October 2012 Newsletter from
"This Day in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2013)

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Anything above this line is not part of my newsletter.
Phil Konstantin's October 2012 Newsletter


I am on vacation for the first two weeks of October, so this will be an
abbreviated newsletter.

We'll chat in November,



The Link of the Month is:

The Iroquois Book of Rites By Horatio Hale

This is a detailed online text which covers the following subjects:

Chapter I: The Huron-Iroquois Nations
Chapter II: The League and its Founders
Chapter III: The Book of Rites
Chapter IV: The Condoling Council.--Clans and Classes
Chapter V: The Condolence and the Installation
Chapter VI: The Laws of the League
Chapter VII: Historical Traditions
Chapter VIII: The Iroquois Character
Chapter IX: The Iroquois Policy
Chapter X: The Iroquois Language
Ancient Rites of the Condoling Council
Ancient Rites of the Condoling Council
The Book of the Younger Nations
Notes on the Canienga Book
Notes On The Onondaga Book
Note A: The Names of the Iroquois Nations
Note B: Meaning of Ohio, Ontario, Onontio, Rawenniio
Note C: The Era of the Confederacy
Note D: The Hiawatha Myths
Note E: The Iroquois Towns
Note F: The Pre-Aryan Race in Europe and America
Caniega Glossary

You can find the starting page online here:



The Treaty of the Month is the TREATY WITH THE POTAWATOMI - Oct. 2,
1818. (7 Stat., 185)

You can see a transcript of the treaty at this website:


Here are a couple of stories written in the early 1900s by




Once, a long time ago, the antelope and the deer happened to meet on
the prairie. They spoke together, giving each other the news, each
telling what he had seen and done. After they had talked for a time
the antelope told the deer how fast he could run, and the deer said
that he could run fast too, and before long each began to say that
he could run faster than the other. So they agreed that they would
have a race to decide which could run the faster, and on this race
they bet their galls. When they started, the antelope ran ahead of
the deer from the very start and won the race and so took the deer's

But the deer began to grumble and said, "Well, it is true that out
here on the prairie you have beaten me, but this is not where I
live. I only come out here once in a while to feed or to cross the
prairie when I am going somewhere. It would be fairer if we had a
race in the timber. That is my home, and there I can run faster than
you. I am sure of it."

The antelope felt so glad and proud that he had beaten the deer in
the race that he was sure that wherever they might run he could beat
him, so he said, "All right, I will run you a race in the timber. I
have beaten you out here on the flat and I can beat you there." On
this race they bet their dew-claws.

They started and ran this race through the thick timber, among the
bushes, and over fallen logs, and this time the antelope ran slowly,
for he was afraid of hitting himself against the trees or of falling
over the logs. You see, he was not used to this kind of travelling.
So the deer easily beat him and took his dew-claws.

Since that time the deer has had no gall and the antelope no



The chief god of the Blackfeet is the Sun. He made the world and
rules it, and to him the people pray. One of his names is Napi--old
man; but there is another Napi who is very different from the Sun,
and instead of being great, wise, and wonderful, is foolish, mean,
and contemptible. We shall hear about him further on.

Every year in summer, about the time the berries ripen, the
Blackfeet used to hold the great festival and sacrifice which we
call the ceremony of the Medicine Lodge. This was a time of happy
meetings, of feasting, of giving presents; but besides this
rejoicing, those men who wished to have good-luck in whatever they
might undertake tried to prove their prayers sincere by sacrificing
their bodies, torturing themselves in ways that caused great
suffering. In ancient times, as we are told in books of history,
things like that used to happen among many peoples all over the

It was the law that the building of the Medicine Lodge must always
be pledged by a good woman. If a woman had a son or a husband away
at war and feared that he was in danger, or if she had a child that
was sick and might die, she might pray for the safety of the one she
loved, and promise that if he returned or recovered she would build
a Medicine Lodge. This pledge was made in a loud voice, publicly, in
open air, so that all might know the promise had been made.

At the time appointed all the tribe came together and pitched their
lodges in a great circle, and within this circle the Medicine Lodge
was built. The ceremony lasted for four days and four nights, during
which time the woman who had promised to make the Medicine Lodge
neither ate nor drank, except once in sacrifice. Different stories
are told of how the first Medicine Lodge came to be built. This is
one of those stories:

In the earliest times there was a man who had a very beautiful
daughter. Many young men wished to marry her, but whenever she was
asked she shook her head and said she did not wish to marry.

"Why is this?" said her father. "Some of these young men are rich,
handsome, and brave."

"Why should I marry?" replied the girl. "My father and mother take
care of me. Our lodge is good; the parfleches are never empty; there
are plenty of tanned robes and soft furs for winter. Why trouble me,

Soon after, the Raven Bearers held a dance. They all painted
themselves nicely and wore their finest ornaments and each one tried
to dance the best. Afterward some of them asked for this girl, but
she said, "No." After that the Bulls, the Kit-Foxes, and others of
the All Comrades held their dances, and many men who were rich and
some great warriors asked this man for his daughter, but to every
one she said, "No."

Then her father was angry, and he said, "Why is this? All the best
men have asked for you, and still you say 'No.'" Then the girl
said, "Father, listen to me. That Above Person, the Sun, said to me,
'Do not marry any of these men, for you belong to me. Listen to what
I say, and you shall be happy and live to a great age.' And again he
said to me, 'Take heed, you must not marry; you are mine.'"

"Ah!" replied her father; "it must always be as he says"; and they
spoke no more about it.

There was a poor young man. He was very poor. His father, his
mother, and all his relations were dead. He had no lodge, no wife to
tan his robes or make his moccasins. His clothes were always old and
worn. He had no home. To-day he stopped in one lodge; then to-morrow
he ate and slept in another. Thus he lived. He had a good face, but
on his cheek was a bad scar.

After they had held those dances, some of the young men met this
poor Scarface, and they laughed at him and said, "Why do not you ask
that girl to marry you? You are so rich and handsome."

Scarface did not laugh. He looked at them and said, "I will do as
you say; I will go and ask her."

All the young men thought this was funny; they laughed a good deal
at Scarface as he was walking away.

Scarface went down by the river and waited there, near the place
where the women went to get water. By and by the girl came there.
Scarface spoke to her, and said, "Girl, stop; I want to speak with
you. I do not wish to do anything secretly, but I speak to you here
openly, where the Sun looks down and all may see."

"Speak, then," said the girl.

"I have seen the days," said Scarface. "I have seen how you have
refused all those men, who are young and rich and brave. To-day some
of these young men laughed and said to me, 'Why do not you ask her?'
I am poor. I have no lodge, no food, no clothes, no robes. I have no
relations. All of them have died. Yet now to-day I say to you, take
pity. Be my wife."

The girl hid her face in her robe and brushed the ground with the
point of her moccasin, back and forth, back and forth, for she was

After a time she spoke and said, "It is true I have refused all
those rich young men; yet now a poor one asks me, and I am glad. I
will be your wife, and my people will be glad. You are poor, but
that does not matter. My father will give you dogs; my mother will
make us a lodge; my relations will give us robes and furs; you will
no longer be poor."

