December 2004 Newsletter from
"This Day in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2006)

Click Here To Return To The Previous Website



.
.
============================================================
Start of Phil Konstantin's December 2004 Newsletter - Part 1
============================================================

Greetings,

I thought I would pass along a bit of an early holiday gift for those of
you who enjoy the historical dates section of my newsletters. I have
included almost all of the dates I have for December. I usually only
list one entry per date. This will take much more room than it normally
does.

In a couple of days, I will also be announcing the subjects for this
year's essay contest for students. You can see all of last year's
entries on this page:

http://americanindian.net/contestwinner.html

=============================
X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X
=============================

With the holiday season upon us, I wanted to mention that purchases made
through the links on my store page help to support this site. You get
the same price as if you went directly to their website, and I get a
small finder's fee (usually a percent or two). These fees help to
support my costs for operating this website and the newsletter. For
those of you who are new to this newsletter, there are no charges or
memberships required (OK, yes you do have to sign up to receive the
newsletter, but that is free & it prevents people from signing you up
without you wanting it) to access any of the information or thousands of
photos you can find on the hundreds of pages I have prepared.

You can access my store page through my main page, or directly at:


http://americanindian.net/store.html


Some of the businesses you can reach are:
Amazon.com, Buy.com, OneTravel, Overstock.com, J and R Electronics (they
have some great prices, I bought my computer there).

For those of you who have used my store page to access these online
merchants, I greatly appreciate this effort on your part.

=============================
X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X
=============================

Here are some not so random historical events for December:

December 1
1855: Today marked the deadline for the Donation Land Claim Act. The law
allowed certain lands to be acquired by settlers without a purchase.

1869: According to army records, members of a mail escort from the
Fourth Infantry fought with a band of Indians near Horseshoe, Wyoming.
Three soldiers were wounded.

1874: Indians fought with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry and some
Indian scouts near Canyon Creek in the Tonto Basin, Arizona. According
to army documents, eight Indians were killed, two were wounded, and
fourteen were captured.

1881: The secretary of state said Hawaii was now a part of the United
States.

1886: Fort Halleck was located east of Elko, Nevada. For a while it was
the headquarters for the Nevada Military District. Soldiers from the
renamed Fort Halleck would participate in campaigns against the Apache,
Bannock, Modoc, and Nez Perce. After almost ten years of service, it was
closed.

1983: The base membership roll established for the Pascua Yaqui Indians
on September 18, 1980, was approved by the Phoenix area director of the
Bureau of Indian Affairs.

--------------------

December 2

1830: Georgia passed a law to seize Cherokee gold mines.

1833: A total of 176 of Captain Page’s original contingent of 1,000
Cherokees arrived at the agency west of Fort Smith, Arkansas, on the
eastern edge of the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). The rest of
the group had split off and gone to Fort Towson.

1838: According to a Nashville publication, 1,800 Cherokees passed
through Nashville, Tennessee, on their emigration to the Indian
Territory (present-day Oklahoma). The Nashville publication assumed that
the Cherokees would be punished by the cold weather and the trip
remaining before them.

1842: The Cherokee passed a law that called for the death penalty for
any tribal member who ceded land to the United States.

1867: According to army records, members of the Eighteenth Infantry
fought with a band of Indians near Crazy Woman’s Creek, Dakota
Territory. One soldier was killed; three soldiers and four civilians
were wounded.

1868: According to army records, members of the First and Eighth
Cavalries and the Thirty-Second Infantry fought with a band of Indians
near Camp McDowell, Arizona. One soldier was wounded and two Indians
were killed. The fighting started on November 25.

1869: While going from Fort Fetterman to Fort Laramie in southeastern
Wyoming, Sergeant Conrad Bahr, Company E, Fourth Infantry, and ten men
acting as a mail escort were attacked by about 150 Indians near
Horseshoe Creek, Wyoming, according to the army report. One soldier was
killed; several Indians were killed or wounded. On the same day, another
mail escort going in the opposite direction was also attacked, with two
soldiers sustaining wounds.

1872: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the First Cavalry
near Land’s Ranch, or Tule Lake, California, according to official army
records. One soldier was killed and another was wounded.

1874: Near Gageby Creek in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma),
First Sergeant Dennis Ryan and twenty men from Troop I, Sixth Cavalry,
attacked a group of Indians. A running fight developed. Many horses were
killed or captured. The Indians also lost many of their provisions. For
"courage while in command of a detachment," First Sergeant Dennis Ryan
would be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

1880: Fifteenth Infantry soldiers fought a group of Indians near South
Fork in the White Mountains of New Mexico. According to army documents,
two soldiers and one Indian were wounded. Four Indians were captured.

1942: The constitution and bylaws of the Kanosh Band of Paiute Indians
were approved by the secretary of the interior.

1955: Assistant Secretary of the Interior Wesley D’Ewart authorized an
election to approve an amendment to the constitution and bylaws for the
Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe of Nevada. The election was held on December
26, 1955.

1963: The Presidential Medal of Freedom was issued to Navajo Annie
Wauneka.

1964: Land had been set aside for townsites in the Flathead Indian
Reservation in Montana. Finding that certain small lots had not been
disposed, the government returned that land to the tribal ownership of
the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes on the Flathead Reservation.

1980: Alaska National Interest Land Conservation Act (94 Stat. 2430)
took place. It was intended to "provide for designation and conservation
of certain public lands in the State of Alaska, including Implementation
of Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act and Amendments."

1991: The Navajo-Hopi Settlement Act was amended by Congress. It was
designed to "authorize appropriations for Navajo-Hopi Relocation Housing
Program for FYs 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995. This will expire when President
determines that its functions have been fully discharged. "

Every: Papago festival.

------------------------

December 3

1866: Elements of the First Cavalry fought some Indians near Camp
Watson, Oregon. Fourteen Indians were killed and five were captured,
according to army records.

1875: Commissioner of Indian Affairs Edward Smith notified all of his
Cheyenne and Sioux agents to order any Indians off the reservations to
return by January 31, 1876, or face military action.

1901: President Theodore Roosevelt delivered his first speech on
Indians.

1962: Assistant Secretary of the Interior John A. Carver Jr. authorized
an election for amendments to the constitution for the Wisconsin
Winnebago.

1973: A new commissioner of Indian affairs was named. Morris Thompson,
an Athabasca from Alaska, got the post.

1973: Shirley Plume, an Oglala, was appointed as the first Indian woman
to be an agency superintendent. She supervised the Standing Rock Agency
in North Dakota.

1993: The American Indian Agricultural Resource Management Act (207
Stat. 3715) of December 3, 1993, was passed by Congress. It was meant to
"carry out trust responsibilities and promote self determination by
tribes of agricultural resources; provide development and management
educational opportunities for Indian people and communities."

---------------------

December 4

1674: A mission in Chicago was established by Jesuit missionary James
Marquette.

1802: North Carolina and the Tuscarora signed a treaty in Raleigh that
ceded a large part of their lands. The treaty was submitted to the U.S.
Senate on February 21, 1803.

1833: Twenty-one Chickasaw chiefs arrived at Fort Towson in eastern
Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). They assessed the lands that
the United States wanted them to move to when they were removed from
Alabama. Meeting with local Choctaws about buying land from them proved
to be unfruitful.

1858: Colonel Miles and the Navajos agreed to a truce and started
negotiating a peace.

1862: The thirty-eight Santee Sioux Indians sentenced to hang by the
courts for their part in the uprising were being held by Colonel Henry
Sibley’s troops in a prison camp on the South Bend of the Minnesota
River. Tonight, an angry mob of local citizens tried to raid the camp
and lynch the Indians. The soldiers were able to keep the angry crowd
from getting to the prisoners.

1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry and some
Indian scouts near the East Fork of the Verde River, according to army
documents. Fifteen Indians were killed.

1959: The assistant secretary of the interior authorized an election for
amendments to the constitution for the Gila River Pima–Maricopa Indian
Community.

1969: An election for three amendments to the constitution of the Oglala
Sioux of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation was held. All were approved
by a majority of the approximately 1,200 people voting.

1974: Commissioner of Indian Affairs Morris Thompson ratified an
election that approved a constitution and bylaws for the Upper Skagit
Indian Tribe.

1991: The Tribal Self-Governance Demonstration Project Act (105 Stat.
1278) of December 4, 1991, was passed by Congress. It was to "amend
Self-Governance legislation, including Education to extend time for
demonstration project and to increase number of tribes participating,
and to increase funds."

-----------------

December 5

1836: A law passed by the Republic of Texas allowed President Sam
Houston to appoint Indian agents, build forts, and several other things.

1842: Dr. Elijah White started a conference with the Nez Perce. The
rules for the conference were decided.

1848: Captain Seth Eastman, commander of several companies of the First
Infantry, established Camp Houston as one of the first U.S. Army posts
on the western frontier of Texas. It was southeast of Fredericksburg. It
was eventually renamed Fort Martin Scott.

1855: Columbia River volunteers under Nathan Olney were near Fort Walla
Walla in southeastern Washington when they encountered Pio-pio-mox-mox’s
(Yellow Serpent) band of WallaWalla. Pio had looted the Hudson Bay
Company’s Fort Walla Walla, but he had always been neutral or helped the
Americans in the past. He advanced under a flag of truce and wanted to
return the booty. But an agreement could not be reached. Pio refused to
fight, and Olney’s men took Pio and four others prisoner.

1866: Elements of the First Cavalry fought some Indians near Surprise
Valley, California. No injuries or fatalities were reported on either
side, according to army records.

1867: According to army records, members of the Ninth Cavalry Infantry
fought with a band of Indians near Eagle Springs, Texas. One soldier was
killed.

1873: Lieutenant E. P. Turner, with troopers from the Tenth Cavalry,
helped local authorities recover a herd of stolen cattle. The army and a
local sheriff found a group of twenty Indians with the cattle on Elm
Creek in Texas. During the struggle, four Indians were killed and the
others were captured. About 1,000 head of cattle were recovered.

1890: The secretary of the interior issued an order saying that Sitting
Bull was not to be arrested unless he said so.

