December 2003 Newsletter from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2004)

Looking for a good book on North American Indians?
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Start of the December 2003 Newsletter by Phil Konstantin


Sorry for this being late. I am still a bit under the weather. I have 
had a persistent cough since early October. Whenever we get a steady, 
westerly breeze, we get ash in the atmosphere. The ash is from the 
earlier fires. My doctors say this might be hindering my healing. 

Surprisingly enough, the fire departments have just completely put out 
the major fires that hit San Diego County. It takes a long time to go 
through all of the burned areas and make sure there are no smoldering 
embers left. Forest fires have been a part of the traditional ways of 
many nations. Some groups set fires to help “refresh” the forests. Some 
knew that new, sweeter grasses would grow after a prairie fire. Some 
groups used fire to herd animals during hunting season. The problem is 
when people do not know the patterns of fire and how to live safely in 
areas where fires continue to return.

For those of you doing some holiday shopping, you can find links to 
several online companies on my store page. You can find it at: . All the prices are exactly the 
same as if you had gone directly to the companies I an affiliated with. 
FYI, yes you can end a sentence in a preposition, according to local 
grammarians Richard Lederer and Charles Harrington Elster.



Featured Link of the Month for December:

The "Link of the Month" for December is the "American Indian & Alaska 
Native Education Research" or "IndianEduResearch.Net". Per their site: 
"A continuation of work that began with 1998 Executive Order 13096. Site 
includes links for research funding sources, data sources, ERIC Digests, 
conference papers, bibliographies, and upcoming conferences pertinent to 
Indian Education research. Also includes a link to search the ERIC 
database as well as a link to the revised on-line Native Education 
Directory." This site can be a great resource for educators.

Their website is located at:


The “Treaty of the Month” for December is the TREATY WITH THE 
CONFEDERATED OTO AND MISSOURI, 1854 Dec. 9, 1854. | 10 Stat., 1130. | 11 
Stat., 605. You can read about it here:


Info from newsletter subscribers:

From Ruth Garby Torres: 

POW MIA Dress: My name is Rebecca Payne, I am Tanina Athabascan & 
Cherokee and a former Miss N.I.V.A. (Northwest Indian Veteran 
Association). I am currently collecting names of people from this 
list below for a dress that my mother made for me. On this dress I 
carry Dog Tags with the names of those who are no longer with us 
today because of war and September 11th. If you would like for me to 
carry a name please fill out this form and send it to me. If you 
have extra pictures or biographies and you would like to pass them 
on to me I would appreciate it. I have a scrapbook of the people 
that I am representing on my dress. Please feel free to make copies 
of this form and pass it on. If you have any questions please 
contact me. 
Thank you for your support in my efforts to find names of those who 
have sacrificed so much for us. I am asking for names and 
information on people of... 
POW (Prisoner of War) 
MIA (Missing in Action) 
KIA (Killed in Action) 
ALL Victims of the September 11th Attacks 
Any War Any Branch Any Race 

Information Needed: 
Last Name: 
First Name & Middle Name/Initial: 
Rank & Branch: 
Date, Month, Year (of disappearance): POW, MIA, KIA, or 9-11-01: 
For More Information: 
Miss N.I.V.A. 2000-2002
Rebecca Payne 9704 SE Knight Street
Portland, Oregon 97266 
P) 503-775-4243 (E)

Northwest Indian Veteran Association Portland/Vancouver Chapter P.O. 
Box 1035
Portland, OR 97204 
(503)220-8262 ~ (360)696-4061 x.33413


Richard Boyden sent along this website:

We make 4-5 Trips a year to the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation bringing 
"Gifts" to meet the immediate needs of the Oglala Sioux People. Check 
this web page or call 816-461-6666 for updates and information. The next 
planned trip is in March of 2004 or sooner if possible.


