October 2006 Newsletter from
"This Day in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2010)

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Start of Phil Konstantin's October 2006 Newsletter - Part 1


I am continuing to break things up this month. There
will be at least two newsletters this month. This one
is a very detailed look at this which happened in October.
In fact, this is almost everything in my book, plus many
events which the editors removed because the book was too



     October 1:    
     630: Tajoom Uk'ab' K'ak', Maya King of Calukmal dies.
     1539: Hernando de Soto's expedition reaches the Apalachee village
of Ivitachuco (also called Ibitachuco), in north eastern Florida. The
Spanish set up camp near the village. Throughout the evening, the
Indians shoot arrows at the Spanish with little effect. The Narvaez
Expedition has also visited the village in June 25, 1528, which may
somewhat account for the hostile reception Hernando de Soto's Expedition
     1728: According to some sources, a conference on alliance and land
cessions is held for the next four days between the British in New York
and the "Six Nations."
     1776: 1,800 Virginians arrive in the "Overhill" towns, and demand
Dragging Canoe, and Alexander Cameron. The two men are leaders of the
Cherokees in anti-United States activities during the Revolutionary War.
The Cherokees refuse to give them up. The Virginians burn several towns.

     1792: Just after midnight, almost 300 Cherokees, Chickamaugas,
Creeks and Shawnees attack Buchanan's Station in the Cumberland region
of Tennessee, near Nashville. Led by Chickamauga Chief John Watts,
Kiachatalee, and Creek Chief Talotiskee. There are only a little over a
dozen defenders in the fort. In what turns out to be a futile effort,
many of the Indians are killed by the crack shots within the fort.
Almost all of the Indian leaders are killed, except John Watts, who is
seriously wounded. When the Indians hear the sounds of a relief column
coming from Nashville, they retire. None of the defenders of the fort
are killed.
     1800: The San Ildefonso Treaty is signed. A secret part of this
treaty signed by France and Spain is for Spain to return the lands in
Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to France.
     1838: John Benge, and 1,103 Cherokees leave one of the
concentration camps near the Tennessee Cherokee Agency. Benge's group is
the first of several groups who supervise their own removal to the
Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma).
     1858: Colonel Albert Sidney, four companies from the Second
Cavalry, 135 Indian scouts, and Texas Rangers, totally 350 men, fight
Buffalo Hump's 500 Comanches at Rush Springs, in south central Oklahoma.
Another source says the army is led by Captain Earl van Dorn. Fifty-six
"hostiles", and five soldiers are killed in the fighting. All 120 of the
Comanche's lodges are burned. This campaign is part of what the army
calls "The Wichita Expedition."
     1859: The Sac and Fox sign a treaty. (15 stat.467) the United
States is represented by Alfred Greenwood. They cede a large section of
their reservation to the U.S.
     1863: The Western Shoshone sign a treaty (18 stat. 689) at Ruby
     1865: According to a government report, “the expense of subsisting
the Navajoes and Apaches at Bosque Redondo reservation from March 1,
1864, to October 1, 1865, (eighteen months,) was about $1,114,981.70.”
     1867: According to army records, members of the Ninth Cavalry on
mail escort duty fight with a band of Indians near Howard's Well, Texas.
Two soldiers are killed.
     1873: There are numerous fights throughout the southwest. Captain
G.W. Chilson, and Troop C, Eighth Cavalry, kill three Indians, and wound
one, in a fight in the Guadalupe Mountains, in New Mexico Territory.
Sergeant Benjamin Mew, and soldiers from Company K, 25th Infantry,
skirmish with Indians at Central Station, Texas. Also, in Texas, a
Sergeant, and thirteen soldiers fight with a band of Comanches. One
Indian is reported wounded in this fight.
     1879: Captain Francis Dodge, and Troop D, Ninth Cavalry, are
patrolling, when couriers from Major Thornburgh’s troops meet them.
Dodge sends the message along, and then pretends to camp for the
evening, in case his actions are being observed. After dark, he issues
rations for three days, and 225 rounds of ammunition. Dodge, and his
thirty-seven soldiers, and four civilians, then head for Thornburgh's
     1879: Army scouts capture a woman, and a child, from Victorio's
band. The scout learns of the location of Victorio's camp from the
female captive. The army speeds to the camp, and captures lots of
provisions, but, the Apaches escape into the night.
     1886: In Washington Territory certain land is "withdrawn from sale
or other disposition, and set apart for the use and occupation of the
Chehalis Indians by an Executive Order from President Grover Cleveland.
     1962: The Institute of American Indian Arts open
     1962: The Tundra Times is first published.
     1962: The Mi’kmaq Bear River First Nation reserve of Bear River #6B
is established in Nova Scotia.
     1969: In Ridgeville, South Carolina, Marshals turn Indian parents,
and children, away from a local school. The Indians wanted to be
desegregated. A court order prohibits the Indians from attending white
     1969: The Commission of Indian Affairs authorizes an election for
amendments to the Constitution of the Oglala Sioux of the Pine Ridge
Indian Reservation.
     1975: Morris Thompson, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, ratifies a
Constitution and Bylaws approved by the Southern Ute Indian tribe of the
Southern Ute Reservation in Colorado.
     1990: Starting today, the Cherokee Nation becomes one of six tribes
which have assumed responsibility for the disbursement of Bureau of
Indian Affairs funds for their tribe. Prior to this Indian
self-governance agreement, the B.I.A. decided how the funds should be


     October 2:    
     906: Uxmal is a Maya ruin in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. A
dedication ceremony is held for one of the buildings, according to an
inscription in the building.
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/mayac.html
     1535: Cartier arrives in the area of what eventually becomes
Montreal. He encounters the Wyandot there.
     1685: According to some sources, an agreement is reached for the
Delaware Indians to cede some lands to Pennsylvania.
     1696: According to some sources, a peace and alliance agreement is
reached between representatives of the British in New York and the "Five
     1775: George Galphin is appointed Commissioner of Indian affairs
for the Southern District by the Continental Congress.
     1798: A treaty (7 stat.62) with the Cherokees is signed at Tellico.
The treaty refers to the July 2, 1791 Holston River Treaty, and attempts
to correct some misunderstandings. It also refers to the June 26, 1794
treaty signed in Philadelphia. All treaties prior to this date are still
in effect. Some Cherokee lands on the Tennessee River is ceded. Each
party appoints one person to walk the new survey line. The Cherokees get
$5000 in goods now, and $1000 annually. The Kentucky Road from the
Cumberland Mountains to the Tennessee River is to remain safe, and open.
The Cherokee can hunt on their old lands, if they do so peacefully.
Thirty-nine Indians sign the treaty.
     1818: Lewis Cass, Jonathan Jennings, and Benjamin Parke,
representing the United States, sign a treaty (7 stat. 185) with the
Potawatomi and Wea Indians on the St.Mary's River on the Indiana-Ohio
border. The tribe exchanges vast holdings in Indiana for an annual
payment of $2,500.
     1833: Joel Bryan Mayes will become the Chief Justice of the
Cherokee Supreme Court. In 1887, he is elected Principal Chief. He is
born near Cartersville, Georgia.
     1853: As a part of the “Walker War” in southern Utah, several Utes
seek refuge in the local fort. Instead of protecting the Indians, they
are killed by the settlers.
     1858: Having been help prisoner by army forces under Colonel George
Wright since September 23rd, Yakama Chief Owhi attempts to escape from
Fort Dalles. Chief Owhi is shot and killed.
     1863: The Red Lake and Pembina Chippewa sign a treaty. (3
     1868: General William Hazen reports 100 Indians have attacked Fort
Zarah, near present-day Great Bend in central Kansas. The Indians then
attack a provision train, and a ranch eight miles away. The Indians make
off with almost 200 animals. General Alfred Sully reports that Indians
have attacked a wagon train between Fort Larned and Fort Dodge, in
Kansas. Three citizen are killed, and three wounded.
     1872: Fort McKeen (later called Fort Abraham Lincoln), in central
North Dakota, is attacked by approximately 300 Sioux Indians. According
to army reports, one soldier is wounded, and three Ree Indian scouts are
     1879: Captain Francis Dodge reaches the survivors of Major
Thornburgh's troops under siege on the Milk River, in Colorado, by
"hostile" Ute Indians. Sergeant Henry Johnson, Company D, will be
awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions during the next
several days.
     1972: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs authorizes an election to
approve a Constitution for La Posta Band of Diegueno (Mission) Indians
of the La Posta Indian Reservation, California. The election is held on
January 26, 1973.


     October 3:    
     1763: As a part of "Pontiac's War," Indians ambush a force of five
dozen rangers in western Virginia. Fifteen of the soldiers are killed in
the fighting. After tracking the Indians, a force of 150 Virginia
militia and volunteers, led by Charles Lewis, finds them on the South
Fork of the Potomac River. The Europeans kill twenty-one of the Indians
without suffering a single loss.
     1764: Leaving Fort Pitt with more than 1,500 soldiers and militia,
Colonel Henry Bouquet leads his men into Ohio in search of hostile
     1786: A group of thirty settlers, organized by the McNitt family,
are moving from Virginia to Kentucky. Tonight near present-day London,
Kentucky, they are attacked by a Chickamauga war party. Twenty-one of
the Europeans are killed, and five are captured. Of the four people who
escape, one, a pregnant woman, hides in a hollow log, where she gives
     1790: John Ross, destined to become one of the most famous Cherokee
Chiefs, is born in Rossville, Georgia. While Ross is only one-eighth
Cherokee, he spends his entire life working for the tribe.
     1818: Lewis Cass, representing the United States, and the Delaware
Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 188) on the St.Mary's River on the
Indiana-Ohio border. The treaty trades all of their lands in Indiana for
land west of the Mississippi, supplies, and an increase in their annual
payments from previous treaties.
     1836: 165 of Captain F.S. Belton’s original 210 Creek "prisoners"
are delivered to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Seventeen are
given over to civil authorities. The rest either die in transit, or are
unaccounted for.
     1838: Black Hawk dies in Davis County, Iowa.
     1854: Major Granville Owen Haller marches to avenge Indian agent
A.J Bolon's death. He encounters the Yakama southwest of modern 10/3,
Washington on October 5th.
     1861: The Uintah and Ouray Reservation is established by Executive
     1866: Elements of the Forteenth Infantry fight some Indians near
Cedar Valley, Arizona. Fifteen Indians are killed, and ten are captured
according to Forteenth Infantry records.
     1866: According to army records, soldiers with the Third Cavalry
skirmish with a group of Indians near Trinidad, Colorado. One soldier is
killed and three are wounded. Thirteen Indians are killed.
     1866: In Long Valley, Nevada, the First Cavalry kills eight Indians
in a fight, according to army records.
     1868: Army records indicate that members of the Third Cavalry fight
with a band of Indians in the Miembres Mountains in New Mexico. One
soldier is wounded.
     1872: Lieutenant Eben Crosby, Seventeenth Infantry, Lieutenant L.D.
Adair, Twenty-Second Infantry, and a citizen are hunting near the Heart
River, in Dakota, when they are attacked by Sioux Indians. In a fight
which lasts until tomorrow, all three are killed.
     1873: According to army reports, Tonkawa Indian scouts attacked a
Comanche camp in Jones County, Texas. No other details are listed in the
     1873: “Treaty 3 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The Saulteaux
Tribe of the Ojibbeway Indians at the Northwest Angle On The Lake of the
Woods with Adhesions” is signed in Canada.
     1873: Captain Jack is hanged at Fort Klamath Oregon for his part in
the Modoc War.
     1936: The Secretary of the Interior has authorized an election to
approve a Constitution and By-Laws for the Fort McDowell Mohave-Apache
Community in Arizona. It is approved by a vote of 61 to 1.
     1950: The Assistant Secretary of the Interior. Willam Warne,
authorizes an election to approve a Constitution and By-Laws for the
United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians of Oklahoma. It is approved by
a vote of 1,414 to 1.
     1961: An election approves Amendment VI to the Constitution and
Bylaws of the Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of
     1962: An Act passed allows the Federal Government to acquire land
on the Crow Creek Sioux Reservation in South Dakota for the Big Bend
     1981: The rules for the election of delegates to the Official
Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska are
     Every: Papago festival.


     October 4:    
     1693: In 1680, Tewa leader Popé spurred an uprising of the Pueblos
against the Spanish mission in New Mexico. Diego de Vargas leads an
expedition to reconquer the area. His force consists of 100 soldiers,
seventy-three settler families, eighteen priests, and some Indian
     1779: Five boatloads of ammunition and powder are working their way
up the Ohio River. As they reach the Licking River, in Kentucky, Colonel
David Rogers sees some Indians on the shore. He sends his four dozen men
after the Indians. In wait for Rogers are more than 130 Delaware, Mingo,
Shawnee and Wyandot warriors, led by Mathew Elliot and Simon Girty. All
but a few of the Americans are killed in the ambush. The Indians lose
only two men.
     1838: Elijah Hicks, and 748 Cherokees are the second group of
Cherokees to leave the Tennessee Cherokee Agency area under their own
supervision. They are part of the forced removal of the Cherokees to the
Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). They arrive on January 4, 1839.

     1842: Chippewa sign a treaty (7 stat. 591) in La Pointe, Wisconsin.

     1868: Major Henry Douglass reports Indians have wounded a Mexican
near Lime-Kiln. They also attacked a wagon train, killing two men, and
wounding two more. An attack at Asher Creek settlement gets the Indians
seven horses and mules.
     1868: Army records indicate that settlers fight with a band of
Indians near Fort Dodge, Kansas. Two settlers are killed, and one is
     1874: Indians fight with soldiers from the Ninth Cavalry Infantry
near Fort Sill, Indian Territory. According to army documents, one
Indian is killed during this engagement which lasts until October 31st.
     1876: Sixth Cavalry and some Indian scouts fight a group of Indians
on the Tonto Plateau in Arizona. According to army documents, eight
Indians are killed, and two are captured.
     1877: Between today and tomorrow, 418 Nez Perce surrender to the
     1878: Dull Knife, and his band of Northern Cheyenne, cross the
Union Pacific line at Alkali station, Nebraska. Stationed in Fort
Sidney, in western Nebraska, Major T.T. Thornburgh, and 140 soldiers,
board a waiting train in an attempt to catch up to Dull Knife.
     1922: Fort Apache, in Arizona, which is 7,579.75 acres in size, is
established by Executive Order on February 1, 1877 is expanded.
     1937: An election for the adoption of a Constitution and Bylaws for
the Stockbridge Munsee Community of Wisconsin is authorized by the
Assistant Secretary of the Interior. The election is held on October 30,
     1944: Van T. Barfoot gets the Congressional Medal of Honor.
     Every: Feast of St. Francis is celebrated by the "Ak-chin."


