. . . . . . . ================================= Start of December 2002 Newsletter ================================= Greetings, It is time for another newsletter. In fact, it is past time for one. I have delayed this newsletter in hope of being able to pass along some good news. Unfortunately, the news is not what I had hoped for. Ruth Garby Torres and I have been e-mailing each other for some time. Last month I had the pleasure of getting to meet Ruth, and her husband, at the National Congress of American Indians meeting in San Diego. Ruth is a very active member of the Schaghticoke tribe in Connecticut. The Schaghticoke have been trying to get federal recognition for a long time. A preliminary ruling was delivered on their petition late on Thursday. Unfortunately, the Bureau of Indian Affairs ruled that the Schaghticoke did not meet their requirement for federal recognition. The Schaghticoke have a nice website which discusses their tribe, its history, and the federal recognition in detail. You can find it at this address. http://www.schaghticoke.com/ If you would like to read up on this specific ruling, here are websites which have more details: http://www.doi.gov/news/021205a.htm http://www.indianz.com/docs/bia/stn120502.pdf (you must have Adobe Reader for the second link, it is a free program) http://www.theday.com/news/ts-re.asp?NewsUID=73CD7A2C-81D3-43B5-A1F7-25A987D08CDE My sympathies go out to the Schaghticoke people. They have worked long and hard to get the federal government to recognize what the state of Connecticut (and most historians) has known for hundreds of years. There is an appeal process. I wish them luck. =================================== Incidentally, there is still time to order a copy of my book, or almost anything, through the links on my store page and get it before Christmas. The links will lead you to many online stores. You will get the same price as if you had gone directly to that site. I get a small refer fee if you make your purchase through my link. I use the money I make to help support my website and this newsletter (not to mention my kids :-) ) http://americanindian.net/store.html =============================== The Link of the Month for December 2002 is "Dawes Enrollment Cards - Final Rolls 1898- 1914" This site, from AccessGenealogy.com, has a plethora (how often do you get to use that word!) of information on tribal enrollment cards. These are the documents the US federal government compiled as they took their official census of the various Indian tribes. " The Final Rolls of the Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory list the names of the individuals who were allowed on the tribal rolls by the Dawes Commission." It is a great source for genealogy, information, and it has excellent links. http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/enroll/ =================================== This month's Treaty of the Month is the "TREATY WITH THE SENECA AND SHAWNEE," signed on December 29, 1832. It covers: "Cession to the United States; Grant to Indians; Grist and saw mill, etc; Claims against the United States; and Rights under existing treaties." You can find it at: http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sen0383.htm =================================== While going through some online archives, I came across the story of John Rice. While serving in the army in the Korean war, he was killed in a battle. His body was returned to Sioux City for burial. When cemetery officials discovered he was a Winnebago, they denied his right to be buried in a "Caucasians only" cemetery. President Truman intervene, and he was buried in Arlington Cemetery. The links below tell his story, what happened in the years around 1951, and what has happened in the past few years. SIOUX CITY HISTORY: Sergeant John Rice http://www.siouxcityhistory.org/People/SergeantJohnRice.asp Sgt. John Rice Memorial Parade http://www.sioux-city.org/Interactive/PressReleases/records.asp?Title=Sgt%2E+John+Rice+Memorial+Parade John R. Rice, Sergeant, United States Army http://www.arlingtoncemetery.com/jrrice.htm Hero's Rejection Is a Lingering Hurt http://mytwobeadsworth.com/SgtRice.html WEDNESDAY, August 29 | Justice Served - audio file from NPR http://www.npr.org/ramfiles/me/20010829.me.12.ram =================================== Links to article, news stories, or other interesting things: CHP officer writes American Indian history book (Hey, that's me!) http://www.nctimes.net/news/2002/20021110/53452.html Petition seeks apology from