1969: The Choctaw Community News was first published.

1970: An election was held to adopt a new constitution for the
Reno-Sparks Indian Community. It was approved by a vote of 30-10.

--------------------

December 6

1835: Benjamin Marshall and 511 other Creeks left on their westward trip
to the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) from Wetumka (near modern
Montgomery).

1862: Lincoln refused to pardon the thirty-eight Santee Sioux sentenced
to hang for their part of the uprising in Minnesota.

1866: Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, Yellow Eagle, High Back Bone, and their
followers had been harassing Colonel Henry Carrington’s troops from Fort
Phil Kearny in northern Wyoming. They staged several raids and ambushes
along the road from the fort to the nearby woods. Colonel Carrington led
his troops in some of the fighting. Several soldiers were killed in the
fighting. Carrington was called "Little White Chief" by the Indians.
This skirmished set the stage for the Fetterman Massacre on December 21,
1866.

1866: Elements of the Second Cavalry and Eighteenth Infantry fought some
Indians near Goose Creek, Dakota Territory. One officer and one soldier
were wounded. Two Indians were wounded, according to army records.

1875: The government delivered a order to Indian agents that the
remaining Sioux had to report to the Sioux Agency by January 31.

1886: The Dawes Severalty Act passed the Senate.

1897: President McKinley made his first speech on Indians.

1961: Assistant Secretary of the Interior John A. Carver Jr. authorized
an election to approve an amendment to the constitution and bylaws for
the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe of Nevada. The election was held on
December 26, 1961.

1963: The first meeting of the Foundation of North American Indian
Culture was held.

-----------------

December 7

1675: In the name of Charles II, the Massachusetts Bay Colony issued a
formal proclamation declaring war on the Narragansett.

1835: President Jackson delivered his seventh address on Indians.

1836: The first contingent of 2,700 friendly Creeks (the tribe had split
into two factions) arrived in eastern Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma) at Fort Gibson. The rest arrived soon after.

1855: The WallaWalla attacked Nathan Olney’s volunteers, who still held
Pio-pio-mox-mox and four others prisoner. Pio resisted being bound, and
he and three of his men were killed. His scalp and ears were paraded
through white settlements. This action moved many neutral tribes toward
a war status.

1862: A skirmish involving pro-Confederacy Indians took place at Prairie
Grove, Arkansas.

1868: Sheridan and Custer left Camp Supply (Oklahoma) leading 1,600
soldiers and 300 supply wagons. They were en route to Fort Cobb. It was
primarily meant as a show of force to the local Indians. It proved that
the army could march during the winter months.

1872: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Eighth
Cavalry and the Twenty-Third Infantry and some Indian scouts in Red Rock
country in Arizona, according to official army records. Twelve Indians
were killed. The fighting continued through the next day.

1873: Lieutenant Charles Hudson, four cavalry, and forty-one soldiers
from Fort Clark in western Texas clashed with some Kiowa. During the
fighting, Lone Wolf’s son and nephew were killed. Lone Wolf became
enraged at their deaths.

1874: The minister of the interior of the dominion of Canada purchased a
section of land in the province of Nova Scotia for the use and benefit
of the "Micmac" Indians in Pictou County.

1874: On Kingfisher Creek in Texas, Captain A.S.B. Keyes and Troop I,
Tenth Cavalry, attacked a group of Southern Cheyenne. Thirteen warriors
and thirteen women were captured.

1876: Lieutenant Frank D. Baldwin and 100 men of Companies G, H, and me,
Fifth Infantry, found Sitting Bull and his village of 190 lodges. The
army pursued them south of the Missouri River to the mouth of Bark
Creek. The Indians escaped into the Badlands.

1886: According to a signed agreement, thirteen Crow Indian families
were allowed to remain where they were now, retain their present
allotment of land, and not be disturbed.

1935: A constitution for the Tuolumne Band of Me-Wok Indians of the
Tuolumne Rancheria was approved by a vote of 27-0.

1935: An election was held to approve a constitution and bylaws for the
Tule River Indian Tribe. They voted 43-2 in favor of the proposal.

1949: The constitution and bylaws of the Confederated Tribes of the
Umatilla Reservation were ratified by Assistant Secretary of the
Interior William Warne.

1974: The Pawnee of Oklahoma approved several amendments to their
constitution with almost 300 people voting.

-----------------

December 8

1818: Secretary of War John C. Calhoun presented a report to the U.S.
House of Representatives. Among the report’s proposals were that tribes
should no longer be treated as sovereign nations; Indians should be
saved from extinction; and Indians should be taught the correctness of
the concept of landownership.

1840: Mikasuki Seminole Chief Hallack Tustenuggee was vehemently opposed
to the removal of his people from Florida. He and his followers
participated in numerous battles against American forces. Today, he
attacked a party of officers’ wives being escorted from Fort Micanopy by
thirteen soldiers. Four soldiers, including Lieutenant Walter Sherwood,
and one woman were killed in the fighting.

1847: Oregon Governor Abernathy called together the provisional
government to call up troops at Oregon City. Forty-two men were
dispatched within twenty-four hours.

1869: Louis Riel released his manifesto, the "Declaration of the People
of Rupert’s Land and the North-West." The document declared a
provisional government for the area.

1872: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Eighth
Cavalry and the Twenty-Third Infantry and some Indian scouts in Red Rock
country in Arizona, according to official army records. Twelve Indians
were killed. The fighting started the day before.

1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry and some
Indian scouts near San Carlos, Arizona, according to army documents. A
total of twenty-five Indians were killed and seventeen were captured in
fighting that lasted until January 20, 1874.

1874: On the Muchaque (Machague) Creek in Texas, Lieutenant Lewis
Warrington and ten men from Troop I, Fourth Cavalry, attacked a group of
fifteen Indians. Two Indians died, two were wounded, and one was
captured. Based on this fight, the following soldiers would be awarded
the Congressional Medal of Honor: Lieutenant Warrington and Privates
Frederick Bergerndahl and John O’Sullivan for "gallantry in a long
chase."

1882: Plains Cree Chief Big Bear signed a treaty with the Canadian
government. He was one of the last major Plains Indian chiefs to do so.

1972: The constitution and bylaws of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe of
Nevada was amended.

--------------------

December 9

1531: According to most sources, Juan Diego (Cuauhtlatoatzin), a Nahua,
first spotted the apparition of the Virgin Mary on a hill called
Tepeyacac in Mexico. Many Aztec and Nahua considered Tepeyacac to be a
sacred site. Juan Diego spotted her again each day until December 12.

1809: The Kickapoo signed a treaty (7 Stat. 117) with the United States
at Fort Wayne.

1835: By a treaty, the Cherokee got a certain area of land in Missouri
near the Osage Reservation.

1854: The United States signed a treaty (10 Stat. 1130, 11 Stat. 605)
with the Oto and Missouri at Nebraska City, Nebraska.

1861: Colonel Douglas Cooper again encountered pro-Union Creeks and
Seminoles under Chief Opothleyaholo in a battle on Bird Creek north of
Tulsa. Many of his Cherokee troops under John Drew defected and joined
the pro-Union forces. Cooper withdrew to Fort Gibson. This was often
called the Battle of Chusto-Talasah or the Battle of Caving Banks.

1864: Having been held as a captive for some time, Fanny Kelly was left
at Fort Sully by Sioux. Fort Sully was at the confluence of the Missouri
and Cheyenne Rivers. The site was now under Lake Oahe.

1873: Lieutenant C. L. Hudson and Troop B, Fourth Cavalry, had a minor
skirmish with a band of Indians on the West Fork of the Nueces River in
Texas.

1885: Eighth Cavalry soldiers fought a group of Indians near Lillie’s
Ranch on Clear Creek in New Mexico. According to army documents, two
Indians were killed.

1891: President Benjamin Harrison delivered his third speech on Indian
lands.

1916: A census was taken of the Winnemucca Shoshone in Nevada.

1924: By presidential proclamation, the Wupatki National Monument was
established in Arizona northeast of Flagstaff.

1974: The commissioner of Indian affairs authorized an election for
amendments to the constitution of the Papago (Tohono O’odham). The
election was held on February 8, 1975.

-------------------

December 10

1831: The last of the Choctaw emigrants, approximately 200 in number,
boarded a steamboat at Vicksburg and started their trip down the
Mississippi River.

1850: Federal agents signed a treaty with the Lipan Apache, Caddo,
Comanche, Quapaw, Tawakoni, and Waco Indians near the San Sabá River in
Texas.

1868: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Walker Springs, Arizona. Three Indians were
killed and six were captured.

1869: According to army records, members of the First and Eighth
Cavalries fought with a band of Indians near Mount Buford, Arizona.
Eleven Indians were killed and one soldier was wounded.

1873: Lieutenant C. L. Hudson, forty-two men from the Fourth Cavalry,
and nine Seminole Indian scouts attacked a band of Indians near Kickapoo
Springs, Texas. Nine hostiles were killed. One soldier and several
Indians were wounded. Eighty-one stolen horses were recovered.

1890: Nelson Miles ordered the soldiers at Fort Yates to "secure"
Sitting Bull.

1971: Assistant Secretary of the Interior Harrison Loesch approved
Amendment 3 for the constitution of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe.

1991: The name of the Custer Monument was changed to the Little Big Horn
Battleground Monument.

------------------------

December 11

1836: The second half of the original contingent of friendly Creeks
arrived at Fort Gibson in eastern Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma).

1866: Elements of the Fourteenth Infantry fought some Indians near Grief
Hill, Arizona. One soldier was killed, according to army records.

1868: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Willow Grove, Arizona. One soldier and eight
Indians were killed.

1872: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the First Cavalry
and the Twenty-Third Infantry and some Indian scouts on Bad Rock
Mountain north of old Fort Reno in Arizona, according to official army
records. Fourteen Indians were killed.

1890: Sitting Bull sent a letter to Indian Agent McLaughlin. He said he
was going to the Pine Ridge Agency.