Then the young man was glad, and he started forward to kiss her, but
she put out her hand and held him back, and said, "Wait; the Sun has
spoken to me. He said I may not marry; that I belong to him; that if
I listen to him I shall live to great age. So now I say, go to the
Sun; say to him, 'She whom you spoke with has listened to your
words; she has never done wrong, but now she wants to marry. I want
her for my wife.' Ask him to take that scar from your face; that
will be his sign, and I shall know he is pleased. But if he refuses,
or if you cannot find his lodge, then do not return to me."

"Oh!" cried Scarface; "at first your words were good. I was glad.
But now it is dark. My heart is dead. Where is that far-off lodge?
Where is the trail that no one yet has travelled?"

"Take courage, take courage," said the girl softly, and she went on
to her lodge.

Scarface was very unhappy. He did not know what to do. He sat down
and covered his face with his robe, and tried to think. At length he
stood up and went to an old woman who had been kind to him, and said
to her, "Pity me. I am very poor. I am going away, on a long
journey. Make me some moccasins."

"Where are you going--far from the camp?" asked the old woman.

"I do not know where I am going," he replied; "I am in trouble, but
I cannot talk about it."

This old woman had a kind heart. She made him moccasins--seven
pairs; and gave him also a sack of food--pemican, dried meat, and
back fat.

All alone, and with a sad heart, Scarface climbed the bluff that
overlooked the valley, and when he had reached the top, turned to
look back at the camp. He wondered if he should ever see it again;
if he should return to the girl and to the people.

"Pity me, O Sun!" he prayed; and turning away, he set off to look
for the trail to the Sun's lodge.

For many days he went on. He crossed great prairies and followed up
timbered rivers, and crossed the mountains. Every day his sack of
food grew lighter, but as he went along he looked for berries and
roots, and sometimes he killed an animal. These things gave him

One night he came to the home of a wolf. "Hah!" said the wolf; "what
are you doing so far from your home?"

"I am looking for the place where the Sun lives," replied Scarface.
"I have been sent to speak with him."

"I have travelled over much country," said the wolf; "I know all the
prairies, the valleys, and the mountains; but I have never seen the
Sun's home. But wait a moment. I know a person who is very wise,
and who may be able to tell you the road. Ask the bear."

The next day Scarface went on again, stopping now and then to rest
and to pick berries, and when night came he was at the bear's lodge.

"Where is your home?" asked the bear. "Why are you travelling so far

"Ah," replied the man, "I have come to you for help. Pity me.
Because of what that girl said to me, I am looking for the Sun. I
wish to ask him for her."

"I do not know where he lives," said the bear. "I have travelled by
many rivers and I know the mountains, yet I have not seen his lodge.
Farther on there is some one--that striped face--who knows a great
deal; ask him."

When the young man got there, the badger was in his hole. But
Scarface called to him, "Oh, cunning striped face! I wish to speak
with you."

The badger put his head out of the hole and said, "What do you want,
my brother?"

"I wish to find the Sun's home," said Scarface. "I wish to speak
with him."

"I do not know where he lives," answered the badger. "I never
travel very far. Over there in the timber is the wolverene. He is
always travelling about, and knows many things. Perhaps he can tell

Scarface went over to the forest and looked all about for the
wolverene, but could not see him; so he sat down on a log to rest.
"Alas, alas!" he cried; "wolverene, take pity on me. My food is
gone, my moccasins are worn out; I fear I shall die."

Some one close to him said, "What is it, my brother?" and looking
around, he saw the wolverene sitting there.

"She whom I wish to marry belongs to the Sun," said Scarface; "I am
trying to find where he lives, so that I may ask him for her."

"Ah," said the wolverene, "I know where he lives. It is nearly night
now, but to-morrow I will show you the trail to the big water. He
lives on the other side of it."

Early in the morning they set out, and the wolverene showed Scarface
the trail, and he followed it until he came to the water's edge.
When he looked out over it, his heart almost stopped. Never before
had any one seen such a great water. The other side could not be
seen and there was no end to it. Scarface sat down on the shore.
This seemed the end. His food was gone; his moccasins were worn out;
he had no longer strength, no longer courage; his heart was sick. "I
cannot cross this great water," he said. "I cannot return to the
people. Here by this water I shall die."

Yet, even as he thought this, helpers were near. Two swans came
swimming up to the shore and said to him, "Why have you come here?
What are you doing? It is very far to the place where your people

"I have come here to die," replied Scarface. "Far away in my country
is a beautiful girl. I want to marry her, but she belongs to the
Sun; so I set out to find him and ask him for her. I have travelled
many days. My food is gone. I cannot go back; I cannot cross this
great water; so I must die."

"No," said the swans; "it shall not be so. Across this water is the
home of that Above Person. Get on our backs, and we will take you

Scarface stood up. Now he felt strong and full of courage. He waded
out into the water and lay down on the swans' backs, and they swam
away. It was a fearful journey, for that water was deep and black,
and in it live strange people and great animals which might reach up
and seize a person and pull him down under the water; yet the swans
carried Scarface safely to the other side. There was seen a broad,
hard trail leading back from the water's edge.

"There," said the swans; "you are now close to the Sun's lodge.
Follow that trail, and soon you will see it."

Scarface started to walk along the trail, and after he had gone a
little way he came to some beautiful things lying in the trail.
There was a war shirt, a shield, a bow, and a quiver of arrows. He
had never seen such fine weapons. He looked at them, but he did not
touch them, and at last walked around them and went on. A little
farther along he met a young man, a very handsome person. His hair
was long; his clothing was made of strange skins, and his moccasins
were sewed with bright feathers.

The young man spoke to him and asked, "Did you see some weapons
lying in the trail?"

"Yes," replied Scarface, "I saw them."

"Did you touch them?" said the young man.

"No," said Scarface; "I supposed some one had left them there, and I
did not touch them."

"You do not meddle with the property of others," said the young man.
"What is your name, and where are you going?" Scarface told him.
Then said the young man, "My name is Early Riser (the morning star).
The Sun is my father. Come, I will take you to our lodge. My father
is not at home now, but he will return at night."

At length they came to the lodge. It was large and handsome, and on
it were painted strange medicine animals. On a tripod behind the
lodge were the Sun's weapons and his war clothing. Scarface was
ashamed to go into the lodge, but Morning Star said, "Friend, do not
be afraid; we are glad you have come."

When they went in a woman was sitting there, the Moon, the Sun's
wife and the mother of Morning Star. She spoke to Scarface kindly
and gave him food to eat, and when he had eaten she asked, "Why have
you come so far from your people?"

So Scarface told her about the beautiful girl that he wished to
marry and said, "She belongs to the Sun. I have come to ask him for

When it was almost night, and time for the Sun to come home, the
Moon hid Scarface under a pile of robes. As soon as the Sun got to
the doorway he said, "A strange person is here."