Congress for Indians http://www.rapidcityjournal.com/articles/2002/12/05/news/local/news06.txt Statement by Assistant Secretary Neal McCaleb on Decision to Retire from Public Service http://www.okit.com/news/2002/novdec/MCCALEBretires.html An article about McCaleb's retirement (1/3 of the way down the page) http://www.nwifc.wa.gov/newsinfo/newsrelsdet.asp?ID=102 Senators propose halting BIA recognition http://www.theday.com/news/ts-re.asp?NewsUID=A381FA21-A9CD-4D2D-BC13-5A62E64B1788 Scary times ahead for sovereignty as U.S. Supreme Court looms http://indiancountry.com/?1039185572 Lumbees hopeful about full recognition next time http://www.charlotte.com/mld/observer/news/local/4618632.htm Mission Delores in San Francisco hosts healing ceremony http://indiancountry.com/?1039098360 A roundup of Native news from Canada http://indiancountry.com/?1038926061 Joe Shirley elected Navajo Nation President http://indiancountry.com/?1036940123 Viejas tribe pulls out of state gaming alliance http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/metro/20021206-9999_8n6tribes.html Samish seek fishing rights, calling treaty 'soul of the tribe' http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/98746_samish06.shtml Native Americans in Pleasanton to sue U.S. government: One-time 'Verona Band' demand reservation; Indian Affairs official says tribe doesn't legally exist http://www.oaklandtribune.com/Stories/0%2C1413%2C82%257E1726%257E1033793%2C00.html More call on Tohono chairman to resign http://www.indianz.com/News/show.asp?ID=2002/12/06/manuel Choctaw educator recognized http://www.newsok.com/cgi-bin/show_article?ID=957044 New home for Davis Inlet Innu won't be ready for Christmas http://www.cbc.ca/stories/2002/12/04/innu021204 Study just a start : City must act to help solve problems for immigrants, Native Americans http://www.argusleader.com/editorial/Thursdayfeature.shtml DNR Board accepts Brule River master plan http://www.startribune.com/stories/568/3475967.html Mohegan Sun hits monetary milestone: Casino resort has net revenues of $1.042 billion for fiscal year http://www.theday.com/news/ts-re.asp?NewsUID=E219E063-181D-4675-964B-CCF2D5598E03 Sand Creek plaque now refers to massacre http://www.indianz.com/News/show.asp?ID=2002/12/02/sandcreek Racism from up high: Tulsa World Editorial causes concern in Indian Country http://www.okit.com/opinion/2002/novdec/racismuphigh.html Drinking increases Indian SIDS risk http://www.montanaforum.com/rednews/2002/12/04/build/tribal/drinking-sids.php?nnn=4 Indian leader killed Tuesday in car accident http://www.montanaforum.com/rednews/2002/12/02/build/tribal/sangreyobit.php?nnn=4 Dig Uncovers Earliest Writing in New World http://www.newswise.com/articles/2002/12/WRITINGS.FSU.html Shhh, Old Books http://www.reznetnews.org/news/021202_library/ Helping Hands for Herds http://www.reznetnews.org/news/021202_bison/ ‘Fighting Whites’ team raise $100,000 from T-shirt sales for scholarships for Indians http://www.shobannews.com/national.html#anchoroct19 2003 American Indian Festival of Words Author Award goes to Vine Deloria, Jr. http://www.okit.com/arts/2002/dec/festivalofwords.html Here are some pictures taken at the Navajo Rodeo http://wpni01.auroraquanta.com/pv/navajorodeo =================================== Here are some e-mails I have received from subscribers: Juliana Marez sent me the following holiday story. It is in English and Lakota: A Lakota Christmas Story (Night Before Christmas) Twas the akpaza before Christmas, when all through the tipi, not a creature was skinciya, not even the cikci. The moccasins were laid by the aun with care, in hopes that Waziya soon would be there. The wakanyeja were nestled all snug in their skins, while visions of wojapi and fry bread drooled down their chins. And Wakanyuza in her shawl, and miye in my braid, had just settled our brains for Aihanbla to be made. When TiiMeyapaya there rose such a clatter, Miye psil from my deerskin to see what was the matter, away to the tiyopa miye flew like a deer, Tore open the ha through the akpaza to peer. The wimima on the breast of the new fallen snow, gave a luster of omaste to objects below. When, what to my wondering ista did miye see, but a miniature drag and isagalogan tiny buffalo. With a little akan wicasa, so lively and quick, Miye knew in a moment it must be Chief Nick. More rapid than anunkasan his coursers, they came, and he whooped, and he howled, and he called them by name. Now Wanji, now Yamni, now Zaptan, and Nunpa. on Sakpe, on Sakowan, on