     October 5:    
     1675: As a part of King Philip's War, Springfield, Massachusetts is
attacked by Agawam and Nipmuck Indians. A scout warns the village, and
most of the settlers make it to fortified dwellings. Two settlers are
killed, and thirty buildings are burned during the fighting.
     1724: French peace envoy Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont has been
charged with making peace among the Indians of modern Kansas, part of
the French territory of Louisiana. He holds a council. The council
included representatives of the “Canza, Padouca, Aiaouez (Iowa?) and the
Othouez (Otto?). The various Chiefs and representative all agree to
peace and smoke each others peace pipes.
     1731: Natchez warriors, led by Chief Farine, attack a Natchitoches
village at present-day day Natchitoches, Louisiana. The Natchez take
over the village. The Caddoes and the French, under Louis Juchereau de
St. Denis, retreat to nearby Fort St. Jean. During the subsequent
fighting, over the next eight days, more than six dozen Natchez are
killed. The Natchez flee into the woods, and are never a cohesive force
     1813: Near the Thames River in Canada, American forces, led by
General William Henry Harrison, and British-Indian forces, led by Henry
Proctor and Tecumseh, fight a decisive battle. Harrison's forces are
much stronger. Setting up an ambush, the British and the Indians forces
take up different positions. When Harrison's forces attack the 700
British soldiers, they cave in almost immediately. Tecumseh's Indians,
fighting in a swamp, hold out until Tecumseh is killed. At the end of
the fighting, 600 British are captured, eighteen are killed.
Thirty-three Indians are killed, while none are captured. The American
forces lose eighteen men, as well. Some sources report this happening on
October 15th.
     1838: Rev. Jesse Bushyhead, and almost 1000 Cherokees begin their
emigration to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Many of the
Cherokees in the group are Baptists. They are allowed to stop on
Sundays, so they can conduct religious services. Their march is delayed
almost a month because of thick ice on the Mississippi River. Eighty-two
member of this group die before they reach the Indian Territory on
February 23, 1839.
      1841: Recently, some Cayuse have broken some windows in Marcus
Whitman’s house in Waiilatpu. Whitman demands reparation from Cayuse
Waptashtamakt. Waptashtamakt declines, but later a feast is attended by
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/2003.html
     1854: Troops under Major Granville Owen Haller battle the Yakama to
avenge Indian agent A.J Bolon's death. The fighting takes place
southwest of modern Yakima, Washington.
     1858: The last execution by Colonel George Wright as a consequence
of the Spokane War is held.
     1859: A treaty (12 stat. 1111) is concluded at the Kansas agency
between the United States and the Kansa Indians. Representing the United
States is Alfred Greenwood.
     1866: Elements of the First Oregon Infantry fight some Indians near
Fort Klamath, Oregon. Four Indians are killed, according to army
     1869: Army records indicate that members of the Twenty-First
Infantry fight with a band of Indians near Dragoon Springs, Arizona.
Four soldiers are killed.
     1870: According to army records, members of Company M, Sixth
Cavalry engage "hostile Indians" at Holliday Creek along the Little
Wichita River in Texas. For their "gallantry in pursuit of and fight
with Indians", Sergeant Michael Welch, Corporals Samuel Bowden, Daniel
Keating, Private Benjamin Wilson and post guide James B. Doshier will be
awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
     1877: Chief Joseph, according to army reports, eighty-seven
warriors, eighty-four squaws, and 147 children surrender near Bear Paw,
Montana. They are within fifty miles of their goal, the Canadian border.
It is here the Chief speaks the famous words: “From where the sun now
stands, I will fight no more.”
     1878: According to the commander of Fort Clark, near present-day
Del Rio, Texas, four children of the Dowdy family are killed by Indians
on the Johnson's Fork of the Guadalupe River.
     1879: After marching 170 miles in a little over forty-eight hours,
Colonel Wesley Merritt, and Troops A, B, I, and M, Fifth Cavalry,
numbering 350 men, reach Major T.T. Thornburgh’s encircled men on the
Milk River in Colorado, at 5am in the morning. During the fight which
started on September 30, 1879, the army reports twelve men, including
Major Thornburgh, are killed. Forty in Thornburgh's command are wounded.
The army estimates the size of the Ute force to be between 300, and 350.
Indian sources report the death of thirty-seven Utes, during the
fighting. A subsequent search at the White River Agency, reveals the
bodies of seven men, including the Agent, Nathan C. Meeker.
     1898: "For distinguished bravery in action against hostile
Indians," Private Oscar Burkard, Hospital Corps, US Army, will be
awarded the Congressional Medal of honor. This fighting is a part of the
Chippewa (Ojibwa) uprising at Lake Leech in northern Minnesota. This is
the last Medal of Honor issued for fighting Indians.
     1966: The official approved tribal roll for the San Pasqual Band of
Mission (Diegueno) Indians in the San Pasqual Reservation is issued.
     1974: Morris Thompsom, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs has
authorized an election to approve a Constitution and By-Laws for the
Upper Skagit Indian Tribe. It is approved by a vote of 65 to 2.
     1985: The Constitution and the rules for the election of delegates
to the Official Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes
of Alaska are amended.


     October 6:    
     649: The eventual Maya King of Calukmal, Yuknoom Yich'aak K'ak'
(Jaguar Paw Smoke) is born.
     1539: Hernando de Soto reaches the Apalachee town of Iniahica, near
present-day Tallahassee. He picks this town as his winter quarters. He
maintains this camp until March 3, 1540.
     1598: Juan de Oñate leaves his base in San Juan Pueblo. He is en
route to "visit" the Pueblos to the west.
     1713: Indians attack Captain Richard Hunnewel, and nineteen men
working in the fields outside Black Point, Maine. Only one European
survives in this fight on Prout's Neck in Scarborough. A nearby pond is
called Massacre Pond because of this battle.
     1759: In retribution for Abenaki attacks on New England
settlements, Major Robert Rogers, 180 of his rangers, and a few
Stockbridge scouts, stage a predawn attack on the Abenaki village at St.
Francis, Quebec. Rogers claims to kill 200 Abenakis, while his losses
are one scout. He recovers five captives, and 600 "English" scalps.
     1774: In what is called Lord Dunmore's War, Virginia Governor, John
Murray, the Earl of Dunmore authorizes an army of Virginians to go into
Shawnee territory, despite the royal proclamation of October 7th, 1763,
which prohibits European settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Dunmore has granted lands to veterans in the prohibited area, and he
plans on helping them get it. Today around 800 Shawnees, under Chief
Cornstalk, attack Dunmore's force of 850 men at Point Pleasant, in
present-day western West Virginia, on the Ohio and Kanawha Rivers. The
fighting lasts all day. Both sides suffer numerous casualties. Cornstalk
loses the battle, and eventually signs a peace treaty with the
Virginians. Some sources say this happens on October 10th.
     1786: A large force of primarily Kentucky militiamen attack a
peaceful Shawnee village on the Mad River, not far form modern
Bellefontaine, Ohio. The force is led by Benjamin Logan. One of the
Colonels is Daniel Boone. Many Indians are killed, including Chief
Molunthy, and a few prisoners are recovered.
     1818: Lewis Cass, Jonathan Jennings, and Benjamin Parke,
representing the United States, sign a treaty (7 stat. 189) with the
Miami Indians at the Saint Mary's River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The
Miami give up a large section of their lands for an annuity. (7
     1825: The Makah sign a treaty (7 stat. 282) at Fort Atkinson.
     1851: One in a series of treaties is signed with California Indians
on the Lower Klamath. The document promises lands for the Indians and to
protect them from angry Americans.
     1862: “ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT and convention made and concluded at
Manitowaning, or the Great Manitoulin Island in the Province of Canada,
the sixth day of October, Anno Domini, 1862, between the Hon. William
McDougall, Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, and William
Spragge, Esq., Deputy Superintendent of Indian Afflirs, on the part of
the Crown and Government of said Province, of the first part, and
Mai-she-quong.-gai, Okemah-be-ness, J. B. Assiginock, Benjamin
Assiginock, Nai-be nesse-me, She-ne-tah-guw, George Ah-be-tos-o-mai,
Paim-o-quo-naish-gung, Abence, Tai-bose-gai, A-to-nish-cosh,
Nai-wau-dai-ge-zhik, Wau-kau-o- say, Keesh-kewanbik, Chiefs and
Principal Men of the Ottawa, Chippewa and other Indians occupying the
said island, on behalf of the said Indians, of the second part.”
     1867: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry
fight with a band of Indians near Trout Creek, Arizona. Seven Indians
are reported killed.
     1870: Troop K, Second Cavalry, are now stationed at the Carlisle
     1892: The Jerome Agreement is signed by the United States and the
Apache, Comanche and Kiowa tribes of Indians in the Indian Territory
(present day Oklahoma). This divides much of their land into individual
plots. The signatories include: David H. Jerome, Alfred M. Wilson,
Warren G. Sayre, Commissioners on the part of the United States. It is
also signed by 456 others, including Quanah Parker, Lone Wolf and Big
     1972: An official tribal census for the Yankton Sioux is listed.
     1986: Congress designates the path the Nez Perce took in their
flight from the army in 1877 as "the Nez Perce Historical Trail."
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/2003.html


     October 7:     
     1672: White Mountain Apaches raid the Zuni pueblo of Hawikuh, and
kill a priest named Pedro de Abila y Ayala.
     1691: The Charter of Massachusetts Bay is issued.
     1701: In a farewell address to William Penn, Susquehannah Chief
Oretyagh, along with other Shawnee leaders, request, again, that traders
be prevented from selling alcohol to the local Indians. Penn assures
them that the Pennsylvania assembly is doing just that.
     1719: An expedition of 800 soldiers and Indian allies, and 1,000
horses are being led by Spanish Governor Antonio de Valverde. They are
searching for groups of Utes and Comanches who have been raiding ranches
and settlements in Colorado. Along Fountain Creek, one of their scouts
Chief Carlana finds signs of a recent campsite used by the raiders.
     1759: Last year, Tawehash Indians helped to destroy the Spanish
Mission of San Sabá de la Santa Cruz in east Texas. The Spanish have
finally gathered a punitive expedition, leading 1,000 Spanish and
pro-Spanish Indians, Diego Ortiz Parrilla attacks the Tawehash village.
With their allies the Comanches and the Tawakonis, the Tawehash fight
back. The Tawehash win the day, and force the retreat of the Spanish
allied forces, killing as many as 100 men in the process.
     1763: As a result of Pontiac's Rebellion, the British Government
issues “The Royal Proclamation of 1763” prohibiting Europeans from
settling west of the Appalachian Mountains.
     1775: In what becomes the Pittsburgh Treaty, Congressional
commissioners meet with several Indian tribes. They agree to the Ohio
River as the local boundary line. The Indians agree to release some
prisoners and not to get involved in the Revolutionary war.
     1844: A treaty conference is held between Texans, headed by Sam
Houston, and the Anadarko, Lipan Apache, Caddo, Cherokee, Comanche,
Delaware, Hainai, Kichai, Shawnee, Tawakoni and the Waco.
     1861: With Albert Pike, the Cherokees sign a treaty with the
Confederacy in Park Hill on the Cherokee Reservation in Indian Territory
(present day Oklahoma). The agreement is almost the same as that of the
Creeks signed on July 10, 1861. Living up to their word, three Indian
delegates sit in the Confederate Congress throughout the war, something
hinted at by the United States, but never implemented. Pike presents the
Cherokees with a special flag for their use during the war.
     1863: The Tabeguache Band of Utah Indians sign a treaty (13 stat.
     1868: Army records indicate that settlers fight with a band of
Indians near the Purgatory River in Colorado. One settler is killed.
     1880: A Campo Indian has been found guilty of stealing a blanket in
San Diego, California. County Justice of the Peace Gaskill orders his
punishment to be 100 lashes. Gaskill is quoted as saying: "after one of
these Indians has been whipped once, he will never steal again. It makes
'a good Indian' of him." The lashing almost kills the Indian.
     1947: Legislation is proposed which sells the "Wyandote Indian
burial ground" in Kansas City, Kansas.
     1952: An election approves Amendment IV to the Constitution and
Bylaws of the Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of
     1965: An amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of the
Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida is approved by Assistant
Secretary of the Interior Harray Anderson.
     1969: Senator Ted Kennedy calls for a White House conference on
Indian problems in a speech. He criticizes B.I.A. efforts.
     1971: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs designates four people
(Grace Cuero Banegas, Maria Sevella La Chappa, Cynthia Victoria Sevella,
Gwendolyn Ludwina Sevella) as members of the La Posta Band of Mission
Indians of the La Posta Indian Reservation, California. Based on their
constitution, members of the tribe are either linear descendants of
these four people or adopted people.
     1974: Commissioner of Indian Affairs Morris Thompson authorizes an
election for amendments to the Pawnee of Oklahoma Constitution.


     October 8:    
     1541: Hernando de Soto fights with Caddo Indians in Tula, Arkansas.

     1758: Running through October 26th, the Council of Easton begins in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Eventually, the Iroquois and Delaware sign
peace treaties. Large parts of the much-hated treaty of Albany are
     1779: El Mocho is born an Apache; but, he is captured by the
Tonkawas. His bravery and natural leadership abilities, eventually lead
the Tonkawas to make him their Principal Chief. He meets with Spanish
Governor Athanase de Mezieres in San Antonio. They sign a peace treaty;
and, El Mocho (Spanish for mutilated) is honored with a Medal of Honor.
The peace only lasts for a few years.
     1804: Lewis (of Lewis and Clark) visits an occupied Ricara village.

     1832: The Eastern Cherokees meet a second time to discuss Elisha
Chester's proposal for their removal to the Indian Territory (present
day Oklahoma). While some of the lesser-bloods favor the proposal, the
full-bloods vote it down. Chester warns them that if they do not agree
to move, they face the wrath of the State of Georgia.
     1855: James Lupton leads whites against "friendly" Rogue River
Indians in California. They kill eight men, and fifteen women and
children. Survivors flee to Fort Lane, in southwestern Oregon, for
     1869: Army records indicate that members of the First Cavalry fight
with a band of Indians in Chiricahua Pass in Arizona. Two soldiers are
wounded. Twelve Indians are killed.
     1873: Big Tree and Satanta is released from prison with the proviso
the Kiowas remain peaceful. After some raids by the Kiowas, eventually,
Satanta is returned to prison.
     1873: Indians fight with soldiers from the Eighth Cavalry in the
Chiricahua Mountains in Arizona, according to army documents. No
casualties are reported.
    1938: An election is held to approve a Constitution and By-Laws for
the Sokaogon (Mole Lake Band) Chippewa Community of Wisconsin. It passes
by a vote of 61 to 1.
     1958: An election for the adoption of a Constitution and Bylaws for
the Pueblos of Laguna in New Mexico is held. It is approved by a vote of
1,331 to 92.
     1964: The Assistant Secretary of the Interior has authorized an
election to approve a Constitution and By-Laws for the Cocopah Tribe of
Somerton, Arizona. It is approved by a vote of 16 to 0.
     1970: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs authorizes and election
for a new constitution for the Reno-Sparks Indian Community.
     1983: The Constitution and the rules for the election of delegates
to the Official Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes
of Alaska are amended.
     1984: Activist Dennis Banks is sentenced to jail for three years.
     1993: A Conservation Code is amended, passed and approved by the
Bay Mills General Tribal Council in Bay Mills, by a vote of 63 for, 4
opposed, and 2 abstaining.


     October 9:    
     1776: The Mission at San Francisco is started.
     1804: Lewis and Clark hold a council with Ricara chiefs.
     1805: The "Shoshonie" guide leaves Lewis and Clark.
     1833: The Pawnee sign a treaty (7 stat. 448) at the “Loup.”
     1844: A trade and peace treaty is signed between Texas and the
Anadarko, Lipan Apache, Caddo, Cherokee, Comanche, Delaware, Hainai,
Kichai, Shawnee, Tawakoni and the Waco at Tehuacana Creek.
     1855: Tecumton (Elk Killer) and other Rogue River Indians retaliate
for yesterday's attack. They destroy farms near Evan's Ferry. They
attack, and kill eighteen people at Jewett's Ferry, Evan's Ferry, and
Wagoner's ranch. The whites call it the "Wagoner Massacre."
     1861: Cherokee Chief John Ross presents a treaty with the
Confederate States of America to the Cherokee National Assembly for
their consideration and ratification.
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/cherokee1.html
     1868: Army records indicate that members of the First and Eighth
Cavalry, the Fourteenth and Thirty-Second Infantry, and some Indian
scouts fight with a band of Indians near the Salt River and Cherry Creek
in Arizona. Thirteen Indians are killed.
     1871: Comanches under Quanah Parker steal horse from soldiers under
Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie.
     1874: Lieutenant Colonel George Buell, and Companies A, E, F, H,
and I, Eleventh Infantry, attack a camp of Kiowas on the Salt Fork of
the Red River, in Texas. One Indian is killed, and the camp is
destroyed. The escaping survivors are pursued for some distance. Many
lodges along the way are destroyed, as well.
     1876: Settlers fight some Indians near Eagle Springs, Texas.
According to army documents, one settler is killed.
     1890: Kicking Bear visits with Sitting Bull. They talk about the
ghost dance.
     1940: A permit is now required for alcohol to be used as medicine
in the Kiowa Indian hospital.
     1940: An Act (54 Stat. 1057) is passed by Congress to “allow for
the leasing of any Indian lands on the Port Madison and Snohomish or
Tulalip Indian Reservations in the State of Washington by the Indians
with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior for a term not
exceeding twenty-five years.”
     1955: Membership rules and regulations for the Wichita Indian Tribe
of Oklahoma are adopted.
     1978: The Cherokee Tribal Council adopts an official flag, designed
by Stanley John.
     1985: An Amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Fort
Belknap Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in
Montana is adopted.


     October 10:    
     1540: Hernando de Soto enters a village called Athahachi. Here he
meets the village chief, Tascaluca. Tascaluca is taken as a hostage by
Hernando de Soto to insure the cooperation of the Chief's followers.
     1615: Champlain fights with the Onondagas north of modern Syracuse,
New York.
     1678: Governor Frontenac leads a meeting in Quebec which debates
the merits of allowing Indians to have alcohol.
     1759: Shawnee Chief Cornstalk, and his followers, attack
settlements at Carr's Creek in Rockbridge County, Virginia. They kill a
half dozen Europeans.
     1771: Spanish soldiers attack the wife of a Kumeyaay chief. The
Chief attacks the involved soldiers, and he is killed.
     1774: On a piece of land where the Great Kanawha River joins the
Ohio River, called Point Pleasant, one of the biggest battles of the
French and Indian war takes place. 800 Shawnees, led by Chief Cornstalk,
attack a force of 850 Virginians, led by Colonel Andrew Lewis, at dawn.
Sniping leads to hand-to-hand combat. By the end of the fighting, after
dark, Shawnee losses are estimated at as many as 200 warriors (some
sources say 40). The Virginians have seventy-five soldiers killed,
including many officers, and 140 wounded. This significant loss of
warriors is a contributing force in Cornstalk's eventual decision to
give up the war. Some sources say this happens on October 6th.
     1777: According to some sources, Shawnee Chief Cornstalk
(Hokolesqua) is killed in Fort Randolf. He has gone to seek a peace
conference and is placed in a cell. Captain John Hall, and several
other, come into the cell and shoot and kill Cornstalk.
     1804: Lewis and Clark hold a council with an entire Ricara village.

