November 2002 Newsletter Part 1 from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2002)

Looking for a good book on North American Indians?
Click on the line below:
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Start of the November 2002 Newsletter
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Greetings,

I hope all is well with you. It has been a slow month for me. Here are 
some interesting facts. Rhode Island covers an area 1,231 square miles. 
Delaware has 1,982 square miles. And there are 4,845 square miles in 
Connecticut. San Diego County is 4,255 square miles in size, making it 
just slightly smaller than Connecticut. This is one of the reasons why 
there is such a variety of terrain here. It is just a large place. A few 
months ago, we had a series of severe forest fires. I had a day off (see 
below) and I decided to go see what kind of damage the fire storm had 
caused. Large sections of the local mountains (over 6,000 feet in 
places), had major burn areas. We will have some serious slides if we 
get any heavy rains. While I was in the east county, I thought I would 
go exploring in an area I had not visited. In case you did not know, I 
do traffic reports on television in San Diego. One of my favorite road 
names is “The Great Southern Overland Stage Route of 1849.” The locals 
call it S-2. I had never driven S-2, so I thought I would. The road 
follows the old Butterfield Stage route. It also passes by some 
archaeological sites. I hiked back into the hills of an area called 
Little Blair Valley. A couple of miles off the dirt road were a couple 
of ancient Indian sites. One had some rock art. It was mostly triangles 
or diamond chains. Another site had some grinding holes where the 
seasonal locals would grind the seeds they could find. It was an 
interesting trip. 

In an upcoming newsletter, I am going to discuss movies about or by 
American Indians. If you have a favorite, or one you just cannot stand, 
please e-mail me. I will add your comments to the newsletter.

I had mentioned last month that I was taking several weeks off to help 
promote the release of my book. After two weeks off, and not hearing 
from them, I contacted the book’s marketing people. They told me they 
had not started any real efforts. They were waiting for the book to have 
better distribution. So, I discontinued the rest of my time off, and 
returned to work. I will be taking the week of November 18th off in 
order to do a few things around San Diego and to be available for 
interviews. If any of you are involved in radio, TV, print or internet 
journalism, I would be happy to do an interview. You can contact me at 
this e-mail address: phil-@rocketmail.com .

A couple of you have asked, so I will mention it here. The photo on the 
cover of the book was taken by Philip Gendreau. It is in Glacier 
National Park, Montana. It is titled “Indians looking at their 
reflection on Lake McDermott." I do not know when it was taken. It comes 
from the Bettman Archives. The picture was chosen by the publishers. 
Being the “map person” that I am, I immediately went through my maps 
looking for Lake McDermott. I had no success. There is a good reason for 
this. Lake McDermott was changed to Swift Current Lake some time ago. It 
is in the northeastern part of Glacier National Park near the Many 
Glaciers lodge.

I counted the entries in the historical section of my book. It added up 
to 5,408. That is a lot considering they deleted approximately 20% of 
them to shorten the book. The book, including the intro and end pages, 
is 480 pages. It measures 9.5” by 8.” It weights 2.2 pounds, or 998 
grams. I have gone by both a Borders and a Barnes & Nobel bookstore here 
in San Diego and saw copies on the shelf. That was certainly a nice 
feeling. Overall, it has been thirteen years since I started this 
project. It is very rewarding to see it become real. I have been 
watching Amazon.com’s ranking number of the book. The first day it was 
listed (before the book was released), it was #2,003,364. As of today, 
it is #36,095. I owe that to you folks out there. Thank you. I’m sorry 
if I keep going on about this, but it has been such a long time goal. If 
you would like to order a copy, you can get one through my link to 
Amazon.com at:
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0306811707/onthisdateinn-20 . I 
would appreciate it if you use this link because I get an extra 
commission that way. The price is the same as if you went directly to 
their website. 

===============

November is “National American Indian Heritage Month.” It is also called 
National American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage Month.” This is an 
annual event in the United States. There are actually very few events. 
You will not see a large parade in any major cities. Here is a quote 
from President Bush’s proclamation:

“During American Indian Heritage Month, we celebrate the rich cultural 
traditions and proud ancestry of American Indians and Alaska Natives, 
and we recognize the vital contributions these groups have made to the 
strength and diversity of our society.”