Julie Marez sent along this tribute website for PFC Sheldon Hawk Eagle:


This is from Andre Cramblit‘s newsletter:

At the American Library Association's 2003 Midwinter Meeting, the 
Council approved the establishment of a Special Task Force on Rural 
School, Tribal and Public Libraries. That task force will make its 
report to Council at the ALA Conference in Orlando, June 2004. The task 
force has developed a Rural Libraries Survey, which has a deadline date 
of December 15, 2003. The task force would appreciate your informing 
your members to download the form at and faxing or 
mailing it back by that date, if they consider their libraries to be 
rural. The charge for the task force is noted at the top of the survey. 
Questions about the survey and/or the task force may be sent to, to be forwarded to the task force. Satia Marshall Orange, 
Director Office for Literacy and Outreach Services (OLOS) American 
Library Association 50 East Huron Street Chicago, IL 60611 312-280-4295 


My cousin Michael Walkingstick posted this message about Thanksgiving:

I wanted to share this as we celebrate Thanksgiving weekend,

Here's what our ancestors were doing on this very day, in 1785, The 
Treaty of Hopewell. 
This is from Yale University, I have 2 ancestors on this treaty, 
Scolacutta, who they have listed as Seholauetta, His name meant Hanging 
Maw/Maugh, they have it listed as Hanging Man. He is one of my ancestral 
grandfathers. The other is Toostaka, the WAker, or Testeskey. This was 
the first major treaty signed by the Cherokee and the fledgling United 
States. There were 918 Cherokee who attended this meeting and 37 Headmen 
signed it along with the officials of the U.S. Old Tassel represented 
the Cherokee as the Principal leader of the Cherokee towns, he had 
succeeded Oconostota. The major importance of this treaty today is that 
this treaty guaranteed the Cherokee a delegate to Congress, which is 
still being lobbied for at the present time. It is interesting that only 
8 years later, in 1793, Hanging Maw, his wife and children, and several 
others gathered together were attacked by a group of whites under Capt. 
John Beard. My research suggests that Scolacutta's wife was killed in 
this attack, my ancestral grandmother. 

This is the kind of history that we as Cherokee and Cherokee descendants 
should remember on this day. The good faith with which we treatied with 
those who in only a few short years sought to simply ignore the binding 
arbitration of those agreements. That's what Thanksgiving is to many 

Fifty years later, Toostaka and the son in law of Scolacutta, James 
Starr, are meeting with the Ridges and the Boudinots, their descendants 
havng been run out of Georgia on the preceeding Thanksgivings of 
1831-1834, and the Treaty of New Echota followed in December of 1835. 

The Trail of Tears followed on Thanksgiving, 1838. 

The Thanksgivings of 1839-1845 were times of further loss for the 
Cherokee as we fought amongst ourselves due to our political division. 

The Thanksgivings of 1861-65 saw more loss, as we had a civil war within 
a Civil War which left the earth scorched and people hungry. 

Thanksgiving of 1907 saw our promised land, Indian Territory, become the 
46th state. 

It was not until Thanksgiving of 1924 that most Native Americans were 
even recognized as citizens of the United STates. 

And then, in 1952, Charles George, Cherokee, fighting as a Marine in 
Korea, jumped on a hand grenade that landed in his squad, sacrificing 
himself for his brothers. He was posthumously awarded the Congressional 
Medal of Honor, one of many N/A who have won this award for his country, 
for his People. 

And then there is Billy Walkabout. 

As a matter of fact, Cherokee have fought in every war since the French 
and Indian war as part of this country and served with Honor. And now, 
in 2003, we are still here, despite everything, this, is reason enough 
to be thankful, 

Alihelisdi'i........Happy Thanksgiving, 



The year was 1637. 700 men, women and children of the Pequot Tribe 
gathered together for their "Annual Green Corn Dance" in the area that 
is now known as Groton, Connecticut. 

While they were gathered in this place of meeting, they were surrounded 
and attacked by mercenaries of the English and Dutch. The Indians were 
ordered from the building and, as they came forth, they were shot down. 
The rest were burned alive in the building. 

The next day, the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony declared; "A 
day of Thanksgiving, thanking God that they had eliminated over 700 men, 
women and children. For the next 100 years, every "Thanksgiving Day" 
that was ordained by a governor or president was to honor that 
"victory", thanking God that the battle? had been won. 

SOURCE: Documents of Holland, 13 Volume Colonial Documentary History, 
letters and reports from colonial officials to their superiors and the 
King in England and the private papers of Sir William Johnson, British 
Indian Agent for th New York Colony for 30 years. Researched by William 
B. Newell (Penobscot Tribe), former Chairman of the University of 
Connecticut Anthropology Department. 
Sincerely spoken, Darlene Lee