     1805: Lewis and Clark find the Snake River and log a long
discussion on the Nez Perce.
     1817: John C. Calhoun is offered the job of Secretary of War by
President James Monroe. In this position, Calhoun oversees affairs
dealing with Indians.
     1839: The convention of Cherokees, which began on September 6,
1839, finally comes to an end. During the meetings, a new Constitution
is adopted, new Chiefs are elected, Judges are appointed, and many new
laws are made. However, many of the "old settlers" disavow any actions
taken at this convention. They believe the old settler government is
still in power.
     1858: The Butterfield stage arrives in San Francisco.
     1865: The Miniconjou Band Sioux Treaty (14 stat.695) is signed.
Through the 28th will be the signing of the Bozeman Trail Treaties.
     1867: According to army records, members of the Fourteenth Infantry
fight with a band of Indians near Camp Lincoln, Arizona. One Indian is
     1867: According to army records, members of the Thirty-First
Infantry fight with a band of Indians near Fort Stevenson, Dakota
Territory. One soldier is wounded.
     1868: Army records indicate that settlers fight with a band of
Indians near Fort Zarah, Kansas. No injuries are reported.
     1871: According to army records, members of the Fourth Cavalry,
under Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie, engage "hostile Indians" on the
Brazos River in Texas. For his efforts in stopping the Indians from
overrunning his position, Second Lieutenant Robert G. Carter is awarded
the Congressional Medal of Honor. This is a part of the action which led
to the “Battle of Blanco Canyon.”
     1876: Captain C.W. Miner, and Companies H, G, and K, Twenty-Second
Infantry, and Company C, Seventeenth Infantry, are guarding ninety-four
wagons en route from the camp at the mouth of Glendive Creek, Montana,
to the force at the mouth of the Tongue River. The wagon train is
attacked by several hundred Indians. The wagon train retreats to the
Glendive base. Soldiers replace the drivers, and with reinforcements,
including Lieutenant Colonel E.S. Otis, the force of 237 soldiers
proceeds to the soldiers' camped on the Tongue River.
     1878: After being forced to abandon his supply wagons four days ago
due to deep sand, Major T.T. Thornburgh's troops are out of supplies.
The Major gives up his pursuit of Dull Knife's Cheyennes near the
Niobrara River, and retreats to Camp Sheridan, in northwest Nebraska.
     1883: The first Lake Mohonk -Friends conference takes place.
     1885: Fourth Cavalry couriers fight a group of Indians near Lang’s
Ranch, New Mexico. According to army documents, one soldier is killed.
     1894: Indian School Superintendent Samuel Hertzog reports that
thirty Hopi “hostiles” have seized several plots of land in Munqapi. The
“hostiles” plant wheat in the fields.
     1918: The First American (Indian) Church is incorporated in El
Reno, Oklahoma. Original members include, Cheyennes, Apaches, Poncas,
Comanches, Kiowas, and Ottos.
     1938: The Acting Secretary of the Interior authorizes an election
to approve a new Constitution and By-Laws for the Ottawa Indians of
Oklahoma. The election is held on November 30, 1938.
     1939: An election for a Constitution and Bylaws of the Peoria Tribe
of Indians of Oklahoma is held.
     1944: Public Land Order Number 248 transfers jurisdiction of 320
acres of land in the Fort Peck Reservation in Montana from the Secretary
of Agriculture to the Secretary of the Interior as a part of the Milk
River Land Utilization Project.
     1980: The Maine Indian Claims Act (94 Stat. 1786) takes place. Its
purpose is to “extend Federal recognition, provides for State
jurisdiction with agreement of tribes, organization of tribal
governments, and enrollment of members.”


     October 11:    
     1736: According to some sources, an agreement covering friendship
and land cessions is reached by representatives of the Cayuga, Oneida,
Onondaga, Seneca and Tuscarora Indians and Pennsylvania.
     1794: Tennessee Governor William Blount meets with Chickamauga
Chief John Watts (Young Tassel) in the Tellico blockhouse near the
French Broad River in eastern Tennessee. They agree to have a conference
in November to discuss peace between the warring settlers and the
     1809: Meriwether Lewis dies.
     1812: After a series of Seminole attacks in Georgia, the local
militia, led by Colonel Daniel Newnan, invaded Spanish-held Florida
seeking revenge. Today, they are reinforced. They have been fighting a
running battle with the Alachua Band of Seminoles led by "King" Payne
since September 17th.
     1832: The Apalachicola Band signs a treaty (7 stat. 377) at
     1838: Lieutenant Edward Deas departs with almost 700 Cherokees from
the Tennessee Cherokee Agency. This group of Cherokees supports the New
Echota Treaty, and is given special treatment, and allowances for their
emigration. They reach their new lands on January 7, 1839.
     1842: John Chambers, representing the United States, and the Sauk
and Fox Indians sign a treaty at their tribal headquarters in Iowa. The
Indians receive more than $800,000 to cede their lands in Iowa and to
move to new lands along the Missouri River. (7 stat.596)
     1865: Fort Fletcher, is established as a military outpost in
central Kansas. The fort is eventually renamed Fort Hays. It is the home
of the Seventh Cavalry for a while during the "Indian Wars" of the late
1860s. The fort is abandoned in 1889.
     1869: A confrontation has developed between Canadian surveyors and
Louis Riel’s Metis cousin, Andre Nault. Andre does not want the
surveyors on his land. Riel and a dozen other Metis respond to help.
Riel walks up, steps on the surveyor’s chain and says, “You go no
further.” This is the start of a rebellion which rocks Canada.
     1871: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from the Fourth
Cavalry Infantry on the Freshwater Fork of the Brazos River in Texas,
according to official army records. One soldier is killed. Colonel
Ranald Mackenzie is leading the troops.
     1874: Satanta has become despondent about his life-term in the
Huntsville, Texas, prison. He has slashed his wrists trying to kill
himself, but he is unsuccessful. He is admitted to the prison hospital.
Satanta jumps from a second floor balcony. He lands head first, and
     1876: Fifteen and Twenty-Second Infantry soldiers fight some
Indians near Spring Creek, Montana. According to army documents, no
casualties are reported.
     1876: The Black Hills treaty is signed by some Indians at Standing
Rock Agency.
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/2003q.html


     October 12:    
     1492: According to some sources, Columbus lands in "new world."
According to the Taino, they are the first “Native Americans” to greet
Columbus on the Island of Guanahani (San Salvador).
     1676: Mugg is an Arosaguntacook Chief. At the outbreak of King
Philip's War, he seeks out a peace treaty with the English for his, and
other, tribes. Rather than listen to him, the English throw him in jail.
While he is soon released, his treatment makes him an enemy of the
English. With 100 warriors, he attacks Black Point, Maine in
retaliation. Most of the settlers escape, and he burns many of the
structures. Mugg is killed in Black Point seven months later.
     1758: British soldiers have built a fort in southwestern
Pennsylvania, southwest of modern Johnston. The fort is named after the
British Commander in Chief Lord Ligonier. A force of more 1,000 French
and a few hundred Indians attack the fort The attack is unsuccessful.
The French and Indians retreat to Fort Duquense.
     1761: The Mi’kmaq of Pictou sign a treaty with the British of Nova
Scotia, according to some sources.
     1824: The Cherokee Legislative Council passes a law which requires
the loser in any court cases appealed from the district level to the
Cherokee Superior Court, to pay a fee equal to 6% of the judgment in the
case. This fee goes into the Cherokee Treasury.
     1833: Captain John Page leaves Choctaw Agency, Mississippi with
1000 Choctaw for the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Many of
the Choctaw are old, lane, blind, or sick.
     1843: The Cherokee Nation sets up police force.
     1863: The Shoshone-Goshute sign a treaty (13 stat. 681) at Tuilla
Valley. Goshute signers included Adaseim, Harry-nup, Tabby, and
     1868: Lieutenant Edward Belger, Third Infantry, reports Indians
have attacked near Ellsworth, Kansas. One white man has been killed, and
several more are missing.
     1868: Army records indicate that members of the Seventh Cavalry
fight with a band of Indians on the Arkansas River in Kansas. Two
Indians are killed.
     1869: Army records indicate that members of the Eighth Cavalry
fight with a band of Indians near Red Rock, Arizona. Two Indians are
     1888: Sioux Indians arrive in Washington, D. C. for a conference.
     1936: An election is held to approve a Constitution and Bylaws for
the Quileute Tribe of Washington. The results are 37 to 12.


     October 13:    
     1528: According to some sources, Cabeza de Vaca and eighty other
Spaniards come across one of the mouths of the Mississippi River. They
are unable to enter the river though. They continue their journey west.
     1846: The Winnebago sign a treaty (9 stat. 878) at Washington, D.
     1864: Little Buffalo, with 700 of his fellow Comanche, and Kiowas,
launches a series of raids along Elm Creek, ten miles from the Brazos
River, in northwestern Texas. Sixteen Texans and perhaps, twenty Indians
are killed in the fighting with the settlers, and the Rangers, in the
     1868: Army records indicate that members of the Second Cavalry
fight with a band of Indians near the White Woman’s Fork of the
Republican River in Kansas. The fighting lasts until October 30th. Two
Indians are killed, and three are wounded.
     1874: A group of Navajo scouts, from New Mexico, attached to Major
George Price's Eighth Cavalry, attack a group of "hostile" Indians near
Gageby Creek, Indian Territory.
     1875: Adam Paine, a Private in the Seminole Negro Indian Scouts
receives the Medal of Honor for his actions in September 1874 in the
Texas Panhandle.
     1877: The Nez Perce and the army ferry across the Missouri River.
     1879: Settlers fight a group of Indians near Slocum’s Ranch in New
Mexico. According to army documents, eleven citizens are killed.
     1890: Kicking Bear is ordered to leave the reservation by Indian
police officers.
     1950: The Acting Secretary of the Interior authorizes an election
to approve a Constitution and By-Laws for the Eskimos of the Native
Village of Buckland, Alaska. The election is held on December 30, 1950.
     1972: The Superintendent, Northern Idaho Agency, has authorized an
election to approve an amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of the
Coeur d’Alene Tribe. The election is held on November 18, 1972.


     October 14:    
     1754: Anthony Henday represents the Hudson Bay Company. His is on
an expedition to try to set up trade between his company and the
Blackfeet . He has his first meeting with a Chief of that tribe. The
Chief tells Henday the Blackfeet have everything they need and there is
no need to trade with anyone.
     1756: General Joseph de Montcalm, leading French and Indian
warriors, capture Fort Oswego, in New York. Montcalm fires upon his
Indian allies when they attempt to kill the British forces after they
     1768: At Hard Labor, South Carolina, British Superintendent of
Indian Affairs meets with Cherokee Chiefs. They make a treaty which
cedes 100 square miles of Cherokee lands. The treaty is renegotiated in
two years.
     1804: As a punishment, Lewis and Clark lash a member of their
expedition. Indians who watch this “cry aloud.”
     1805: Lewis and Clark "appropriate" Indian lumber.
     1833: In Russell County, Alabama, a grand jury indicts United
States Army soldier James Emmerson for allegedly murdering Hardiman Owen
during a shootout. The army is assisting the United States Marshall in
an attempt to remove Owen from Creek land. Owen has filled his cabin
with explosives, and tries to kill the Marshal by setting it off. No one
is killed, and Owen escaped. When Owen is later surrounded, he is shot
when he tries to shoot a soldier. The army refuse to give up Emmerson.
Deputy Marshal Jeremiah Austill is arrested as an accessory to murder.
     1837: The second group of Cherokees to emigrate from the east,
under the New Echota Treaty, leave the Cherokee Agency, in eastern
Tennessee, on the Hiwassee River (present day Calhoun). The 365
Cherokees are supervised by B.B. Cannon. They travel on land, rather
than by boat, for most of their journey. They reach their new lands on
December 30, 1837. During the trip, four adults and eleven children die.

     1846: The Cherokee make a new law which states that anyone who
burns down a house will be sentenced to death.
     1864: The Unites States signs a treaty (16 stat. 707) with the
“Klamath, Moadoc tribes, and Yahooskin band of Snake.”
     1865: The Lower Brule Sioux sign a treaty (14 stat.699).
     1865: The Cheyenne and Arapaho sign a treaty (14 stat. 703) with
the United States. The Little Arkansas River is included in tribal
lands. The treaty derides Colonel Chivington for the Sand Creek
massacre. The United States Senate deletes this section. The United
States is represented by William W. Bent, Kit Carson, William Harney,
Jesse Leavenworth, Thomas Murphy, John Sanborn and James Steele.
     1866: Elements of the First Cavalry fight some Indians near Harney
Lake Valley, Oregon. One soldier is wounded, four Indians are killed,
and eight are captured according to army records.
     1868: Troop L, Fifth Cavalry is camped on Prairie Dog Creek in
Kansas. A band of Indians attacks the camp. One soldier is killed, and
the Indians make off with twenty-six cavalry horses.
     1868: According to Captain Penrose, of the Third Infantry, Satanta,
and his Kiowa warriors attack a wagon train on Sand Creek, Colorado. The
Indians take a Mrs. Blinn and her child captive. According to Penrose,
Blinn, and her child, are murdered by the Indians during General
Custer's attack on Black Kettle's camp on November 27, 1868 on the
     1869: Elements of the Eighth Cavalry are on Lyry Creek, Arizona,
this morning when they encounter "hostile Indians." For "bravery in
action" during the encounter, Privates David Goodman, John Raerick and
John Rowalt, Company L, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of
     1871: Indians skirmish with a group of settlers near Cienega Sauz,
Arizona, according to official army records. One settler is killed and
another is wounded.
     1872: Another large gathering of Sioux Indians attack Fort McKeen,
in central North Dakota. Soldiers, from the Sixth and Seventeenth
Infantry, and eight Ree Indian scouts charge the Sioux. Three Sioux, and
two soldiers are killed.
     1876: Men from Troop K, Second Cavalry, skirmish with a band of
Indians on Richard Creek, in Wyoming. One soldier is killed.
     1880: Victorio's Apaches are attacked by the Mexican army near Tres
Castillos, in Chihuahua, Mexico. Victorio is shot, and killed by a
Mexican sharpshooter. Many of his followers are killed, as well. The
Mexicans report killing seventy-eight men, and capturing sixty-eight
women and children. Some sources say this fight took place on October
     1891: Originally named Thocmetony (Shell Flower in Paiute), Sarah
Winnemucca was the granddaughter of Paiute Chief Truckee Winnemucca, and
daughter of Chief Winnemucca. She worked tirelessly to have the
traditional Paiute lands returned to the tribe. She dies from
     1907: In Collinsville, Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) an
event called “The Last Pow-Wow” takes place. It is intended as a
ceremonial farewell of surviving American Indian Chiefs. The event
continues through October 19th.
     1924: Land is auctioned in Bismarck, North Dakota. The minimum bid
is $1.25 per acre.
     1936: The Secretary of the Interior authorizes an election for
Amendments to the Constitution and By-Laws for the Oneida Tribe of
Indians of Wisconsin.
     1966: The Hoh Indian Tribe approves an official tribal roll in
accordance with Public Law 89-655 (80 Stat. 905).
     1980: An amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Suquamish
Indian Tribe of the Port Madison Reservation in the State of Washington
is passed in an election.
     1992: An act is passed in Congress (106 Stat. 2131) which
establishes an eighteen member advisory committee to study policies and
programs affecting California Indians.


     October 15:    
     625: Maya King B'alaj Chan K'awiil (Lightning Sky) is born. He
eventually becomes ruler at Dos Pilas, Guatemala.
     1606: Indians attack Samuel de Champlain's men at Chatham,
     1615: Samuel de Champlain, twelve Frenchmen, and many of his Huron
allies, attack the Iroquois town of Onondaga. Champlain is wounded, and
several Hurons are killed. Champlain gives up the attack. Because of
Champlain's actions, the Iroquois fight the French for years to come.
     1748: Lands are allotted to the Tuscarora Indians, by an act of the
North Carolina General Assembly at Newbern.
     1763: Earlier in the year, the father of Delaware Chief Captain
Bull is burned to death by white settlers. To retaliate, his son Captain
Bull, and his followers, attack, and destroy, most of the white
settlements in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania.
     1779: After Cornstalk dies, Black Fish (Chinugalla) becomes
Principal Chief of the Shawnee. He leads an attack on Boonesbourgh
starting on September 7, 1778. He becomes the adopted father of
Tecumseh, his four brothers, and one sister. Black Fish dies from wounds
he suffered during an attack on his village of Chalagawtha.
     1802: Louisiana is transferred to France.
     1813: While most sources report this happening on October 5th, some
sources report the British battling Indians on the Thames River in
Canada. Tecumseh is killed in the fighting.
     1836: A treaty with five different Indian Nations (“Otoes,
Missouries, Omahaws, and Yankton, and Santee bands of Sioux”) is signed
(7 stat.524).
     1866: Elements of the First Oregon Infantry fight some Indians near
Fort Klamath, Oregon. Two soldiers are wounded, Forteen Indians are
killed, and twenty are wounded, according to army records.
     1868: Indians attack a house on Fisher and Yocucy Creeks. Four
people are killed, one wounded, and one woman taken captive.
     1869: Troopers chase a band of Indians into the Mogollon Mountain,
New Mexico territory. After a brief struggle, the troopers recover
thirty stolen horses.
     1871: Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie’s troops have been seeking the
Comanches under Quanah Parker. They enter the Blanco Canyon. During the
next several days they have several skirmishes with Comanches. These
fights become known as the “Battle of Blanco Canyon.”
     1872: During the first Yellowstone expedition, Indians fight with
the army on numerous occasions. The army units involved are from the
Eighth, Seventeenth and Twenty-Second Infantry and Indian scouts. They
are led by Colonel D.S. Stanley, according to official army records.
Over the entire expedition, two officers (Lt. Eben Crosby and Lt. L.D.
Adair) and one civilian are killed or mortally wounded. The expedition
started on July 26th.
     1876: Lieutenant Colonel E.S. Otis' force of 237 soldiers, and
ninety-six wagons of supplies for the soldiers at the mouth of the
Tongue River, are attacked again on Spring Creek. This time the Indians
are approximately 800 strong, according to army reports. A running
battle continues. The Indians send numerous sorties against the wagons.
They also set fire to the prairie grass, forcing the wagons to drive
through the flames. Several people are killed and wounded on both sides.