Ah, if it were only that way during the rest of the year.

You can see the entire proclamation here:
http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/11/20021101-7.html

===============

The Link of the Month for November 2002 is The Philadelphia Print Shop’s 
Gallery of American Indians. This is probably the first strictly 
commercial website that I have named Link of The Month. The reason I 
like this site is the large number of old prints which you can find 
here. Buying a print would be expensive, but looking at them is free.

You can find their website here:
http://www.philaprintshop.com/indian.html    

===============

The treaty of the month is TREATY WITH THE OSAGE, 1808.
Nov. 10, 1808. Some of the provisions are: 
A fort to be built. A store of goods to be kept at the fort. A 
blacksmith, etc., to be furnished by United States. Property stolen by 
the Osages before the acquisition of Louisiana to be paid for by the 
United States. Merchandise to be delivered. Money paid. Boundary line 
established. Lines to be run by United States. Hunting ground. Injuries, 
how to be prevented and punished. Osages received into the protection of 
the United States. Protection of the Indian hunting grounds. Osages will 
not supply arms to Indians not in amity with the United States.

You can find a transcript at:
http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/osa0095.htm

===============

Here are some websites I have found during the month, which might 
interest you.

Dreaming of Homes on the Reservation:
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A17857-2002Oct12.html

Beyond Tradition: Today's Native Youth Organizing
http://www.wiretapmag.org/story.html?StoryID=14363

Saving Cajun Country: Archeologists and engineers will soon be using 
NASA satellite data to restore endangered wetlands without accidentally 
destroying Native American cultural sites.
http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/01nov_coast2050.htm?list105599

Don't Blame Columbus for All the Indians' Ills
http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/29/science/social/29INDI.html

News From the North: A roundup of native news from Canada
http://indiancountry.com/?1034953514

Muwekma claim they were never terminated
http://indiancountry.com/?1034779203

An Indian country election scorecard
http://indiancountry.com/?1036162447

Tribes Vote, too
http://indiancountry.com/?1036162640

Interior pulls out of trust reform task force
http://indiancountry.com/?1035561114

Attention Party Indians and other Native American voters: Ranking the 
"modern" U.S. presidents
http://indiancountry.com/?1036163770

Norton to halt trust fund mailings
http://www.indianz.com/News/show.asp?ID=2002/11/01/lamberth

Bush opinion cites terminated Kan. reservation
http://www.indianz.com/News/show.asp?ID=2002/11/01/miami

Keeper of Crow stories honored 
http://www.montanaforum.com/rednews/2002/10/30/build/tribal/boggess.php?nnn=4


Debate over spelling of guide’s name won’t die 
http://www.montanaforum.com/rednews/2002/10/29/build/tribal/sakakawea.php?nnn=4


Eloquent Chief Joseph was persistent to the end
http://www.montanaforum.com/rednews/2002/10/07/build/tribal/joseph.php?nnn=4


‘Squaw’ name removal begins
http://www.montanaforum.com/rednews/2002/10/04/build/tribal/squawnames.php?nnn=4


Indian editor hopes to inspire future scribes
http://www.montanaforum.com/rednews/2002/10/01/build/tribal/ed-reznet.php?nnn=4


Tribes consider importing medicines from Canada 
http://www.billingsgazette.com/index.php?display=rednews/2002/08/24/build/local/94-medicine.inc


Tribes, police seek solutions
http://www.nctimes.net/news/2002/20021103/50947.html

CALL TO ACTION TO ALL TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS AND INTERESTED PARTIES (In 
response to a threat by developers to the Putiidhem Sacred Site and 
Burial Ground, the Juaneño Band of Mission Indians, the Acjachemen 
Nation, proposes to hold a three-day Prayer Vigil for Ancestors and 
Sacred Sites.)
http://www.pechanga.net/press_release/CALL%20TO%20ACTION%20TO%20ALL%20TRIBAL%20GOVERNMENTS%20AND%20INTERESTED%20PARTIES.htm


