by Phil Konstantin
Copyright Phil Konstantin (1996-2014)

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"This Day in North American Indian History"
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June 1st

1868: After the "long walk" to the Bosque Redondo Reservation in New Mexico, the NAVAJOs suffered from the poor conditions on the reservation, and from homesickness for their old lands. After numerous visits from Washington representatives, General Sherman visited the NAVAJO. They again asked to go back to their old lands. They promised the keep the peace and the old treaties. Sherman talked with them, and he listened to them. With a new treaty in hand, Sherman says he will let them go, if they sign, and obey, the new treaty. The NAVAJOs agree, even though they will lose some of their land as a part of the new agreement. On this date, Barboncito, Armijo, Delgadito, Herrero Grande, Manuelito, and others sign the new treaty.
1934: A legal definition of "Indian" is made today.

June 2nd

1788: Today, forces under General John Sevier, will attack the CHEROKEE village of Hiwassee. The American forces will be victorious, with many of the CHEROKEEs fleeing the area. The village will be burned.
1924: If they were not already based on treaty provisions, all American Indians become U.S. citizens today.
1924: Indians become U.S. citizens today.

June 3rd

1539: Having been in Florida for only a few days, today, Hernando de Soto formally claims Florida for the King of Spain.
1833: Today, Secretary of War Lewis Cass gives orders directly to the United States Marshal's office to remove white settlers, and trespassers, from CREEK lands in Alabama.

June 4th

1647: Chief Canonicus, Chief of the NARRAGANSETSs when the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock, dies today. He is approximately 88 years old.
1871: General George Crook takes command of the Department of Arizona, today. He believes the Indians should be treated fairly, but kept under control.

June 5th

1728: Today, DELAWARE Chief Sassoonan will address the Pennsylvania Provincial Council. He will complain of German immigrants settling on Indian lands in Tulpehocken valley. The complaint would not be resolved until 1732, when the lands were purchased from the Indians with trading goods.
1866: This day will start the formal treaty conference at Fort Laramie in southeastern Wyoming. Leaders from many tribes and bands will be present. The purpose of the treaty will be to allow passageway for trails, roads, and railroad lines across indian lands. The meeting will be postponed for almost a week, at Red Cloud's request, to allow for the arrival of additional Indians.

June 6th

1868: On this date, Captain D.Monahan, and troops from Troops G and I, 3rd Cavalry, leave Fort Sumner, in western New Mexico. The troops are chasing a group of NAVAJO Indians, who have been accused of killing 4 settlers about 12 miles from the fort. After following their trail for 100 miles, the army surprises the NAVAJOs, who are in a ravine. The Army reports killing 3 Indians, and wounding 11; the rest escape. No soldiers are killed.
1885: Sitting Bull signs contract today to work in Buffalo Bill"s Wild West Show.

June 7th

1494: The "new world" is divided by the Catholic church.
1803: A treaty with the DELAWARE, SHAWNEE, MIAMI, KASKASKIA, KICKAPOO, PIANKASHAW, POTAWATOMI, WEA and 2 other Indian Nations is concluded today at Fort Wayne on the Miami River. It will included changes in boundary lines from those established in the Greenville Treaty. Lands will be ceded by both sides. The United States gets the salt springs of Saline Creek, and the Indians are guaranteed to get 150 bushels of salt annually. The United States will get the right to have land to build inns for travelers on roads through Indian country. If any ferries are built across rivers in the area, the Indians will not have to pay to use them. The treaty is signed by William Henry Harrison, and 15 Indians.

June 8th

1871: When confronted at Fort Sill, in south-central Indian Territory, about knowing anything about the attack on the wagons loaded with corn on May 15th on the Butterfield trail, Satanta said he was the leader of the raid. Satanta tells the agent that Santak, Big Tree, and others were with him. General Sherman places the 3 Indians under arrest and handcuffed. While being transported back to Fort Richardson in north-central Texas, Satank manages to work free from his handcuffs. He then attacks a guard with a hidden knife. Satank grabs a rifle from another guard, but he is shot and killed by the remaining soldiers. His body will be thrown in a ditch, and the group will continue to Texas.
1874: Cochise dies today.