From the NAJA-Email Alerts, 

The 2004-2005 John S. Knight Fellowships at Stanford WHAT ARE WE LOOKING 
FOR? * Reporters and editors and anchors * Photographers and producers 
and news directors * Editorial cartoonists and web-site gurus - and more 
We want people who have already accomplished a lot and are ambitious to 
do more. Candidates must have seven years' professional journalism 
experience. Fellows receive a stipend of $55,000 plus tuition, health 
insurance and an allowance for books, housing and child care. All 
benefits and activities of the program are open to spouses and partners 
of Fellows. Twelve U.S. journalists win Knight Fellowships at Stanford 
each year. What do they get? Nine months of study, intellectual growth 
and personal change at one of the world's great universities - in 
classes, in independent studies and in special seminars with guest 
speakers. At the end of the year, they return to their news 
organizations, better prepared for the rapidly changing world of 
journalism. The application deadline for next year is Feb. 1, 2004. For 
a brochure and application form, please contact us: John S. Knight 
Fellowships Building 120, Room 424 Stanford, CA 94305-2050 Phone: (650) 
723-4937 Fax: (650) 725-6154 Email: Visit 
our web site: 


Here is an interesting article from the 12/5/03 Cherokee Link Newsletter 

The Traditional Cherokee Belief System 

In a search for order and sustaining that order, the olden Cherokee 
devised a simple, yet seemingly complex belief system. Many of the 
elements of the original system remain today. Although some have evolved 
or otherwise been modified, the traditional Cherokee of today recognize 
the belief system as an integral part of day-to-day life. Certain 
numbers play an important role in the ceremonies of the Cherokee. The 
numbers four and seven repeatedly occur in myths, stories and 
ceremonies. Four represents all the familiar forces, also represented in 
the four cardinal directions. These cardinal directions are east, west, 
north and south. Certain colors are also associated with these 
directions. The number seven represents the seven clans of the Cherokee, 
and are also associated with directions. In addition to the four 
cardinal directions, three others exist. Up (the Upper World), down (the 
Lower World) and center (where we live, and where ?you? always are). The 
number seven also represents the height of purity and sacredness, a 
difficult level to attain. In olden times, it was believed that only the 
owl and cougar had attained this level, and since then, they have always 
had a special meaning to the Cherokee. The pine, cedar, spruce, holly 
and laurel also attained this level. They play a very important role in 
Cherokee ceremonies. Cedar is the most sacred of all, and the 
distinguishing colors of red and white set it off from all others. The 
wood from the tree is considered very sacred, and in ancient days, was 
used to carry the honored dead. 

Because of these early beliefs, the traditional Cherokee have a special 
regard for the owl and cougar. They are the honored ones in some 
versions of the Creation story. They were the only two who were able to 
stay awake for the seven nights of Creation. The others fell asleep. 
Today, because of this, they are nocturnal in their habits and both have 
night vision. The owl is seemingly different from other birds, and he 
resembles an old man as he walks. Sometimes, the owl can be mistaken for 
a cat with his feather tufts and silhouette of his head. This 
resemblance honors his nocturnal brother, the cougar. The owls? eyes are 
quite large and set directly in front like a persons, and he can close 
one independent of the other. The cougar is an animal whose has screams 
which resemble those of a woman. He is an animal who has habits that are 
very secret and unpredictable. The cedar, pine, spruce, laurel and holly 
trees have leaves all year long. These plants, too, stayed awake seven 
nights during the Creation. Because of this, they were given special 
power, and they are among the most important plants in Cherokee medicine 
and ceremonies. *Note: Cultural information may vary from clan to clan, 
location to location, family to family, and from differing opinions and 
experiences. Information provided here is not 'etched in stone'. 


Here are some interesting websites:

Blue Cloud Abbey Native American Photograph Collection

American Indians' Drinking Not as Common as Thought

Warriors of the sacred places challenge scientists

Juanita Ramirez; tribal elder had protective eye on Sycuan's past

Native Americans Embrace Geotechnology

Wildfires Lead to Peek at Serrano Indian History; A fire line turned up 
stone artifacts. Now arrowheads and other tools have been found.

Since 1996, the SAGE Council, formerly known as the Petroglyph Monument 
Protection Coalition, has been leading the fight to protect the 
petroglyphs and our communities from harmful highway extensions and 
suburban sprawl.