Johnson named Outstanding American Indian Counselor of the Year
http://www.zwire.com/site/news.cfm?BRD=2164&dept_id=401088&newsid=5910650&PAG=461&rfi=9


First Place N.A.J.A. 2002 Shoot Out
http://www.reznetnews.org/images/020621_shootout/img01/

An Activist's Advice
http://www.reznetnews.org/news/020930_speech/

Traditional Native foods focus of First Nations initiative/grants
http://www.shobannews.com/education_health.html#anchor55

Texas Kickapoos take over government
http://www.okit.com/news/2002/novdec/texkickapoos.html

Ok. Representative Wants Court to determine who is an Indian
http://www.okit.com/news/2002/SEPTOCT/whosindian.html

===============

Question from a subscriber:

“My husband and I enjoy your newsletters. We work with a non-profit 
group here on the Colorado front range named Pathways to Spirit. We 
give materials, food, etc. to the American Indian people on the front 
range and on the Lakota Indian reservations in South Dakota namely Pine 
Ridge and Rosebud. We work with one of the programs with this 
organization that has truly touched our hearts which is the Used Mobile 
Home program. We locate good donated mobile homes in the Colorado - 
Wyoming area and have them transported to South Dakota for families with 
no homes. We currently have over 300 applications for homes and have 
taken approximately 100 homes in the last few years. 

My question to you is that I have a double wide trailer home in Florida 
that the family who owns it wants to donate it. We can't afford to 
transport it all the way to South Dakota so I'm wondering if you have 
any organization you know of in the Florida area that would like this 
home? The family particularly wants to donate it to an Indian family in 
need.

I would appreciate any leads you may give us and if you have none that 
is OK too! Thanks for all your facts and information you give out in 
your newsletter. The website for our non-profit is 
www.pathwaystospirit.org if you would like to take a look sometime. By 
the way, my favorite Indian movie is Thunderheart. The Lakota people 
have truly touched my heart and that movie centered around the difficult 
path they walk.

Thanks, Donna Palinkx”

If you can help, you can contact Donna directly at:
fri-@prodigy.net

===============

Another question from a reader:

Can you please direct me to a site that would be able to assist me in 
selling my collection of Navajo/mexican blankets and rugs? I am located 
just outside of Redding in Northern California. I would appreicate any 
information you might be able to give me.
Thanking you in advance,
Thomas TaylorIII    ----    Madro-@aol.com

===============

October 16, 2003
Call for Presenters
Keynote Speaker: James W. Loewen, author of "Lies My Teacher Told Me."
For more information about James W. Loewen, go to:
 http://www.uvm.edu/~jloewen/
Proposals must be received by February 13, 2003
Sponsors to date
Connecticut State Department of Education, Central Connecticut State 
University
National Association for Multicultural Education - Connecticut Chapter
National Association for Multicultural Education - New England, Region 
One
University of Hartford
Purposes of the Conference: The 8th Annual Connecticut Conference on 
Multicultural Education is designed to provide PK-12 and higher 
education teachers, administrators, school board members, parents, 
students, and community activists with the opportunity to:
*       Learn ways to reduce racial, ethnic, and economic isolation.
*       Learn about innovative programs that infuse multicultural 
education into the curriculum.
*       Learn about effective strategies to increase student achievement 
among diverse students
*       Highlight the work of exceptional individuals and programs 
engaged in multicultural education.
*       Explore ways of working towards equity in our schools, 
communities, and society
See  
photographs from 7th Annual Connecticut Conference here 
http://www.state.ct.us/sde/dtl/cert/gndrequt/multiconfp.htm
Download 
 the Call for Presenters 8th Annual Connecticut Conference
MS Word.doc: 267 KB
Please mail proposals to:
Dr. Claudia E. Nunn, Conference Co-Chair
University of Hartford, 200 Bloomfield Ave., W. Hartford, CT 06117
Telephone: 860-768-4773 - e-mail: ;
nu-@mail.hartford.edu
To become a conference sponsor, exhibitor, or to place advertisements 
in the conference brochure or program book, contact:
Dr. William A. Howe, Conference Co-Chair
Connecticut State Department of Education
Bureau of Certification and Professional Development
165 Capitol Ave. Rm 243, Box 150471
Hartford, CT 06115-0471
Telephone: 860-713-6737 - e-mail: ;
willia-@po.state.ct.us