"Yes, father," said Morning Star, "a young man has come to see you.
He is a good young man, for he found some of my things in the trail
and did not touch them."

Scarface came out from under the robes and the Sun entered the lodge
and sat down. He spoke to Scarface and said, "I am glad you have
come to our lodge. Stay with us as long as you like. Sometimes my
son is lonely. Be his friend."

The next day the two young men were talking about going hunting and
the Moon spoke to Scarface and said, "Go with my son where you
like, but do not hunt near that big water. Do not let him go there.
That is the home of great birds with long, sharp bills. They kill
people. I have had many sons, but these birds have killed them all.
Only Morning Star is left."

Scarface stayed a long time in the Sun's lodge, and every day went
hunting with Morning Star. One day they came near the water and saw
the big birds.

"Come on," said Morning Star, "let us go and kill those birds."

"No, no," said Scarface, "we must not go there. Those are terrible
birds; they will kill us."

Morning Star would not listen. He ran toward the water and Scarface
ran after him, for he knew that he must kill the birds and save the
boy's life. He ran ahead of Morning Star and met the birds, which
were coming to fight, and killed every one of them with his spear;
not one was left. The young men cut off the heads of the birds and
carried them home, and when Morning Star's mother heard what they
had done, and they showed her the birds' heads, she was glad. She
cried over the two young men and called Scarface "My son," and when
the Sun came home at night she told him about it, and he too was

"My son," he said to Scarface, "I will not forget what you have this
day done for me. Tell me now what I can do for you; what is your

"Alas, alas!" replied Scarface, "Pity me. I came here to ask you for
that girl. I want to marry her. I asked her and she was glad, but
she says that she belongs to you, and that you told her not to

"What you say is true," replied the Sun. "I have seen the days and
all that she has done. Now I give her to you. She is yours. I am
glad that she has been wise, and I know that she has never done
wrong. The Sun takes care of good women; they shall live a long
time, and so shall their husbands and children.

"Now, soon you will go home. I wish to tell you something and you
must be wise and listen. I am the only chief; everything is mine; I
made the earth, the mountains, the prairies, the rivers, and the
forests; I made the people and all the animals. This is why I say
that I alone am chief. I can never die. It is true the winter makes
me old and weak, but every summer I grow young again.

"What one of all the animals is the smartest?" the Sun went on. "It
is the raven, for he always finds food; he is never hungry. Which
one of all the animals is the most to be reverenced? It is the
buffalo; of all the animals I like him best. He is for the people;
he is your food and your shelter. What part of his body is sacred?
It is the tongue; that belongs to me. What else is sacred? Berries.
They too are mine. Come with me now and see the world."

The Sun took Scarface to the edge of the sky and they looked down
and saw the world. It is flat and round, and all around the edge it
goes straight down. Then said the Sun, "If any man is sick or in
danger his wife may promise to build me a lodge if he recovers. If
the woman is good, then I shall be pleased and help the man; but if
she is not good, or if she lies, then I shall be angry. You shall
build the lodge like the world, round, with walls, but first you
must build a sweat-lodge of one hundred sticks. It shall be arched
like the sky, and one-half of it shall be painted red for me, the
other half you shall paint black for the night." He told Scarface
all about making the Medicine Lodge, and when he had finished
speaking, he rubbed some medicine on the young man's face and the
scar that had been there disappeared. He gave him two raven
feathers, saying: "These are a sign for the girl that I give her to
you. They must always be worn by the husband of the woman who builds
a Medicine Lodge."

Now Scarface was ready to return home. The Sun and Morning Star gave
him many good presents; the Moon cried and kissed him and was sorry
to see him go. Then the Sun showed him the short trail. It was the
Wolf Road--the Milky Way. He followed it and soon reached the

       *       *       *       *       *

It was a very hot day. All the lodge skins were raised and the
people sat in the shade. There was a chief, a very generous man,
who all day long was calling out for feasts, and people kept coming
to his lodge to eat and smoke with him. Early in the morning this
chief saw sitting on a butte near by a person close-wrapped in his
robe. All day long this person sat there and did not move. When it
was almost night the chief said, "That person has sat there all day
in the strong heat, and he has not eaten nor drunk. Perhaps he is a
stranger. Go and ask him to come to my lodge."

Some young men ran up to the person and said to him, "Why have you
sat here all day in the great heat? Come to the shade of the lodges.
The chief asks you to eat with him." The person rose and threw off
his robe and the young men were surprised. He wore fine clothing;
his bow, shield, and other weapons were of strange make; but they
knew his face, although the scar was gone, and they ran ahead,
shouting, "The Scarface poor young man has come. He is poor no
longer. The scar on his face is gone."

All the people hurried out to see him and to ask him questions.
"Where did you get all these fine things?" He did not answer. There
in the crowd stood that young woman, and, taking the two raven
feathers from his head, he gave them to her and said, "The trail was
long and I nearly died, but by those helpers I found his lodge. He
is glad. He sends these feathers to you. They are the sign."

Great was her gladness then. They were married and made the first
Medicine Lodge, as the Sun had said. The Sun was glad. He gave them
great age. They were never sick. When they were very old, one
morning their children called to them, "Awake, rise and eat." They
did not move.

In the night, together, in sleep, without pain, their shadows had
departed to the Sandhills.


And a few stories from Pawnee Hero Stories and Folk-Tales


The Peace-Maker.


Many years ago there lived in the Ski'-di village a young man, about
sixteen years old. His name was _Kut-a'wi-kutz_ (the hawk). At this
time the Pawnees wore their hair in the ancient fashion, cut as the
Osages wear theirs; the whole head was shaved except a roach running
back from the forehead beyond the scalp lock.

A war party went off to the south and he joined them as a servant.
They went a long way and a long way, traveling far, but they got no
horses and came back. Afterward another party started off on the
warpath, and he went with it. They traveled many days, going to the
southwest, and at length they came to a camp, and hid themselves to
wait until it was dark. It was a camp of the Comanches.

When night had come they all went into the camp to steal horses. This
young man went to a lodge near which stood three horses, two spotted
horses and one gray. They were tied near the door of the lodge, and
from this he thought they must be fast, for the Indians usually tie up
their best horses close to the lodge door, where they will be under
their eyes as much as possible. He went to the lodge to cut the ropes,
and just as he was about to do so he thought he heard some one inside.
He stepped up close to the lodge, and looked in through a little
opening between the door and the lodge, and saw a small fire burning,
and on the other side of the fire was sitting a young girl, combing
her long hair. The young man looked around the lodge to see who else
was there, and saw only an old man and an old woman, and the
fire-maker. He cut the ropes of the two spotted horses standing
outside, led the horses out of the camp, and met his companion. To him
he said, "Now, brother, you take these horses and go to the hill where
we were hiding to-day, and wait for me there. I have seen another fine
spotted horse that I want to get; I will go back for it and will meet
you before morning at that place."