1935: The secretary of the interior authorized an election for
amendments to the constitution of the Oglala Sioux of the Pine Ridge
Indian Reservation.

1937: "Undisposed" lands in the Flathead Indian Reservation in Montana
that had originally been designated for lots in a townsite were returned
to tribal ownership.

---------------------

December 12

1531: According to most sources, Juan Diego (Cuauhtlatoatzin), a Nahua,
spotted the apparition of the Virgin Mary on a hill called Tepeyacac in
Mexico again. He first saw her on December 9. According to Juan Diego,
the Virgin Mary instructed him to carry some roses in his macehualli
(cloak) to the local bishop as proof of her appearance. When the
macehualli was opened before the bishop, an image of the Virgin Mary
appeared on the cloak among the rose petals. The macehualli is still on
display in the church (Our Lady of Guadalupe) built to honor the event.

1806: In what eventually became Rome, Georgia, Cherokee Principal Chief
Stand Watie was born. Watie figured prominently in the Cherokee removal
process. His brother, Buck Watie (Elias Boudinot), was the editor of the
Cherokee Phoenix and his uncle and cousin were Major Ridge and John
Ridge. Stand Watie signed the Treaty of New Echota, ceding all of the
Cherokees’ lands in the east for land west of the Mississippi River.
Watie managed to escaped the people who murdered his three famous
relatives on June 22, 1839. Watie eventually killed one of the men
accused of killing his uncle. Watie enlisted as a colonel in the
Confederacy in 1861 and fought in the Battle of Pea Ridge. Watie was the
last Confederate general to surrender.

1842: Mount St. Helens erupted. Indians had noted many such eruptions.

1867: According to army records, Indian scouts fought with a band of
Indians near Owyhee River, Oregon. Seven Indians were reported killed.

1874: Indians fought with soldiers from the Seventh Cavalry in the
Standing Rock Agency. According to army documents, no casualties were
reported.

1882: President Arthur, by executive order, set up the Pima Agency in
the Gila Bend Reserve. It was thirty-five square miles and was occupied
by the Papago. It was bounded by Township 5 South, Range 5 West, and the
Gila and Salt River meridian, except for Section 18.

1890: McLaghlin received Sitting Bull’s Pine Ridge letter.

1936: A constitution for the Yerington Paiute Tribe of Nevada was voted
on. The results were 56-4 in favor of the proposed constitution.

1936: The Tohono O’odham Nation adopted a constitution. The secretary of
the interior approved it on January 6, 1937.

1955: An election to approve an amendment to the constitution and bylaws
for the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe of Nevada was held. They approved it
80-12.

1970: The acting commissioner of Indian affairs had authorized an
election to establish a constitution and bylaws for the Winnemucca
Shoshone Indian Colony of Nevada. It was approved by a vote of 15-0.

Every: Lady of Guadalupe Festival (Pueblos).

--------------------

December 13

1640: A deed for Indian land was signed in New England. It said, "It is
agreed that the Indians above named shall have liberty to break up
ground for their use to the westward of the creek on the west side of
Shinecock plaine." From a town meeting of 1641: "It is agreed that any
person that hath lotts up on Shinecocke playne in which there are any
Indian Barnes or wells lying shall fill them up."

1788: Northwest Territory Governor Arthur St. Claire had called for a
peace conference with the tribes of the area. It convened at Fort
Harmar. Among the almost 200 Delaware, Seneca, and Wyandot participants
was Seneca Chief Cornplanter. This council led to a treaty signed on
January 9, 1789.

1831: David Folsom’s Choctaws arrived at Little Rock, Arkansas. They
made camp a few miles out of town and wait for arrangements for their
transport to the Red River. Many of the ill-prepared Choctaw suffered
from the cold weather.

1831: Eneah Micco, principal chief of the Creeks’ lower towns, wrote to
Creek agent John Crowell. A total of 1,500 whites were living in Creek
territory. The Creeks feared they would be forced from their lands.

1863: Kit Carson was preparing to campaign against the Navajos in the
Canyon de Chelly country. He had corralled a large herd of pack mules
for his supplies. Barboncito and Navajo warriors stole most of the herd.
Carson was without pack animals, and the Navajos had plenty of meat.

1868: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Walnut Springs, Arizona. Eight Indians were
killed and fourteen captured.

1872: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the First Cavalry
and the Twenty-Third Infantry and some Indian scouts on Mazatzal
Mountain north of old Camp Reno in Arizona, according to official army
records. Eleven Indians were killed and six captured.

1875: Lieutenant General Philip Sheridan was sent a copy of Indian
Inspector E. C. Watkins’s report on the "wild and hostile bands …
roaming about Dakota and Montana"; a report from the commissioner of
Indian affairs; and the secretary of the interior’s plan to require
these Indians to report to their reservations by January 31, 1876, or
face force.

1877: Lieutenant J. A. Rucker and Troops C, G, H, and L, Sixth Cavalry,
fought a group of Indians at Ralston Flats, New Mexico Territory. One
Indian was killed in the fighting.

1935: The constitution and bylaws of the Fort Belknap Indian Community
of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in Montana were approved.

1959: The Mission Creek Band of Indians of Mission Creek, California,
approved their constitution.

1973: The acting deputy commissioner of Indian affairs authorized an
election for amendments to the constitution and bylaws of the Lac Courte
Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin. The
election was held on May 11, 1974.

-----------------

December 14

1763: A band of almost five dozen frontiersmen known as the Paxton Boys
attacked a peaceful Susquehanna Indian village in Conestoga,
Pennsylvania. They killed eight of the twenty-two inhabitants in this
unprovoked raid. The Paxton Boys continued their rampage during the next
two weeks.

1843: An agreement (9 Stat 337) was reached between the United States
and the Delaware and Wyandot.

1846: According to records kept in Monterey, California, a large group
of Indians raided many of the ranches in the surrounding area. According
to the Mexicans, the Indians wanted the horses for food.

1852: Ned Christie was born in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).
During his lifetime, he was a Cherokee tribal senator and the most
wanted fugitive in the territory. Falsely accused of killing a U.S.
Marshal in 1887, Christie avoided capture for more than five years. He
claimed that federal marshals had no jurisdiction in the Cherokees’
territory, and he refused to give himself up. Later, a witness vouched
for Christie’s innocence. Others said Christie did kill the marshal but
did so in self-defense.

1866: Elements of the Fourteenth Infantry fought some Indians near the
Pinal Mountains, Arizona. Three Indians were killed, according to
Fourteenth Infantry records.

1867: According to army records, some people cutting wood fought with a
band of Indians near Fort Phil Kearney, Dakota Territory. Two civilians
were wounded.

1872: President Grant, by executive order, established the Chiricahua
Indian Reservation in the White Mountain, or San Carlos, Reserve in
Arizona Territory. Camp Grant Indian Reservation in southeastern Arizona
was returned to public domain. The San Carlos Reservation was created
and added to the White Mountain Reservation. Various parts of the
reservation were returned to the public domain on July 21, 1874, April
27, 1876, October 30, 1876, January 26, 1877, and March 31, 1877.

1872: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry
near Indian Run, Arizona, according to official army records. Nine
Indians were captured.

1877: According to army records, Sergeant James Brogan, Company G, Sixth
Cavalry, "engaged single-handed two renegade Indians until his horse was
shot under him and then pursued them so long as he was able." For his
actions, he was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

1878: According to the Oklahoma Law Enforcement Memorial, Panola County
was in the Chickasaw Nation of Indian Territory, an area that
encompassed portions of the currant Bryan and Marshall Counties west of
Durant. Deputy Culpepper "Cub" Colbert was assigned to keep the peace at
a dance that went into the early-morning hours. About 4 a.m. Deputy
Colbert took a gun away from a drunk man named Ben Kemp. Kemp hit the
deputy on the head with a cane, and Colbert shot him in the side,
inflicting a flesh wound. As Deputy Colbert was leaving, one of Kemp’s
sons shot the deputy in the left side with a shotgun, nearly severing
his left arm and killing him almost instantly.

1886: Use of Indian language was illegal in Mississippi schools.

1891: After serving as chief justice of the Cherokee supreme court, Joel
Bryan Mayes was be elected as principal chief of the Cherokee Nation in
1887. Mayes served as chief until his death, on this day. Mayes’s
mother, Nancy Adair, was a descendant of James Adair, who wrote one of
the first histories of American Indians.

1915: Red Fox James, a Blackfeet, was seeking to have a national
recognition day set aside for American Indians. As a part of his
campaign, he rode horseback from state capital to state capital seeking
support. At the White House, James presented endorsements from
twenty-four state governments.

1935: An election for amendments to the constitution of the Oglala Sioux
of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation was held. They were approved by a
vote of 1,348-1,041.

1935: An election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the Pyramid
Lake Paiute Tribe of Nevada was held. The 69-34 vote approved the
document.

1935: The secretary of the interior had authorized an election to
approve a constitution and bylaws for the Pueblo of Santa Clara. The
constitution was approved by a vote of 145-8.

1971: The Alaska Native Claims Act passed Congress.

---------------------

December 15

1725: A treaty was signed in Boston between "several Tribes of the
Eastern Indians viz the Penobscot, Narridgwolk, St. Johns Cape Sables &
other Tribes Inhabiting within His Majesties Territorys of New England
and Nova Scotia," and "His Majties Governments of the Massachusetts Bay,
New Hampshire & Nova Scotia."

1872: In Washington, D.C., Commissioner of Indian Affairs Francis Walker
told a large delegation of Kiowa, some Comanche, and other Indians that
they must move to within ten miles of Fort Sill in southern Indian
Territory (present-day Oklahoma) by today’s date or be killed by the
army as hostiles.

1880: Major George Ilges and 180 mounted soldiers of the Fifth Infantry
left Fort Keogh in eastern Montana en route to reinforce the Camp Poplar
River garrison in northeastern Montana. The 200-mile trip was made in
constant subzero temperatures. The reinforcement was dispatched because
of a raid by Sioux from Canada.

