrity of Indian tribes than their children.” Join
us as we work to protect our most vital resource, our
Indian children, and please sign SB 678.

Sincerely,

[Insert Name]
[Insert Title]

=============

10th Annual Big Band Concert & Dance
Oceanside Pier
Plaza Ampitheater
Saturday, Sept 30th @ 12:00PM-7:00PM
Tickets are $5.00 (includes concert, meal,
and opportunity drawing)
ALL PROCEEDS WILL BENEFIT INDIAN HEALTH COUNCIL INC.

For more info, contact Tracey at (760) 749-14510 ext 5287

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Humor & Interesting Non-Indian Stuff:

You might be an Indian Jedi if...
http://www.nativeamerican.net/humor/IndianJedi.shtml

A Real Tearjerker:
http://www.pcsuccess.us/yrg/farewell.html

============

Joe RedCloud sent this one

Food For Thought....

Recently someone was browsing through the 40th Anniversary
Issue of Reader's Digest (dated Feb. 1962), and came
across this reprint from the Washington News. And found
it quite interesting considering our current debates!

The Quote:

Vice President Lyndon Johnson received the following
message from an Indian (Native American) on a reservation:

'Be careful with your immigration laws. We were
careless with ours.'

=============

Ruth Garby Torres sent this:


Three Indians and three white guys are traveling by train
to a conference. At the station, the three white guys
each buy tickets and watch as the three Indians buy only
a single ticket.

"How are three people going to travel on only one ticket?"
asks a white guy. "Watch and you'll see," answers an
Indian. They all board the train. The white guys take
their respective seats, but all three Indians cram into
a restroom and close the door behind them.

Shortly after the train has departed, the conductor
comes around collecting tickets. He knocks on the restroom
door and says, "Ticket, please." The door opens just a
crack and a single arm emerges with a ticket in hand.
The conductor takes it and moves on. The white guys saw
this and agreed it was quite a clever idea.

So after the conference, the white guys decide to copy the
Indians on the return trip and save some money (being
clever with money, and all!). When they get to the
station, they buy a single ticket for the return trip.
To their astonishment, the Indians buy no tickets at all.
"How are you going to travel without a ticket?" says one
perplexed white guy. "Watch and you'll see," answers
an Indian.

When they board the train the three white guys cram into
a restroom and the three Indians cram into another one
nearby. The train departs. Shortly afterward, one of the
Indians leaves his restroom and walks over to the restroom
where the white guys are hiding. He knocks on the door
and says, "tickets please."

=============

This one came from my mother:


Husband's note on refrigerator for wife:

     Someone from the Gyna Colleges called.
     They said the Pabst beer is normal.
     I didn't know you liked beer


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News Stories & Links:


Claims to Métis ancestry skyrocket
http://www.firstperspective.ca/fp_combo_template.php?path=20060907metis

Cherokees to consider blood requirement for membership
http://www.kfor.com/Global/story.asp?S=5019478

Navajo Textiles: The Woven Spirit
http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/fc/2006/4/2006_4_1.shtml


To Preserve Their Health and Heritage, Arizona Indians Reclaim Ancient
Foods
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9D0CEFD71F31F932A15756C0A967958260


Standing Rock Sioux Tribe to use grant to fight suicide
http://www.indianz.com/News/2006/015812.asp

Osages open first congressional session
http://www.nativetimes.com/index.asp?action=displayarticle&article_id=8153


Investigation finds Indian trust officials broke ethics rules
http://www.helenair.com/articles/2006/07/27/national/a09072706_02.txt

Correcting the story of Sacagawea
http://www.missoulian.com/articles/2006/09/05/jodirave/rave82.txt

Agency struggles to stop artifact theft
http://www.casperstartribune.net/articles/2006/09/04/news/regional/d4c99805ff98ac79872571dd00210ece.txt


Creek Nation Could Hold Keys To River Development In Tulsa
http://www.kotv.com/news/?110650

Peguis treaty land entitlement process flawed
http://www.firstperspective.ca/fp_combo_template.php?path=20060905peguis

Ancient tribe's pit houses to be upscale shops
http://www.tucsoncitizen.com/daily/local/24869.php

Oneida's latest venture is animation productions
http://www.newsday.com/news/local/wire/newyork/ny-bc-ny--indiananimation0902sep02,0,2725115.story?coll=ny-region-apnewyork


The American Sublime, the Sublime American: The New World by Terrence
Malick (movie review)
http://cinetext.philo.at/magazine/garrett/thenewworld.html

A review of Trudell, about poet-activist John Trudell (movie review)
http://www.compulsivereader.com/html/index.php?name=News&file=article&sid=1197


First Nations Hold Ceremony and Vow to Protect Amazay (Duncan Lake)
http://www.miningwatch.ca/index.php?/Northgate/Amazay_ceremony

Tribal languages, at your fingertips
http://leaderadvertiser.com/articles/2006/08/31/news/news02.txt

Still confronting - Interview with John Trudell - Part 1
http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413594

Still confronting - Interview with John Trudell - Part 2
http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413635

Bigger Than Rushmore - Chipping away at an Indian legend in South Dakota
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2006/09/10/CMG3OKKEMM1.DTL&feed=rss.swhiting


Houma chief busy tracking down tribe
1,500 members still scattered by Katrina
http://www.nola.com/news/t-p/frontpage/index.ssf?/base/news-6/115726789441810.xml&coll=1