Wintu band mourns 95-year-old 'top doctor'

Native Americans Embrace Geotechnology

Tribes field raft of questions


Humor and other light-hearted things:

An animated Christmas greeting:,,4845,00.swf

Jay Crosby sent this:


A backward poet writes in-verse. 
A man's home is his castle, in a manor of speaking. 
Practice safe eating - always use condiments. 
Shotgun wedding: A case of wife or death. 
A man needs a mistress just to break the monogamy. 
A hangover is the wrath of grapes. 
Dancing cheek-to-cheek is really a form of floor play. 
Sea captains don't like crew cuts. 
Condoms should be used on every conceivable occasion. 
Reading while sunbathing makes you well red. 
When two egotists meet, it's an I for an I. 
A bicycle can't stand on its own because it is two tired. 
What's the definition of a will? (It's a dead giveaway.) 
Time flies like an arrow. Fruit flies like a banana. 
In democracy your vote counts. In feudalism your count votes. 
She was engaged to a boyfriend with a wooden leg, but broke it off. 
A chicken crossing the road is poultry in motion. 
If you don't pay your exorcist, you get repossessed. 
With her marriage, she got a new name and a dress. 
When a clock is hungry, it goes back four seconds. 
The man who fell into an upholstery machine is fully recovered. 
You feel stuck with your debt if you can't budge it. 
Local Area Network in Australia: the LAN down under. 
He often broke into song because he couldn't find the key. 
Every calendar's days are numbered. 
A lot of money is tainted - It taint yours and it taint mine. 
He had a photographic memory that was never developed. 
A plateau is a high form of flattery. 
A midget fortuneteller who escapes from prison is a small medium at 
Once you've seen one shopping center, you've seen a mall. 
Those who jump off a Paris bridge are in Seine. 
Bakers trade bread recipes on a knead-to-know basis. 
Santa's helpers are subordinate clauses. 
Acupuncture is a jab well done.


Ruth Garby Torres sent along this funny parody:

COMPLETED BY Nov. 28th. 


Class 1: How to Fill Up the Ice Cube Trays. Step by Step, with Slide 
Presentation. Meets 4 weeks, Monday and Wednesday for 2 hours beginning 
at 7:00 PM.

Class 2: The Toilet Paper Roll. Does it Change Itself? Round Table 
Discussion. Meets 2 weeks, Saturday 12:00 for 2 hours.

Class 3: Is It Possible to Urinate Using the Technique of Lifting the 
Seat and Avoiding the Floor/Walls and Nearby Bathtub? Group Practice. 
Meets 4 weeks, Saturday 10:00 PM for 2 hours. (Note: this class meets at 
O'Malley's Brew Pub on 16th Street) 

Class 4: Fundamental Differences Between the Laundry Hamper and the 
Floor. Pictures and Explanatory Graphics. Meets Saturdays at 2:00 PM for 
3 weeks. 

Class 5: After Dinner Dishes. Can They Levitate and Fly Into the Kitchen 
Sink? Examples on Video. Meets 4 weeks, Tuesday and Thursday for 2 hours 
beginning at 7:00 PM.

Class 6: Loss of Identity - Losing the Remote to Your Significant Other. 
Help Line Support and Support Groups. Meets 4 Weeks, Friday and Sunday 

Class 7: Learning How to Find Things - Starting with looking in the 
right places instead of turning the house upside down while screaming. 
Open Forum. Monday at 8:00 PM, 2 hours. 

Class 8: Health Watch - Bringing her flowers is not harmful to your 
health. Graphics and Audio Tapes. Three nights; Monday, Wednesday, 
Friday at 7:00PM for 2 hours.

Class 9: Real Men ask for Directions When Lost. Real Life Testimonials. 
Tuesdays at 6:00 PM, location to be determined. 

Class 10: Is it genetically impossible to sit quietly while she parallel 
parks? Driving Simulations. 4 weeks, Saturday's noon, 2 hours. 

Class 11: Learning to Live - Basic Differences Between Mother and Wife. 
Online Classes and role-playing.

Class 12: How to be the Ideal Shopping Companion. Relaxation Exercises, 
Meditation and Breathing Techniques. Meets 4 weeks, Tuesday and Thursday 
for 2 hours beginning at 7:00 PM.

Class 13: How to Fight Cerebral Atrophy – Remembering Birthdays, 
Anniversaries and Other Important Dates and Calling When You're Going to 
be late. Cerebral Shock Therapy Sessions and Full Lobotomies Offered. 
Three nights; Monday, Wednesday, Friday at 7:00PM for 2 hours. 

Class 14: The Stove/Oven - What it is and How it is Used. Live 
Demonstration. Tuesdays at 6:00 PM, location to be determined. Upon 
completion of any of the above courses, diplomas will be issued to the 


Christmas stamps.............. 