     1880: Victorio's Apaches are attacked by the Mexican army near Tres
Castillos, in Chihuahua, Mexico. Victorio is shot, and killed by a
Mexican sharpshooter. Many of his followers are killed, as well. The
Mexicans report killing seventy-eight men, and capturing sixty-eight
women and children. Some sources say this fight took place on October
     1888: The Sioux Indian conference in Washington, D.C. begins.
     1890: Kicking Bird is removed from a reservation by Indian police.
     1936: The Secretary of the Interior authorizes an election to
approve a Constitution and By-1aws for the L’anse, Lac Vieux Desert, and
Ontoagon Bands of Chippewa Indians, residing within the original
confines of the L’Anse Reservation. The election is held on November 7,
     1979: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs authorizes a vote for the
approval of a new Constitution and By-Laws for the Ottawa Tribe of
Indians of Oklahoma. The election is held on December 19, 1980.
     1987: Ross Swimmer (Cherokee), Assistant Secretary of Indian
Affairs authorizes an election for the approval of a Constitution and
By-Laws for the Pascua Yaqui Indians.


     October 16:    
     1755: A band of Delaware Indians, numbering a little over a dozen,
attack the Penn's Creek village in Snyder County, Pennsylvania.
Depending on the source, nineteen to twenty-five settlers are killed and
a dozen are taken captive. This is the first uprising in the area in
living memory. The raids move from settlements around New Berlin to
Selinsgrove, according to account given at the time by settlers from the
     1826: The Potawatomi Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 295) with the
United States on the Wabash. The Americans are represented by Lewis
Cass, James Ray and John Tipton.
     1833: Twenty-one Chickasaw leaders, including Levi Colbert, Henry
Love, and William McGillivrey, leave Tuscumbia, Alabama to assess the
lands offered to them in the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) as
part of their removal proposal from the United States government. They
arrive in the Indian Territory on December 4th. The government wants
them to buy land from the Choctaws.
     1837: After having fought for the government in the Seminole Wars,
Jim Boy "Tustennuggee Emathla", a Creek leader, and some other Creek
Chiefs, arrive in New Orleans, en route to the Indian Territory (present
day Oklahoma).
     1855: The Blackfeet Treaty Council meets on the Judith River. They
sign a treaty (11 stat. 657) tomorrow.
     1867: The Medicine Lodge Creek peace conference begins between the
United States and most of the southern plains Indians. The United States
wants to establish one large reservation for all of these Indians. The
conference lasts until October 26th.
     1869: The Metis create the National Council of the Metis (Comité
National des Métis). This group is charged with representing the Metis
in negotiations with the Canadian government. Louis Riel is named
Secretary of the group.
     1870: Troop B, Eighth Cavalry, under Captain William McCleave,
skirmish with Indians in the Guadalupe Mountains, in New Mexico
Territory. One Indian is killed, and eight are captured.
     1876: The Black Hills treaty is signed by some Indians on the
Cheyenne Reservation.
     1876: Colonel E.S. Otis, and his wagon train for the soldiers at
the Tongue River, continues toward their destination. Indians continue
to snipe at Otis' forces. An Indian is spotted leaving a message in the
wagon's path. The message says: "I want to know what you are doing
traveling on this road. You scare all the buffalo away. I want to hunt
in this place. I want you to turn back from here. If you don't I will
fight you again. I want you to leave what you have got here and turn
back from here. I am your friend, Sitting Bull. I mean all the rations
you have got and some powder. Wish you would write as soon as you can."
Otis sends a reply stating he is going to the Tongue River, and if the
Indians want a fight, he will give them one. More sniping begins on both
sides. Soon two Indians appear under a flag of truce. They say Sitting
Bull wants to talk with Otis, but both sides cannot agree on the
location. Three Chiefs then come to Otis. They say they are hungry, and
want peace. Otis gives them 150 pounds of bread, and two sides of bacon.
Otis tells them if they wish to surrender, they can go to the Tongue
River camp, and talk there.
     1891: President Benjamin Harrison, by Executive Order, extends the
Hoopa Valley Indian reservation along the Klamath River to the Pacific
Ocean, except for lands ceded elsewhere.
     1940: A large group of Navajos enlist in the military.
     1946: The original Constitution and By-Laws of the Sisseton
Wahpeton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota are approved by John McGue for the
Commissioner of Indian Affairs.


     October 17:    
     1776: In November of 1775, Kumeyaay Indians destroy the Mission San
Diego de Alcala in what becomes San Diego, California. The Mission is
now ready to be occupied again.
     1782: Cherokee Indians sign the "Long Swamp" treaty with General
Andrew Pickens in Selacoa, Georgia. They cede land in Georgia as
reparations for the fighting during the Revolutionary War.
     1788: Gillespie's Station is located near Knoxville in Tennessee.
It is protected by a small group of local settlers and frontiersmen. A
force of Chickamaugas, led by Bloody Fellow, Categisky, Glass and John
Watts, attacks the station. The settlers are able to hold off the attack
until their ammunition ran out. The Chickamaugas then enter the
buildings and kill all of the men, and take the women as prisoners. Two
warriors claim the daughter of Colonel Gillespie as a prisoner. To
settle the argument, the warriors stab her to death. Most of the
prisoners are eventually traded for captured Indians.
     1802: A treaty (7 stat. 73) with the Choctaw is concluded at Fort
Confederation on the Tombigbee River. The original British boundary line
is to be redrawn, and established as the new boundary. Other parcels are
ceded for $1. Ten Indians sign the document.
     1805: Lewis and Clark stay with Sokulks Indians tonight..
     1840: Cherokee Judge John Martin dies near Fort Gibson, in eastern
Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). According to his gravestone, he
is the first Chief Justice of the Cherokee Supreme Court.
     1855: The United States signs a treaty (11 stat. 657) with three
major Indian Nations. These are the Blackfoot Nation, consisting of the
Piegan, Blood, Blackfoot, and Gros Ventres tribes of Indians; the
Flathead Nation, consisting of the Flathead, Upper Pend d’Oreille, and
Kootenay tribes of Indians; and the Nez Percé tribe”. This treaty
establishes the Fort Belknap Reserve. It is occupied by the "Grosventure
and Assiniboin tribes and covers 840 square miles."
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/2003w.html
     1858: Zuni warriors rescue twenty-five soldiers who are being
attacked by approximately 300 Navajos near Fort Defiance on the
Arizona-New Mexico boundary.
     1863: Kit Carson has been conducting a campaign against the Navajos
who have not reported to their assigned reservation. This is called the
Canyon de Chelly Campaign. Carson affects a scorched earth policy,
trying to starve the Navajos into submission. Two Navajos appear at Fort
Wingate, in western New Mexico, under a flag of truce. One of the two is
El Sordo, brother to Navajo leaders Barboncito, and Delgadito. He
proposest the Navajos live next to the fort, so the soldiers can keep an
eye on them at all times. They still do not wish to move away from their
homelands to the Bosque Redondo Reservation. The army turns down the
proposal, and insists the Navajos go to the reservation.
     1865: The United States signs a treaty (14 stat. 713) with three
different Indian Nations: "where as the Apache Indians, who have been
heretofore confederated with the Kiowa and Comanche tribes of Indians,
are desirous of dissolving said confederation and uniting their fortunes
with the said Cheyenees and Arapahoes; and whereas the said last-named
tribes are willing to receive among themselves . . . "
     1867: According to army records, members of the Sixth Cavalry fight
with a band of Indians near Deep Creek, Texas. Three Indians are
reported killed, and one is captured.
     1868: Cheyenne Indians are involved in a fight at Beaver Creek.
     1874: Indians fight with soldiers from the Sixth Cavalry near the
Washita River in Indian Territory. According to army documents, no
casualties are reported.
     1877: The Fort Walsh conference begins in Saskatchewan, Canada.
Participating in the conference are Sitting Bull, leader of the Lakota
Sioux; American General A.H. Terry, and Major James Walsh of the
North-West Mounted Police.
     1890: Indian Agent James "White Hair" McLaughlin writes a letter to
the government saying that Sitting Bull must be neutralized.
     1894: Fort Bowie, in southwestern Arizona, is closed by the army.
     1939: A Constitution and By-Laws for the Alabama-Coushattas which
is approved on August 19, 1938, is ratified.
     1974: The Acting Deputy Commissioner of Indian Affairs authorizes
an election to approve the Revised Constitution and By-Laws of the
Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. The election is held on December
17, 1974.
     1978: The Triball Controlled Community College Assistance Act of
October 17, 1978 (106 Stat. 797) is passed by Congress. Its purpose is
to “provide for grants for the operation and improvement of tribally
controlled community colleges to ensure continued and expanded
educational opportunities for Indian students. Encourages partnership
between institutes of higher learning and secondary schools serving low
income and disadvantaged students to improve retention and graduation
rates, improve academic skills, increase opportunities and employment
prospects of secondary students.”
     1984: President Reagan signs the Indian Restoration Act.
     1988: The Indian Gaming Regulation Act of October 17, 1988 (102
Stat. 2468) is passed by Congress. Its purpose is to “provide a
statutory basis for the operation of gaming by Indian tribes as a means
of promoting economic development, self-sufficiency; to regulate gaming
to shield it from organized crime and other corrupting influences so
that tribe is the primary beneficiary, to assure that gaming is fair and
honest by operator and players; to establish an independent Federal
regulatory authority for gaming, establish Federal standards for gaming,
and to protect gaming as a means of generating tribal revenue.”
     Every: Many Pueblo Indians celebrate St. Margaret Mary Day.


     October 18:     
     1540: Hernando de Soto arrives at the Mobile Indian village of
Mabila, in present-day Clark County, Alabama. As they approach the
village, Tascaluca disappears into a building. The Mobile Indians, under
Chief Tuscaloosa (Tascaluca), attack de Soto's invading army. In the
bloody conflict, as many as 3,000 Indians are killed by the armored
Spaniards. Approximately twenty Spaniards are killed, and 150 wounded,
including de Soto, according to their chroniclers.
     1683: According to some sources, representatives of Pennsylvania
purchases several sections of land from the Delaware Indians.
     1724: French peace envoy Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont has been sent
from Fort Orleans to establish peace among the Indians of modern Kansas
(part of then Louisiana). He meets the Padoucas in their home territory.
     1770: The Lochabar Treaty is negotiated between Virginia and the
Cherokees. This moves the Virginia boundaries to the west. Virginia is
represented by John Donelson, Alexander Cameron, and John Stuart.
     1805: Lewis and Clark meet Yelleppit, a WallaWalla Chief.
     1820: A treaty (7 stat. 210) is negotiated between Andrew Jackson
and the Choctaws. The Choctaws give up lands in Mississippi for land in
western Arkansas and what becomes Indian Territory (present day
Oklahoma). Part of the lands Jackson promised to the Indians belong to
Spain, or are already settled by Europeans. This is called the Treaty of
Doak's Stand. Chief Pushmataha is one of the signers. This is the first
treaty which involves the movement of tribes to Indian Territory.
     1848: The Menominee sign a treaty (9 stat. 952) at “at Lake
Pow-aw-hay-kon-nay, in the State of Wisconsin”.
     1864: The United States signs a treaty (14 stat. 637) with the
Chippewa, Ottawa and Potowatomi.
     1865: The Comanche and the Kiowa sign a treaty on the Little
Arkansas River in Kansas (14 stat.717). Twenty-four Indians sign the
treaty. The United States is represented by John. B. Sanborn, William
S. Harney, Thomas Murphy, Kit Carson, William W. Bent, Jesse H.
Leavenworth, and James Steele.
     1867: Third Cavalry Soldiers from Fort Union (New Mexico) have been
tracking a group of Mescalero Apache who stole a herd of cattle from
near the fort. The soldiers, under Capt. Francis H. Wilson, finally
catch the Mecalero in Texas. A fight ensues and the Indians flee the
     1867: According to army records, members of the Third Cavalry fight
with a band of Indians near Sierra Diablo, New Mexico. One soldier is
killed, and six are wounded. The army reports twenty-five to thirty
Indians are killed.
     1868: Captain L.H. Carpenter, and cavalry troops from companies H,
I, and M are on Beaver Creek in Kansas, when they engage a large group
of Indians. According to army reports, three soldiers are wounded, and
ten Indians are killed.
     1876: On this night, Colonel E.S. Otis' wagon trail is met by
Colonel Nelson Miles, who has brought out his regiment to escort them to
the camp. Otis delivers his goods, and return to the Glendive Creek camp
on October 26th.
     1886: Tenth Cavalry soldiers capture a group of eight Indians in
the Black River Mountains of Arizona, according to army documents.
     1926: The Office of Indian Affairs receives and records the
official Annuity Pay Roll (official tribal roll) for the Chitimacha
Tribe of Louisiana.
     1969: The Acting Assistant Commissioner of Indian Affairs has
authorized an election to amend the Constitution and By-Laws of the
Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin. The results are 304 to 95 in
     1972: Amendment I to the Revised Constitution and By-Laws of the
Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota becomes effective when it
is approved by BIA Area Director Wyman Babby.


     October 19:    
     612: Maya Queen Muwaan Mat (Lady Beastie) ascends to the throne in
Palenque, Mexico.
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/mayae.html
     1675: Nipmuck, Norwottock and Pocumtuck warriors under Nipmuck
Sachem attack the British settlement of Hatfield in New England. The
fight is eventually terminated when neither side can get the upper hand.
     1724: French peace envoy Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont finally
encountered the “Padouca” in their own lands yesterday. Today he holds a
grand council with more than 2,000 Indians. According to a journal of
the expedition, he will “exhort them to live as brethren with their
neighbors, the Panimhas, Aiaouez, Othouez, Canzas, Missouris, Osages and
Illinois, and to traffic and truck freely together, and with the
     1818: Andrew Jackson and Isaac Shelby represent American interests
in a treaty conference. The Chickasaws cede their claims to lands in
Tennessee (7 stat.192).
     1836: Lieutenant Colonel John Lane, with 690 Creek warriors, and
ninety soldiers, reaches Fort Drane northwest of present-day Ocala,
Florida. They are there to fight the Seminoles.
     1838: The Iowa Indians sign a treaty. (7 stat.568)
     1841: Tallahassee Seminole Chief Tiger Tail (Thlocko Tustennuggee)
surrenders to American forces based on the intervention of Seminole
Chief Alligator (Hallpatter Tustennuggee). In only three months, though,
Tiger Tail escapes from government detention in Fort Brooke.
     1846: The Mormon Battalion blazes a trail through Indian country.
     1865: The "Two Kettle Band" and "Blackfeet Sioux" sign a treaty (14
stat. 699).
     1868: Army records indicate that members of the Eighth Cavalry
fight with a band of Indians near the Dragoon Fork of the Verde River in
Arizona. One soldiers is wounded, and seven Indians are killed.
     1871: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from the Fourth
Cavalry Infantry on the Freshwater Fork of the Brazos River in Texas,
according to official army records. Two Indians are killed. Colonel
Ranald Mackenzie is leading the troops, and he is wounded in the
     1888: The Sioux are engaged in a conference in Washington, D.C.
They make a counter offer to a government proposal.
     1935: The Constitution and By-Laws of the Fort Belknap Indian
Community of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation in Montana are
     1945: American Indian John N. Reese posthumously receives the
Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions in World War II.
     1973: The Indian tribal Funds Allotment and Distribution Act (39
Stat. 128, 87 Stat. 466, 101 Stat. 886). The act is intended “to
distribute funds appropriated in satisfaction of judgments of Indian
Claims Commission and the Court of Claims, and for other purposes.”