June 9th

1647: New England synod clergy meet at Cambridge today. A large number of Indians attend the meeting to hear Roxbury minister John Eliot deliver a sermon in their own language.
1838: CHICKASAW Chief Ishtahotapa, and 129 of his followers leave Pontotoc, Mississippi, with A.M.M.Upshaw for the Indian Territory. The CHICKASAWs remaining east of the Mississippi are concerned about moving west because of the epidemic of smallpox raging in Indian Territory. During the trek west, Ishtahotapa's wife would die. It would be October before any significant numbers of the remaining CHICKASAWs would set out for the Indian Territory.

June 10th

1851: California treaty - According to the COSTAN internet one in a series of treaties with California Indians will be signed today at Camp Persifer F. Smith. The treaty's purpose was to guarantee reserved lands and protections from the Europeans.
1872: An Act of Congressional today (17 stat. 391) will further define the SAUK and FOX reserve in Kansas.

June 11th

1752: Today, while at a conference with British authorities, Chief Shingas will be named sachem or king of the DELAWAREs by Tanacharison of the IROQUOIS. The DELAWAREs were subjugated by the IROQUOIS.
1829: Major Bennett Riley, and troops have just joined Charley Bent's wagon train bound for Santa Fe, near Round Grove, in Kansas. A band of 100 KIOWAs, and COMANCHEs, steal the wagon train's herd of cattle. The Indians then start attacking the wagon train and the soldiers. Riley will fire his artillery piece, and the Indians will scatter.

June 12th

1756: Today, DELAWARE Indians, led by King Beaver, will attack the fortified garrison in Juniata County, Pennsylvania, called Bingham's Fort. The number of settlers killed or captured was estimated to be as many as two dozen.
1855: Walla Walla Conference: Governor Stevens bypassed the entire structure of the American Constitutional System, giving Congress sole power to ratify treaties.

June 13th

1660: Wamsetta, a WAMPANOAG, and his younger brother, Metacomet (various spellings), have requested "English" names from the Plymouth court. Today, their names will be officially be changed to Alexander and Philip Pokanoket. Philip would eventually be called "King Philip."
1715: As a part of the YAMASSEE war, today, South Carolina militia, led by George Chicken, battle coastal indians. The fight, which took place near the ponds on Goose Creek, resulted in a defeat for the Indians. The Indians sustained forty fatalities. Many of the coastal Indians would withdraw their support for the war after this defeat.

June 14th

1671: Francec claims most of America.
1877: During their forced march from their old reservation to Indian Territory, the PONCAs arrive at the OTTO reservation. Taking pity on the PONCAs, the OTTOs give them some horses to help carry their people.
1893: Natawistixina, sister of Seen From Afar, aunt of Red Crow, is buried on the BLOOD Reserve in Alberta, Canada. (Actual date of death is unrecorded.) per Lesley Wischmann

June 15th

1742: According to some reports, a conference regarding friendship and land cessions was held for the next four days between representatives of the British in New York and the "SIX NATIONS."
1873: SIOUX Indians attack Fort Abraham Lincoln, in central North Dakota, again. The garrison repels the Indians.

June 16th

1805: Sacajawea drinks mineral water today to treat an illness.
1832: Battle of Pecatonica, Wisconsin: As a part of the "Black Hawk Wars," KICKAPOO Indians kill 5 settlers at Fort Hamilton, Wisconsin, today. The KICKAPOOs will be chased to the Pecatonica River by Gen.Henry Dodge and 30 militiamen. During the subsequent fighting, 3 soldiers, and 11 KICKAPOOs will be killed.

June 17th

1579: Sir Francis Drake will land, today, north of San Francisco, probably, at what is called today, Drake's Bay, in California. He will report the Indians to be "people of a tractable, free and loving nature, without guile or treachery."
1654: Today in a meeting between the Swedes and the DELAWAREs in Tinicum (New Sweden, Pennsylvania). DELAWARE Chief Naaman praises the Swedes for their righteous treatment of the native inhabitants.

June 18th

1730: Today, 7 CHEROKEE representatives will meet with King George II of England at Windsor Castle in London. They will acknowledge him as the sovereign of the CHEROKEE people. Leading the CHEROKEEs are Cheif Oukah-ulah and Attakullaculla (Little Carpenter).
1763: As part of Pontiac's Rebellion, SENECAs will attack Fort Le Boeuf, at present day Waterford, in northwestern Pennsylvania. Half of the garrison of a little more than a dozen men will be killed when the Indians attack, and burn, the fort. The rest of the soldiers will escape.