Sagalogan and Topa. The top of the bloaliya, to the top of the hide, Now dash away, dash away, now let us ride. As dry leaves that before the wild canska fly, when they meet with an obstacle, mount to the sky. So up on the tipi top the coursers they flew, With a drag full of games, and Waziya, too. And then, in a twinkling, miye heard on the ground the skeheya and pawing on each little mound. As miye drew in my pa, and was turning around, over the aun Waziya leaped with a bound. He was dressed ataya in fur, from his pa to his foot, and his ogle was all tarnished with dirt and soot. A pahtapi of games he had flung on his back, and he looked like a peddler just kablaga his pack. His ista, how they twinkled! His dimples, how merry! His cheeks were like onjinjintka, his papinkpa like a chokecherry! His droll little wicai was drawn up like a bow, and the braid on his pa was as skaya as snow. And the smoke, it encircled his pa like a wreath, seeming to cloak the wicasa beneath. He had a broad aposin and a big cesiksice belly, that shook, when he pahyutibya, like a bowl of buffalo berry jelly. He was chubby and cesiksice, a right jolly akan elf, and miye laughed when miye saw him in spite of myself. A wink of his ista, and a twist of his pa, soon gave me to know miye had nothing to kokipa. He spoke not a word, but went straight to his work, he filled all the moccasins, then turned with a jerk. And laying his napsu aside his nose, and giving a pakahunka, up the tent pole he rose. He psil to his drag, to his team gave a jingle, and away they ataya flew, okaho like an eagle. But miye heard him exclaim as he drove out of sight, Waziya Wayuwaken to ataya and to ataya a good-akpaza. Story Adaptation by Albert Lee Moran (Lakolya) Originally adapted in 1971, revised 1995. If you would like english translations, send e-mail to: Lakofirstname.lastname@example.org. -------------------------------------------------------------- I got this from Ruth Torres: The National Native American Law Enforcement Association (NNALEA) would like to remind you that its Academic Scholarship deadline is December 15, 2002. If you know of a Native American student who might like to apply, please direct him or her to our website at http://www.nnalea.org/scholarship.htm. Each year, NNALEA presents five scholarships to deserving Indian students. Four are $1,000 each and the Don Leaonard Scholarship is $1,500. This year's scholarship recipients will notified by December 31, 2002. Scholarship applicants must be of Indian heritage, have a 2.5 grade point average, provide an official transcript and write a 200 word essay about how relations between law enforcement and people in Indian Country can be improved. The applications are evaluated on a scale of 1-10 with 10 being the best. The applicant with the highest score will receive the Don Leonard Memorial Scholarship. Please send your questions me to email@example.com. Jill Willis NNALEA Academic Scholarships ------------------------------------------------------- Joseph Red Cloud sent me this: NEWS RELEASE from the United States Department of Defense No. 609-02 (703)697-5131(media) IMMEDIATE RELEASE December 2, 2002 (703)428-0711(public/industry) DOD SELECTS TRIBAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES FOR GRANTS The Department of Defense (DoD) announced today plans to award instrumentation grants totaling $3.3 million to 13 tribal colleges and universities (TCUs). These grants will be made under the fiscal 2002 DoD Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions Infrastructure Support Program. The grants will enhance programs and capabilities at these minority institutions in scientific disciplines critical to national security and the DoD. This announcement is the result of merit competition for infrastructure support funding conducted for the Office of Defense Research and Engineering by the Army Research Office. The fiscal 2002 TCUs program solicitation received 16 proposals in response to a broad agency announcement issued in June 2002. The Army Research Office plans to award 13 grants ranging from $55,000 to $400,000, only after written agreements are reached between the DoD and the institutions. The list of recipients is available on the Web at http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Dec2002/d20021202tcu.pdf. -------------------------------------------------- Norma, an e-mail friend of mine sent this interesting story. It is not about Indians, but it is historical. I thought you might enjoy it. One Dollars Worth