     October 20:    
     681: Maya King Itzamnaaj B'alam II(Shield Jaguar) ascends to the
throne in Yaxchilan, Mexico.
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/mexico17.html
     1539: Led by Juan de Ayasco, thirty cavalrymen leave Hernando de
Soto's winter quarters in Apalachee, Florida. They proceed to Tampa to
escort the remainder of de Soto's army to his winter quarters. En route,
the Spaniards have many battles with the local natives.
     1774: Georgia Governor James Wright signs a treaty with the Creek
Indians in Savannah. They agree to reestablish trade, which the Creeks
want. The Creeks agree to give up some land along the Ocmulgee and
Oconee Rivers, and to execute two Creek warriors accused of killing some
settlers. Some sources say this treaty is signed on October 2nd.
     1832: Marks Crume, John Davis, and Jonathan Jennings, representing
the United States, and Potawatomi Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 378) at
Tippecanoe. The Indians give up lands near Lake Michigan for $15,000 a
year, debt relief, and for supplies.
     1832: The Chickasaws sign a treaty (7 stat. 381) for their removal
to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), at the Pontotoc Creek
Council House in Mississippi. Their lands (6,422,400 acres) are sold,
and the government hold the proceeds for them. General John Coffee
represents the United States.
     1865: The Sans Arcs Band Sioux, Hunkpapa Sioux, and the Yanktonai
Sioux sign a treaty (14 stat. 731).
     1869: While fighting with "hostiles" in the Chiricahua Mountains of
Arizona, Corporal Charles H. Dickens, Private John L. Donahue, Private
John Georgian, blacksmith Mosher A. Harding, Sergeant Frederick Jarvis,
Private Charles Kelley, trumpeter Bartholomew Keenan, Private Edwin L.
Elwood, Corporal Nicholas Meaher, Private Edward Murphy, First Sergeant
Francis Oliver, Private Edward Pengally, Corporal Thomas Powers;
Privates James Russell, Charles Schroeter, Robert Scott, Sergeant
Andrew Smith; Privates Theodore Smith, Thomas Smith, Thomas J. Smith,
William Smith, William H. Smith, Orizoba Spence, George Springer;
saddler Christian Steiner; Privates Thomas Sullivan, James Sumner;
Sergeant John Thompson; Privates John Tracy, Charles Ward, Enoch Weiss,
Companies B and G, Eighth Cavalry, will win the Congressional Medal of
Honor for "gallantry in action." Two soldiers and eighteen Indians are
killed. Lt. John Lafferty and two enlisted men are wounded.
     1875: An Executive Order sets aside certain lands in New Mexico to
serve as a reservation for Mescalero Apaches. This order cancels the
Executive Order of February 2, 1874.
     1875: By an Executive Order, a tract of land in Montana is
"withdrawn from public sale and set apart for the use of the Crow tribe
of Indians...to be added to their reservation." This tract covers 5,475
square miles and is occupied by Mountain and River Crow, according to
government records.
     1876: After being informed by Colonel E.S. Otis, of Sitting Bull's
request to end the warring, Colonel Nelson Miles, and his regiment of
398 men, set out to find Sitting Bull. Colonel Miles finds him near
Cedar Creek, Montana, north of the Yellowstone River. The Colonel, and
Sitting Bull, parley between the lines of the Indians, and the soldiers,
at Sitting Bull's request. Sitting Bull wants to trade for ammunition so
he can hunt buffalo. He will not bother the soldiers, if they do not
bother him. Miles tells Sitting Bull of the government's demands for a
surrender. While neither side is pleased, both agree to meet tomorrow.
     1879: While leaders for the army, and the Utes, are negotiating for
the end of the hostilities, the handing over of the "hostile" Ute
leaders, and the release of prisoners held by the Utes, soldiers and
Utes clash on the White River, in Colorado. First Lieutenant William P.
Hall, and a scouting party of three men from the Fifth Cavalry, are
attacked by thirty-five Indians about twenty miles from the White River.
The fighting lasts most of the day, until after sunset, when the
soldiers retreat to their main camp. The army reports two people killed
on each side of the battle. Lieutenant Hall will be awarded the
Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions.
     1959: The Revised Constitution and By-Laws of the Sisseton Wahpeton
Sioux Tribe of South Dakota is voted on. It is approved by a vote of 251
to 81.
     1970: Today through October 22nd, the Indian Education Conference
is held in California.


     October 21:    
     1763: Pontiac ends the siege of Detroit.
     1769: The Spanish arrive in San Francisco Bay.
     1770: Spanish and Opata Indians forces, led by Bernardo de Gálvez,
cross the Rio del Norte (Rio Grande) into modern Texas near modern
Ojinaga, Chihuahua. This is a punitive expedition directed toward the
Apache. A former Apache captive is leading them to the village where he
was held.
     1837: Two treaties (7 stat. 540, 7 stat. 541) are signed by the Sac
and Fox Indians. The Yankton Sioux also sign a treaty (7 stat. 542).
     1837: After helping to lead a large group of Seminoles out of a
relocation camp in Tampa Bay, Chief Osceola is pursued by American
forces under General Thomas Jesup. While operating under direct orders
of General Jesup, soldiers invite Osceola to talk under a white flag of
truce. When Osceola joins them, he is taken captive. This is also
reported to happen, in some sources, on October 27th.
     1841: The Cherokees in Oklahoma outlaw the carrying of concealed
     1867: Today (through October 28th) starts the biggest US-Indian
conference ever held. The conference is held near Fort Dodge, Kansas
near what is called Medicine Lodge Creek. The name comes from a Kiowa
"medicine lodge" which is still standing from a recent Kiowa "sun dance"
ceremony. Of the Kiowa and Comanche treaty (15 Stat. 589), some of the
ten Kiowa signers are: Satanta, Satank, Black Bird, Kicking Bird, and
Lone Bear. Ten Comanches, including Ten Bears sign, as will six Apaches.
The United States is represented by Commissioner N.G. Taylor, Willaim
Harney, C. C. Augur, Alfred H. Terry, John B. Sanborn, Samuel F. Tappan.
and J. B. Henderson. Representing the Indians are ten Kiowas.
     1868: Army records indicate that members of the Eighth Cavalry and
Fourteenth Infantry fight with a band of Indians between Fort Verde and
Fort Whipple in Arizona. One soldier is wounded.
     1876: The "peace conference" between Sitting Bull, and Colonel
Nelson Miles, continues. Both sides repeat their term as stated
yesterday. Neither side is willing to compromise. Sitting Bull is told
that by not accepting Miles' terms, he is committing a hostile act. Both
sides quickly separate, and fighting soon break out. According to army
reports, the 1,000 Indians are driven back for forty-two miles. They
abandon great quantities of supplies in their retreat, including five
dead. Miles is referred to as "Bear Coat" by the Indians because of his
fur jacket. For "gallantry in action" in the battle actions which begin
today and run through January 8, 1877, Private Christopher Freemeyer,
Company D, Fifth Infantry; musician John Baker, Company D; Private
Richard Burke, Company G; Sergeant Denis Byrne, Company G; Private
Joseph A. Cable, Company I; Private James S. Calvert, Company C;
Sergeant Aquilla Coonrod, Company C; Private John S. Donelly, Company G;
Corporal John Haddoo, Company B; First Sergeant Henry Hogan, Company G;
Corporal David Holland, Company A; Private Fred O. Hunt, Company A;
Corporal Edward Johnston, Company C; Private Philip Kennedy, Company C;
First Sergeant Wendelin Kreher, Company C; First Sergeant Michael
McCarthy, Troop H; Private Michael McCormick, Company G; Private Owen
McGar, Company C; Private John McHugh, Company A; Sergeant Michael
McLoughlin, Company A; Sergeant Robert McPhelan, Company E; Corporal
George Miller, Company H; Private Charles Montrose, Company I; First
Sergeant David Roche, Company A; Private Henry Rodenburg, Company A;
Private Edward Rooney, Company D; Private David Ryan, Company G; Private
Charles Sheppard, company A; Sergeant William Wallace, Company C;
Private Patton Whitehead, Company C; and Corporal Charles Willson,
Company H, will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.
     1878: Red Cloud Agency Indians offer to capture Dull Knife's
Cheyennes, if they can keep the horses and weapons they capture.
     1961: An election for a proposed amendment to the Constitution of
the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe is held. The vote is 775-pro, 119-con.
     1978: The Area Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Vincent
Little, authorizes an election for a fourth amendment to the
Constitution and By-Laws for the Shoalwater Bay Indian Organization in
Washington State. It is held and it passes.
     1980: William Hallett, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, approves a
Constitution for the “California Indians of the Robinson Rancheria.
     1996: Executive Order 13021 is issued by President Clinton. It
deals with Indian education. Among other things, it establishes in the
“Department of Education a Presidential advisory committee entitled the
President's Board of Advisors on Tribal Colleges and Universities.”


     October 22:    
     612: Palenque Maya Lady Zac - Kuk ascends the throne according to
the museum at Palenque.
     726: Maya King Itzamnaaj K'awiil (Shield God K) dies according to a
stele at Dos Pilas (Guatemala).
     1784: Richard Butler, Arthur Lee, and Oliver Walcott, representing
the United States, and twelve Iroquois Indians sign a treaty (7 stat.
15) ceding much of their lands in New York, Pennsylvania, and west of
the Ohio River, and reestablishing peace after the Revolutionary War.
The treaty signed at Fort Stanwix, near modern Rome, New York, is
repudiated by most of the Iroquois.
     1785: Boats carrying seventy soldiers, under the leadership of
Captain Walter Finney, land at the juncture of the Great Miami and the
Ohio Rivers. They build a fort here called Fort Finney.
     1790: Little Turtle, and his Miami followers, fight with Josiah
Harmar and his 300 soldiers and 1,200 militia while they are attempting
to ford the Wabash near modern Fort Wayne, Indiana. The Americans
sustain more than 200 killed and wounded. This is a part of what is
called “Little Turtle’s War.”
     1804: Lewis and Clark visit a Sioux war party.
     1829: According to some sources, gold is found in Cherokee
     1859: The "Camp on Pawnee Fork", which eventually becomes Fort
Larned, is established in Kansas. The military base is established to
protect travelers on the Santa Fe Trail from "hostile Indians." The fort
is abandoned almost twenty years later.
     1864: General James Charlatan issues General Order #32 to Colonel
Christopher "Kit" Carson. Carson is ordered to proceed from New Mexico,
along the Canadian River, into the panhandle of Texas. He is to find,
and "punish" the Comanches, and Kiowas, who have been raiding in the
area. Carson’s force includes 335 soldiers, and seventy-four Ute and
Apache Indians, led by Ute Chief Kaniatze.
     1874: J.J. Saville is the agent at the Red Cloud Agency
Reservation. He has some workers cut down a tree in preparations to make
a flagpole. When the bare tree is laid down at the agency headquarters,
some Indians ask its purpose. The Indians protest the idea of a flag
flying at the agency. They say it is a symbol of the army, and they do
not like it. Saville is not moved by the Indians' complaints.
     1877: Settlers fight a group of Indians near Flat Rocks, Texas.
According to army documents, one settler is killed.
     1878: Major George Ilges, and Seventh Infantry soldiers from Fort
Benton, in northern Montana, capture a group of thirty-five "half-breed"
British Canadian Indians trespassing in Montana.
     1890: Catherine Weldon leaves Standing Rock Agency.
     1895: According to the Oklahoma Law Enforcement Memorial, a group
of U S Indian officers go to the Quapaw Reservation to evict members of
a family who had been removed once but returned. As the officers
approach the house, Amos Vallier, a friend with the family, opens fire
on the officers with a shotgun striking Officer Joe Big Knife in the
head killing him.
     1955: An election has been authorized to adopt an amended
Constitution and By-Laws for the Hualapai Tribe of the Haulapai
Reservation in Arizona by the Assistant Secretary of the Interior. It is
approved by a vote of 90 to 17.
     1985: An election approves Amendments XVI and XVII to the
Constitution and Bylaws of the Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior
Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin.


     October 23:    
     1518: Diego de Velásquez, the governor of Cuba, , appoints Hernán
Cortés "captain-general" of an expedition to Mexico.
     1823: According to Cherokee records, Creek Chief William McIntosh,
representing United States Indian commissioners, attempts to bribe
Cherokee leaders. For $12,000 McIntosh hopes Chiefs John Ross and
Charles Hicks, and Council Clerk Alexander McCoy tries to convince the
Cherokees to cede lands to the United States. The Cherokee leaders
refuse the offer with a show of indignation.
     1826: The Miami sign a treaty (7 stat. 300) on the Wabash. The
Americans are represented by Lewis Cass, James Ray and John Tipton.
     1834: The Miami sign a treaty (7 stat. 458) on the Wabash. The
Americans are represented by William Marshall.
     1862: Pro-Union Delaware and Shawnee warriors attack the Wichita
     1864: Sioux Indians and Captain Pell parley at Fort Dill.
     1866: Elements of the Second Cavalry fight some Indians on the
North Fork of the Platte River near Fort Sedgwick, Colorado. Two
soldiers are wounded, four Indians are killed, and seven are wounded,
according to army records.
     1868: In a skirmish at Fort Zarah, near present-day Great Bend, in
central Kansas, two Indians and two whites are killed.
     1869: Following a group of "hostiles,” troopers enter the Miembres
Mountains in New Mexico Territory. During a fight, three Indians are
killed, and three are wounded. Only one soldier is injured.
     1874: This morning, a bunch of Sioux take axes to the stripped tree
that Red Cloud Agency Agent J.J. Saville has planned as a flagpole. The
Indians do not want a flag on their reservation. When Saville gets no
help in stopping the choppers from Indian leaders, he sends a worker to
get help from Fort Robinson, in northwest Nebraska. As the two dozen
soldiers from the fort are riding toward the agency, a large group of
angry Sioux surrounds them. They try to instigate a fight. Suddenly, the
Sioux police, led by Young Man Afraid of His Horses, ride up and form a
cordon around the soldiers. The Sioux police escort the soldiers to the
agency stockade, averting a possible fight. Many Sioux are frustrated by
the events, and leave the reservation.
     1874: Indians fight with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry and some
Indians scouts near the Old Pueblo Fork of the Little Colorado River in
Arizona. According to army documents, sixteen Indians are killed, and
one is captured.
     1876: Having surrounded Red Cloud and Red Leaf's camp last night,
Colonel Ranald MacKenzie, and eight troops of cavalry, approach the
camp, after daybreak. The Indians surrender without a fight, near Camp
Robinson, Nebraska.. The camp has 400 warriors, and numerous women and
     1877: Miles and the Nez Perce arrive at Fort Keogh.
     1878: Dull Knife, and his Cheyenne followers are en route to the
Red Cloud Agency to get some food from Red Cloud's people. A sudden
snowstorm hits them. Out of the snow comes Captain J.B. Johnson, and
Troops B, and D, Third Cavalry. After a brief parlay, the 149 Northern
Cheyenne, including Dull Knife, Old Crow, and Wild Hog surrender near
Fort Robinson, in northwestern Nebraska. Little Wolf, with fifty-three
men, and eighty-one women and children, have split off from Dull Knife
recently. They manage to avoid the soldiers, and escape into the Sand
Hills. While Dull Knife's people are marched to Fort Robinson, they hide
most of their best weapons. They only give up their old rifles and guns.
# You can see pictures of this area on my website at:
# http://americanindian.net/2003p.html
     1953: Orme Lewis, Assistant Secretary of the Interior, ratifies a
Constitution and Bylaws approved by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm
Springs Reservation Of Oregon in an election held on August 8, 1953.
     1978: The Area Director, Aberdeen Area Office of the Bureau of
Indian Affairs, authorizes an election to amend the Revised Constitution
and By-Laws for the Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota. The
election takes place on November 7, 1978.