===============

Running Deer sent me this bit of humor:

TOP 10 THINGS YOU CAN'T SAY TO A WHITE PERSON UPON FIRST MEETINGS:

10. How much white are you?

9. I'm part white myself, you know.

8. I learned all your people's ways in the Boy Scouts.

7. My great-great-grandmother was a full-blooded white-Canadian 
princess.

6. Funny, you don't look white.

5. Where's your powdered wig and knickers?

4. Do you live in a covered wagon?

3. What's the meaning behind the square dance?

2. What's your feeling about river-boat casinos? Do they really help 
your people, or are they just a short-term fix?

1. Oh wow! I really love your hair! Can I touch it?

===============

Another post I found:

****************************************
**** Higher Education Opportunities ****
****************************************

Looking for scholarship, internship, fellowship opportunities in higher 
education? Check out this information:

The Ford Foundation Fellowships for Minorities scholarship is design to 
help the six (6) minority groups to increase the number of students in 
the graduation level.

Eligibility Requirements:
*Us Citizens or National, *Native-American, Mexican 
American/Chicana/Chicano, Alaska Native, 
Native Pacific Islander, Black/African American, or Puerto Rican

Stipends And Allowances:

Predoctoral-$16,000 to the fellow, institutional allowance of $7,500 for 
three years

Dissertation-$21,000 for one year

PostDoctoral-$34,000 for one year, $3,000 travel and relocation 
allowance, $2,000 cost-of-research allowance, $2,500 employing 
institution allowance, to be matched by employing institution

All awardees have expenses paid to attend the Conference of Ford Fellows 
for three years.

Deadlines:
Predoctoral - November 20, 2002
Dissertation - December 4, 2002
Post Doctoral - January 8, 2003

For Further Information and Applications, contact:
Fellowship Office, GR 346A
National Research Council of the National Academies
500 Fifth Street, NW
Washington, DC 20001

Phone: 202-334-2872
Fax: 202-334-3419
E-mail: infor-@nas.edu
http://national-academies.org/fellowships

----------------------

COMPETITION: Wings of America searches for Native American runners

Wings of America is searching for the most promising cross country 
runners in Indian Country for sponsorship to the Foot Locker Cross 
Country Championships.

Assistance is offered for travel and race related expenses for five 
runners from each of the four Foot Locker Regions: Midwest, Northeast, 
South and West.

The first eight finishers in each region earn a spot to compete at the 
Foot Locker Nationals to be held in San Diego on Dec. 14.

Coaches, teachers, parents and runners can make nominations. Call (505) 
982-6761 or e-mail Wings-@aol.com.

(From the Grand Forks Herald - 10/23/02)

===============

Here are some random historical events which happened in November.

November 1, 1634: Tensions in Massachusetts have been raised because 
Niantic Indians have killed a boat captain named John Stone. Rather than 
having a war, the Niantics, and their allies the Pequots, conclude a 
peace treaty with the Massachusetts government. Some sources say this 
treaty is signed on November 7, 1634.

November 2, 1770: Spanish and Opata Indians forces, led by Bernardo de 
Gálvez, are on a punitive expedition directed toward the Apache. Early 
today they discover an Apache camp near the Pecos River in modern Texas. 
The Spaniards and Opata attack. They kill twenty-eight and capture 
thirty-six Apaches. They then return to Chihuahua, Mexico.

November 3, 1791: General Arthur St. Clair has moved his force of 
approximately 1,400 men to some high ground on the upper Wabash River, 
north of present-day Greenville, Ohio. St. Clair is looking for the 
forces of Little Turtle, who has recently defeated General Josiah 
Harmar's army. More than half of St. Clair’s forces are "dregs of the 
earth" who signed on for the $2 a month pay. By this point 600 men have 
already deserted the original force of 2,000 men. The soldiers are not 
being paid, and they are underfed. St. Clair’s regular army is having to 
guard what little supplies they have from the militia forces. St. Clair, 
feeling he has a good defensive position, deploys only minimal sentry 
positions.