The United States One Dollar Bill. Take out a one dollar bill, and look at it. The one dollar bill you're looking at first came off the presses in 1957 in its present design. This so-called paper money is in fact a cotton and linen blend with red and blue minute silk fibers running through it is actually material. We've all washed it without it falling apart. A special blend of ink is used, the contents we will never know. It is overprinted with symbols and then it is starched to make it water resistant and pressed to give it that nice crisp look. If you look on the front of the bill, you will see the United States Treasury Seal. On the top, you will see the scales for a balanced budget. In the center you have a carpenter's square, a tool used for an even cut. Underneath is the Key to the United States Treasury. That's all pretty easy to figure out, but what is on the back of that dollar bill is something we should all know. If you turn the bill over, you will see two circles. Both circles, together, comprise the Great Seal of the United States. The First Continental Congress requested that Benjamin Franklin and a group of men come up with a Seal. It took them four years to accomplish this task and another two years to get it approved. If you look at the left-hand circle, you will see a Pyramid. Notice the face is lighted and the western side is dark. This country was just beginning. We had not begun to explore the West or decided what we could do for Western Civilization. The Pyramid is un-capped, again signifying that we were not even close to being finished. Inside the capstone, you have the all-seeing eye, an ancient symbol for divinity. It was Franklin's belief that one man couldn't do it alone, but a group of men, with the help of God, could do anything. "In God We Trust" is on this currency, but that phrase was added in the 1950s during the Red Scare. Prior to that, none of our paper currency had that phrase. The Latin above the pyramid, Annuit Coeptis, means, "God has favored our undertaking." The Latin below the pyramid, Novus Ordo Seclorum, means, "a new order has begun." At the base of the pyramid is the Roman Numeral for 1776. If you look at the right-hand circle, and check it carefully, you will learn that it is on every National Cemetery in the United States. It is also on the Parade of Flags Walkway at the Bushnell, Florida National Cemetery and is the centerpiece of most heroes' monuments. Slightly modified, it is the seal of the President of the United States, and it is always visible whenever he speaks, yet very few people know what the symbols mean. The Bald Eagle was selected as a symbol for victory for two reasons: First, he is not afraid of a storm; he is strong, and he is smart enough to soar above it. Second, he wears no material crown. We had just broken from the King of England. Also, notice the shield is unsupported. This country can now stand on its own. At the top of that shield you have a white bar signifying congress, a unifying factor. We were coming together as one nation. In the Eagle's beak you will read, "E Pluribus Unum", meaning, "one nation from many people." Above the Eagle, you have thirteen stars, representing the thirteen original colonies and any clouds of misunderstanding rolling away. Again, we were coming together as one. Notice what the Eagle holds in his talons. He holds an olive branch and arrows. This country wants peace, but we will never be afraid to fight to preserve peace. The Eagle always wants to face the olive branch, but in time of war, his gaze turns toward the arrows. They say that the number 13 is an unlucky number. This is almost a worldwide belief. You will usually never see a room numbered 13, or any hotels or motels with a 13th floor. But think about this: 13 original colonies, 13 signers of the Declaration of Independence, 13 stripes on our flag, 13 steps on the Pyramid, 13 letters in the Latin above, 13 letters in "E Pluribus Unum", 13 stars above the Eagle, 13 bars on that shield, 13 leaves on the olive branch, 13 fruits, and if you look closely, 13 arrows. And, for minorities: the 13th Amendment. I always ask people, "Why don't you know this?" Your children don't know this, and their history teachers don't know this. Too many veterans have given up too much to ever let the meaning fade. Many veterans remember coming home to an America that didn't care. Too many veterans never came home at all. Share this page with everyone, so they can learn what is on the back of the UNITED STATES ONE DOLLAR