He went back, as if to get the spotted horse, but returned to the
lodge where the girl was. He went all around it, and looked at it
carefully. He saw that there were feathers on the lodge, and rows of
animals hoofs hanging down the sides, which rattled in the wind, and
to one of the lodge-poles was tied a buffalo tail, which hung down.
Then he went back to the door and looked in at the girl again. She had
braided her hair and was sitting there by the fire. He stayed there a
long time that night looking at her. Toward morning he went to look
for his companion. When he met him he told him that some one had taken
the spotted horse before he got to it; he could not find it. When the
party all met next morning, they found that they had taken a lot of
horses, and they started north to go home. They reached the Pawnee
village, and every one was glad of their success.

After this, whenever this young man saw anything that was nice or
pretty, such as medals, ear-rings, finger rings for women, beadwork
leggings, bracelets, necklaces, wampum, beads--things that the
Comanches did not have--he would give a pony for it. For one year he
went on like this, gathering together these pretty things. When the
year had gone by he had no horses left; he had given them all away to
get these presents. He packed all these things up in a bundle, and
then spoke one night to his friend, saying, "I intend to go off on the
warpath again, and I would like to have you go with me; we two will go
alone." His friend agreed to go.


Before the time came to start, other young men heard of it, and
several joined them. There were eight of them in all. _Kut-a'wi-kutz_
was the leader. He told his young men that they were going to a
certain place where he knew there were lots of spotted horses to
steal. They started out on foot. After traveling many days, they came
to the place where the camp had been at the time he saw the girl.
There was now no camp there.

They went on further, and at length came to a camp and hid themselves.
When night came the leader told his men to remain where they were
hiding, and he would go into the camp and see if there were any horses
to take. He went through all the camp looking for the lodge in which
he had seen the girl, but he did not find it. Then he went back to
where the young men were hiding, and told them that this was not the
camp they were looking for; that they did not have here the spotted
horses that they wanted. In the camp of the year before there had been
many spotted horses.

The young men did not understand this, and some of them did not like
to leave this camp without taking any horses, but he was the leader
and they did as he said. They left that camp and went on further.

After traveling some days they came to another camp, and hid themselves
near it. When night came on _Kut-a'wi-kutz_ said to his young men, "You
stay here where you are hiding, and I will go into this camp and see if
it is the one we are looking for." He went through the camp but did not
find the lodge he sought. He returned to the hiding place, and told the
party there that this was not the camp they were looking for, that the
spotted horses were not there. They left the camp and went on.

When they had come close to the mountains they saw another camp.
_Kut-a'wi-kutz_ went into this camp alone, and when he had been
through it, he went back to his party and told them that this was the
camp they had been looking for. Then he sent the young men into the
camp to steal horses, and he put on his fine leggings and moccasins
that he had in his bundle, and painted himself and went with them. He
took a horse and his friend took one. They met outside the village. He
told his friend to get on his own horse and lead the other, and with
the rest of the party to go off east from the camp to a certain place,
and there to wait for him. "I have seen," he said, "another fine horse
that I like, and I wish to go back and get it."

His friend looked sorrowfully at him and said, "Why are you all
dressed up like this, and why is your face painted? What are you doing
or what is in your mind? Perhaps you intend to do some great thing
to-night that you do not want me, your friend, to know about. I have
seen for a long time that you are hiding something from me."

_Kut-a'wi-kutz_ caught his friend in his arms and hugged him and
kissed him and said, "You are my friend; who is so near to me as you
are? Go on as I have said, and if it turns out well I will tell you
all. I will catch up with you before very long."

His friend said, "No, I will stay with you. I will not go on. I love
you as a brother, and I will stay with you, and if you are going to do
some great thing I will die with you."

When _Kut-a'wi-kutz_ found that his friend was resolved to remain
with him, he yielded and told him his secret. He said to him, "My
brother, when we were on the warpath a year ago, and I took those two
spotted horses, I heard a little noise in the lodge by which they were
tied. I looked in and I saw there a girl sitting by the fire combing
her hair. She was very pretty. When I took the spotted horses away, I
could not put that girl out of my mind. I remembered her. Brother,
when we went back home that girl was constantly in my mind. I could
not forget her. I came this time on purpose to get her, even if it
shall cost me my life. She is in this camp, and I have found the lodge
where she lives."

His friend said, "My brother, whatever you say shall be done. I stay
with you. You go into the camp. I will take the horses and go to that
high rocky hill east of the camp, and will hide the horses there. When
you are in the village I will be up in one of the trees on the top of
the hill, looking down on the camp. If I hear shooting and see lots of
people running to the lodge I will know that you are killed, and I
will kill myself. I will not go home alone. If I do not see you by
noon, I will kill myself."

_Kut-a'wi-kutz_ said, "It is good. If I am successful I will go up
there after you, and take you down into the camp."

They parted. The friend hid the horses and went up on the hill.
_Kut-a'wi-kutz_ went into the camp.


It was now the middle of the night. When he came to the lodge, he saw
there was a fire in it. He did not go in at once; he wanted the fire
to go out. He stayed around the lodge, and gradually the fire died
down. It was dark. He went into the lodge. He was painted and finely
dressed, and had his bundle with him. He took his moccasins off and
his leggings, and hung them up over the girl's bed; then strings of
beads, then five or six medals, bracelets, ear-bobs, beaded leggings,
everything he had--his shirt. He took his blanket, and spread it over
the bed where the girl was lying, stepped over the bed, and crept
under his own blanket, and lay down by her side.

When he lay down she woke up, and found that there was some one lying
by her, and she spoke to him, but he did not answer. He could not
understand her, for he did not know Comanche. She talked for a long
time, but he did not speak. Then she began to feel of him, and when
she put her hands on his head--_Pi-ta'-da_--Pawnee--an enemy! Then she
raised herself up, took a handful of grass from under the bed, spread
the fire and put the grass on it. The fire blazed up and she saw him.
Then she sprang up and took the top blanket, which was his, off the
bed, and put it about her, and sat by the fire. She called her father
and said, "Father get up; there is a man here."

The old man got up, and got his pipe and began smoking. This old man
was the Head Chief of the Comanches. He called the servant, and told
him to make a fire. The girl got up and went over to where her mother
was lying and called her. The mother got up; and they all sat by the

The old man smoked for a long time. Every now and then he would look
at the bed to see who it could be that was lying there, and then he
would look at all the things hanging up over the bed--at the medals
and other things. He did not know what they were for, and he wondered.
At length the old man told the servant to go and call the chiefs of
the tribe, and tell them to come to his lodge.

Presently the chiefs came in one by one and sat down. When they had
come there was still one brave who ought to have come that was not
there. His name was Skin Shirt; the father wanted him. He sent for him
three times. He sent word back to the chief to go on with the council,
and that he would agree to whatever they decided. The fourth time he
was sent for he came, and took a seat by the chief, the girl's father.
This brave spoke to _Kut-a'wi-kutz_, and told him to get up, and take
a seat among them. He did so. The girl was sitting on the other side
of the fire. When he got up, he had to take the blanket that was left,
which was the girl's. He put it around him, and sat down among them.