June 19th

1541: Today, de Soto's expedition meets the CASQUI Indians near modern day Helena, Arkansas. There has been a drought in the area, and the padres offer to help. A large cross is erected and the Spaniards join in prayer. Soon it starts to rain. The CASQUIs will become allies of the Spanish.
1767: The Governor of Louisiana issues an order today. The order recognizes the CHITIMACHA Indians, and instructs the commander at Manchac to treat them with proper deference.

June 20th

1675: Today marks the start of "King Philip's war.
1780: British Captain Henry Bird commands a force of 1000 men, of which 850 are Indians. Today, they attack Ruddle's Station, Kentucky. Three hundred settlers have taken refuge in the station. Bird's forces have a cannon, and the settlers soon realize they are outmatched. They agree to surrender. When they settlers open the gate, the warriors rush in and start killing them. Before Bird could intercede, over 200 people will be killed. This will be called the "Ruddle's Station Massacre." Nearby Martin's Station would also surrender. The occupants would fare better. All of the survivors would be taken to Detroit as prisoners.

June 21st

1674: CHATOT Indians have a mission established for them today west of the Apalachicola River.
1856: Today the non-hostile Indians along the lower Rogue River, and at Fort Orford, in southwestern Oregon, are put on a boat to be moved to a new reservation between the Pacific Ocean, and the Wallamet River. It will be called the Grande Ronde Reservation.

June 22nd

1818: The PAWNEE Marhar Treaty is signed today.
1839: Elias Boudinot, first editor of the Cherokee Phoenix, Chief Major Ridge (Kahnungdaclageh) and his son, John Ridge (Skahtlelohskee) are members of the CHEROKEE "Treaty Party". They have generated many enemies by their stand agreeing to the removal of the CHEROKEEs from their lands east of the Mississippi river. They signed the peace treaty which gave away CHEROKEE lands east of the Mississippi River. They moved to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) with the rest of the CHEROKEE Nation. Today, early in the morning, John Ridge will be dragged from his bed, and stabbed to death. Chief Major Ridge will be shot and killed at 10:00 am in another part of the reservation. Later that day, Elias Boudinot will also be stabbed and hacket to death. These murders were committed by CHEROKEEs for what they felt was their treasonous betrayal of the nation. A CHEROKEE law, which Chief Ridge helped to make, gave the death penalty to any CHEROKEE which sold or gave away CHEROKEE lands without the majority of the tribe's permission. These deaths were considered the execution of that law. Chief Stand Watie, brother to Elias, and nephew to Major Ridge, managed to avoid the warriors who planned to kill him today.

June 23rd

1683: Today, William Penn and DELAWARE Chief Tamenend will sign a peace treaty in Shackamoxon, Pennsylvania. Tamenend was also called Tammany. He was renown for his honor. The Tammany societies were named so in his honor. William Penn will purchase 2 plots of land from Chief Tamanend. The land will be on the Pennypack & Neshaminy Rivers, and between them. The land was purchased for a long list of supplies.
1704: James Moore, former Governor of South Carolina, is leading a force of 50 British, and 1,000 CREEKs against Spanish settlements. Today, they will attack the APALACHEE Mission of San Pedro y San Pable at Patale, in north-western Florida. They will take many Indians as slaves and kill Father Manuel de Mendoza. The mission will be destroyed tomorrow.

June 24th

1610: Membertou (MICMAC) becomes the 1st Indian Catholic.
1832: Reverend Samuel Worcester has been arrested, and convicted of living, and working, among the CHEROKEEs with have a state permit, or having sworn an oath of allegiance to the state of Georgia. Today the Supreme Court rules that the state of Georgia has unfairly tried to exercise control over the CHEROKEEs contrary to federal law, and treaties. The court will strike down most of the anti-Indian laws passed by Georgia, including those seizing their lands, and nullifying tribal laws. Before the trail, President Andrew Jackson officially stated that he has no intention of supporting the CHEROKEEs over the state of Georgia. Speaking to the court's decision today, Jackson would be quoted as saying, "John Marshall has rendered his decision; now let him enforce it." Jackson would ignore the Supreme Court ruling, and continue in his efforts to move the CHEROKEEs out of the south, and into the Indian Territory.