1890: Sitting Bull was killed while being arrested at Fort Yates, South
Dakota, by Eighth Cavalry soldiers and Indian police near Standing Rock
on the Grand River in Montana. Thirty-nine police officers and four
volunteers were assembled to arrest Sitting Bull. Before it was all
done, over 100 of Sitting Bull’s supporters arrived at the scene.
Several people were injured or killed in the subsequent fighting.
According to army documents, four soldiers and eight Indians were
killed. Of those eight were Indian Police Officers John Armstrong, Paul
Akicitah, David Hawkman, James Little Eagle, Charles Shavehead, and
Henry Bullhead. Three soldiers were wounded. Later this week, the editor
of the Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer wrote a editorial about Sitting Bull.
One of the passages was as follows: "The proud spirit of the original
owners of these vast prairies inherited through centuries of fierce and
bloody wars for their possession, lingered last in the bosom of Sitting
Bull. With his fall the nobility of the Redskin is extinguished, and
what few are left are a pack of whining curs who lick the hand that
smites them. The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization,
are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the
frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the
few remaining Indians." The author of this editorial was L. Frank Baum,
best known as the author of The Wizard of Oz.

1953: An election was authorized to approve an amended constitution and
bylaws for the San Carlos Apache Tribe by the assistant secretary of the
interior. The election was held on February 23–24, 1954.

1970: Blue Lake was returned to the Taos Pueblos.

1971: The Navajo Community College Act was approved. The act provided
funds "to assist the Navajo Tribe of Indians in providing education to
the members of the tribe and other qualified applicants through a
community college."

1978: Casimir LeBeau, area director, Minneapolis area office, Bureau of
Indian Affairs, had authorized an election for an amendment to the
constitution and bylaws of the Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior
Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin. The amendment was passed by a vote of
158-21.

----------------

December 16

1773: The Boston Tea Party took place. American patriots dressed up like
Indians to throw British tea into Boston Harbor.

1841: A bill was submitted to build forts along the Oregon Trail.

1841: The Cherokee National Council established a school system for
their nation. There were eleven schools in eight districts. Subjects of
study included reading, writing, arithmetic, English grammar, geography,
bookkeeping, and history. Within a dozen years, this system was better
organized that those for whites in Missouri and Arkansas.

1868: Custer’s column had continued on through severe weather after the
battle of the Washita. They surprised a camp of Kiowa. Satanta and Lone
Wolf were arrested, and the other Kiowa were ordered to follow Custer to
Fort Cobb in southern Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). The
Indians initially complied with the order, but they soon slipped away,
except for Satanta and Lone Wolf.

1882: President Arthur, by executive order, established the Hopi (Moqui)
Reservation in the Navajo Agency in Arizona. It covered 3,863 square
miles.

1890: According to the "official" report from Standing Rock Reservation
Indian Agent James McLaughlin, Sitting Bull was killed this morning
while being arrested. "Acting under these orders, a force of thirty-nine
policemen and four volunteers [one of whom is Sitting Bull’s
brother-in-law, Gray Eagle] entered the camp at daybreak on December
16th, proceeding direct to Sitting Bull’s house." According to the
report of Captain E. G. Fechet, Eighth Cavalry, these were the results
of the confrontation: "Henry Bull Head, First Lieutenant of Police, died
82 hour after the fight. Charles Shave Head, First Sergeant of Police,
died 25 hours after the fight. James Little Eagle, Fourth Sergeant of
Police, killed in the fight. Paul Afraid-of-Soldiers, Private of Police,
killed in the fight. John Armstrong, Special Police, killed in the
fight. David Hawkman, Special Police, killed in the fight. Alexander
Middle, Private of Police, wounded, recovering. Sitting Bull, killed, 56
years of age. Crow Foot [Sitting Bull’s son], killed, 17 years of age.
Black Bird, killed, 43 years of age. Catch the Bear, killed, 44 years of
age. Spotted Horn Bull, killed, 56 years of age. Brave Thunder, No. 1,
killed, 46 years of age. Little Assiniboine, killed, 44 years of age.
Chase Wounded, killed, 24 years of age. Bull Ghost, wounded, entirely
recovered. Brave Thunder, No. 2, wounded, recovering rapidly. Strike the
Kettle, wounded, now at Fort Sully, a prisoner." Most sources said this
happened on December 15.

1935: A constitution and bylaws for the Rosebud Sioux were approved by
Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes.

1936: The constitution and bylaws of the Covelo Indian Community was
approved by Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes.

1971: The Coalition of Organized Indians and Natives was established. It
included the American Indian Movement, the National Indian Youth
Council, the National Congress of American Indians, and other
organizations. They hoped to present a united front for Indian concerns
in the elections of 1972.

1980: Commissioner of Indian Affairs William Hallett authorized an
election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the Jamul Indian
Village in San Diego County, California. The election was held on May 9,
1981.

1987: The Trail of Tears National Historical Trail was established.

---------------------

December 17

1761: According to some reports, an agreement regarding peace, the
return of prisoners, and boundary lines was reached between the British
and the Cherokees.

1778: British forces under Henry Hamilton and their Indian allies retook
Vincennes, Indiana, from George Rogers Clark.

1801: A treaty (7 Stat. 66) with the Choctaws was signed at Fort Adams
in southwestern Mississippi on the Mississippi River. A wagon road was
allowed to open from the northern settlements of the Mississippi
Territory to the Chickasaw lands. New boundaries were established for
Choctaws lands. They received $2,000 in goods and three sets of
blacksmith tools. They gave up almost 1.5 million acres (disguised as
the return to an old boundary). The treaty was signed by sixteen
Indians. This was called the Treaty of Fort Adams.

1803: In an address, Thomas Jefferson talked to the Choctaw. His primary
topic was the trading of Choctaw lands to pay their debts.

1812: Tecumseh was unable to convince numerous tribes of Indians to join
him in his fight against the Europeans. Many of these peaceful tribes
had settled along the Mississinewa River. Although they had pledged to
keep the peace, William Henry Harrison was dubious about leaving some
many Indians along his rear flank during his expedition against Detroit.
Colonel John Campbell was ordered by Harrison to take 600 men and attack
Miami villages along the river. Today, even though he was told to leave
them alone, Campbell attacked Silver Heel’s Delaware Indian village on
the river. Eight warriors were killed. They also captured forty-two
Delaware during the raid. Later, Campbell burned the peaceful village of
Metocina and his Miami followers. Finally, Campbell’s troops fought to a
draw and then retreated from another Miami village farther downriver.
Campbell returned to the area near Silver Heel’s destroyed village to
bivouac for the night.

1842: Pascofa surrendered to Colonel Ethan Hitchcock. He agreed to bring
his Apalachicola Tribe in to the colonel.

1883: In Ex Parte Crow Dog (109 U.S. 556 [1883]) the Supreme Court
overturned a lower federal court conviction of an Indian for the murder
of another Indian on Indian land. The court reasoned that the tribe’s
authority to deal with such an offense was an attribute of tribal
sovereignty and had not been specifically abrogated by congressional
action.

1936: The constitution and bylaws of the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community
were approved.

1961: The assistant secretary of the interior had authorized an election
to approve an amendment to the constitution and bylaws of the Miccosukee
Tribe of Indians of Florida. It was passed by a vote of 41-0.

1974: The acting deputy commissioner of Indian affairs had authorized an
election to approve the revised constitution and bylaws of the
Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. It was approved by a vote of
325-237.

----------------------

December 18

1836: General Matthew Arbuckle reported that 6,000 Creeks, including
Chief Opothleyaholo, were camped near Fort Gibson in eastern Indian
Territory (present-day Oklahoma). They were ill-prepared for the winter
conditions. Many of the people contracted to transport the Creeks’
belongings had not done so. This left the Creeks without winter
clothing.

1860: A sergeant and twenty troopers from the Second Cavalry, Captain
Sul Ross and a contingent of Texas Rangers, and several Tonkawa scouts
and volunteers under Captain Jack Cureton were on an expedition against
the Comanche. On the Pease River near Crowell, Texas, they discovered a
Comanche village. The soldiers attacked and easily defeated the Indians.
During the fighting, Cynthia Ann Parker, captured on May 19, 1836, was
"rescued" by the soldiers. Despite her pleas to be allowed to stay with
the Comanche, Parker was forced to return to "civilization" with the
troops. Peta Nocona, husband of Cynthia Ann Parker and father of Chief
Quanah Parker, was killed in the fighting, according to some sources.

1876: In Montana at Redwater Creek, Lieutenant Frank Baldwin captured an
entire village (122 lodges), goods, and sixty horses, mules, and ponies.
This was a group of Sitting Bull’s followers.

1877: Lieutenant J. A. Rucker and Troops C, G, H, and L, Seventh
Cavalry, fought the same group of Indians they had fought on December
13, 1877. This time, fifteen Indians were reported killed in the fight
in the Las Animas Mountains, New Mexico Territory.

1888: The Anazasi ruins at Mesa Verde were "discovered."

1892: Congress approve a monthly pension of $30 for Lemhi Chief Tendoy.

1937: The questions of tribal power and membership were addressed
regarding the Potawatomis of Kansas and Wisconsin.

1937: An election was held to adopt a constitution and bylaws by the
Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. The vote
was 181-77 in favor.

1963: An election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the
Paiute-Shoshone Tribe of the Fallon Reservation and Colony was held. It
was approved by a vote of 40-22.

1971: Congress established the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (85
Stat. 688), according to the Kootznoowoo Incorporation papers.

1974: Congress passed Senate Bill 1296, which President Ford signed into
law on January 3, 1975 (Public Law 93-620). This act enlarged the
Havasupai Indian Reservation by 185,000 acres and designated 95,300
contiguous acres of the Grand Canyon National Park as a permanent
traditional use area of the Havasupai people.

1976: The Pit River Indian Tribe was named as the "beneficial owner" of
the XL Ranch in California by William Finale, area director, Sacramento
office, Bureau of Indian Affairs. The tribal constitution was modified
accordingly.

--------------------

December 19

1597: The Oñate expedition into what became New Mexico began.