When the chiefs came in, there was among them a Pawnee who had been
captured long ago and adopted by the Comanches, and was now himself a
chief; he talked with _Kut-a'wi-kutz_ and interpreted for him, telling
him everything that was said as each one spoke.

After the young man had seated himself, the chief filled his pipe, and
gave the pipe to his brave to decide what should be done with this
enemy. The brave took the pipe, but he did not wish to decide, so he
did not light it, but passed it on to another chief to decide. He
passed it on to another, and he to another, and so it went until the
pipe came back to the Head Chief. When he got it again, he asked
_Kut-a'wi-kutz_, "Why have you come here this night and lain down in
my lodge, you who are an enemy to my people? And why have you hung up
in the lodge all these strange things which we see here? I do not
understand it, and I wish to know your reasons."

The boy said to him, "A long time ago I came south on the warpath to
steal horses. I traveled until I came to your camp. I saw three horses
tied outside a lodge, two spotted horses and a gray. While I was
cutting one of the ropes, I heard a little noise inside the lodge, and
pushing aside the door I looked in, and saw that girl combing her
hair. I stole the two spotted horses, and took them out of the camp,
and gave them to a friend of mine, and came back to your lodge, and
kept looking at the girl. I stayed there until she went to bed. For a
long year I have been buying presents; beads and many other things,
for I had made up my mind that I would go after this girl. I came down
here to find her. I have been to where you were camped last year, and
to two other camps that I discovered. She was not in these and I left
them, and came on until I found the right camp. This is the fourth
place. Now I am here. I made up my mind to do this thing, and if her
relations do not like it they can do as they please. I would be happy
to die on her account."

When he had spoken the old chief laughed. He said: "Those two spotted
horses that you stole I did not care much about. The gray horse was
the best one of the three, and you left him. I was glad that you did
not take him. He was the best of all." Then for a little while there
was silence in the lodge.

Then the chief, the girl's father, began to talk again; he said, "If I
wanted to decide what should be done with this man, I would decide
right now, but here is my brave, Skin Shirt, I want him to decide. If
I were to decide, it would be against this man, but he has my
daughter's blanket on, and she has his, and I do not want to decide. I
pass the pipe to my brave, and want him to light it."

The brave said, "I want this chief next to me to decide," and he
passed him the pipe, and so it went on around the circle until it came
to the Head Chief again. He was just about to take it and decide the
question, when they heard outside the lodge the noise made by some one
coming, shouting and laughing; then the door was pushed aside and an
old man came in, and as he passed the door he stumbled and fell on
his knees. It was the girl's grandfather. He had been outside the
lodge, listening.

The pipe was passed to the chief, and he gave it again to his brave to
decide. While the brave was sitting there, holding the pipe, the old
grandfather said, "Give me the pipe, if you men cannot decide, let me
do it. In my time we did not do things this way. I never passed the
pipe; I could always decide for myself."

Then Skin Shirt passed him the pipe, and he lit it and smoked. Then he
said, "I do not wish to condemn to death a man who is wearing my
granddaughter's blanket." The interpreter began to tell
_Kut-a'wi-kutz_ that the old man was going to decide in his favor, and
that when he got through speaking he must get up and pass his hands
over him, and thank him for taking pity on him, and so to all the
others. The old man continued, "Now, chiefs, do not think hardly of
what I am going to say, nor be dissatisfied with my decision. I am
old. I have heard in my time that there is a tribe up north that is
raising from the ground something that is long and white, and
something that is round; and that these things are good to eat. Now,
chiefs, before I die, I want to eat of these things, and I want my
granddaughter to go and take her seat by this man, and for them to be
man and wife. Since I was young we have been enemies, but now I want
the two tribes to come together, join hands and be friends." And so it
was decided.

The young man got up and passed his hands over the old man, and over
the brave, and passed around the circle and blessed them all. The
Pawnee, who was interpreter, now told him to get up, and get a medal
and put it on the brave, and then another and put it on the chief, and
so on until all the presents were gone. And he did so, and put on them
the medals, and ear-rings, and strings of beads, and breast-plates of
wampum, until each had something. And these things were new to them,
and they felt proud to be wearing them, and thought how nice they


By this time it was daylight, and it had got noised abroad through the
camp that there was a Pawnee at the Head Chief's lodge, and all the
people gathered there. They called out, "Bring him out; we want him
out here." They crowded about the lodge, all the people, the old men
and the women and the young men, so many that at last they pushed the
lodge down. They shouted: "Let us have the Pawnee. Last night they
stole many horses from us." The chiefs and braves got around the
Pawnee, and kept the Comanches off from him, and protected him from
the people. The Cheyennes were camped close by, near the hill
southeast of the Comanches, and they, too, had heard that the
Comanches had a Pawnee in the camp. They came over, and rode about in
the crowd to try and get the Pawnee, and they rode over a Comanche or
two, and knocked them down. So Skin Shirt got his bow and arrows, and
jumped on his horse, and rode out and drove the Cheyennes away back to
their camp again.

The Cheyennes saw that the Comanches did not want the Pawnee killed,
so they sent a message inviting him over to a feast with them,
intending to kill him, but Skin Shirt told them that he was married
into the tribe. While the Cheyennes were parading round the Comanche
camp, they were shooting off their guns in the air, just to make a
noise. Now, the young Pawnee on the hill, who was watching the camp to
see what would happen to his friend, saw the crowd and heard the
shooting, and made up his mind that _Kut-a'wi-kutz_ had been killed.
So he took his knife, and put the handle against a tree and the point
against his breast, and put his arms around the tree and hugged it,
and the knife blade passed through his heart and he fell down and

In the afternoon when all the excitement had quieted down, the
Cheyennes came over again to the Comanche camp, and invited the Pawnee
and his wife to go to their village, and visit with them. Then Skin
Shirt said, "All right, we will go." Three chiefs of the Comanches
went ahead, the Pawnee followed with his wife, and Skin Shirt went
behind. They went to the Cheyenne camp. The Cheyennes received them
and made a great feast for them, and gave the Pawnee many horses. Then
they went back to the Comanche camp. _Kut-a'wi-kutz_ never went up to
the hill until the next morning. Then he went, singing the song he had
told his friend he would sing. He called to him, but there was no
reply. He called again. It was all silent. He looked for his friend,
and at last he found him there dead at the foot of the tree.


_Kut-a'wi-kutz_ then stayed with the Comanches. The Cheyennes came
north and east, and the Comanches went on west, nearer to the
mountains. While the Pawnee was with the Comanches, they had several
wars with the Utes, Lipans and Tonkaways. _Kut-a'wi-kutz_ proved
himself a brave man, and, as the son-in-law of the chief, he soon
gained great influence, and was himself made a chief.