November 4, 604: According to some interpretations of Maya engravings, 
Lady Kanal - Ikal (Queen Lady Yohl Ik'nal or Lady Heart of the Wind 
Place) of Palenque, Mexico dies. See November 7.

November 5, 1775: Kumeyaays attack the Mission San Diego de Alcala. The 
Mission is destroyed in the fighting.
   
November 6, 1528: Cabeza de Vaca, and eighty men of a Spanish 
expedition, wash up on Galveston Island, in Texas. Most of his men 
eventually die, or become captives. Cabeza de Vaca marches across the 
continent to California, before he reaches a Spanish outpost. He is the 
first "white man" many Indians see.

November 7, 604: Palenque Maya Lady Kanal - Ikal dies according to the 
museum at Palenque.
      1519: According to some sources, Spaniards have their first view 
of Tenochtitlán (modern Mexico City).
     
November 8, 1873: According to the Constitution of the Coeur d’Alene 
Tribe of Idaho, The Coeur d’Alene Reservation is modified by Executive 
Order.

November 9, 1761: The Mi’kmaq of La Heve sign a treaty with the British 
of Nova Scotia

November 10, 1782: George Rogers Clark, and 1000 troops, attack the 
Miami Indians along the Licking River in Kentucky. This expedition has a 
very adverse psychological effect on the Miamis.

November 11, 1778: Sequidongquee (Little Beard), and his Seneca 
followers are active participants in what is called the "Cherry Valley 
Massacre."

November 12, 1602: Sebastian Vizcaino’s expedition stops in modern San 
Diego, California. Cautiously, the Kumeyaay briefly contact the 
Spaniards.

November 13, 1785: Federal authorities have tried to gather Creek 
leaders together in Galphinton, Georgia in hopes of solving the land 
grabbing efforts of the State of Georgia and head off Indian retaliatory 
raids. State officials tell Indian leaders the meeting is only to 
confirm the Long Swamp and Augusta Treaties, so only two Chiefs and 
eighty warriors show up. Yesterday, the Federal representatives decided 
that representatives from two villages was not enough to discuss a new 
treaty, so they leave. In their absence, Georgia signs a treaty with Fat 
King and Tallassee King. This treaty ceded more lands between the Oconee 
and Saint Marys Rivers. The Georgia Officials also lie and tell the 
Creeks they are now Georgia citizens. The two Chiefs also agree to 
return runaway slaves. According to Federal Statutes, this treaty is 
illegal.

November 14, 1833: Francis Scott Key reports to President Jackson on the 
Owens Affair. Alabama officials will not let him see their murder 
indictments against the United States Marshal, or the soldiers. State 
officials say their resistance is justified against Federal intrusions 
into State matters.

November 15, 1923: The “Treaty Between His Majesty the King and the 
Mississauga Indians of Rice Lake, Mud Lake, Scugog Lake and Alderville” 
is signed in Canada.

November 16, 1811: According to some sources, Tecumseh predicts a “light 
across the sky” tonight. It is supposed to have appeared, as predicted.

November 17, 1785: The Galphinton treaty is signed. The Creeks are 
represented by Chiefs Tame King and Fat King. The Creeks are plied with 
liquor and they give up lands belonging to the Oconee. The treaty is 
repudiated by the rest of the Creek leaders when they are informed of 
it.

November 18, 1785: Principal Cherokee Chief Old Tassel, and many other 
Cherokees arrive at Hopewell to discuss a treaty with the United States.

November 19, 1868: Near Little Coon Creek, Kansas, one white, and five 
Indians are killed in a fight. Near Fort Dodge, in southwestern Kansas, 
one white, and two Indians are killed, as well. Also near Fort Dodge, 
Sergeant John Wilson, and Troop A, Tenth Cavalry, have a skirmish in 
which two Indians are killed. A half mile from Fort Dodge, Indians 
attempt to stampede a beef contractor's herd. Lieutenant Q. Campbell, 
and troops, pursue the would-be rustlers for seven miles. Three troopers 
are wounded; four Indians are killed, and six wounded.