A woman goes to the post office to buy stamps for her Christmas cards. 
She says to the clerk, "May I have 50 Christmas stamps?" 
The clerk says, "What denomination?" 
The woman says, "God help us. Has it come to this? Give me 
6 Catholic, 12 Presbyterian, 10 Lutheran and 22 Baptists.


Here are some random historical events for the month of December:

December 1, 1874: Indians fought with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry 
and some Indian scouts near Canyon Creek in the Tonto Basin, Arizona. 
According to army documents, eight Indians were killed, two were 
wounded, and fourteen were captured.

December 2, 1867: According to army records, members of the Eighteenth 
Infantry fought with a band of Indians near Crazy Woman’s Creek, Dakota 
Territory. One soldier was killed; three soldiers and four civilians 
were wounded.

See some pictures of the area on my website at:

December 3, 1875: Commissioner of Indian Affairs Edward Smith notified 
all of his Cheyenne and Sioux agents to order any Indians off the 
reservations to return by January 31, 1876, or face military action.

December 4, 1802: North Carolina and the Tuscarora signed a treaty in 
Raleigh that ceded a large part of their lands. The treaty was submitted 
to the U.S. Senate on February 21, 1803.

December 5, 1848: Captain Seth Eastman, commander of several companies 
of the First Infantry, established Camp Houston as one of the first U.S. 
Army posts on the western frontier of Texas. It was southeast of 
Fredericksburg. It was eventually renamed Fort Martin Scott.

December 6, 1886: The Dawes Severalty Act passed the Senate.

December 7, 1874: The minister of the interior of the dominion of Canada 
purchased a section of land in the province of Nova Scotia for the use 
and benefit of the “Micmac” Indians in Pictou County. 

December 8, 1818: Secretary of War John C. Calhoun presented a report to 
the U.S. House of Representatives. Among the report’s proposals were 
that tribes should no longer be treated as sovereign nations; Indians 
should be saved from extinction; and Indians should be taught the 
correctness of the concept of landownership.

December 9, 1854: The United States signed a treaty (10 Stat. 1130, 11 
Stat. 605) with the Oto and Missouri at Nebraska City, Nebraska.

December 10, 1991: The name of the Custer Battlefield National Monument 
was changed to the Little Big Horn Battlefield National Monument.

See some pictures of the area on my website at:

December 11, 1872: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the 
First Cavalry and the Twenty-Third Infantry and some Indian scouts on 
Bad Rock Mountain north of old Fort Reno in Arizona, according to 
official army records. Fourteen Indians were killed.

December 12, 1531: According to most sources, Juan Diego 
(Cuauhtlatoatzin), a Nahua, spotted the apparition of the Virgin Mary on 
a hill called Tepeyacac in Mexico again. He first saw her on December 9. 
According to Juan Diego, the Virgin Mary instructed him to carry some 
roses in his macehualli (cloak) to the local bishop as proof of her 
appearance. When the macehualli was opened before the bishop, an image 
of the Virgin Mary appeared on the cloak among the rose petals. The 
macehualli is still on display in the church (Our Lady of Guadalupe) 
built to honor the event.

See some pictures of the area on my website at:

1882: President Arthur, by executive order, set up the Pima Agency in 
the Gila Bend Reserve. It was thirty-five square miles and was occupied 
by the Papago. It was bounded by Township 5 South, Range 5 West, and the 
Gila and Salt River meridian, except for Section 18.

December 13, 1831: David Folsom’s Choctaws arrived at Little Rock, 
Arkansas. They made camp a few miles out of town and wait for 
arrangements for their transport to the Red River. Many of the 
ill-prepared Choctaw suffered from the cold weather.   Eneah Micco, 
principal chief of the Creeks’ lower towns, wrote to Creek agent John 
Crowell. A total of 1,500 whites were living in Creek territory. The 
Creeks feared they would be forced from their lands.

December 14, 1852: Ned Christie was born in Indian Territory 
(present-day Oklahoma). During his lifetime, he was a Cherokee tribal 
senator and the most wanted fugitive in the territory. Falsely accused 
of killing a U.S. Marshal in 1887, Christie avoided capture for more 
than five years. He claimed that federal marshals had no jurisdiction in 
the Cherokees’ territory, and he refused to give himself up. Later, a 
witness vouched for Christie’s innocence. Others said Christie did kill 
the marshal but did so in self-defense.