After some years the old man, his wife's grandfather, told the Pawnee
that he thought it was time that he should eat some of those things
that he had long wanted to eat that grew up north; that he was getting
pretty old now. _Kut-a'wi-kutz_ said, "It is time. We will go." So he
had his horses packed, and with his immediate family and the old man,
started north toward the Pawnee country. At this time he was called
_Kut-a'wi-kutz-u si-ti'-da-rit_, which means "See! The Hawk." When
going into battle he would ride straight out to strike his enemy, and
the Comanches who were looking at him would say, "See! The Hawk." So
that became his name.

They traveled a long time until they came to the Pawnee ground. As
they were traveling along, they came to a field where were growing
corn, beans and squashes. The Pawnee said to the old man,
"Grandfather, look at that field. There are the things that you have
desired to eat." He got off his horse and went into the field, and
pulled some corn, some beans and some squashes, and took them to the
old man, and gave them to him. The old man supposed they were to be
eaten just as they were, and he tried to bite the squashes. This made
the Pawnee laugh. When they came to the village, the Pawnees were very
glad to see him who had been lost long ago. He told the people that he
had brought these Indians to eat of the corn and other things; that
they were his kinsfolk. He told them, too, about the young man who had
killed himself. His relations went out into the fields, and gathered
corn and beans and squashes, and cooked them for the Comanches.

They stayed there a long time at the Pawnee village. When they were
getting ready to return, the Pawnees dried their corn, and gave a
great deal of it to the Comanches, packing many horses with it for the
Indians at home. Then the Comanches started south again, and some of
the Pawnee young men, relations of _Kut-a'wi-kutz_, joined him, and
went back with them. After they had returned to the Comanche camp, the
old grandfather died, happy because he had eaten the things he wanted
to eat.

Soon after this, _Kut-a'wi-kutz_ started back to the Pawnee village,
and some young men of the Comanches joined him. Some time after
reaching the village he went south again, accompanied by some young
Pawnees, but leaving most of the Comanches behind. He had arranged
with the chiefs of the Pawnees that they should journey south, meet
the Comanches on the plains and make peace. When he reached the
Comanches, the whole village started north to visit the Pawnees, and
met them on their way south. When they met, the two tribes made
friends, smoked together, ate together, became friends.

After they had camped together for some time, some Comanches stayed in
the Pawnee camp, and some Pawnees in the Comanche camp.
_Kut-a'wi-kutz_ was called by the Pawnees Comanche Chief. He would
have remained with the Comanches, but when he went back with them his
wife fell sick. The Comanche doctors could not help her, and he wanted
to take her north to see the Pawnee doctors, but the Comanches would
not let him. They kept him there, and his wife died. Then he was
angry, for he thought if he had taken her north her life might have
been saved.

So he left the Comanches, and went and lived with the Pawnees, and was
known among them always as Comanche Chief, the Peace-Maker, because he
made peace between the Pawnees and Comanches. He was chief of the
Ski'-di band, and a progressive man of modern times. He sent his
children East to school at Carlisle, Pa.

Comanche Chief died September 9th, 1888.



Most of the Pawnee heroes are so regarded because of victories, daring
deeds, the _coups_ they have counted and the horses they have stolen.
The glory of Comanche Chief and of Lone Chief depends mainly on their
bravery, rather than on the fact that they were peace-makers. Yet
there should be room among these stories for the account of an
educated Pawnee--a brave--who by his wise counsel to an Indian of a
hostile tribe saved many lives, both of Indians and of white men.
Little Warrior was educated at a Western college, but has shown his
bravery on the field of battle, and has sacrificed a scalp to

In the year 1879, at the time of the Ute outbreak, after Major
Thornburgh's command had been annihilated, Little Warrior was employed
as a scout for the troops. On the headwaters of the Arkansas River he
was one day scouting in advance of the command, in company with four
white soldiers and four Indian scouts. One day, the party saw far off
on the prairie an Indian, who showed a white flag, and came toward
them. When he had come near to them, the soldiers proposed to kill
him, and report that he was a Ute, one of the Indians that they were
looking for. But Little Warrior said, "No. He has a white flag up, and
it may be that he is carrying a dispatch, or, perhaps, he is a white
man disguised as an Indian."

When the man had come close to them, they saw that he was dressed like
a Comanche; he did not have the bristling fringe of hair over the
forehead that the Utes wear, and his side locks were unbraided. Little
Warrior asked him, by signs, if he was alone, to which he replied in
the same language that he was alone. Then Little Warrior inquired who
he was. The stranger made the sign for Comanche--a friendly tribe.

They took him into the camp, and after a while Little Warrior began to
talk to him in Comanche. He could not understand a word of it.

Then the Pawnee said to him, "My friend, you are a Ute." The stranger
acknowledged that he was.

Then Little Warrior talked to him, and gave him much good advice. He
said, "My friend, you and I have the same skin, and what I tell you
now is for your good. I speak to you as a friend, and what I say to
you now is so that you may save your women and your children. It is of
no use for you to try to fight the white people. I have been among
them, and I know how many they are. They are like the grass. Even if
you were to kill a hundred it would be nothing. It would be like
burning up a few handfuls of prairie grass. There would be just as
many left. If you try to fight them they will hunt you like a ghost.
Wherever you go they will follow after you, and you will get no rest.
The soldiers will be continually on your tracks. Even if you were to
go up on top of a high mountain, where there was nothing but rocks,
and where no one else could come, the soldiers would follow you, and
get around you, and wait, and wait, even for fifty years. They would
have plenty to eat, and they could wait until after you were dead.
There is one white man who is the chief of all this country, and what
he says must be done. It is no use to fight him.

"Now if you are wise you will go out and get all your people, and
bring them in, on to the reservation, and give yourself up. It will be
better for you in the end. I speak to you as a friend, because we are
both the same color, and I hope that you will listen to my words."

The Ute said, "My friend, your words are good, and I thank you for the
friendly advice you have given me. I will follow it and will agree to
go away and bring in my people."

Little Warrior said, "How do you make a promise?"

The Ute said, "By raising the right hand to one above."

Little Warrior said, "That is the custom also among my people."

The Ute raised his hand and made the promise.

After he had been detained two or three weeks, he was allowed to go,
and about a month afterward, he brought in the band of which he was
chief, and surrendered. Through his influence afterward, the whole
tribe came in and gave themselves up. He was grateful to Little
Warrior for what he had done for him, and told him that if he ever
came back into his country he would give him many ponies.



A Pawnee boy went to the Comanche village after horses. At night he
went into the camp, crept to the door of a lodge, and took a horse
that was tied there. It was bright moonlight, and as he was cutting
the rope he saw, hanging before the lodge, a handsome shield and a
spear, which he took. There was also a bundle hanging there. He took
this down, opened it, and found in it a war bonnet, beaded moccasins
and leggings, and a breast-plate of long beads. He dressed himself in
all these fine things, mounted the horse and rode away.