November 20, 1751: The second Pueblo uprising takes place at Saric, 
Mexico, south west of Nogales, Arizona.. 
     
November 21, 1817: After American forces attacked a fort held by Negro 
allies to the Florida Indians on July 27, 1816, Indians realized they 
need to fight the Americans. The Mikasuki Seminole village of Fowltown 
is located on the banks of the Flint River in Georgia. Fort Scott is on 
the other side of the river. Chief Neamathla (also called Eneah Emathla) 
warns the soldiers in the fort to stay off of the Seminole's side of the 
river. Angered by an "order" from an Indian, 250 troops under Major 
David Twiggs cross the river to arrest the Chief. A fight breaks out, 
and five Seminoles are killed, including one woman. The Seminoles 
evacuate the village and the soldiers burn some of it. This action is 
considered by many to be the start of the First Seminole War. Some 
sources list this as happening on November 20th and 30th.

November 22, 1812: Potawatomi Chief Winamac is killed in fighting with 
Captain Logan (Spemicalawba). One of two Potawatomi Chiefs with the same 
name, he is a principle leader in the attacks on Forts Dearborn and 
Wayne in 1812. The other Winamac is pro-American. 

November 23, 1872: Comanche Ten Bears dies on the reservation. Ten Bears 
represented the Comanches on a visit to Washington, and at many great 
councils.

November 24, 1807: Iroquois leader Joseph Brant dies.

November 25, 1864: During the “Carson Campaign,” the first battle of 
Adobe Walls takes place. On the Canadian River, in the panhandle of 
Texas, Colonel Kit Carson's scouts sight Chief Dohasan's Kiowas-Apache 
village of 176 tipis near Adobe Walls. There are additional Comanche, 
and Kiowas villages further down stream. The soldiers, equipped with two 
howitzers, and their Ute and Jicarilla Apache allies, attack the village 
just after dawn. Other Indians in the villages are One-Eyed Bear, Lean 
Bear, Satanta (perhaps), and Stumbling Bear. The warriors hold their 
group during the cavalry charges, so their women and children can 
escape. Later, the Indians scatter when the howitzers are brought up, 
and fired. Assuming that the Indians have left, the soldiers take their 
horses to feed, and drink. The soldiers dine, as well. About an hour 
later, approximately, 1000 warriors (according to army reports) return. 
The fighting lasts most of the rest of the day. The Indians receive 
reinforcements during the battle, from other nearby villages. Lieutenant 
George Pettis, Company K, First California Infantry, estimates the final 
number of warriors to be near 3000 (this figure can not be confirmed). 
Being outnumbered, Carson decides to retreat just as the Kiowas sets 
fire to the prairie grasses. After spending a day to recover, Carson 
orders a withdrawal to Fort Bascom, in western New Mexico, on the 27th. 
Many sources estimate the number of combatants to be larger that those 
at the Battle of the Little Big Horn. Carson reports only three 
fatalities among his forces, with fifteen wounded. He lists "hostile 
losses at sixty killed, and 150 wounded. His report calls his action a 
"victory."

November 26, 1864: Trader John S. Smith gets permission to visit Black 
Kettle's people on Sand Creek to trade for buffalo hides. Major Scott 
Anthony lets Smith go, along with army Private David Louderback and 
private citizen R.W. Clark, in hopes that this might lull Black Kettle 
into a false sense of security while Chivington prepares for battle. 
When Chivington attacks on the 29th, Smith, called "Gray Blanket" by the 
Arapaho, Private Louderback and Clark are still in the village, and 
barely avoid being killed in the fighting. Smith’s half-breed son is 
killed in the fighting after surrendering to some soldiers.
          