June 25th

1528: Today, Narvaez, and his Spanish expedition will cross the Suwannee River. They will discover, and occupy, a village they call Apalachen, in Florida. There are approximately 40 houses in the village, and a quantity of corn. They will remain here for almost a month. During that time they will fight with the local inhabitants on several occasions. The local APALACHEE Indians call the village Ibitachoco or Ivitachuco.
1876: Col.George Custer will be commanding Troops C,E,F,I, and L; Major Marcus Reno will have troops A,G, and M. Captain Frederick Benteen will lead Troops H,D, and K. Captain Thomas McDougall will guard the supply wagons with Troop B. The following soldiers will receive Congressional Medals of Honor for actions during this battle today and tomorrow at the Little Big Horn: Private Neil Bancroft, Company A; Pvt. Abram B.Brant, Co. D; Pvt. Thomas J.Callen, Co. B; Sgt. Benjamin C.Criswell, Co. B; Corporal Charles Cunningham, Co. B; Pvt. Frederick Deetline, Co. D; Sgt. George Geiger, Co. H; Pvt. Theodore Goldin, Troop G; Pvt. David W.Harris, Co. A; Pvt. William M.Harris, Co. D; Pvt. Henry Holden, Co. D; Sgt. Rufus D.Hutchinson, Co. B; Blacksmith Henry Mechlin, Co. H; Sgt. Thomas Murray, Co. B; Pvt. James Pym, Co. B; Sgt. Stanislaus Roy, Co. A; Pvt. George Scott, Co. D; Pvt. Thomas Stivers, Co. D; Pvt. Peter Thompson, Co. C; Pvt. Frank Tolan, Co. D; Saddler Otto Voit, Co. H; Sgt. Charles Welch, Co. D; Pvt. Charles Windolph, Co. H.

June 26th

1791: American negotiators, led by William Blount, will begin the Treaty of Holston negotiations today with the CHEROKEEs. The treaty will be signed on July 2, 1791.
1827: After hearing of the false rumor of the release of 2 WINNEBAGO murder suspects to the CHIPPEWAs by whites, WINNEBAGO Chief Red Bird is ordered to fight by the tribal elders. He will attack several families today in Wisconsin near Prairie du Chien. After a few other attacks in the following days on settlers, and river boats on the Mississippi, the Americans order his surrender, else they will destroy the entire tribe. Red Bird will surrender on September 27, 1827.

June 27th

1542: Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo will leave Mexico today to go up the Pacific coast in exploration. Cabrillo will be the first European to land in San Siego Bay, California. He will go as far north as the Rogue River, in California.
1879: The Drifting Goose Reserve will be created out of townsites number 119, 120, and 121 north, of range 63 west in the Dakota Territory today. It is created for the "MAG-A-BO-DAS or DRIFTING GOOSE Band of the YANKTONAIS SIOUX Indians."

June 28th

1719: Today a peace conference will be held in Conestoga, Pennsylvania. Colonel John French, representing Pennsylvania, met with the "Kings" of the local tribes: Winninchack-CANAWAGE, Civility and "Queen" Canatowa-CONESTOGA, Wightomina-DELAWARE, and Sevana-SHAWNEE. The subject of the conference was fighting among the tribes. Although all involved promised to end their warfare, the fighting would continue. Much of the fighting in the area is blames on IROQUOIS war parties.
1878: Tambiago, the killer of Alex Rhoden on November 23, 1877, which led to the BANNOCK War, is hanged today at the Idaho Territorial prison.

June 29th

1704: The same force of 50 South Carolinians and 1,000 CREEKs which attacked the Mission of San Pedro y San Pable in Patale on June 23rd, attack the Spanish San Damian de Cupahica Mission, near modern day Tallahassee, Florida, today. The mission will be destroyed. Many of the local Indians will be taken as slaves.
1794: Approximately 2000 Indians, including Chief Little Turtle, and British and French Rangers have surrounded Fort Recovery on the Ohio-Indiana border. Major William McMahon, and 150 soldiers man the fort. When McMahon, and 90 men, not knowing of the force surrounding them, attempt to leave, they are attacked. McMahon returns to the fort. After 2 days of heavy fighting, the Indians will give up the fight, and leave.

June 30th

1521: Spanish Captains Francisco Gordillo, and Pedro de Quexos, land in, and claim, Florida for the King of Spain.
1802: A treaty with the SENECA Indians is concluded today on Buffalo Creek, in Ontario County, New York. All SENECA lands in Ontario County are ceded to the "Holland Land Company", and they will be given new lands on Lake Erie. Nineteen Indians will sign the treaty. A 2nd treaty is also signed today with the SENECA s. They will receive $1200 for what is called "Little Beard's Reservation. John Taylor, and 12 Indians will sign this document.

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