BILL and what it stands for. Otherwise, they will probably never know... =================================== Here's some interesting quotes... thought some of you might enjoy reading these. I did. "The time to repair the roof is when the sun is shining." ---- John F. Kennedy "Small opportunities are often the beginning of great experiences." --- Demosthenes "The secret of joy in work is contained in one word - excellence. To know how to do something well is to enjoy it." --- Pearl Buck "Laughing is the sensation of feeling good all over and showing it principally in one spot." --- Josh Billings "The trees that are slow to grow bear the best fruit." --- Moliere "To a friend's house the road is never long." --- Anonymous "From what we get, we can make a living; what we give, however, makes a life." --- Arthur Ashe "If you can find a path with no obstacles, it probably doesn't lead anywhere." --- Frank A. Clark "Only a fool tests the depth of the water with both feet." --- African Proverb "Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiam." --- Ralph Waldo Emerson "If your ship doesn't come in, swim out to it." --- Jonathan Winters "If a window of opportunity appears, don't pull down the shade." --- Tom Peters "What would life be if we had no courage to attempt anything?" --- Vincent Van Gogh "He who never made a mistake never made a discovery." --- Samuel Smiles "Few things help an individual more than to place responsiblity upon him and to let him know that you trust in him." --- Booker T. Washington "Many things are lost for want for of asking." --- English Proverb "The reward for work well done is the opportunity to do some more." --- Jonas Salk, M.D. "Luck is a matter of preparation meeting opportunity." --- Oprah Winfrey "Seven days without laughter makes one weak." --- Joel Goodman "A man is not finished when he is defeated. He is finished when he quits." --- President R.M. Nixon "The naked truth is always better than the best-dressed lie." =================================== =================================== Here are some randon events in American Indian history for December December 1, 1983: The “base membership roll” established for the Pascua Yaqui Indians on September 18, 1980, is approved by the Phoenix Area Director. December 2, 1842: The Cherokee pass a law which calls for the death penalty for any tribal member who cedes land to the United States. December 3, 735: Two Maya kingdoms battle today. Forces under Balah Kan K’awil (B'alaj Chan K'awiil) from Dos Pilas, Guatemala, defeat Yich’ak Balam at Seibal, Guatemala. December 4, 1862: The thirty-eight Santee Sioux Indians sentenced to hang by the courts for their part in the uprising are being held by Colonel Henry Sibley's troops in a prison camp on the South Bend of the Minnesota River. Tonight, an angry mob of local citizens tries to raid the camp and lynch the Indians. The soldiers are able to keep the angry crowd from getting to the prisoners. December 5, 1855: The Columbia River volunteers, under Nathan Olney, are near Fort Walla Walla, in southeastern Washington, when they encounter Pio-pio-mox-mox's (Yellow Serpent) band of WallaWallas. Pio has looted the Hudson Bay Company's Fort Walla Walla, but he has always been neutral or helped the Americans in the past. He advanced under a flag of truce and wanted to return the booty. But an agreement cannot be reached. Pio refuses to fight, and Olney's men take Pio, and four others, prisoners. December 6, 1866: Red Cloud, Crazy Horse, Yellow Eagle, and High Back Bone, and their followers, have been harassing Colonel Henry Carrington's troops from Fort Phil Kearny, in northern Wyoming. They stage several raids and ambushes along the road from the fort to the nearby woods. Colonel Carrington leads his troops in some of the fighting. Several soldiers are killed in the fighting. Carrington is called "Little White Chief" by the Indians. This skirmish sets the stage for the “Fetterman Massacre” on December 21, 1866. December 7, 1675: In the name of Charles II, the Massachusetts Bay Colony issues a formal proclamation declaring war on the Narragansett. December 8, 1869: Louis Riel releases his manifesto “Declaration of the People of Rupert's Land and the North-West.” The document declares a provisional government for the area. December 9, 1531: According to most sources, Juan Diego (Cuauhtlatoatzin), a Nahua, first sees the apparition of the Virgin Mary on a hill called Tepeyacac in Mexico. Many Aztec and Nahua considered Tepeyacac to be a sacred site. Juan