Here are some random historical events for October:

October 1, 1800: The San Ildefonso Treaty is signed today.
A secret part of this treaty signed by France and Spain is
for Spain to return the lands in Louisiana west of the
Mississippi River to France.

October 2, 1818: Lewis Cass, Jonathan Jennings, and Benjamin
Parke, representing the United States, sign a treaty with the
POTAWATOMI & WEA Indians today on the St.Mary's River on the
Indiana-Ohio border. The tribe will exchange vast holdings
in Indiana for an annual payment of $2,500.

October 3, 1873: Captain Jack is hanged today for his part
in the MODOC War.

October 4, 1878: Dull Knife, and his band of Northern CHEYENNE,
cross the Union Pacific line at Alkali station, Nebraska.
Stationed in Fort Sidney, in western Nebraska, Major T.T.
Thornburgh, and 140 soldiers, board a waiting train in an
attempt to catch up to Dull Knife.

October 5, 1813: Near the Thames River in Canada, today,
American forces, led by General William Henry Harrison, and
British-Indian forces, led by Henry Proctor and Tecumseh,
will fight a decisive battle. Harrison's forces were much
stronger. Setting up an ambush, the British and the Indians
forces took up different positions. When Harrison's forces
attacked the 700 British soldiers, they caved in almost
immediately. Tecumseh's Indians, fighting in a swamp, held
out until Tecumseh was killed. At the end of the fighting,
600 British were captured, 18 were killed. Thirty-three
Indians were killed, while none were captured. The American
forces lost 18 men, as well.

October 6, 1774: In what would be called Lord Dunmore's War,
Virginia Governor, John Murray, the Earl of Dunmore will
authorize an Army of Virginians to go into SHAWNEE territory,
despite the royal proclamation of October 7th, 1763, which
prohibited European settlements west of the Appalachian
Mountains. Dunmore had granted lands to veterans in the
prohibited area, and he planned on helping them get it.
Today around 800 SHAWNEEs, under Chief Cornstalk, will
attack Dunmore's force of 850 men at Point Pleasant, in
present day western West Virginia, on the Ohio and Kanawha
Rivers. The fighting would last all day. Both sides would
suffer numerous casualties. Cornstalk would lose the battle,
and eventually sign a peace treaty with the Virginians.

October 7, 1759: Last year, TAWEHASH Indians helped to
destroy the Spanish Mission of San Saba de la Santa Cruz
in east Texas. The Spanish have finally gathered a punative
expedition, leading 1,000 Spanish and pro-Spanish Indians,
Diego Ortiz Parrilla will attack the TAWEHASH village today.
With their allies the COMANCHEs and the TAWAKONIs, the
TAWEHASH fight back. The TAWEHASH will win the day, and
force the retreat of the Spanish allied forces, killing as
many as 100 men in the process.

October 8, 1779: El Mocho was an APACHE; but, he was
captured by the TONKAWAs. His bravery and natural leadership
abilities, eventually led the TONKAWAs to make him their
Principal Chief. Today, he will meet with Spanish Governor
Athanase de Mezieres in San Antonio. They will sign a peace
treaty; and, El Mocho (Spanish for mutilated) will be
honored with a Medal of Honor. The peace would only last
for a few years.

October 9, 1978: The CHEROKEE Tribal Council adopts an
official flag, designed by Stanley John, today.

October 10, 1540: Today, de Soto enters a village called
Athahachi. Here he will meet the village chief, Tascaluca.
Tascaluca will be taken as a hostage by de Soto to insure the
cooperation of the Chief's followers.

October 11, 1874: Satanta has become despondent about his
life-term in the Huntsville, Texas, prison. He has slashed
his wrists trying to kill himself, but he is unsuccessful.
He will be admitted to the prison hospital. Today, Satanta
will jump from a second floor balcony. He will land head
first, and die.

October 12, 1833: Captain John Page leaves Choctaw Agency,
Mississippi with 1000 CHOCTAW for the Indian Territory.
Many of the CHOCTAW are old, lane, blind, or sick.

October 13, 1864: Little Buffalo, with 700 of his fellow
COMANCHEs, and KIOWAs, launched a series of raids along
Elm Creek, ten miles from the Brazos River, in north-western
Texas, today. Sixteen Texans and perhaps, twenty Indians
will be killed in the fighting with the settlers, and the
Rangers, in the area.

October 14, 1880: Victorio's APACHEs are attacked by the
Mexican army near Tres Castillos, in Chihuahua, Mexico.
Victorio will be shot, and killed by a Mexican sharpshooter.
Many of his followers will be killed, as well. The Mexicans
will report killing seventy-eight men, and capturing
sixty-eight women and children.

October 15, 1876: Lt.Col. E.S.Otis' force of 237 soldiers,
and 96 wagons of supplies for the soldiers at the mouth of
the Tongue River, are attacked again on Spring Creek. This
time the Indians are approximately 800 strong, according to
Army reports. A running battle continues. The Indians will
send numerous sorties against the wagons. They will also
set fire to the prairie grass, forcing the wagons to drive
through the flames. Several people will be killed and wounded
on both sides.

October 16, 1837: After having fought for the government
in the SEMINOLE Wars, Jim Boy "Tustennuggee Emathla", a
CREEK leader, and some other CREEK Chiefs, arrive in New
Orleans today, en route to the Indian Territory.

October 17, 1863: Kit Carson has been conducting a campaign
against the NAVAJOs who have not reported to their assigned
reservation. This will be called the Canyon de Chelly
Campaign. Carson will effect a scorched earth policy, trying
to starve the NAVAJOs into submission. Today, 2 NAVAJOs will
appear at Fort Wingate, in western New Mexico, under a flag
of truce. One of the two is El Sordo, brother to NAVAJO
leaders Barboncito, and Delgadito. He will propose that the
NAVAJOs live next to the fort, so the soldiers can keep an
eye on them at all times. They still do not wish to move
away from their homelands to the Bosque Redondo Reservation.
The Army will turn down the proposal, and insist the NAVAJOs
go to the reservation.

October 18, 1820: Today, a treaty will be negotiated between
Andrew Jackson and the CHOCTAWs. The CHOCTAWs will give up
lands in Mississippi for land in western Arkansas. Part of
the lands that Jackson promised to the Indians belonged to
Spain, or were already settled by Europeans. This would be
called the Treaty of Doak's Stand. Chief Pushmataha will be
one of the signers.

October 19, 1841: Today, TALLAHASSEE SEMINOLE Chief Tiger
Tail (Thlocko Tustennuggee) will surrender to American forces
based on the intervention of SEMINOLE Chief Alligator
(Hallpatter Tustennuggee). In only 3 months, though, Tiger
Tail will escape from government detention in Fort Brooke.

October 20, 1832: Marks Crume, John Davis, and Jonathan
Jennings, representing the United States, and POTAWATOMI
Indians sign a treaty today at Tippecanoe. The Indians will
give up lands near Lake Michigan for $15,000 a year, debt
relief, and for supplies.