     October 24:    
     1778: From today until December 3, 1786, Domingo Cabello y Robles
serves as Governor of Texas. During his term, he arranges a peace with
the Comanche.
     1785: U.S. representatives attempt to hold a treaty conference with
the Creek. Few Indians attend the meeting.
     1801: The Chickasaw Natchez Trace Treaty (7 stat. 65) is endorsed
by the Chickasaw at Chickasaw Bluffs. The United States gets the right
to make a road from the Mero District in Tennessee, to Natchez in
Mississippi, for a payment of $700 in goods. Seventeen Indians sign the
     1804: The Cherokee sign a treaty at Wafford's Settlement in the
Tellico Garrison (7 stat.228). The Cherokees cede the area known as
"Wafford's Settlement." The Cherokee receive $5000 now, and $1000
annually. The treaty is signed by Return Meigs for the United States,
and by ten Cherokees.
     1805: Lewis and Clark meet the Echeloots. The explorers are
impressed by the Echeloot's wooden homes.
     1816: The Treaty of Fort Stephens (7 stat. 152) signed with the
Choctaw pay them $16,000 a year, for twenty years, for lands between the
Alabama and the Tombigbee Rivers in Alabama.
     1832: A treaty (7 stat. 391) is signed at Castor Hill, the home of
William Clark, with the Kickapoos. They cede their southwestern Missouri
lands for land in Kansas near Fort Leavenworth.
     1834: According to government records, as part of a conference at
Fort King, Florida to relocate the Seminoles, Chief Charlie Emathla
gives a speech. He says they have a treaty which allows them to stay
where they were for twenty years. Only thirteen years have passes at the
time of the conference
     1840: Colonel John Moore with ninety Texans, and twelve "friendly"
Lipan Indians, come upon a Comanche village on the Red Fork of the
Colorado River, in central Texas. The Texans sneak up on the village,
and attack. According to the Texans, 148 Comanches are killed, and
thirty-four are captured. Only one Texan dies. The Texans also seize
almost 500 horses. The village is burned.
     1858: According to some sources, Lieutenant Howland, and soldiers
from Fort Deliverance, capture Navajo Chief Terribio, and twenty other
     1862: A fight takes place in Indian Territory (present day
Oklahoma) near Fort Cobb. Pro-Union Comanches, Kickapoos, Kiowas and
Shawnees attack the Indian agency. Then they strike the nearby Tonkawa
village. Chief Plácido and 137 of the 300 other Tonkawas are killed in
the fighting.
     1871: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from the Third
Cavalry near Horseshoe Canyon, Arizona, according to official army
records. One civilian is killed, and one soldier is wounded.
     1874: Major G.W. Schofield, and three troops from the Tenth
Cavalry, charge a village on Elk Creek, in Indian Territory (present day
Oklahoma). The "hostiles" surrender under a flag of truce. Sixty-nine
warriors, and 250 women and children are taken into custody. Almost
2,000 horses are recovered.
     1924: An order is issued which modifies the Jicarilla Apache lands
which have been opened for settlement. The order lasts until March 5,
     1936: An election for a proposed Constitution and Bylaws for the
Hopi Tribe is held. The results are 651 to 104 in favor according to the
Constitution itself.
     1936: An election for a proposed Constitution and Bylaws for the
Yavapai-Apache Tribe is held. The results are 86 to 0 in favor.
     1963: An election for an amendment to the Constitution for the
Standing Rock Sioux Tribe is held. The vote is 750 to 194 in favor.


     October 25:    
     1755: After the attack on the Penn's Creek village in Snyder
County, Pennsylvania on October 16th, a group of men go to the area to
bury the dead. The Delaware who attacked the village also attack this
group, killing several people in the process.
     1764: Colonel Henry Bouquet has led a force of more than 1,500
soldiers into Ohio looking for captives of the recent wars and hostile
Indians. Near modern Coshocton, Ohio, local Indians deliver over 200
prisoners to Bouquet. Many of the smaller children do not wish to leave
their “adopted” Indian parents.
     1805: The Cherokee sign a treaty with Return Meigs on the Duck
River at Tellico, covering land north of the Tennessee River in Kentucky
and Middle Tennessee (7 Stat. 93).
     1841: The Cherokee Council outlaws spirituous liquors.
     1853: Captain John Gunnison, and eight others with the Pacific
Railroad surveying along the 38th parallel, are killed during a fight
with Paiute Indians in the Sevier River valley of Utah. The Paiute
hunting party of twenty are led by Moshoquop. Moshoquop's father has
been killed by other whites only days before. The Mormons and the
Paiutes have been fighting for some time. Some sources put this fight on
October 26th.
     1862: The Tonkawas are living on a reservation in the Washita River
in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma), after having been removed
from a reservation on the Brazos River, in Texas. The Tonkawas have
earned the enmity of other tribes because they act as scouts for the
army. Delaware, Shawnee, and Caddo Indians attack the Tonkawa village.
137 of the 300 Tonkawas are killed in the raid. Some sources say the
Comanche, Kiowa and Wichita are also involved.
     1867: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry
fight with a band of Indians near Truxell Springs, Arizona. One Indian
is killed.
     1868: Major E.A. Carr, and Troops A, B, F, H, I, L, and M, Fifth
Cavalry, encounter a large group of Indians on Beaver Creek, in Kansas.
During the fight, according to Carr, only one soldier is wounded, while
thirty Indians are killed. The Indians also lose about 130 ponies,
during the fight. The fight lasts two days.
     1872: Indians skirmish with a group of soldiers from the Fifth
Cavalry Infantry in the Santa Maria Mountains and on Sycamore Creek in
Arizona, according to official army records. Nine Indians are killed in
the fighting which lasts until November 3rd.
     1878: Dull Knife, and his 150 Cheyenne reach Fort Robinson, in
northwestern Nebraska, and surrender to Major Caleb Carlton. After
Carlton is replaced by Captain Henry Wessells, Dull Knife discovers his
Cheyenne will be returned to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma).
They refuses to leave voluntarily, and Dull Knife says he would rather
die, than leave his homeland. The camp commander locks them in a
barrack, and slowly tries to get their cooperation by cutting off their
provisions. This method does not work (see January 9, 1879).
     1890: Sitting Bull pays his last visit to Standing Rock Agency.
     1910: The Rancheria for the Tuolumne Band of Me-Wok Indians is
deeded, according to their constitution.
     1949: By Presidential Proclamation #2860, the Effigy Mounds in Iowa
are designated a National Monument.


     October 26:    
     1676: Indian fighter Nathaniel Bacon dies.
     1809: The Wea Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 116) at Vincennes,
     1832: Marks Crume, John Davis, and Jonathan Jennings, representing
the United States, and Potawatomi Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 394) at
Tippecanoe. For $20,000 annually and $30,000 worth of supplies, the
Indians give up large sections of land.
     1832: The Shawnees, and Delaware sign a treaty (7 stat. 397) at
Castor Hill, William Clark's home. They cede their land at Cape
Girardeau for land in Kansas.
     1853: Captain John Gunnison, and eight others in the Pacific
Railroad survey along the 38th parallel, are killed during a fight with
Paiute Indians in the Sevier River valley of Utah. The Paiute hunting
party of twenty are led by Moshoquop. Moshoquop's father has been killed
by other whites only days before. The Mormons and the Paiutes have been
fighting for some time. Some sources put this fight on October 25th. The
is sometimes considered a part of the “Walker War.”
     1866: Elements of the First Cavalry fight some Indians near Lake
Albert, Oregon. Two soldiers are wounded, forteen Indians are killed,
and seven are captured, according to army records
     1867: According to army records, members of the Second Cavalry
fight with a band of Indians near Shell Creek, Dakota Territory. No one
is reported injured in the skirmish.
     1867: According to army records, members of the First and Eighth
Cavalry fight with a band of Indians near Camp Winfield Scott, Nevada.
Three Indians are reported killed, and four are captured.
     1868: The Beaver Creek, Kansas fight concludes, while in Central
City, New Mexico, three citizens are killed by Indians.
     1876: Pierre Falcon, Metis singer, songwriter, dies.
     1877: Chief Joseph's "I will fight no more" speech is first
     1880: At the Mescalero Agency, in Fort Stanton Reservation, in
southern New Mexico, seven Apache men, and seventeen women and children,
     1882: The Navy shells the Tlingits.


     October 27:    
     1795: Spain sign the San Lorenzo Treaty with the United States. The
treaty allows American boats to use the Mississippi River in Spanish
Territory. It also confirms the northern boundary of the Spanish
Territories as the 31st parallel. The Spanish are required to abandon
all forts and lands north of that line. Both countries agree to
"control" the Indians within their boundaries.
     1804: Lewis and Clark reach the Mandans.
     1805: As a part of the Cherokee treaty (7 stat. 95) at Kingston,
the area around modern Kingston, Tennessee, called "Southwest Point"
during that time, is ceded. They also cede the first island of the
Tennessee River. It is officially given up later on January 7, 1806.
This treaty is signed at Tellico.
     1832: The Peoria, Lahokia, Michigamea, Tamaroa, and Kaskaskia
Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 403) at Castor Hill, William Clark's
home. They swap their Illinois lands for land in Kansas.
     1832: The Potawatomi Indians sign a treaty (7 stat. 399) on the
Tippecanoe River.
     1837: After helping to lead a large group of Seminoles out of a
relocation camp in Tampa Bay, Chief Osceola is pursued by American
forces under General Thomas Jesup. Today, while operating under direct
orders of General Jesup, soldiers invite Osceola to talk under a white
flag of truce. When Osceola joins them, he is taken captive. This is
also reported to have happened, in some sources, on October 21st.
     1837: The second group of emigrating Cherokees reaches Nashville,
Tennessee. A few of the Cherokee leaders in this group visit President
Jackson, who is visiting the area. They leave the next day.
     1867: After several delays, 500 Cheyenne warriors storm down on the
Medicine Lodge Creek conference. After speeches on both sides, it
becomes apparent the whites want all of the land north of the Arkansas
     1875: Troop H, Fifth Cavalry, under Captain J.M. Hamilton from Fort
Wallace, in western Kansas, attack a group of Indians near Smoky Hill
River, Kansas. During the fight, two Indians are reported killed, and
one soldier is wounded.
     1876: According to army reports, 2000 Indian men, women, and
children, 400 lodges, surrender to Colonel Nelson Miles on the Big Dry
River in Montana.
     1879: Captain Morrow follows Victorio, and his Warm Springs
Apaches, into Mexico. Twelve miles from the Corralitos River in the
Guzman Mountains, Morrow attacks. The army has one scout killed, and two
wounded. Being low on food, and water, Morrow withdraws to Fort Bayard,
in southwestern New Mexico.
     1948: In 1905, a large part of the Wind River Reservation in
Wyoming, occupied by the Shoshone and Arapaho tribes, is ceded to the
United States. They get a small part of that land back, according to
Federal Register Number 13FR08818.
     1952: The Federal Government is going to build the Yellowtail Dam
and Reservoir on a large part of the Crow Indian Reservation in Wyoming.
The land is condemned.
     1970: The Pit River Indians engage in a skirmish with local law
enforcement in Burney, California.
     1973: The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Interior has authorized
an election to approve an amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of
the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida. Amendment III is approved by
a vote of 44 to 8, Amendment IV is approved 39 to 13, Amendment V is
approved 42 to 10.
     1986: The Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and
Treatment, Act of 1986 (100 Stat. 3207-137) is passed. It is intended to
“develop a comprehensive, coordinated attack upon the illegal narcotics
traffic in Indian country and the deleterious impact of alcohol and
substance abuse upon Indian tribes and their members; provide direction
and guidance to program managers; modify or supplement existing
programs; provide authority and opportunity for tribal participation in
program management.”


     October 28:    
     1815: The Kansa Indians conclude a treaty (7 stat.137) at St.
Louis. The United States is represented by Auguste Chouteau and Ninian
     1851: The San Saba Treaty is signed at the Council Grounds between
the “United Sates, of the one part, and the undersigned chiefs
counsellors and head men of the Comanches, Lapans, & Mucalaroes tribes.”
     1852: Fort Chadbourne is established in west Texas near modern
Bronte. It was designed to protect the local settlers and the
Butterfield Stage from the local Comanches.
     1861: The Cherokee National Assembly declares war on the United
States of America. They have signed a treaty with the Confederated
States of America.
     1863: The Cherokee Capital is located in Tahlequah, Indian Teritory
(modern Oklahoma). The Cherokee Nation has been divided by the American
Civil War. Stand Watie supports the Confederacy. He, and his followers,
burn down the Capital buildings.
     1865: The Upper Yanktonai Sioux (14 stat.743) and the Oglala Sioux
(7 stat.747) sign treaties with the United States.
     1867: The Cheyenne and Arapaho Sign a treaty with the United States
(15 stat.593). The treaty affected approximately 2,250 Cheyennes and
2,000 Arapahos.
     1869: While scouting the country surrounding the Brazos River in
Texas, Forty-First Infantry Lieutenant George E. Albee, and two enlisted
men, encounter a group of eleven "hostile Indians", according to army
records. During the subsequent fighting, Albee's group drives the
Indians from the area. Albee wins the Congressional Medal of Honor for
his actions. Army records also indicate that members of the Fourth and
Ninth Cavalry, Twenty-Fourth Infantry and some Indians scouts fight with
a band of Indians near the headwaters of the Brazos River in Texas.
Fifty Indians are killed, and seven are captured. Eight soldiers are
wounded. The fighting lasts through tomorrow.
     1869: Army records indicate that settlers fight with a band of
Indians in the Miembres Mountains of New Mexico. One soldier and three
Indians are wounded. Three Indians are killed in the fighting.
     1873: Indians fight with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry, the
Twenty-Third Infantry and some Indian scouts in the Mazatzal Mountains,
Sycamore Springs and the Sunflower Valley in Arizona, according to army
documents. Twenty-five Indians are killed, and six are captured. The
fighting lasts through the 30th.
     1874: Twenty warriors, their families, and livestock, surrender to
soldiers from the Sixth and Tenth Cavalry, the Fifth and Eleventh
Infantry at Fort Sill, in southern Indian Territory (present day
Oklahoma), after being pursued for several days by Captain Carpenter,
and troops from the Tenth Cavalry. According to army documents, in
total, 391 Indians are captured in this expedition led by Lt. Colonel
J.W. Davidson, which lasts until November 8th.
     1880: Tenth Cavalry soldiers fight a group of Indians near Ojo
Caliente, Texas. According to army documents, five soldiers are killed.
     1932: The mineral rights sales ban for the Papago Reservation is
    1992: According to the Osage Constitution, the United States
District Court of the Northern District of Oklahoma rules on the case of
Fletcher vs. U.S. (90-C-248-E). The ruling allows for members of the
Osage Nation to hold an election on the adoption of a constitution. A
constitution is adopted on February 4, 1994 by a vote of 1931 to 1013.


     October 29:    
     373: Maya leader Bahlum-Kuk performs his accession ritual at
Palenque, Mexico.
     1712: Settlers in Portsmouth, New Hampshire hold a conference to
advise belligerent Indians that "Queen Anne's War" is over, and the
fighting should stop. It takes almost nine months before a local treaty
is signed.
     1804: Lewis and Clark hold a council with the Mandans.
     1805: Lewis and Clark meet the Chilluckittequaw Chief and medicine
     1832: The Piankashaw, and Wea Indians conclude a treaty (7 stat.
410) at Castor Hill, William Clark's home. They receive land in Kansas,
in exchange for their lands in Illinois, and Missouri.
     1837: 1600 Creeks, under Lieutenant T.P. Sloan, leave New Orleans,
on three steamboats.
     1853: Alabama Chief Antone, several subchiefs, and leading citizens
of Polk County submit a petition to the Texas Legislature. The petition
requests that lands in the area be set aside as a reservation for the
tribe. The Legislature sets aside 1,110.7 acres.
     1869: Army records indicate that members of the Fourth and Ninth
Cavalry, Twenty-Fourth Infantry and some Indians scouts fight with a
band of Indians near the headwaters of the Brazos River in Texas. Fifty
Indians are killed, and seven are captured. Eight soldiers are wounded.
The fighting started yesterday.
     1874: Indians fight with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry near Cave
Creek, Arizona. According to army documents, eight Indians are killed,
and five are captured.
     1880: According to army reports, almost fifty of Victorio's Indians
attack twelve Tenth Cavalry troopers, near Ojo Caliente, Texas. Four
soldiers are killed. The Indians escape into Mexico.
     1926: Bannock Chief Race Horse, also known as Racehorse and John
Racehorse, Sr., dies. He is one of the Bannock representative in the
law suit over the Fort Bridger Treaty which went to the U.S. Supreme
     1935: The Secretary of the Interior authorizes an election for a
constitution for the Indians of the Tulalip Tribes in Washington.
     1949: The land needed to make the Garrison Dam is ceded from the
Fort Berthold Reservation by an Act of Congress (63 Stat. 1026).


     October 30:    
     1763: Pontiac informs Major Henry Gladwin, Commander at Fort
Detroit, that he wants peace, and to end the fighting.
     1804: The Mandans like Lewis and Clark's men's dancing.
     1833: Captain Page, and 1000 Choctaws, arrive in Memphis. Some use
ferries, others march to Rock Roe, in Arkansas, the next leg of their
     1866: Elements of the Twenty-third Infantry fight some Indians near
Malheur County, Oregon. Two Indians are killed, three are wounded and
eight are captured, according to army records
     1868: Indians attack Grinnell Station, Kansas. One Indian is
     1868: Army records indicate that members of the Second Cavalry
fight with a band of Indians near the White Woman’s Fork of the
Republican River in Kansas. The fighting lasts until October 30th. Two
Indians are killed, and three are wounded
     1870: Indians attack a wagon train eighteen miles from Fort
Stanton, in southern New Mexico Territory. They stampede fifty-nine
mules. Cavalry eventually pursue the 259 miles, destroy their village,
recover the mules, and capture three Indians.
     1873: Indians fight with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry, the
Twenty-Third Infantry and some Indian scouts in the Mazatzal Mountains,
Sycamore Springs and the Sunflower Valley in Arizona, according to army
documents. Twenty-five Indians are killed, and six are captured. The
fighting started on the 28th.
     1873: Indians fight with soldiers from the Eighth Cavalry near
Pajarit Springs, New Mexico, according to army documents. Eighteen
Indians are captured.
     1876: President Grant, by Executive Order, revokes the White
Mountain-San Carlos (Chiricahua) Reserve. The area bounded by Dragoon
Springs to Peloncillo Mountain Summit to New Mexico to Mexico revert to
the public domain. The reserve is established on December 14, 1872.
     1937: An election for the adoption of a Constitution and Bylaws for
the Stockbridge Munsee Community of Wisconsin is held. The results are
119 for, 13 against.
     1939: The Miami Indians of Oklahoma's Constitution is ratified.
     1976: The Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Morris Thompson, has
authorized an election to approve a Constitution and By-Laws for the
Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma. It is approved by a vote of 35 to
     1990: The law denying Indians the right to speak their own
language, under certain circumstances, is repealed.
     1991: Executive Order 6368, by President George Bush declares
November as National American Indian Heritage Month, 1991.