Diego sees her again each day until December 12th. December 10, 1850: Federal agents sign a treaty with the Lipan Apache, Caddo, Comanche, Quapaw, Tawakoni and Waco Indians near the San Sabá River in Texas. December 11, 1890: Sitting Bull sends a letter to Indian Agent McLaughlin. He says he is going to the Pine Ridge Agency. December 12, 1531: According to most sources, Juan Diego (Cuauhtlatoatzin), a Nahua, sees the apparition of the Virgin Mary on a hill called Tepeyacac in Mexico again. He first saw her on December 9th. According to Juan Diego, the Virgin Mary instructs him to carry some roses in his macehualli (a cloak) to the local Bishop as proof of her appearance. When the macehualli is opened before the Bishop, an image of the Virgin Mary appears on the cloak among the rose petals. The macehualli is still on display in the church (Our Lady of Guadalupe) built to honor the event. You can see a photo I took of the church and the cloak on this page: December 13, 1788: Northwest Territory Governor Arthur St. Claire has called for a peace conference with the tribes of the area. It convenes at Fort Harmar. Among the almost 200 Delaware, Seneca and Wyandot participants is Seneca Chief Cornplanter. This council leads to a treaty signed on January 9, 1789. December 14, 1763: A band of almost five dozen frontiersmen, called "the Paxton Boys,” attack a peaceful Susquehanna Indian village in Conestoga, Pennsylvania. They kill eight of the twenty-two inhabitants in this unprovoked raid. "The Boys" continue their rampage during the next two weeks. December 15, 1725: A treaty is signed in Boston between “several Tribes of the Eastern Indians viz the Penobscot, Narridgwolk, St. Johns Cape Sables & other Tribes Inhabiting within His Majesties Territorys of New England and Nova Scotia,” and “His Majties Governments of the Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire & Nova Scotia.” December 16, 1841: The Cherokee National Council establishes a school system for their Nation. There are eleven schools in eight districts. Subjects of study include reading, writing, arithmetic, English grammar, geography, bookkeeping, and history. Within a dozen years, this systems is better organized that those for whites in Missouri, and Arkansas. December 17, 1812: Tecumseh is unable to convince numerous tribes of Indians to join him in his fight against the Europeans. Many of these peaceful tribes have settled along the Mississinewa River. Although they have pledged to keep the peace, William Henry Harrison is dubious about leaving some many Indians along his rear flank during his expedition against Detroit. Colonel John Campbell is ordered by Harrison to take 600 men and attack Miami villages along the river. Today, even though he is told to leave them alone, Campbell attacks Silver Heel's Delaware Indian village on the river. Eight warriors are killed. They also capture forty-two Delaware during the raid. Later, Campbell burns the peaceful village of Metocina, and his Miami followers. Finally, Campbell's troops fight to a draw, and then retreat from another Miami village further down the river. Campbell returns to the area near Silver Heel's destroyed village to bivouac for the night. December 18, 1836: General Matthew Arbuckle reports 6000 Creeks, including Chief Opothleyaholo, are camped near Fort Gibson, in the eastern Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). They are ill-prepared for the winter conditions. Many of the people contracted to transport the Creeks' belongings, have not done so. This leaves the Creeks without winter clothing. December 19, 1597: The Oñate expedition into what becomes New Mexico begins. December 20, 677: Yukukun of Calakmul attacks Pulul (Polol) according to Maya records. December 21, 1836: The fifth contingent of Creeks write a letter to Lieutenant Sprague: "...tell General Jackson if the white men will let us, we will live in peace, and friendship. But tell him these agents (people paid to supply and help transport the Creeks) came not to treat us well, but make money, and tell our people behind not to be drove off like dogs. We are men, we have women and children, and why should we come like wild horses." They thank Lieutenant Sprague for his kindness. December 22, 1890: Captain J.H, Hurst of the Twelfth Infantry accepts the surrender of 294 Indians near Cherry Creek in South Dakota. According to army documents, these are members of Sitting Bull’s band. December 23, 1923: Cherokee activist and educator Ruth Muskrat long promoted