See a picture of Ned Christie on my website at:

December 15, 1890: Sitting Bull was killed while being arrested at Fort 
Yates, South Dakota, by Eighth Cavalry soldiers and Indian police near 
Standing Rock on the Grand River in Montana. Thirty-nine police officers 
and four volunteers were assembled to arrest Sitting Bull. Before it was 
all done, over 100 of Sitting Bull’s supporters arrived at the scene. 
Several people were injured or killed in the subsequent fighting. 
According to army documents, four soldiers and eight Indians were 
killed. Of those eight were Indian Police Officers John Armstrong, Paul 
Akicitah, David Hawkman, James Little Eagle, Charles Shavehead, and 
Henry Bullhead. Three soldiers were wounded. Later this week, the editor 
of the Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer wrote a editorial about Sitting Bull. 
One of the passages was as follows: “The proud spirit of the original 
owners of these vast prairies inherited through centuries of fierce and 
bloody wars for their possession, lingered last in the bosom of Sitting 
Bull. With his fall the nobility of the Redskin is extinguished, and 
what few are left are a pack of whining curs who lick the hand that 
smites them. The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization, 
are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the 
frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the 
few remaining Indians.” The author of this editorial was L. Frank Baum, 
best known as the author of The Wizard of Oz.

See some pictures of Sitting Bull’s memorials on my website at:

December 16, 1890: According to the “official” report from Standing Rock 
Reservation Indian Agent James McLaughlin, Sitting Bull was killed this 
morning while being arrested. “Acting under these orders, a force of 
thirty-nine policemen and four volunteers [one of whom is Sitting Bull’s 
brother-in-law, Gray Eagle] entered the camp at daybreak on December 
16th, proceeding direct to Sitting Bull’s house.” According to the 
report of Captain E. G. Fechet, Eighth Cavalry, these were the results 
of the confrontation: “Henry Bull Head, First Lieutenant of Police, died 
82 hour after the fight. Charles Shave Head, First Sergeant of Police, 
died 25 hours after the fight. James Little Eagle, Fourth Sergeant of 
Police, killed in the fight. Paul Afraid-of-Soldiers, Private of Police, 
killed in the fight. John Armstrong, Special Police, killed in the 
fight. David Hawkman, Special Police, killed in the fight. Alexander 
Middle, Private of Police, wounded, recovering. Sitting Bull, killed, 56 
years of age. Crow Foot [Sitting Bull’s son], killed, 17 years of age. 
Black Bird, killed, 43 years of age. Catch the Bear, killed, 44 years of 
age. Spotted Horn Bull, killed, 56 years of age. Brave Thunder, No. 1, 
killed, 46 years of age. Little Assiniboine, killed, 44 years of age. 
Chase Wounded, killed, 24 years of age. Bull Ghost, wounded, entirely 
recovered. Brave Thunder, No. 2, wounded, recovering rapidly. Strike the 
Kettle, wounded, now at Fort Sully, a prisoner.” Most sources said this 
happened on December 15.

December 17, 1883: In Ex Parte Crow Dog (109 U.S. 556 [1883]) the 
Supreme Court overturned a lower federal court conviction of an Indian 
for the murder of another Indian on Indian land. The court reasoned that 
the tribe’s authority to deal with such an offense was an attribute of 
tribal sovereignty and had not been specifically abrogated by 
congressional action.

December 18, 1860: A sergeant and twenty troopers from the Second 
Cavalry, Captain Sul Ross and a contingent of Texas Rangers, and several 
Tonkawa scouts and volunteers under Captain Jack Cureton were on an 
expedition against the Comanche. On the Pease River near Crowell, Texas, 
they discovered a Comanche village. The soldiers attacked and easily 
defeated the Indians. During the fighting, Cynthia Ann Parker, captured 
on May 19, 1836, was “rescued” by the soldiers. Despite her pleas to be 
allowed to stay with the Comanche, Parker was forced to return to 
“civilization” with the troops. Peta Nocona, husband of Cynthia Ann 
Parker and father of Chief Quanah Parker, was killed in the fighting, 
according to some sources.

December 19, 1829: The state of Georgia enacted a law that extended 
State boundaries over a sizable section of the Cherokee Nation. The law 
stated that anyone within this area after June 1, 1830, was subject to 
Georgia laws. All Cherokee laws became null after that date as well. The 
act also stated that an Indian could not be a witness in any court in 
the state. It was also a crime for anyone to promote the cause of not 
emigrating to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).