     October 31:    
     1755: Today sees the beginning of a raid by almost 100 Delaware and
Shawnees against settlers in Fulton and Franklin Counties, Pennsylvania.
Over the next several days, Indian attacks along Conolloway Creek and
adjoining areas, kill or capture half of the 100 settlers in the area.
"King" Shingas, of the Delaware, led the raids.
     1799: William Augustus Bowles, the self-proclaimed "Director
General and Commander-In-Chief of the Muskogee Nation" issues a
proclamation. He states that the Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1795 is null
and void because it covers ancestral Indian lands. Spain and the United
States have no right to trade sovereignty over lands which belong to
     1804: Clark (of Lewis and Clark) has a council with the Mandan
Grand Chief.
     1818: According to the U.S. Army, today marks the end of First
Seminole War
     1833: President Jackson sends Francis Scott Key to Alabama to
investigate the Owen affair, and to assist in the defense of the
soldiers (see October 14th).
     1855: Soldiers from Fort Lane, in southwestern Oregon, fight Rogue
River Indians at Hungry Hill, Oregon.
     1858: General Harney pronounces that the interior is now open to
     1869: The soon-to-be-named Lieutenant Governor of the Northwest
Territory of Canada, William McDougall receives a letter from the
National Council of the Metis. They tell him he cannot enter this area
without their permission.
     1869: Army records indicate that members of the First and Eighth
Cavalry fight with a band of Indians in the Chiricahua Mountains of
Arizona. Two Indians are killed.
     1871: Delshay, of the Tonto Apaches, meets with Captain W.N.
Netterville, in Sunflower Valley, to discuss a peace treaty. Delshay
says he wants peace, but he wants both sides to live up to their
promises, which the white seldom do. Delshay agrees to meet the Peace
Commissioner Vincent Colyer at Camp McDowell, near Phoenix, Arizona, on
November 12, 1879. But Colyer never responds to Delshay's meeting
proposal, so no peace is made.
     1874: Indians fight with soldiers from the Ninth Cavalry Infantry
near Fort Sill, Indian Territory. According to army documents, one
Indian is killed during this engagement which started on October 4th.
     1876: Hunkpapa Sioux go to Fort Peck.
     1877: The Nez Perce start the boat trip to Fort Lincoln.
     1879: After the Standing Bear trial, where it is ruled the
government cannot force an Indian to stay in any one reservation against
their will, Big Snake decides to test the law. He asks for permission to
leave his reservation to visit Standing Bear. His request is denied. He
eventually leaves his Ponca Reservation to go to the Cheyenne
Reservation, also in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Big Snake
is returned to the Ponca Reservation, when General Sherman decides the
Standing Bear ruling applies only to Standing Bear. Big Snake makes the
Ponca Agent, William Whiteman, very angry. Whiteman orders Big Snake
arrested. Today, Big Snake is arrested and charged with threatening
Whiteman. In Whiteman's office, after denying any such actions, Big
Snake refuses to go with the soldiers there to arrest him. A struggle
develops, and Big Snake is shot and killed.
     1880: Spotted Eagle and Rain in the Face surrender at Fort Keogh.
     1887: Fort Logan is established in what would become Denver,
     1923: The “Treaty Between His Majesty the King and the Chippewa
Indians of Christian Island, Georgia Island and Rama” is signed in


I’ll have more in a day or two in Part 2 of the

That's it for now.

Have a great month.

Phil Konstantin

End of Phil Konstantin's October 2006 Newsletter - Part 1
Start of Phil Konstantin's October 2006 Newsletter - Part 2


"Columbus Day" has passed. Below are some articles and links
about some of the events (or non-events) related to this day.

My daughter Sarah and I are just about to leave to fly out to
Houston to visit my parents and other members of my family.
It has been a while since I have been there for a visit. I'll
be back in a few days. There is my daughter now. So, until I
return, here is another edition of my newsletter.



Featured Link of the Month for October 2006

The Link Of The Month for October 2006 is "Circle Of Stories"
from PBS. Circle of Stories uses documentary film, photography, artwork
and music to honor and explore American Indian
storytelling. Here are some of the different section of the
website: "Storytellers:" Listen and learn from four Native storytellers.
"Many Voices:" Explore a gallery of stories
and learn about the history of Native storytelling. "We Are
Here:" Find out how American Indian tribes are confronting
language and land issues today. "Community:" Participate by
sharing your ideas and stories about land, language and
cultural preservation. "For Educators:" Find lessons and
activities for the classroom.

I found the website very interesting.

You can find it here:


The "Treaty of the Month" for October is:
(15 Stats., 467.)

It covers such issues as:
Part of present reservation to be set apart.
Assignment to each member of the confederated tribes.
For school location.
White persons not to reside thereon, except, etc.
Debts of the Indians to be paid, etc.
If proceeds of lands are insufficient, other moneys to be taken.
Provisions of former treaties may be changed.
All members of the tribe to share herein.
Mixed and half bloods and whole bloods intermarried with white men.

You can see a transcript at:


Movie review of the month: Chiefs

Chiefs came out in 2002. It is a documentary about the
basketball team at the Wyoming Indian School. The movie covers
two years and follows the players and coaches of the team as
they try to win the State Championships. There are some
interesting insights into the students' lives and life on
the Wind River Reservation. This movie is a non-flinching
look at the trials, tribulations and triumphs of the
individuals involved in the team.

You might enjoy the look at teamwork, motivation, success and
broken dreams.

I spent some time in the area in 2003. While on the reservation,
I looked for their library so I could give them a copy of my
book. I stopped in and asked where the library was. The lady
told me to go down the road and then turn right at the stop
sign. Having just come from that direction, I asked how far
away was it. The lady told me, "about 30 miles." In deed, it
was in the city of Landers, 30 miles south of the tribal

You can find pictures of the area on my website at:



It’s Columbus Day – What are we celebrating for?

“We shall take you and your wives, and your children, and
shall make slaves of them, … and we shall take away your
goods, and shall do you all the mischief and damage that we
can, … and we protest that the deaths and losses which shall
accrue from this are your fault …”
- Christopher Columbus

Each October children in classrooms around the nation will
dutifully recite their Columbus Day “facts”: the ships (“the
Niña, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria…”), the year (“In 1492,
Columbus sailed the ocean blue...”), and even the fruit that
the explorer thought best resembled the Earth (that would be
the orange ). Our national leaders take time out of their
busy schedules – raising money and covering up scandals – to commemorate
the man who “found” America.

Of course by now many of us know that Columbus was not the
first European to sail to North America – a Viking did that
nearly 500 years earlier – and that the arrival of the Spanish
empire wasn’t exactly a blessing to the hemisphere. What many
of us don’t know, and what many more of us willfully ignore,
is what Columbus really was the first to do on our side of
the pond.

Christopher Columbus, you see, was a slave trader, a gold
digger, a missionary, and even a war profiteer in the name
of Ferdinand and Isabella. The arrival of Columbus’s small
fleet on what is now San Salvador (that’s Spanish for “Holy
Savior”) was greeted by the “decorous and praiseworthy”
Taino Indians (Columbus’s words) and was followed almost
immediately by mass enslavement, amputation for sport, and
a genocide that claimed over four million people in four
years. That’s quite a saving.

His arrival also marked the beginning of 500 years of
imperialism, enslavement, disease, genocide, and a legacy
of impoverishment and discrimination that our nation is
only beginning to come to terms with. Today American Indians
lack adequate healthcare and housing, receive pitiful
education, face daunting barriers to economic opportunity,
and see their lands (that would be the whole of the continent)
overrun with pollution and big business.

Columbus Day has been celebrated as a federal holiday since
1971, making it the first of only two federal holidays to
honor a person by name. The other celebrates the Rev. Martin
Luther King, Jr.

It isn’t Christopher Columbus and the conquistadors, though,
that resemble the selflessness of the Rev. King and the best traditions
of the American ideal. From the hospitality of
the Taino Indians toward Columbus’s crew, on which he
remarked at length in his diaries, to the generosity of the
Wampanoag in sharing their traditional feast with the
Pilgrims, the history and tradition of Indian cultures have
characterized the values of a plural and welcoming community.
Even today American Indians proudly serve a country that has
given them so little and taken so much.

A disproportionate number of young men and women fight and
die for our country and for the constitution (based on the
Iroquois Confederacy) that did so little to protect their
own freedoms. Lori Piestewa, a Hopi soldier, became the first
Indian woman to die in combat for the US military, when her
convoy – famous for her friend Jessica Lynch – was ambushed
outside Nasiriyah, Iraq. Her memory, like the sacrifices of
so many of our Indians, is too often forgotten or obscured
by the mass media and the gener al public.

So today we honor their sacrifices. We honor the dedication
of American Indians to the best aspirations of people
everywhere, the commitment to democracy, to the constitution,
and to the right to vote. And we honor the generosity and
selflessness of our best Americans, especially those tribes
that greeted our nation’s first immigrants with curiosity
and open arms.

While many people, including the entire federal workforce,
take Monday off for Columbus Day, INDN’s List will be hard
at work protecting the rights of Indians everywhere. We
believe in this democracy everyone ought to have a right to
vote, a right to run for office and a voice to be heard.
Please continue supporting our work and our candidates, and
lodge your protest of Columbus Day by contributing to INDN's
List on “his” day.


Colorado and Our Allies

When the Taino Indians saved Christopher Columbus from
certain death on the fateful morning of October 12, 1492,
a glorious opportunity presented itself for the cultures
of both Europe and the Americas to flourish.

What occurred was neither glorious nor heroic. Just as
Columbus could not, and did not, "discover" a hemisphere
already inhabited by nearly 100 million people, his arrival
cannot, and will not, be recognized by indigenous peoples
as a heroic and festive event.

From a Native perspective, Columbus' arrival was a disaster
from the beginning. Although his own diaries reveal that he
was greeted by the Tainos with the most generous hospitality
he had ever known, he immediately began the enslavement and
slaughter of the Indian peoples of the Caribbean.

Defenders of Columbus and his holiday argue that critics
unfairly judge Columbus, a 15th Century product, by the
moral and legal standards of the late 20th century. Such
a defense implies that there were no legal or moral constraints
on actions such as Columbus' in 1492. In reality, European
legal and moral principles acknowledged the natural rights
of Indians and prohibited their slaughter or unjust wars
against them.

The issue of Columbus and Columbus Day is not easily
resolvable by dismissing Columbus, the man. Columbus Day is
a perpetuation of racist assumptions that the Americas were
a wasteland cluttered with dark skin savages awaiting the
blessings of European "civilization." Throughout this
hemisphere, educational systems and the popular media
perpetuate the myth that indigenous peoples have contributed
nothing to the world, and, consequently, we should be
grateful for our colonization, our dispossession, and our
microwave ovens.

The racist Columbus legacy enables every country in this
hemisphere, including the United States, to continue its
destruction of Indian peoples, from the jungles of Brazil
to the highlands of Guatemala, from the Chaco of Paraguay
to the Western Shoshone Nation in Nevada. Indian people
remain in a perpetual state of danger from the system begun
by Columbus in 1492. The Columbus legacy throughout the
Americas keeps Indian people at the bottom of every socio-
economic indicator. We are under continuing physical,
legal and political attack, and are afforded the least
access to political and legal remedies. Nevertheless we
continue to resist and we refuse to surrender our
spirituality, to assimilate, or to disappear into Hollywood's
romantic sunset.

To dignify Columbus and his legacy with parades, holidays
and other celebrations is repugnant. As the original peoples
of this land, we cannot, and we will not, tolerate social and political
festivities that celebrate our genocide. We are
committed to the active, open, and public rejection of
disrespect and racism in its various forms--including
Columbus Day and Columbus Day parades.

For the past five years the American Indian Movement of
Colorado and our allies have been compelled to confront and
resist the continuing Columbus legacy in the streets of
Denver. For every hour spent organizing non-violent
opposition to the Columbus parade, we have lost an hour that
we were not able to use in assisting indigenous treaty
rights struggles, land recovery strategies, and the
advancement of indigenous self-determination.

However, one positive benefit of our efforts was the public
debate over Columbus Day that has spread into the public
schools as an educational tool for students and their
teachers. Overall, we view the demise of the Columbus Day
Parade in Denver as a welcome opportunity to move beyond
the divisive symbolism of the past.

We therefore suggest the replacement of Columbus Day with
a celebration that is more inclusive and that more accurately
reflects the cultural and racial richness of the Americas.
We also suggest that the community support a more honest
portrayal of social evolution in this hemisphere and a
greater respect for all people on the margins of the
dominating society. There is no more appropriate place for
this transformation to occur than in Colorado, the birthplace
of the Columbus Day holiday.


This article actually lists my website as a resource.
Unfortunately, they list the old address. They have also
given the name of the "month" incorrectly. More accurately,
it is "National American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage


1008 SE 10th Street
Muldrow, OK 74948
MikeCherokee @ aol.com

Students and Teachers Advocating Respect                    
Fairfield, Ct 06430                  

To Whom It May Concern:

United Native America and Students and Teachers Advocating
Respect would like to encourage your school to participate
in Native American Day and November as Native American Heritage
Month, as first proclaimed in 1990 by the U.S. Senate and
President George W. Bush. While California has selected
September 26 as Native American Day, seventeen states have
chosen to eliminate Columbus Day and South Dakota has replaced
it with Native American Day.

Across the country, several states have already taken the
first steps in developing legislation to make these holidays
become a reality. Many states already study Native Americans
in the month of November as part of their Thanksgiving
preparation. However, much of the educational material that
is readily available has focused on stereotypes of Native
people. STAR and UNA have been working with Native educators
nation-wide to provide you with appropriate and culturally
sensitive materials that will enhance the studies that are
currently taught.
Material is now available that makes the old methods of
teaching about Native people obsolete. Learn how Native people
played a part in the development of our democratic society,
learn about heroes and famous Native American people, learn
how the advanced agricultural developments of Native people
introduced countless new medicines as well as many new foods
to the European diet, learn about games we still play that
originated with Native people, and for the upper grades, there
are also lessons to be learned about the times our country
committed genocide on an innocent people.

All of these are important aspects of the development of our
country that up until now have been missing from traditional curriculum.
Following are some websites that will contain
material that has been approved by the Native American
communities for teaching in the classroom. For the first
time, study about Native people that are alive and well and
living in the USA rather than only studying the past, learn
why Native people continue to use feathers in their ceremonies
and how their heritage lives on, despite the fact that up
until now, it has only been studied from an archaic point
of view.

We can help you contact people that can help you bring
Native Studies alive in your classroom and bring an end to
stereotypes at the same time. The benefits of expanding our
understanding of the many Native cultures will result in a
deeper appreciation for Native people and their contributions
to our country. As a multi-cultural experience, the benefits
of sponsoring Native American Heritage Month or Native
American Day will bring heightened self esteem to Native
children as they see themselves represented in a meaningful
manner relevant to the present rather than only in the past.
It will also bring the respect of the non-native students to
the life ways of Native people.

Thank you.
Mike Graham founder of U. N. A.
Christine Rose founder of STAR


Community Guide to Multicultural Education Programs

Teaching Young Children About Native Americans

Are You Teaching The Real Story of Thanksgiving

Exploring Native Americans Across the Curriculum

First American Education Project, a group of Native Educators reaching
out to the general public

The International Brotherhood Days, a website that offers the Native
perspective of American History and heroes, an important and fascinating

Forgotten Founders, by Bruce Johansen. A doctoral thesis on the
involvement of the Iroquois in the formation of democracy in America.

The homepage for James Loewen, the best
selling author, Lies My Teacher Told Me

Native American non-profit org. founded in 1983 to promote Native
American Indian culture & tradition, & dispel stereotypes created about
indigenous people.

Native American Quotes, great for understanding Native American
philosophy and perspective

Native Web Site Evaluation, how to determine if the site you are using
is a Native American Site or a site operated by non-native people

Teaching About Thanksgiving, a true Native perspective with curriculum

Canku Ota, an educational website about Native people and schools for
all teachers, go to the search box on the home page to find almost
anything about Native people.