the concept of Indian self-determination. At a meeting of a reform group called the Committee of One Hundred, she presents President Calvin Coolidge a copy of the book, "The Red Man in the United States." December 24, 1776: Washington asks the Passamaquoddy for help in the Revolutionary War. December 25, 768: Maya King Yax Nuun Ayiin II (Ruler C) takes the throne of Tikal, Guatemala. December 26, 1854: A treaty (10 stat. 1132) is signed at Medicine Creek with the “Nisqually, Puyallup, Steilacoom, Squawskin, S’Homamish, Stehchass, T’ Peek-sin, Squi-aitl, and Sa-heh-wamish tribes and bands of Indians, occupying the lands lying round the head of Puget’s Sound.” December 27, 1952: Phil Konstantin, author of these pages and a member of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is born. Thanks, Mom and Dad! ********* I will be 50 years old today. ************ December 28, 1520: According to some sources, Hernán Cortés and his army start their second excursion to Tenochtitlán (modern Mexico City) from Tlascala, Mexico. This time they have made and bring a group of smal boats to use on the lake surrounding the city. December 29, 1835: The United States informs the Cherokees that they are to appear in their capital city, New Echota, Georgia, to negotiate a treaty with the United States. They are informed that anyone not attending the council is assumed to support any agreement reached there. Several Cherokee leaders opposed to the movement of the tribe to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), are physically restrained so they cannot attend the meeting. Chief John Ross is held prisoner, without charges, for twelve days by Georgia militia. Of the estimated 18,000 Cherokees, less than 500 attend the treaty council. Today, a treaty (7 stat.478) is signed by less than 100 Cherokees which cedes all of the Cherokee lands in the east. The treaty signers, led by Elias Boudinot, Major Ridge and John Ridge, agree to the treaty with the provision that it receives approval of the majority of the Cherokee Nation. Although representatives of almost 16,000 Cherokees inform the government they do not endorse or support the treaty, the United States Senate ratifies it by a one vote margin. December 30, 1853: The Gadsden purchase is made adding land to the United States in the southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico. Most of these lands are claimed by Indians. December 31, 1590: Spaniard Gaspar Castaño de Sosa is exploring the area of what is now New Mexico. A few days ago, several men in his group have a fight with some of the residents of the Pecos Pueblo. Sosa’s main body reaches the pueblo. There is a brief fight, and Sosa takes some of the Indians captive. Sosa would later return to the pueblo and get a better reception. =================================== And finally... From time to time I receive one of those forwarded e-mails that have an amazing offer, a drastic warning, an inspirational story or some other message which the sender thinks you should know and wants you to forward to ten of your friends before midnight. Invariably, the sender received it, and because of the nature of the message, they forwarded it to everyone in their e-mail address book. While I appreciate the thought behind the effort, it would help if most people did a quick internet search (I recommend http://www.google.com ) on the subject of the e-mail before they send it to everyone they know. This is just to make sure the information is not a hoax. No, Bill Gates is not going to pay anyone for forwarding an e-mail, unless he told you himself (By the way, if you know Bill Gates, tell him that buying a copy of my book for every school library might be a good idea)! I enjoy inspirational stories, until I get to the bottom line which says that if I do not forward it to ten people something bad will happen to me. While I have forwarded many such messages along to my friends, I delete the last part of getting good fortune if you pass it along or bad fortune if you do not. Here is a humorous website animation which discusses this issue: http://media.smilepop.com/smilepop/flash/06_2002/may02-smilepop-soapbox2.swf And no, that is not me in the animation. My hair is not that curly... :-) =================================== That's it for this newsletter.... Happy holidays, Phil firstname.lastname@example.org =============================== End of December 2002 Newsletter =============================== . . . . . . . .
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