1829: The state of Georgia enacted a law that extended State boundaries
over a sizable section of the Cherokee Nation. The law stated that
anyone within this area after June 1, 1830, was subject to Georgia laws.
All Cherokee laws became null after that date as well. The act also
stated that an Indian could not be a witness in any court in the state.
It was also a crime for anyone to promote the cause of not emigrating to
Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).

1837: Jumper (Ote Emathla) and 250 of his Seminole and free black
followers surrendered to Colonel Zachary Taylor. They were sent to the
Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).

1842: Hawaiians visited Congress.

1861: Opothle Yahola’s pro-Union Creeks fought Colonel Douglas Cooper’s
pro-Confederacy Creek and Seminole Indians, led by McIntosh and Jumper,
east of Stillwell, Oklahoma. The battle was inconclusive, with neither
side scoring a victory. (Also recorded as happening on November 19,
1861.)

1867: According to army records, members of the First Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Camp Wallen, Arizona. One Indian was
reported killed.

1885: Eighth Cavalry soldiers fought a group of Indians near Little Dry
Creek, or White House, New Mexico. According to army documents,
assistant surgeon T.J.C. Maddox and four soldiers were killed.
Lieutenant R. C. Cabell and one soldier were wounded.

1936: The Ute Indians of the Uintah, Uncompahgre, and White River Bands
of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation approved a constitution and bylaws
by a vote of 347-12.

1936: Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes ratified an election that
approved a constitution and bylaws for the Hopi Tribe. The election was
held on October 24, 1936.

1944: An election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the
Metlakatla Indian Community of the Annette Islands Reserve in Alaska was
held as per an authorization by the assistant secretary of the interior.
It was approved by a vote of 105-17.

1980: The commissioner of Indian affairs had authorized a vote for the
approval of a new constitution and bylaws for the Ottawa Tribe of
Indians of Oklahoma. It was approved by the tribe with a vote of 547-17.

1980: Chaco Canyon (New Mexico), the site of many Anazasi ruins, was
officially designated as the Chaco Culture National Historic Park.

------------------

December 20

1833: Creeks met again at Wetumpka, Alabama, and sent another message to
Secretary of War Lewis Cass about the state authorities overruling the
federal authorities. The troops were leaving the area to jubilant white
squatters.

1841: Seminole warriors under Chief Hallack Tustenuggee attacked
Mandarin, Florida, located thirty-five miles north of St. Augustine. The
Seminoles overpowered the local forces. They captured and looted the
town. Four Europeans were killed in the fighting.

1935: The constitution and bylaws of the Pueblo of Santa Clara were
approved by Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes.

1939: Assistant Secretary of the Interior Oscar Chapman authorized an
election for a constitution for the Ketchikan Indian Corporation.

-----------------

December 21

1836: The fifth contingent of Creeks wrote a letter to Lieutenant
Sprague: "Tell General Jackson if the white men will let us, we will
live in peace, and friendship. But tell him these agents [people paid to
supply and help transport the Creeks] came not to treat us well, but
make money, and tell our people behind not to be drove off like dogs. We
are men, we have women and children, and why should we come like wild
horses." They thank Lieutenant Sprague for his kindness.

1836: A constitution and bylaws were approved for the Oneida Tribe of
Indians of Wisconsin.

1837: Four Chickasaws and Captain G. P. Kingsbury set out from Fort
Coffee in eastern Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) to blaze a
trail to the Chickasaws’ new lands to the west.

1841: According to some sources, one of the last battles in the Second
Seminole War was fought. Billy Bowlegs (Holtamico) led the Seminoles;
the American army was led by Major William Belknap. Fighting in a swamp,
the Seminoles escaped after both sides lost several men.

1866: Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, Yellow Eagle, High Back Bone, and their
followers had been harassing Colonel Henry Carrington’s Second Cavalry
and Twenty-Seventh Infantry troops from Fort Phil Kearny in northern
Wyoming. They staged several raids and ambushes along the road from the
fort to the nearby woods. Captain William J. Fetterman had once said, "A
company of regulars could whip a thousand, and a regiment could whip the
whole array of hostile tribes." A convoy of wagons carrying wood left
the fort. It was attacked by a decoy group of Indians. Following up on
his claim that he "could ride through the Sioux Nation" with just eighty
men, Fetterman pursued the decoying Indians away from the fort. The
Indians’ trap was sprung. Fetterman’s entire force of three officers,
forty-seven infantry, twenty-seven cavalry, and two civilians were
killed in the fighting. The soldiers called this the Fetterman Massacre.
The Indians called it the Battle of the Hundred Killed.

1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry near
Ehrenberg, Arizona, according to army documents. Six Indians were killed
and one was captured.

1875: An order was issued that modified the boundaries of the Hot Spring
Reservation in New Mexico Territory.

1882: By executive order, a tract of land was set aside for the use and
occupancy of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians in Dakota
Territory.

1936: Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes approved the election for
the constitution and bylaws for the Oneida Tribe of Indians of
Wisconsin.

1959: Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs Leon Langan approved an
election to amend the revised constitution and bylaws of the Sisseton
Wahpeton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota.

1978: Casimir LeBeau, area director, Minneapolis area office, Bureau of
Indian Affairs, ratified an election for an amendment to the
constitution and bylaws of the Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior
Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin.

1988: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s proposed National
Contingency Plan generally defined Indian tribes as states (53FR51479).

2012: According to some Maya sources, the present creation will end on
this date. (December 23 or 24, 2012, according to some other sources.)

-------------------

December 22

1836: Between November 22, 1836, and today, the Alabama Emigrating
Company had delivered 9,833 Creeks to Fort Gibson and the Verdigris
River. During 1836, 14,609 Creeks, including 2,495 hostiles, were
removed to eastern Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), according to
government reports.

1890: Captain J. H. Hurst of the Twelfth Infantry accepted the surrender
of 294 Indians near Cherry Creek in South Dakota. According to army
documents, these were members of Sitting Bull’s band.

1898: President McKinley, by executive order, established the Hualapai
Indian School Reserve for the purpose of educating the Hualapai Indians
in Arizona Territory. The reserve was in Section 10, Township 23 North,
Range 13 West.

1973: The Menominee Restoration Act was passed.

1974: The Hopi-Navajo Joint Use Act was passed.

1979: The acting deputy commissioner of Indian affairs had authorized an
election to approve a constitution for the Tonto Apache Tribe. It was
approved by a vote of 30-1.

--------------------

December 23

1814: In northwestern Florida, Major Uriah Blue led a force of American
militia against a Creek village near the Yellow River. Thirty Creeks,
including Alabama King, were killed and six dozen were captured.

1847: The Ogden conference was held at Fort Walla Walla with the Cayuse.

1855: White volunteers surrounded a friendly Rogue River Indian village
they had visited the day before. The village was mostly unarmed. The
whites attacked, and nineteen Indian men were killed. The women and
children were driven into the cold. The survivors arrived at Fort Lane
in southwestern Oregon with severe frostbite and frozen limbs.

1866: Sitting Bull attacked the Fort Buford sawmill.

1872: George Catlin died in New Jersey.

1873: An executive order set forth the confines of the Tulalip
Reservation in Washington.

1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry and some
Indian scouts near Cave Creek, Arizona, according to army documents.
Nine Indians were killed and three were wounded.

1877: Settlers fought a group of Indians near Van Horn’s Wells in Bass
Canyon, Texas. According to army documents, two settlers were killed.

1890: Big Foot left his village to go to Pine Ridge.

1923: Cherokee activist and educator Ruth Muskrat long promoted the
concept of Indian self-determination. At a meeting of a reform group
called the Committee of One Hundred, she presented President Calvin
Coolidge a copy of the book The Red Man in the United States.

1963: Assistant Secretary of the Interior John Carver Jr. ratified an
election that adopted an amendment for the constitution of the Standing
Rock Sioux Tribe. The election was held on October 24, 1963.

1968: An election for amendments to the constitution and bylaws of the
Jicarilla Apache was held. The results were 107-27 in favor.

1974: The constitution and bylaws of the Lac Courte Oreilles Band of
Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin were amended.

1975: William Finale, area director, Sacramento area office, Bureau of
Indian Affairs, authorized an election for amendments for the
constitution of the Tuolumne Band of Me-Wok Indians of the Tuolumne
Rancheria.

2012: One interpretation of the Maya calendar predicted that today would
be the end of world or the present creation.

-----------------

December 24

1791: A Shawnee war party from Chillicothe attacked John Merrill’s farm
in Nelson County, Kentucky. Merrill was seriously wounded when the
Shawnees first attacked. In what became a frontier legend, Merrill’s
wife killed six Shawnees as they tried to break into the cabin. After
they broke off the attack, the Shawnees call Mrs. Merrill "Long Knife
Squaw" out of respect.

1809: Kit Carson was born.

1814: The Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812.

1824: Choctaw Chief Pushmataha was in Washington, D.C., hoping to
negotiate a better treaty for his people. He suddenly got sick and died
in Tennison’s Hotel. Pushmataha led Choctaw warriors many times in
battle for the Americans. He told President Jackson that he wished to be
buried with military honors. Jackson led the thousands of mourners when
Pushmataha was buried in the congressional cemetery.

1824: The Mexican government awarded one square mile of land to each
Shawnee warrior.

1866: Soldiers from the Thirteenth Infantry at Fort Buford led by
Captain W. G. Rankin attacked Sitting Bull and his followers. According
to army records, three Indians were killed in the fighting.

1872: The Missouri, Kansas, and Texas Railroad crossed the Texas border,
completing the north-south crossing of Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma).

1880: Crow King went to Fort Buford for Sitting Bull.

1886: According to the Oklahoma Law Enforcement Memorial, Samuel
Sixkiller was son of Redbird Sixkiller, who came to Goingsnake District,
Indian Territory. Redbird held many public offices for the tribal
council and as judge. Sam kept many of his father’s traits. Sam was
appointed sheriff in Tahlaquah, Oklahoma. Later, he was appointed
sheriff in Muskogee, Oklahoma. He was killed by Dick Vann on Christmas
Eve for a grudge that Vann held for an earlier arrest. Sam was unarmed
and could not defend himself.