Apaches will defy mine deal that threatens sacred lands
http://www.azcentral.com/arizonarepublic/opinions/articles/0828kitcheyan28.html


Mohawk immersion program gaining acceptance
http://www.kumeyaay.com/news/news_detail.html?id=4083

Step over gorge's edge
Arizona tribe is building glass skywalk at rim of Grand Canyon
http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0%2C1249%2C645198875%2C00.html

Pueblo leader pushes for changes for American Indians
http://www.freenewmexican.com/news/47788.html

Salmon River solution?
http://www.pressrepublican.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060905/NEWS/60902001/1001


Board rejects Ninilchik fishery
http://www.adn.com/news/alaska/kenai/story/8162952p-8055789c.html

Sit-in continues after band members vote against chief
http://www.firstperspective.ca/fp_combo_template.php?path=20060907sitin

Bill would help tribes get vets burial land; Cemetery money would be
from VA
http://www.kumeyaay.com/news/news_detail.html?id=4080

McCain won't budge from $8B Cobell settlement
http://www.indianz.com/News/2006/015753.asp

Tulalips' HUD troubles resolved
http://www.heraldnet.com/stories/06/09/07/100loc_a1hud001.cfm

Not your average lesson
http://morningsentinel.mainetoday.com/news/local/3074948.shtml

Beyond sovereignty
http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413631

Aboriginal study to examine youth suicide on reserves
http://www.cbc.ca/canada/manitoba/story/2006/08/31/suicide-study.html

Who owns the past?
http://www.kumeyaay.com/news/news_detail.html?id=4060

Top court to hear arguments over tribe contributions
http://www.thedesertsun.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060907/NEWS06/609070310/1003/business


Town, Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head Trace Their Disputes Across Decades
http://www.mvgazette.com/news/2006/09/05/tribe_town_backgrounder.php

Shortman - 'Breaking the culture of silence'
http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413617

Opinion: Restore Prairie Band sovereignty in Kansas
http://www.indianz.com/IndianGaming/2006/015789.asp

Lovejoy booted out of meeting
http://www.gallupindependent.com/2006/aug/083106lvjybtd.html

Banished Indians fighting back
http://www.sacbee.com/content/news/story/14289412p-15116898c.html

Reservation battle fuels Mille Lacs hostility
http://www.startribune.com/462/story/653940.html

County claims Mille Lacs Reservation doesn't exist
http://www.indianz.com/News/2006/015750.asp

Blackfeet ruling clears way for lawsuits over tribal housing
http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413591

Let's hope Amazon tribe succeeds in defending its land
http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion/oped/bal-op.kayapo07sep07%2C0%2C4463616.story?coll=bal-oped-headlines


Land trust opponents going to D.C.
http://www.syracuse.com/news/poststandard/index.ssf?/base/news-5/1157535414213530.xml


Tulalip Tribes among honorees for Harvard program
http://www.indianz.com/News/2006/015751.asp

Tribe Returns To Fort Smith
http://www.swtimes.com/articles/2006/08/31/week_in_review/news/wednesday/news01.txt


Lower Elwha Klallam, state settle Tse-whit-zen dispute
http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413603

Gaming: Choctaws should adhere to rules
http://www.clarionledger.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060903/OPINION01/609030302/1008/OPINION


Bush administration questions Cherokees on Freedmen
http://www.indianz.com/News/2006/015794.asp

Harjo - Recess is over, but the games continue
http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413615

Pechanga empire threatens Temecula
http://www.nctimes.com/articles/2006/09/04/opinion/commentarycal/9306182226.txt


Column: Young Natives wrong to challenge 'Redskins'
http://www.indianz.com/News/2006/015708.asp

Artifacts spur questions, little concern for Utopia
http://www.norwichbulletin.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060907/NEWS01/609070302/1002


Artifacts' discovery kept quiet
http://www.norwichbulletin.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060908/NEWS01/609080326/1002


Tribal governor, other officials elected by Passamaquoddys
http://bangordailynews.com/news/t/statewide.aspx?articleid=140029

Kumeyaay border project brings benefits
http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413524

Tribe's recount changes result
http://www.rapidcityjournal.com/articles/2006/09/07/news/local/news09.txt


Native Americans still poorest in United States
http://www.indianz.com/News/2006/015687.asp

Oglala Sioux President Alex White Plume sees the old ways as better
http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413528

New Bill To Wipe Out Land Treaties with Virginia Tribes
http://www.pressaction.com/news/weblog/full_article/mattaponi12272004/

Navajos march against discrimination, violence
http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?feature=yes&id=1096413633

Chimney Rock’s lunar drama awe-inspiring
http://www.durangoherald.com/asp-bin/article_generation.asp?article_type=peel&article_path=/columnists/articles/peelArticles//peel060828.htm


Strapped agencies are at a loss to save valued ruins across the West.
http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-rockart28aug28,0,6937937.story?coll=la-home-nation


Presence in lobbying
http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413638

Passport policy may further isolate tribes
http://www.baymills.org/newspaper/2006/06-29/062906-opinion-bryannewland.shtml


Former BIA head says Schaghticoke petition was the best
http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096413522

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That's it for now.

Have a great month.

Phil Konstantin
http://americanindian.net


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End of Phil Konstantin's September 2006 Newsletter - Part 2
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