December 20, 1841: Seminole warriors under Chief Hallack Tustenuggee 
attacked Mandarin, Florida, located thirty-five miles north of St. 
Augustine. The Seminoles overpowered the local forces. They captured and 
looted the town. Four Europeans were killed in the fighting.

December 21, 1866: Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, Yellow Eagle, High Back Bone, 
and their followers had been harassing Colonel Henry Carrington’s Second 
Cavalry and Twenty-Seventh Infantry troops from Fort Phil Kearny in 
northern Wyoming. They staged several raids and ambushes along the road 
from the fort to the nearby woods. Captain William J. Fetterman had once 
said, “A company of regulars could whip a thousand, and a regiment could 
whip the whole array of hostile tribes.” A convoy of wagons carrying 
wood left the fort. It was attacked by a decoy group of Indians. 
Following up on his claim that he “could ride through the Sioux Nation” 
with just eighty men, Fetterman pursued the decoying Indians away from 
the fort. The Indians’ trap was sprung. Fetterman’s entire force of 
three officers, forty-seven infantry, twenty-seven cavalry, and two 
civilians were killed in the fighting. The soldiers called this the 
Fetterman Massacre. The Indians called it the Battle of the Hundred 

See some pictures of the area on my website at:

2012: According to some Maya sources, the present creation will end on 
this date. (December 23 or 24, 2012, according to some other sources.)

December 22, 1898: President McKinley, by executive order, established 
the Hualapai Indian School Reserve for the purpose of educating the 
Hualapai Indians in Arizona Territory. The reserve was in Section 10, 
Township 23 North, Range 13 West.

December 23, 1855: White volunteers surrounded a friendly Rogue River 
Indian village they had visited the day before. The village was mostly 
unarmed. The whites attacked, and nineteen Indian men were killed. The 
women and children were driven into the cold. The survivors arrived at 
Fort Lane in southwestern Oregon with severe frostbite and frozen limbs.

December 24, 1886: According to the Oklahoma Law Enforcement Memorial, 
Samuel Sixkiller was son of Redbird Sixkiller, who came to Goingsnake 
District, Indian Territory. Redbird held many public offices for the 
tribal council and as judge. Sam kept many of his father’s traits. Sam 
was appointed sheriff in Tahlaquah, Oklahoma. Later, he was appointed 
sheriff in Muskogee, Oklahoma. He was killed by Dick Vann on Christmas 
Eve for a grudge that Vann held for an earlier arrest. Sam was unarmed 
and could not defend himself.

December 25, 1854: A force of 100 Utes and Jicarilla Apaches, led by 
Tierra Blanco, ravaged a settlement on the Arkansas and Huerfano Rivers, 
killing fifteen men. They also captured some women and children.

December 26, 1861: The Battle of Chustenahlah took place. Pro-Union 
Indians under Creek leader Opothle Yahola had established a fortified 
encampment on Hominy Creek northwest of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Confederate 
forces from Arkansas attacked them. The Indians deployed on a forested 
hill. It took fierce, hand-to-hand fighting to win the day. The Indians 
abandoned their supplies and 1,134 head of livestock. The Indians 
escaped during a blizzard, and many people froze to death in Kansas. 
They finally stopped in central Kansas with 3,168 Creek, 777 Seminoles, 
a few other Indians, and ninety-one blacks. The Union would provide them 
with some supplies. Eventually, over 7,500 survivors made it to the 
camp. The men were organized into the First Regiment of Indian Home 
Guards. This was also called the Battle of Shoal Creek.

1862: The thirty-eight Santee Sioux condemned for their actions in the 
Santee Sioux Uprising were hanged in Mankato, Minnesota. This was the 
largest mass hanging in American history.

December 27, 1845: According to a New York Morning News editorial: “Our 
manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent 
which providence has given us for the development of the great 
experiment of liberty and federated self-government entrusted to us.”

1858: Twenty Texans, led by Indian fighter Peter Garland, attacked a 
peaceful group of Anadarko and Caddo camped on Keechi Creek near the 
Brazos River Reservation. The Texans killed seven Indians while they 
were sleeping. According to some reports, the Texas Rangers refused to 
arrest Garland for the unprovoked murders. A grand jury set up to 
investigate the murders charged Anadarko Chief Jose Maria (Iesh) with 
horse-stealing instead.

1952: Phil Konstantin, author of these pages and a member of the 
Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is born. Thanks, Mom and Dad! 