1890: Big Foot and 333 of his followers made it to the Badlands.

1969: Acting Commissioner of Indian Affairs A. O. Allen approved an
amendment to the constitution of the Oglala Sioux Tribe of Indians of
the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation endorsed by the tribe.

2012: One interpretation of the Maya calendar predicted that today would
be the end of world or the present creation.

Every (through December 25): Matachina dances (Pueblos).

----------------

December 25

1837: Colonel Zachary Taylor and 1,000 troops fought with the Seminoles
on the northern edge of Lake Okechobee, Florida. The Seminoles lost
fourteen dead. Taylor’s forces lost a little over two dozen dead and 112
wounded during the battle. This was one of the largest battles of the
war. Seminole war Chief Halpatter Tuatennuggee (Alligator) led a group
of 150 Seminoles, and seventy-year-old Chief Sam Jones led 200 warriors
during the fighting. The Seminoles escaped into the swamps after the
battle. Chief Jones was one the Seminoles who never left Florida.

1839: After the defeat at the Battle of the Neches on July 16, 1839,
Cherokees under Chief "The Egg" attempted to escape to Mexico. They made
it as far as the Colorado River before they met resistance. Colonel
Edward Burleson, leading Texan and Tonkawa forces, engaged them in a
fight. Seven Cherokee warriors were killed and twenty-four women and
children were captured. Among the dead was The Egg.

1854: A force of 100 Utes and Jicarilla Apaches, led by Tierra Blanco,
ravaged a settlement on the Arkansas and Huerfano Rivers, killing
fifteen men. They also captured some women and children.

1858: Colonel Miles and the Navajos signed a peace treaty. The Navajos
agreed to boundary lines to the south and east. Reparations had to be
made to the victims of the fighting. The army could establish a fort on
Navajo lands. The peace lasted a little less than six months.

1868: Brevet Lieutenant Colonel A. W. Evans and troops from the Third
Cavalry and the Thirty-Seventh Infantry had moved from Fort Bascom in
western New Mexico, along the Canadian River, to the headwaters of the
Red River. There he discovered a band of hostile Comanche. He attacked
and, according to his report, killed twenty-five Indians, captured and
burned the village, and destroyed a large amount of the Indians’
supplies. The Indians were followers of Horse Back.

1869: According to army records, members of the Ninth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Johnson’s Mail Station, Texas. No casualties
were reported.

1968: As a part of an amended constitution, the Havasupai Nation held an
election for tribal council.

----------------

December 26

1759: South Carolina Governor William H. Lyttleton held a conference
with six Cherokee chiefs at Fort St. George. The six chiefs agreed to a
peace treaty that was repudiated by most of the Cherokee chiefs who did
not attend the meeting.

1814: In northwestern Florida, Major Uriah Blue led a force of American
militia against the Indian settlement called Holmes’ Village on the
Choctawhatchee River. The Creeks who had been living there escaped
before the attack.

1854: A treaty (10 Stat. 1132) was signed at Medicine Creek with the
"Nisqually, Puyallup, Steilacoom, Squawskin, S’Homamish, Stehchass, T’
Peek-sin, Squi-aitl, and Sa-heh-wamish tribes and bands of Indians,
occupying the lands lying round the head of Puget’s Sound."

1861: The Battle of Chustenahlah took place. Pro-Union Indians under
Creek leader Opothle Yahola had established a fortified encampment on
Hominy Creek northwest of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Confederate forces from
Arkansas attacked them. The Indians deployed on a forested hill. It took
fierce, hand-to-hand fighting to win the day. The Indians abandoned
their supplies and 1,134 head of livestock. The Indians escaped during a
blizzard, and many people froze to death in Kansas. They finally stopped
in central Kansas with 3,168 Creek, 777 Seminoles, a few other Indians,
and ninety-one blacks. The Union would provide them with some supplies.
Eventually, over 7,500 survivors made it to the camp. The men were
organized into the First Regiment of Indian Home Guards. This was also
called the Battle of Shoal Creek.

1862: The thirty-eight Santee Sioux condemned for their actions in the
Santee Sioux Uprising were hanged in Mankato, Minnesota. This was the
largest mass hanging in American history.

1866: Elements of the First Cavalry fought some Indians near Owyhee
Creek, Idaho. Two soldiers were wounded, fourteen Indians were killed,
and seven were captured, according to army records.

1867: According to army records, members of the Ninth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Fort Lancaster, Texas. Three soldiers were
killed. Twenty Indians were reported killed and eleven were wounded.

1869: In Sanguinara Canyon in the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico
Territory, Lieutenant Howard Cushing and Troop F, Third Cavalry, engaged
a band of Indians. During the fight, Lieutenant Franklin Yeaton was
mortally wounded.

1869: According to army records, members of the Second Artillery fought
with a band of Indians near Fort Wrangle, Alaska. One civilian was
wounded. One Indian was killed and another was wounded.

1961: An election to approve an amendment to the constitution and bylaws
for the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe of Nevada was held. It was approved by
a vote of 80-20.

-------------

December 27

1837: The second group on Cherokees to emigrate after the New Echota
Treaty arrived in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) just southwest
of the Missouri-Arkansas border. During the march, four adults and
eleven children died.

1845: According to a New York Morning News editorial: "Our manifest
destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which
providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of
liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us."

1846: Shuk-ha-nat-cha and 360 other Choctaws arrived at Fort Coffee in
eastern Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).

1858: Twenty Texans, led by Indian fighter Peter Garland, attacked a
peaceful group of Anadarko and Caddo camped on Keechi Creek near the
Brazos River Reservation. The Texans killed seven Indians while they
were sleeping. According to some reports, the Texas Rangers refused to
arrest Garland for the unprovoked murders. A grand jury set up to
investigate the murders charged Anadarko Chief Jose Maria (Iesh) with
horse-stealing instead.

1873: Corporal John Wright and soldiers from the Twenty-Fifth Infantry
fought with Indians on Deep Red Creek in Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma). One Indian was wounded.

1875: President Grant, by executive order, established reservations for
the Portrero, Cahuila, Capitan Grande, Santa Ysabel, Pala, Agua
Caliente, Sycuan, Inasa, and Cosmit Mission Indians primarily in San
Diego County, California. This order was modified on: May 3, 1877;
August 25, 1877; September 29, 1877; January 17, 1880; March 2, 1881;
March 9, 1881; June 27, 1882; July 24, 1882; February 5, 1883; June 19,
1883; January 25, 1886; March 22, 1886; January 29, 1887; March 14,
1887; and May 6, 1889.

1938: An election to approve an amendment to the constitution and bylaws
for the Thlopthlocco Tribal Town of the Creek Indian Nation of the state
of Oklahoma was held. It was passed by a vote of 95-4.

1946: Indians were relocated in North Dakota due to dam construction.

1980: The U.S. Post Office issued the Sequoyah stamp.

---------------

December 28

1520: According to some sources, Hernán Cortés and his army started
their second excursion to Tenochtitlán (modern Mexico City) from
Tlascala, Mexico. This time they had made and brought a group of small
boats to use on the lake surrounding the city.

1840: Five soldiers and a civilian were killed by Seminole warriors just
outside of Micanopy, Florida.

1847: Oregon troops led by Colonel Gilliam attacked some Indians in the
first battle of the Cayuse War. Captain Lee fought des Chutes’s
warriors. Half of the Indians were killed; no soldiers were killed,
according to government reports.

1870: From a marker in the Fort Buford (North Dakota) cemetery:
"Daughter of Bloody Knife—December 28, 1870—Disease."

1872: Events in the Tonto Basin campaign took place. Apache and Yavapai
warriors were defeated by the army near Skull Canyon, Arizona. Indians
skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry and some
Indian scouts in the Salt River Canyon in Arizona, according to official
army records. One soldier and fifty-seven Indians were killed. One
soldier was wounded and twenty Indians were captured.

1874: Captain A.S.B. Keyes and Troop I, Tenth Cavalry, had been
following a group of Southern Cheyenne for eighty miles. On the Canadian
River in Texas, the entire group of fifty-two Indians and seventy horses
surrendered, according to army records.

1890: Seventh Cavalry and First Artillery soldiers accepted the
surrender of 106 Indians near Porcupine Creek, South Dakota.

1985: The Quarter Blood Amendment Act (99 Stat. 1747) of December 28,
1985, was passed by Congress. Its purpose was to "define eligible Indian
students for Indian education programs and tuition-free attendedance at
[Bureau of Indian Affairs] or contract schools."

Every: Children’s dances (Pueblos) and Holy Innocence Day.

-----------

December 29

1831: David Folsom’s Choctaws began their march to the Red River.
Bridges must be built, roads improved, bogs crossed, and rivers forded.
The muddy roads and river crossings slowed the trip.

1831: Cherokee leaders sent a memorandum to the secretary of war stating
their grievances against the actions of the state of Georgia. Georgia
had taken their lands at gunpoint, carried off their people in chains,
taken their gold mines, and planned to sell off their lands to white
settlers. A delegation of John Ross, Judge John Martin, William Shorey
Coodey, and John Ridge went to Washington to follow up on their
complaints.

1835: The United States informed the Cherokees that they were to appear
in their capital city, New Echota, Georgia, to negotiate a treaty with
the United States. They were informed that anyone not attending the
council was assumed to support any agreement reached there. Several
Cherokee leaders opposed to the movement of the tribe to Indian
Territory (present-day Oklahoma) were physically restrained so they
could not attend the meeting. Chief John Ross was held prisoner, without
charges, for twelve days by Georgia militia. Of the estimated 18,000
Cherokees, less than 500 attended the treaty council. Today, a treaty (7
Stat. 478) was signed by less than 100 Cherokees that ceded all of the
Cherokee lands in the east. The treaty-signers, led by Elias Boudinot,
Major Ridge, and John Ridge, agreed to the treaty with the provision
that it receive approval from the majority of the Cherokee Nation.
Although representatives of almost 16,000 Cherokees informed the
government they did not endorse or support the treaty, the U.S. Senate
ratified it by a one-vote margin.