October 21, 1867: (through October 28th) Today starts the
biggest US-Indian conference ever held. The conference was
held near Fort Dodge, Kansas near what was called Medicine
Lodge Creek. The name came from a KIOWA "medicine lodge"
which was still standing from a recent KIOWA "sun dance"
ceremony. Of the KIOWA & COMANCHE treaty, some KIOWA signers
were: Satanta, Satank, Black Bird, Kicking Bird, & Lone Bear.
(15 stat. 589)

October 22, 1859: Today, the "Camp on Pawnee Fork", which
will eventually become Fort Larned, is established in Kansas.
The military base is established to protect travelers on the
Santa Fe Trail from "hostile Indians." The fort will be
abandoned almost 20 years later.

October 23, 1874: This morning, a bunch of SIOUX take axes
to the stripped tree that Red Cloud Agency Agent J.J.
Saville has planned as a flagpole. The Indians do not want
a flag on their reservation. When Saville gets no help in
stopping the choppers from Indian leaders, he sends a worker
to get help from Fort Robinson, in northwest Nebraska. As
the two dozen soldiers from the fort are riding toward the
agency, a large group of angry SIOUX surrounds them. They
try to instigate a fight. Suddenly, the SIOUX police, led
by Young Man Afraid of His Horses, ride up and form a cordon
around the soldiers. The SIOUX police will escort the
soldiers to the agency stockade, averting a possible fight.
Many SIOUX will be frustrated by the events, and will leave
the reservation.

October 24, 1840: Col.John Moore with 90 Texans, and 12
"friendly" LIPAN Indians, come upon a COMANCHE village on
the Red Fork of the Colorado River, in central Texas. The
Texans sneak up on the village, and attack. According to
the Texans, 148 COMANCHEs are killed, and 34 are captured.
Only 1 Texan dies. The Texans also seize almost 500 horses.
The village will be burned.

October 25, 1862: The TONKAWAs were living on a reservation
in the Washita River in Indian Territory, after having been
removed from a reservation on the Brazos River, in Texas.
The TONKAWAs have earned the enmity of other tribes because
they acted as scouts for the army. On this date, DELAWARE,
SHAWNEE, and CADDO Indians attacked the TONKAWA village.
137 of the 300 TONKAWAs were killed in the raid.

October 26, 1882: The Navy shells the TLINGITS today.

October 27, 1970: The PIT RIVER Indians engage in a skirmish
with local law enforcement today in Burney, California.

October 28, 1932: The mineral rights sales ban for the PAPAGO
Reservation is canceled.

October 29, 1805: Lewis & Clark meet the CHILLUCKITTEQUAW
Chief and medicine man.

October 30, 1805: 1876: President grant, by Executive Order
today, revokes the White Mountain-San Carlos (CHIRICAHUA)
Reserve. The area bounded by Dragoon Springs to Peloncillo
Mountain Summit to New Mexico to Mexico will revert to the
public domain. The reserve was established on December 14, 1872.

October 31, 1879: After the Standing Bear trial, where it
was ruled that the government could not force an Indian to
stay in any one reservation against their will, Big Snake
decides to test the law. He asks for permission to leave his
reservation to visit Standing Bear. His request is denied.
He will eventually leave his PONCA Reservation to go to the
CHEYENNE Reservation, also in Indian Territory. Big Snake
will be returned to the PONCA Reservation, when General
Sherman decides the Standing Bear ruling applies only to
Standing Bear. Big Snake will make the PONCA Agent, William
Whiteman, very angry. Whiteman will order Big Snake arrested.
Today, Big Snake will be arrested and charged with
threatening Whiteman. In Whiteman's office, after denying
any such actions, Big Snake refuses to go with the soldiers
there to arrest him. A struggle develops, and Big Snake is
shot and killed.


That's it for now. There might be more before the
end of the month.

Have a great month.

Phil Konstantin

End of Phil Konstantin's October 2012 Newsletter
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Four of the five books I have worked on. I either wrote, co-wrote, or contributed to each of these beeks

This is the cover to my first book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy. Click on the cover to order a copy or to get more info.
This Day in North American Indian History
This Day in North American Indian History is a one-of-a-kind, vastly entertaining and informative book covering over 5000 years of North American Indian history, culture, and lore. Wide-ranging, it covers over 4,000 important events involving the native peoples of North America in a unique day-by-day format.

The thousands of entries in This Day in North American Indian History weave a compelling and comprehensive mosaic of North American Indian history spanning more than five millennia-every entry an exciting opening into the fascinating but little- known history of American Indians.

Over 100 photographs and illustrations - This book has 480 pages, weighs 2.2 pounds and is 8" by 9.5" in size. The Dates, Names and "Moons" section of these pages are based on the book.

This is the cover to my 4th book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info.
This is the cover to my 4th book. Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info."

Native American History For Dummies

I wrote six of the twenty-four chapters in this book. I am credited with being the technical editor. Book Description:
Native American History For Dummies introduces readers to the thousand-year-plus history of the first inhabitants of North America and explains their influence on the European settlement of the continent. Covering the history and customs of the scores of tribes that once populated the land, this friendly guide features vivid studies of the lives of such icons as Pocahontas, Sitting Bull, and Sacagawea; discusses warfare and famous battles, offering new perspectives from both battle lines; and includes new archaeological and forensic evidence, as well as oral histories that show events from the perspective of these indigenous peoples. The authors worked in concert with Native American authorities, institutions, and historical experts to provide a wide range of insight and information.
This is the cover to my 3rd book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info.
This is the cover to my 3rd book. Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info
Treaties With American Indians I wrote an article and several appendix items for this book.
Clips from a review on Amazon.com: *Starred Review* In the 93 years from 1778 until 1871, there were more than 400 treaties negotiated by Indian agents and government officials. Editor Fixico and more than 150 contributors have crafted a three volume comprehensive tool that will soon become essential for anyone interested in the topic. A resource section with lists of ?Alternate Tribal Names and Spellings,? ?Tribal Name Meanings,? (<---- I wrote this part) Treaties by Tribe,? and ?Common Treaty Names? and a bibliography and comprehensive index are repeated in each volume. This impressive set has a place in any academic library that supports a Native American studies or American history curriculum. It is the most comprehensive source of information on Canadian-Indian treaties and U.S.-Indian treaties. Also available as an e-book.

"The Wacky World of Laws"
It was just released in May 2009.
The Wacky World of Laws. Click on the cover to order a copy or to get more info.

The Wacky World of Laws is a compilation of U.S. and International Laws that are out of the ordinary. With the U.S. churning out 500,000 new laws every year and 2 million regulations annually, this book is the ideal go-to book fro everyone who wants a good laugh at the expense of our legal system. Law so often can be boring! Now with The Wacky World of Laws, you can be the hit of any water cooler conversation, and amaze your friends with precious legal nuggets.

I wrote most of this book. It is my fifth book.

(copyright, © Phil Konstantin, 1996-2013)

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