********* I will be 51 years old today. ************

December 28, 1870: From a marker in the Fort Buford (North Dakota) 
cemetery: “Daughter of Bloody Knife—December 28, 1870—Disease.”

See some pictures of the area on my website at:

1985: The Quarter Blood Amendment Act (99 Stat. 1747) of December 28, 
1985, was passed by Congress. Its purpose was to “define eligible Indian 
students for Indian education programs and tuition-free attendedance at 
[Bureau of Indian Affairs] or contract schools.”

December 29, 1890: The Battle of Wounded Knee, or Wounded Knee Massacre, 
took place. According to army records, one officer (Captain G. D. 
Wallace), twenty-four soldiers, and 128 Indians were killed. Thirty-five 
soldiers and thirty-three Indians were wounded in the fighting. The army 
would give Congressional Medals of Honor to the following soldiers: 
Sergeant William G. Austin, for “using every effort to dislodge the 
enemy”; Company E musician John E. Clancy, who “twice voluntarily 
rescued wounded comrades under fire of the enemy”; Private Mosheim 
Feaster, Company E, for “extraordinary gallantry”; First Lieutenant 
Ernest A. Garlington, for “distinguished gallantry”; First Lieutenant 
John C. Gresham, for leading an attack into a ravine; Sergeant Richard 
P. Hanley, Company C, for recovering a pack mule loaded with ammunition 
while under heavy fire; Private Joshija B. Hartzog, Company E, First 
Artillery, for rescuing his wounded commander while under heavy fire; 
Second Lieutenant Harry L. Hawthorne, Second Artillery, for 
distinguished conduct; Private Marvin C. Hillock, Company B, for 
distinguished bravery; Private George Hobday, Company A, for conspicuous 
and gallant conduct; Sergeant George Loyd, Company I, for bravery, 
especially after being severely wounded through the lung; Sergeant 
Albert McMillian, Company E, for leading by example; Private Thomas 
Sullivan, Company E, for conspicuous bravery; First Sergeant Frederick 
Toy, Company C, for bravery; First Sergeant Jacob Trautman, Company I, 
for “killing a hostile Indian at close quarters” and remaining with the 
troops even though he was entitled to retire; Sergeant James Ward, 
Company B, for fighting after being severely wounded; Corporal Paul 
Weinert, Company E, for assuming command of his artillery piece when his 
officer was wounded; and Private Hermann Ziegner, Company E, for 
conspicuous bravery.

See some pictures of the area on my website at:

December 30, 1982: The Indian Claims Limitation Act (96 Stat. 1976) of 
December 30, 1982, was passed by Congress. It was intended to “provide 
guidelines for revision to file claims based on dates of publication in 
Federal Register, submission of legislation or legislative report, or 
decision of suit by Secretary of the Interior.”

December 31, 1881: The Osage Nation adopted a constitution at Pawhuska, 

1939: The assistant secretary of the interior had authorized an election 
to approve a constitution and bylaws for the native village of Gambell. 
It was passed by a vote of 76-3.


That’s all for now, have a great holiday season.


End of the December 2003 Newsletter by Phil Konstantin - Part 1

Start of the December 2003 Newsletter by Phil Konstantin - Part 2


I thought I might send you a brief notice about an upcoming TV series in 
the US on ABC. It is called DreamKeeper. This mini-series will start on 
Sunday night the 28th. 

One of the official quotes about the series is:

"The legends of the Native American nations come to life in this 
groundbreaking new miniseries!

A troubled teen named Shane Chasing Horse is given a chance to prove 
himself worthy of his honorable heritage by delivering his Grandpa to 
the All Nations ceremony in New Mexico. 

As they trek across the open vistas and distant hills, Grandpa tells 
stories of star-crossed lovers, of courage and escape, of patience and 
humility, of making peace with the past, and of facing unknown horizons 
with an open heart — much like the horizons Shane and Grandpa are about 
to face on a journey that will change both their lives forever."

You can read more about it at their official website:


Even though today is my 51st birthday, I am at work. It is a busy day 
out there on the highways of southern Southern California. We have some 
snow & ice on the roads in the mountains here in San Diego County. The 
folks around here can barely drive in the rain, let alone snow & ice. 
"Chains, what are chains?" is a common question around here.

That's it for now, I'll have a regular newsletter out in a few days. 

Happy New Year!

Phil Konstantin

End of the December 2003 Newsletter by Phil Konstantin - Part 2


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