1876: Colonel Nelson Miles, companies A, C, D, E, and K, Fifth Infantry,
Companies E and F, Twenty-Second Infantry, and two pieces of
artillery—436 men total—left Fort Keogh (at the mouth of the Tongue
River) in eastern Montana in search of Crazy Horse and hostile Northern
Cheyenne and Sioux.

1890: The Battle of Wounded Knee, or Wounded Knee Massacre, took place.
According to army records, one officer (Captain G. D. Wallace),
twenty-four soldiers, and 128 Indians were killed. Thirty-five soldiers
and thirty-three Indians were wounded in the fighting. The army would
give Congressional Medals of Honor to the following soldiers: Sergeant
William G. Austin, for "using every effort to dislodge the enemy";
Company E musician John E. Clancy, who "twice voluntarily rescued
wounded comrades under fire of the enemy"; Private Mosheim Feaster,
Company E, for "extraordinary gallantry"; First Lieutenant Ernest A.
Garlington, for "distinguished gallantry"; First Lieutenant John C.
Gresham, for leading an attack into a ravine; Sergeant Richard P.
Hanley, Company C, for recovering a pack mule loaded with ammunition
while under heavy fire; Private Joshija B. Hartzog, Company E, First
Artillery, for rescuing his wounded commander while under heavy fire;
Second Lieutenant Harry L. Hawthorne, Second Artillery, for
distinguished conduct; Private Marvin C. Hillock, Company B, for
distinguished bravery; Private George Hobday, Company A, for conspicuous
and gallant conduct; Sergeant George Loyd, Company I, for bravery,
especially after being severely wounded through the lung; Sergeant
Albert McMillian, Company E, for leading by example; Private Thomas
Sullivan, Company E, for conspicuous bravery; First Sergeant Frederick
Toy, Company C, for bravery; First Sergeant Jacob Trautman, Company I,
for "killing a hostile Indian at close quarters" and remaining with the
troops even though he was entitled to retire; Sergeant James Ward,
Company B, for fighting after being severely wounded; Corporal Paul
Weinert, Company E, for assuming command of his artillery piece when his
officer was wounded; and Private Hermann Ziegner, Company E, for
conspicuous bravery.

1915: Lands were ordered to be set aside for agency and school purposes
in connection with the administration of the Cheyenne and Arapaho
Indians.

1955: An election held to adopt an amended constitution and bylaws for
the Hualapai Tribe of the Haulapai Reservation in Arizona was ratified
by Assistant Secretary of the Interior Wesley D’Ewart.

1964: The secretary of the interior had authorized an election to
approve a constitution and bylaws for the Squaxin Island Tribe of the
Squaxin Island Indian Reservation in Washington State. The election was
held on May 15, 1965.

1990: An anniversary gathering was held at Wounded Knee.

---------------

December 30

1806: Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter to "Wolf and People of the Mandan
Nation." It extolled the virtues of peace.

1853: The Gadsden Purchase was made, adding land to the United States in
the southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico. Most of these lands were
claimed by Indians.

1869: According to army records, members of the Third Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Delaware Creek in the Guadaloupe Mountains
of Texas. No casualties were reported.

1872: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry
near the mouth of Baby Canyon in Arizona, according to official army
records. Six Indians were killed, one was wounded, and two were
captured.

1890: In the aftermath of the battle at Wounded Knee, the Drexel Mission
Fight happens just north of the Pine Ridge Agency in South Dakota.

1890: While pursuing Sioux Indians at White Clay Creek, South Dakota,
elements of the Seventh Cavalry engaged in a skirmish. Captain Charles
Varnum, Company B, First Sergeant Theodore Ragnar, Company K, and
farrier Richard Nolan, Company I, would win the Congressional Medal of
Honor for bravery.

1950: A constitution and bylaws for the Eskimos of the Native Village of
Buckland, Alaska, were ratified by a vote of 17-13.

1982: The Indian Claims Limitation Act (96 Stat. 1976) of December 30,
1982, was passed by Congress. It was intended to "provide guidelines for
revision to file claims based on dates of publication in Federal
Register, submission of legislation or legislative report, or decision
of suit by Secretary of the Interior."

---------


December 31

1590: Spaniard Gaspar Castaño de Sosa was exploring the area of what is
now New Mexico. A few days earlier, several men in his group had a
fought with some of the residents of the Pecos Pueblo. Sosa’s main body
reached the pueblo. There was a brief fight, and Sosa took some of the
Indians captive. Sosa would later return to the pueblo and get a better
reception.

1835: A census of the Cherokees in Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina, and
Tennessee was concluded. It showed 16,542 Cherokees living in those four
states. They owned 1,592 black slaves, and 201 whites had married into
the tribe.

1835: During the Second Seminole War, Chiefs Osceola and Alligator led a
force of 250 Seminoles against an army detachment of 750 men, led by
Generals Duncan Clinch and Richard Call, on the Withlacoochee River near
Tampa Bay, Florida. This was one of the few pitched battles the
Seminoles engaged in. The Seminoles opened fire when the Americans tried
to cross the river. Only a few soldiers and warriors were killed in the
fighting. A bayonet charge led by Colonel Alexander Fanning helped to
end the fighting, but Clinch was forced to retreat from the area.

1873: Near Eagle Springs, Texas, fifteen Indians attacked a sergeant and
soldiers from Company B, Twenty-Fifth Infantry. Only one Indian was
wounded in the fight.

1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry in the
Sunflower Valley near Fort Reno, Arizona. According to army documents,
seven Indians were killed and eleven were captured.

1880: Major Ilges held a council with Crow King at Poplar Agency.

1881: The Osage Nation adopted a constitution at Pawhuska, Oklahoma.

1939: The assistant secretary of the interior had authorized an election
to approve a constitution and bylaws for the native village of Gambell.
It was passed by a vote of 76-3.

1954: According to Federal Register No. 20FR00181, certain tracts of
Indian Reservation land were "withdrawn from all forms of disposal under
the public lands laws, including the mining and mineral leasing laws."

1958: The assistant secretary of the interior authorized an election for
a constitution for the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe. The election was held
on February 11, 1959

1960: The federal government terminated the Menominee Tribe.

1964: An amendment to the constitution and bylaws of the Fort Belknap
Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in Montana was
adopted.

=====================
X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X
=====================

That's it for now. I will have more in a day or two.

Stay safe,

Phil

==========================================================
End of Phil Konstantin's December 2004 Newsletter - Part 1
==========================================================
.
.
.
.
.
============================================================
Start of Phil Konstantin’s December 2004 Newsletter – Part 2
============================================================

Greetings,

No, I had not forgotten about the rest of the newsletter. I have
just been very busy with a couple of other projects, and some
online college courses I have been taking. There will be a
Part 3 sometime during the weekend when I get a chance.

Phil

===============================
X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X
===============================

Link of the Month for December 2004:


The Aboriginal Multi-Media Society (AMMSA) website is the home
page for many different presentations. The AMMSA sponsors several
publications, all of which have sample articles online. They
has some interesting historical content done in the same
format as my book. They also have a nice links page, as well
as other interesting material. I suggest giving their website
a visit.

http://www.ammsa.com/dsp_login.asp


===============================
X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X
===============================

Congratulations are in order for newsletter subscriber Joe
RedCloud. He was appointed as the Administrative Assistant
to the newly elected Vice President Alex White Plume of the
Oglala Sioux Tribe located on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation
in southwest South Dakota. Joe has contributed many of the
items I have included in the newsletter. I wish him well in
this new position.


===============================
X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X
===============================

Info from newsletter subscribers:
(I do not necessarily support or oppose any of the items
mentioned below. I have posted them for your perusal. Phil)

-----------------------------

From my cousin Michael Walkingstick:

I recently posed a query to a gentleman who moderates a
discussion Group on the Civil War.

The query involved the authenticity of the Cherokee Braves Flag.

I thought you all might be interested in his short research
into the authenticity of this banner supposedly used by the
Cherokee Confederate Forces during the Civil War.



Recently there was some discussion about the Cherokee Braves
Battle Flag, however I cannot find that thread at the moment.
I found the following information on this flag and the story
behind it. Also there is a link which will take you to a
picture of this flag at the end of this post. It seems this
flag was indeed uses during the war and the story about it
is quite interesting and a bit complicated;

<
2. Native American Rights Fund. “Trust Fund Matters.” 2001 Native
American Rights Fund 
3. Webmaster. “Native Americans.” 2004 FedLaw 2004

4. Webmaster. “Broadcast #03-064.” 2004 National Congress of American
Indians. 25 Sep. 2003

5. Webmaster. “Indian Trust.” 2004 U.S. Department of the Interior
Indian Trust.   3 Nov. 2004 
6. Swimmer, Ross. “Statement of Ross Swimmer, Special Trustee for
American Indians, Before The Senate Committee On Indian Affairs On The
2005 President’s Budget Request For Indian Programs.” 2004 U.S. Senate
25 Feb. 2004   
7. Webmaster. “OST Home Page.” 2004 Office of the Special Trustee For
American Indians 18 Nov. 2004 
8. McCarthy, Sabrina. “Court Orders Relating to Indian Trust Funds.”
2004 Department of the Interior 1999-2003

9. Webmaster. “Cobell v. Norton.” 2004 Native American Culture 2001-2002

10. Cobell, Elouise. “Cobell v. Norton.” 2004 Indian Trust 2004

11. Webmaster. “Trust Fund Win For Native Americans.” 2004 Land Rights
Queenland Mar. 2000


12. Lee, Christopher. “Indian Royalties Case Official Retires.”
Washington Post 22 Nov. 2002: A20
13. Nakashima, Ellen and Tucker, Neely. “Lost Trust: Billions Go
Unaccounted.” Washington Post 22 April 2002: A1
14. Lee, Jodi Rave. “Cobell lawsuit may be key turning point after a
century of mismanagement.” Billings Gazette 30 Sep. 2002: A1




===============================
X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X
===============================

Here are a couple of interesting news articles:



Native American leaders say they are seeking equality, not sympathyFive
Native American role models, veteran educators and athletic legends
shared lessons in cultural diversity and awareness in Aberdeen Saturday
morning.
The full article will be available on the Web for a limited time:
http://www.aberdeennews.com/mld/americannews/sports/10400381.htm


Native Era, a rap duo from Pine Ridge, sings to inspire American Indian
youths to reach for the stars. RAPID CITY — Ever since Billy Janis was
young, he has dreamed of making a difference in his community. He just
never knew quite how to make his voice heard.
http://www.rapidcityjournal.com/articles/2004/12/11/news/features/302features.txt



===============================
X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X
===============================

Ruth Garby Torres of the Schaghticokes sent me this copy of an
editorial. She notes, Won't he just please leave! I thought he was
moving from CT.