November 27, 1868: This morning before daylight, Osage Indian trackers 
find Black Kettle's camp on the Washita River, in western Oklahoma. 
According to General Sheridan's official report: "Custer, who at once 
made the most admirable dispositions for its attack and capture. At dawn 
a charge is made, the village captured and burned, 800 horses or ponies 
shot, in accordance with positive orders, 103 warriors killed, and 
fifty-three squaws and children captured." Army loses, in the attack on 
the village, are Captain Louis Hamilton, and three soldiers. Nearby 
Cheyenne, Arapaho, Kiowa, and Comanche Indians hear the "battle," and 
come to Custer's position. Custer drives the Indians down the Washita 
for several miles before withdrawing. Major Joel Elliott, Seventh 
Cavalry, a Sergeant Major, and fifteen soldiers, chase a group of young 
boys trying to escape the fight. After capturing the boys, Elliot, and 
his men, are surrounded by superior Indian forces, and are killed to a 
man. Three officers (Captain Albert Barnitz, Captain T.J. March and 
Lt.T.W. Custer) and thirteen soldiers are wounded in the fighting. 
According to Sheridan's report, Custer find conclusive evidence, by way 
of property and a book with illustrations of their acts, that Black 
Kettle's Band are the ones who attacked the Saline and Solomon River 
settlements. The army captures 875 horses, 1123 robes, 535 pounds of 
gunpowder, and 4000 arrows. This is known as the “Battle of the 
Washita,” and the “Washita Massacre.”
   
November 28, 1785: A treaty (7 stat.18) is signed by the Cherokees at 
the Hopewell River. The Cherokees restore all prisoners, whether black 
or white. The United States reciprocates. The Cherokees acknowledge the 
sovereignty of the United States. New boundary lines are drawn. No 
whites may live on Cherokee lands with the tribe's approval. Only the 
United States has the right to regulate trade with the Cherokee. The 
treaty is signed by thirty-seven Indians. 918 other Cherokees attend the 
meetings. They are lead by Principal Chief Old Tassel. The Americans are 
lead by Commissioners Benjamin Hawkins, Andrew Pickens, Joseph Martin 
and Lachlan MacIntosh. This is called the Hopewell Treaty.

November 29, 1691: The Abenaki sign a peace treaty with the British. 
Benjamin Church has been skirmishing with then since September in the 
vicinity of Saco, in southern Maine. The Abenaki agree to a six month 
truce, to release their English prisoners, and to keep the British aware 
of the movements of the French in the area.

November 30, 1952: Charles George, a Cherokee, is a PFC serving in 
Korea. During a battle, a grenade lands among George’s squad. George 
jumps on the grenade, and by absorbing the blast, saves the other 
soldiers’ lives. George is posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.

===============

That’s it for this month’s newsletter. Have a great month.

Phil Konstantin
philkon@rocketmail.com

===============================
End of November 2002 Newsletter
=============================== 

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What happened to a sleepy driver Sleepy Driver My website about NASA & the Space Program The Space Program photos & info of my trip to some ancient ruins in Mexico & Guatemala Ancient Ruins in Central America
photos & info on my trip to some ancient Maya ruins in 2000 Maya Ruins in Mexico My late wife Robyn's page about whales & whale watching Whales Awards this site has received & WebRings to which this site belongs Awards & Webrings
photos & descriptions of the 2001 Cherokee National Holiday in Tahlequah, Oklahoma Cherokee Holiday 2001 a page with basic info for the Cherokee Nation (Oklahoma) Cherokee Enrollment an archive of my past monthly newsletters My Newsletters
places where you can shop to support this site My Store a page about the California Highway Patrol California Highway Patrol locations of 'Indian Era' forts Indian Era Forts
copies of articles I have written Articles I Wrote photos of northwestern USA historical sites & reservations Northwestern USA Indian Country photos of the opening of the National Museum Of The American Indian in Washington, D.C. ( 2004) American Indian Museum in D.C. 2004
reviews of Movies, Books and other things... Movie & Book Reviews photos an info about the guests and happenings at KUSI TV in San Diego KUSI TV, my other job photos of Mesa Verde and Utah in 2006 Mesa Verde and Utah in 2006
My mortgage loan compnay My Mortgage Loan Company photos of the 2006 SDSU powwow 2006 SDSU Powwow  






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