-----------

The Politics Of Greed Drive BIA Process
The spectacle of non-Indian millionaires fighting in court over who
deserves to profit from this acknowledgement petition only confirms how
morally bankrupt the BIA'a acknowledgement process has become.


By JEFF BENEDICT
Published on 12/5/2004

Since receiving a preliminary determination for recognition by the
Bureau of Indian Affairs over two years ago, the Eastern Pequot Indian
group has been awaiting word from the Interior Board of Indian Appeals
on whether it gets to keep the prize. The state of Connecticut appealed
to the Interior Board of Indian Appeals, claiming the BIA reduced its
rules to a sham when it took two rival Eastern Pequot factions that
previously considered each other illegitimate; merged them together; and
declared them a legitimate tribe with a green light to build a casino.
As decision day on the state's appeal process goes forward, the Eastern
Pequots' leader, Marcia Flowers, is campaigning to convince the public
and the media that acknowledgment is “inevitable.”

In several recent press reports, Flowers has insisted that:

• Their petition is the strongest one ever filed.

• A new casino will be opened in a community that welcomes one.

• The tribal members are actively engaged in a wide variety of tribal
activities.

In all that spin there is little reality. For starters, if the Eastern
Pequot groups' petitions were so strong, the BIA wouldn't have had to
jury-rig them together to compensate for the inability of either one to
hold up on its own. Nonetheless, it is understandable that Flowers and
the Easterns, along with their wealthy financial backers, would view the
outcome of their push for recognition and a casino as inevitable. After
all, they are accustomed to dealing with the BIA, where rules and
regulations governing acknowledgment are treated more like pesky detours
en route to a pre-determined casino destination.

But while the BIA has been finding ways to navigate the Eastern Pequots
and other petitioning groups from Connecticut, such as the Schaghticoke
Tribal Nation, around the rules, our state has passed a law that makes
it illegal for any newly-created tribes — or any other entity, for that
matter — to build a third casino anywhere in the state. Fortunately,
Connecticut actually enforces its laws. Unless the Easterns or some
other group successfully mounts a court challenge to the repeal of
Connecticut's Las Vegas Nights law, there will be no more casinos.

But right now the Easterns haven't even solidified the federal tribal
status needed to go to court to challenge Connecticut's law. A review of
the problems plaguing the Eastern Pequots' petition suggests they may
never get there.

First, the Eastern Pequot petition is, in fact, one of the weakest ever
to have reached this far with a preliminary decision to grant
acknowledgment. If the Interior Board of Indian Appeals doesn't overturn
the BIA's decision, the legal challenge will proceed up the
administrative appeals ladder and ultimately to the courts if necessary.

While these appeals slog on, the cost to sustain them is relentless. For
years money was not an obstacle, as both Pequot groups had been
handsomely subsidized by two groups of financiers desiring to build the
state's third casino.

Now those two groups, led respectively by Donald Trump and developer
David Rosow, are fighting a $10 million court dispute over who has the
right to back the consolidated Eastern Pequots. This is like two pirates
fighting each other over the gold. The notion that all is well in
Eastern Pequot land is a farce, as the ugly underbelly of this business
has been oozing out in court filings and financial disclosure
statements.

Second, the BIA and its hopelessly flawed recognition process are now
under investigation by the U.S. House Government Reform Committee, and
the Eastern Pequots' petition bid is at the center of the probe. Earlier
this year, hearings spearheaded by Congressman Chris Shays exposed a
simple question: if the Easterns' petition is so strong, why did the
group require millions and millions of dollars to convince the BIA and
employ a high-powered lobbyist with direct access to the White House for
$500,000 to help make their case?

The spectacle of non-Indian millionaires fighting in court over who
deserves to profit from this acknowledgment petition only confirms how
morally bankrupt the BIA's acknowledgment process has become. Yet the
BIA has set a precedent by merging the two Eastern Pequot groups into a
single tribe. Last year the Schaghticoke Tribal Nation, which also had a
rival faction bidding for recognition, unsuccessfully attempted to co-op
nearly 50 members from the rival faction onto its membership rolls. When
that tactic failed, the BIA bent other rules to grant a favorable
decision to the Schaghticokes.

Now, this same tactic appears to be part of a wider BIA strategy to
recognize tribes in the northeast. Just two weeks ago Connecticut
attorney general Richard Blumenthal and I brought to light a suspicious
letter that surfaced in the petition filed by one of the Nipmuc groups
seeking recognition.

Like the Easterns and the Schaghticoke, the Nipmuc are divided into two
rival factions that have independently filed petitions for
acknowledgment. A letter written on Interior Department letterhead
advises one of the groups to “infiltrate” the other group in order to
overcome fatal deficiencies in the acknowledgment petition. Members of
Congress led by Rob Simmons have asked Interior Secretary Gale Norton to
determine who wrote the letter.

The bias against states and towns in the recognition process becomes
more apparent with every new BIA decision, and the problems with the
recent Schaghticoke and Nipmuc decisions only confirm that the
acknowledgment process is corrupt. Indeed, the process is so flawed that
the First Circuit Court of Appeals has already indicated that a
violation of law occurred in the manner in which BIA treated interested
parties such as the state and the towns. If the Eastern Pequots were to
get the acknowledgment result Ms. Flowers hopes for, the “inevitable”
result of that decision will further litigation that stands a good
chance of reopening the process for what we hope is a full and fair
review.

For now, the only thing inevitable in all this mess is that the Easterns
appetite for a casino is insatiable. This greed is the instrument that
is forcing into the light the problems with so-called Indian gaming and
tribal acknowledgment. It is hoped that meaningful reform is just around
the corner.

Jeff Benedict is the author of "Withouth Reservation" and the president
of the Connecticut Alliance Against Casino Expansion. He lives in East
Lyme.



===============================
X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X
===============================

Here is an inquiry from the public. If anyone can help them, please
contact them directly:

-------------

To whom it may concern,

I wish to learn more about Atah ( Correct spelling i am not sure about )
i was told that he was an Apache chief or warrior.

Is there anywhere i could research more about him.

Thank you,

Shane L Meintjes
shane @ dynamic-consulting. co. za


===============================
X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X
===============================

The same thing here:

---------------

Dear Phil,

I am working on a book in Britain about the way different cultures
record their genealogies, and how far back family trees can stretch. I
have been looking at your site and wonder if you know of any really good
studies of Native American genealogy and any exceptionally long
genealogies (oral, presumably) that stretch far back into the past.

I'd be very grateful indeed if you could point me in the right direction
in a field in which you're clearly an expert, and would of course
acknowledge any help you could give!

Yours sincerely,

Anthony Adolph
http://www.anthonyadolph.co.uk.
mail @ anthonyadolph.co.uk
tel: 07890 068218
office and home: 139 Evering Road, Stoke Newington, N16 7BU.
Please note that I have moved to Stoke Newington- my old Canterbury
address and telephone number (01227 462618) are no longer valid.
FAMILY HISTORY RESEARCH, WRITING AND BROADCASTING




===============================
X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X
===============================


That’s it for now.

Stay safe,

Phil

==========================================================
End of Phil Konstantin’s December 2004 Newsletter – Part 3
==========================================================
.
.

  
  

Monthly Newsletter

Put your e-mail address in the box below and click the button to receive my monthly e-mail newsletter. The newsletter features historical information, a "Link of the Month" and other related material.
topica
 Join American Indian! 
       

Go To Newsletter Page


Go To Main Page


Go To Tribal Names Page


Go to Indian Moons & Calendar Stuff

Go to Awards & "Web Rings"




Click on the drop down menu:

or
Click on the image below to go to......

My website's home page My Website's Home Page My main links page with connections to thousands of other websites Links: (8,700 and counting) my page with tribal name meanings & alternate tribal names Tribal Names
Indian tribal moon names & other calendar information Indian Moons My personal photos Personal Photos My biography My Biography
What happened to a sleepy driver Sleepy Driver My website about NASA & the Space Program The Space Program photos & info of my trip to some ancient ruins in Mexico & Guatemala Ancient Ruins in Central America
photos & info on my trip to some ancient Maya ruins in 2000 Maya Ruins in Mexico My late wife Robyn's page about whales & whale watching Whales Awards this site has received & WebRings to which this site belongs Awards & Webrings
photos & descriptions of the 2001 Cherokee National Holiday in Tahlequah, Oklahoma Cherokee Holiday 2001 a page with basic info for the Cherokee Nation (Oklahoma) Cherokee Enrollment an archive of my past monthly newsletters My Newsletters
places where you can shop to support this site My Store a page about the California Highway Patrol California Highway Patrol locations of 'Indian Era' forts Indian Era Forts
copies of articles I have written Articles I Wrote photos of northwestern USA historical sites & reservations Northwestern USA Indian Country photos of the opening of the National Museum Of The American Indian in Washington, D.C. ( 2004) American Indian Museum in D.C. 2004
reviews of Movies, Books and other things... Movie & Book Reviews photos an info about the guests and happenings at KUSI TV in San Diego KUSI TV, my other job photos of Mesa Verde and Utah in 2006 Mesa Verde and Utah in 2006
My mortgage loan compnay My Mortgage Loan Company photos of the 2006 SDSU powwow 2006 SDSU Powwow  






Sign My Guestbook

View My Guestbook