Alaska Native Studies Curriculum and Teacher Development

A wonderful site dedicated to the Lakota People

Oyate is a website that promotes the use of writings of Native people
when teaching about Native people. There are a list of books and
curriculum developed by Native people as well as a list of books that
perpetuate stereotypes and historical untruths that should be avoided.
You'll be surprised!!


History Of Native American Heritage Month from Canku Ota

United Native America, a website dedicated to a Native American holiday.
Many links to other Native websites.

Native American History Links from Canku Ota

On This Date in North American
Indian History by Phil Konstantin

www.ratical.com/many_worlds/6Nations/NAPSnEoD92.html 1992:
"Native American Political Systems and the Evolution of Democracy

Native Tech: a website that shows Eastern
Native arts and crafts, games, foods, and much more throughout history.
An excellent teaching source.

Indian Circle Web Ring: Complete list of Indian
Nations on line and other contacts to the Indian community

Virtual library - American Indians index of Native American
resources on the Internet.

For more educational websites or information, please contact Christine
Rose at the email address above. For more information about the
progress of the holidays or to get involved in bringing the holidays to
your state, please contact Mike Graham at the email address above.


Linguists Find the Words, and Pocahontas Speaks Again

In the new movie about Jamestown, the first permanent English
settlement in North America, founded in 1607, the paramount
Indian chief Powhatan asks Capt. John Smith where his people came from.
The sky?

Responding to the question, translated by an Indian whose
smattering of English probably came indirectly from the earlier
failed Roanoke colony in North Carolina, Smith replies: "The sky?
No. We come from England, an island on the other side of the sea."

The dialogue continues as the interpreter puts Smith's reply in
Powhatan's own words, Virginia Algonquian, a language not spoken
for more than two centuries. Like most of the 800 or more
indigenous languages of North America when Europeans first arrived,
Powhatan's became extinct as Indians declined in number, dispersed
and lost their cultural identity.

But a small yet growing number of linguists and anthropologists has
been busy in recent years recreating such dead or dying Indian
speech. Their field is language revitalization, the science of
reconstructing lost languages. One byproduct of the scholarship is
the dialogue in Virginia Algonquian for the movie "The New World."

More than moviemaking is behind the research. A revival of ethnic
pride and cultural studies among Indians has stimulated Indians'
interest in their languages, some long dead. Of the more than 15
original Algonquian languages in eastern North America, the two
still spoken are Passamaquoddy-Malecite in Maine and Mikmaq in New

In other cases, the few speakers of an Indian tongue are the old
people, never their grandchildren, and so the research is a
desperate attempt to save another language from burial with a
departing generation.

The passing of a language diminishes cultural diversity,
anthropologists say, and the restoration of at least some part of a
language is an act of reclaiming a people's heritage.

Blair A. Rudes, a linguist at the University of North Carolina,
Charlotte, who specializes in reconstructing Indian languages, said
several Algonquian communities in the East had efforts under way to
recover their lost languages and return them to daily use.

"What turns out to be really important is just that they learn some
piece of the language because it is reclaiming their heritage," Dr.
Rudes said. "So much was lost that reclaiming any of it is a major

Ives Goddard, who is a curator for linguistics and anthropology at
the Smithsonian Institution, said, "The loss of languages
continues, and it's a worldwide phenomenon."

At least half the world's estimated 6,000 languages, Dr. Goddard
said, have so few remaining speakers that they are threatened with
extinction. By 2100, he predicted, "there will be fewer than 3,000
languages still spoken."

When the director of "The New World," Terrence Malick, decided that
for authenticity Powhatan should speak in his own language, he
called in Dr. Rudes, who has worked with Dr. Goddard in
reconstructing the defunct Algonquian language of the Pequot of
Connecticut. He is also engaged in language restoration for the
Catawba of North Carolina and is collaborating with Helen Rountree,
emeritus professor of anthropology at Old Dominion University, on a
dictionary of Virginia Algonquian.

Dr. Rudes was asked what Powhatan and his daughter Pocahontas would
say and how they would say it. It was a daunting assignment.

The related Algonquian languages were among the first in America to
die out, and no one is known to have spoken Virginia Algonquian
since 1785. Like many other Indians, except some cultures in Mexico
and Central America, Algonquian speakers had no writing system, and
their grammar and most of their vocabulary were lost.

Just two contemporary accounts one by Captain Smith and the other
by the Jamestown colony secretary, William Strachey preserved some
Virginia Algonquian words, including ones that have passed into
modern English as raccoon, terrapin, moccasins and tomahawk.

Clearly, even the wits of the celebrated roundtable at the namesake
Algonquin Hotel, who had something cutting to say about everything
and everybody, would have for once been at a loss for words in the
presence of Powhatan and Pocahontas. Unless, perhaps, the two
happened to wear their moccasins and the soup of the day was

The first challenge for Dr. Rudes was the limited vocabulary.
Smith, the colony leader, set down just 50 Indian words, and
Strachey compiled 600. The lists were written phonetically by
Englishmen who were not expert in linguistics and whose spelling
and pronunciation differed considerably from modern usage, making
it difficult to determine the words' actual Indian form.

Dr. Rudes had to apply techniques of historical linguistics to
rebuilding a language from these sketchy, unreliable word lists. He
compared Strachey's recorded words with vocabularies of related
Algonquian languages, especially those spoken from the Carolinas
north into Canada that had survived longer and are thus better

This family of Indian tongues, in one respect, reminded linguists
of the Romance languages. Each was distinctive but as closely
related as Spanish is to Italian or Italian to Romanian.
Comparisons with related languages revealed the common elements of
grammar and sentence structure and many similarities in vocabulary.

A translation of the Bible into the language once spoken by
Massachusetts Indians offered more insights into the grammar. The
Munsee Delaware version spoken by coastal Indians from Delaware to
New York, including those who sold Manhattan, may be dead, but its
grammar and vocabulary are fairly well known to scholars.

"We have a big fat dictionary of Munsee Delaware," said Dr. Rudes,
who adapted some of those words when needed for Virginia
Algonquian. Recordings of the last Munsee Delaware speakers, a
century ago, were a valuable guide to pronunciations.

Another research tool was what is called Proto-Algonquian. It is
the hypothetical ancestor common to all Algonquian speech, 4,000
words that scholars have compiled from the surviving tongues and
documentation of the extinct ones.

The reconstruction involves educated guesses. Strachey set down
words for walnut, shoes and two kinds of beast, "paukauns,"
"mawhcasuns," "aroughcoune" and "opposum." In Proto-Algonquian,
similar words are paka-ni (meaning large nut), maxkesen (shoe),
la-le-ckani (raccoon) and wa-pa'oemwi (white dog).

From this, Dr. Rudes reconstructed the Virginia Algonquian words
pakán, mahkusun, árehkan and wápahshum," or pecan, moccasin,
raccoon and opossum.

When he started the project, he was handed the movie script for the
parts to be translated. "I had to rewrite terms for the dialogue,"
he said. "For example, we often use nonspecific verbs, 'He went to
town.' In Algonquian, you have to tell the mode of travel, 'He
walked to town.' "

The peculiar sentence structure required changes in the Indian
translation. Pocahontas would not have said to Smith, if she ever
actually did, "I love you." She would have used the verb for love,
with a prefix meaning you and a suffix for I. "It is one of the few
languages that give greater importance to the listener than the
speaker," Dr. Rudes said.

Then there was the problem of creating dialogue reflecting what the
Indians would have understood in the early 17th century. This also
required changing the script for the initial Powhatan-Smith

In a paper summarizing his methods, Dr. Rudes said the original
script had Smith saying: "The sky? No. From England, a land to the
east." At the time, though, a land to the east was for the Indians
more myth than reality, he noted, but they probably had already
heard about "white-skinned people who lived on islands in the

So Smith's reply was changed to "We came from England, an island on
the other side of the sea," and the translator then used documented
words of Virginia Algonquian for sky, no, island and sea. The
spelling was slightly modified to account for Strachey's
misspellings and conform to similar words in other Algonquian
speech. Because the word signifying a question is not known in
Virginia Algonquian, Dr. Rudes borrowed the word sá from a related

Of course, Powhatan's interpreter could not be expected to have a
word for England. He presumably did his best to reproduce what it
sounded like in Algonquian, Inkurent, to which he added the general
locational ending -unk, meaning at or in. He also followed the
practice of naming the place first and adding the word for "we come
from there."

The translation thus reads: "Sá arahqat? Mahta. Inkurent-unk
kunowamun - mununag akamunk yapam."

William M. Kelso, director of archaeology of the Association for
the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, which owns the Jamestown
fort site, said that he could not assess the language of the
dialogue, but that the costumes, armor, arms and nearly all aspects
of the fort were realistic.

Dr. Kelso and other archaeologists found the remains of the
three-sided Jamestown fort in 1996. Their goal between now
and the 400th anniversary celebration of Jamestown next year
is to excavate the well at the site, search for artifacts and
look for the foundations of the colony's storehouse and church.
At the festivities next spring, some of the words of celebration
may echo the Virginia Algonquian of 1607, the resurrected
language of Powhatan and Pocahontas.


Interesting websites:

This website offers FREE office software. These programs
function much like Microsoft Office. I cannot guarantee how
they will work for you, but it might be worth a try:



Can you park a car? This website has an interesting online
program to see how good you are at it:



A series of articles about Columbus Day




Hoopa TCCC will be in San Rafael, CA Oct 13-15, 2006 hosting a
recruiting booth. Come down and apply.

The Hoopa Tribal Civilian Community Corps is now currently
accepting 10 more applications (back up list moving up) for
Members that will begin our program on Oct 23, 2006 . The
program already began on Oct 6, 2006.

Hoopa TCCC is a tribal residential national service program
for young Native men and women located in Hoopa Ca. (Northern
Rural California) There is no better time than right now for
you to make a difference. By serving as an AmeriCorps *Hoopa
Tribal Civilian Community Corps member.

You can make a difference in your life and in the lives of

We are now accepting applications for the 2006-07 class.

Application Deadline - Open until filled
Start Date - October 4,2006

TCCC offers a variety of real life experiences. During their
service at TCCC. Corps members will become active participants
and members of the Hoopa Valley community. While residing at
the Hoopa TCCC Campus (24 hours per day, 7days per week), they
will travel and learn to adapt to other life styles, creating
positive change in the communities they serve.

Corps members will be assigned to work with team of 10-15
other CM's. They will work with others to create a positive
working relationship. (30) participants become each other's
support system . Hoopa TCCC engages young women and men in
meaniful work, in intensive service, to meet critical needs
in education, public safety, homeland security. They will
enhance their skills in education in awareness, receive
training in everything from carpentry to disaster preparedness
and learn what it is to work hard and make differences in
communties. This is not a job but a way of life.

AmeriCorps*TCCC is an incrediable opportunity to make a
differance in your life and in the lives of those around you.

Eligibility Requirements:
* Young Men/Women Between Ages of 18-26
* Be a Federally Recognized Indian or Descendant.
* Drug & Alcohol Free Upon Entry & Test Randomly Thereafter
* Reside at Hoopa TCCC Campus
* Be Able to Travel on "Projects" with TCCC for 2-4 Weeks
* Be Dedicated, Dependable, willing to put TCCC's needs first.
*Requires an intense, ten-month and 1700 hours, full-time
*United States Citizen
* Free Room and Board
* Bi-Weekly Living Allowance (Not a paycheck)
* Child Care Benefits if eligible
* $4725.00 Educational Award Upon Successful Completion (to be used for
college/vocational training or pay back exsisting student loans)
* Travel paid to start program & upon graduation

*Basic 32/ fire fighting Certification
*First Aid
*Disaster Relief Certification
*Community Emergency Response Team Certification
*1st Response Course Training
*Over the Bank Rope Rescue Training
*Swift Water Rescue Certification
*Wilderness Survival Certification
*Diversity Training
*Conflict Management/Resolution Training
*Substance Abuse Training
*Leadership Skills Training
*Carpentry Pre-Apprenticeship Training (minimal)
*Financial Planning &a mp;a mp;n bsp; *Real Life Skills (Challenges
w/ other Corps Members and TCCC Program Rules)




Hoopa Tribal Civilian Community Corps
PO Box 606
Hoopa, California 95546

Visit our Website:


Please help us to reach out to all Native American and
Indigenous Elders within the Sacramento Metro community by distributing
this information. If you have Elders who live
in our area, please do not hesitate to forward this invitation
to them. In addition to the information below, the Tribe
will be hosting bingo, traditional dancers, and speakers.
We will have diabetes-friendly menu items and would like to
honor our veterans as well. Please ask any interested Elders
wishing to attend to RSVP to the Tribal Office.
(916) 491-0011 Ext. 10, Penny.

Thank you,

Buena Vista Rancheria’s
Elder’s Fall Festival Dinner

We cordially invite you to come enjoy a wonderful home
cooked meal.

Contact person: Penny Arciniaga
(916) 491-0011 Ext. 10

Date: 11/10/06

Time: 2 p.m. to 6 p.m.

Location: VFW Hall in West Sacramento
905 Drever Street
West Sacramento, CA 95691
Take Jefferson Boulevard to Drever
Near the I-80 freeway,
Across from the River City Chapel
On this day, we honor our Elders.


The American Indian College Fund

September 2006

POSITION TITLE:         Corporate Fundraising Coordinator
STATUS:                 Full-time
SUPERVISOR:             Director of Corporations


The primary responsibility of this position is generating grant
funds through current and prospective corporate donors. The
individual will research, write and submit funding proposals
to local and national corporations. In addition, the position
will require the individual to submit proposals and grant
reports to existing corporate donors. The position requires
research skills relative to American Indian Education, the
economy, the tribal colleges and American Indian communities.
The position also requires the individual to articulate the
needs of the tribal colleges and universities and the American
Indian College Fund through meetings with corporate donors.


o Responsible for helping to meet annual organizational
fundraising goals though grant writing and developing donor
o Maintain existing relationships with corporate donors
through meetings and correspondence.
o Submit proposals and grant reports to existing corporate
donors in a timely manner.
o Generate new avenues for funding through prospect research
and stewarding relationships with potential donors.
o Assist Director of Corporations in securing meetings with prospective
o Represent the American Indian College Fund in meetings with
donors, educational conferences and other events.
o Responsible for updating constituent records using Raiser's
Edge (RE) database.
o Review corporate donations and documentation to ensure proper
gift recording
o Acknowledge corporate donations
o Manage Corporate Matching Gift Programs.
o Performs other duties as assigned.


o Demonstrated knowledge of grant writing and record of success
in fundraising.
o Willing to provide writing samples and summary of previous proposals.
o Thorough knowledge of American Indian education, the tribal
college movement and the American Indian College Fund.
o Knowledge of the local and national philanthropic sector.
o Proven ability to work on a range of projects simultaneously
with minimum supervision.
o Attention to detail and ability to meet deadlines.
o Knowledge of Microsoft Word, Power Point and Excel.
o Must possess good people skills and able to work closely with
other people at all levels of experience and proficiency.
o Articulate and able to make presentations to potential donors.
o Knowledge of Raiser's Edge software helpful but not required.
o Demonstrated commitment to American Indian communities.
o Bachelor's Degree and 1-2 years of work experience.

·       Competitive salary and excellent benefits package.

Please submit resumes to:
American Indian College Fund
Attn: Rick Waters

8333 Greenwood Blvd, Denver , CO 80221

Or fax or email to Rick Waters at (303) 426-1200 or

American Indian College Fund Job Description

September 2006

POSITION TITLE:    Foundation Coordinator
STATUS:            Full-time
SUPERVISOR:        Director of Foundations


The Coordinator for the Foundations Department will work
closely with the Director of Foundations to raise and manage
donations from large foundations, small family foundations
and donor advised funds. Serve as an administrative liaison
with foundation donors and internally with other departments.
Job duties will focus on correspondence and stewardship with
current donors, the recording and tracking of gifts/donations
and prospecting and cultivation of new donors. This position
will primarily focus on fundraising related to small family foundations
and donor advised funds.

This position will assist the Director of Foundations in
researching, writing and submitting grant proposals to local
and national private funding sources. The position will
assist in general departmental organization. This position
will work independently on multiple projects towards the organization's
annual fundraising goal. Also, assist with
budget preparation and control. This position will report
to the Director of Foundations.


o Assist with implementing strategies designed to expand donor
base. Responsible for contributing to long term fundraising
goals, as directed by organizational strategic plan
o Coordinate the acknowledgement of contributions, and track
and code income
o Responsible for participating in fundraising planning processes, which
include development of individual monthly priorities,
and reporting regularly to director on progress toward monthly
o Works closely with Foundation Director and Finance Department
to assist with preparing departmental budget, and monitoring
income and expenses
o Primary fundraiser for family foundations and donor advised
o Arrange meetings with funders, and prepare background folders
and informational packets
o Assist in the writing and submission of effective proposals
on new and existing grant opportunities
o Research potential funders, and produce status reports for
grant writing activity for the Director of Foundations
o Provide grant reports as requested by funders, when necessary
o Maintain income, reporting, and prospecting information in
the fundraising database
o Assist with mailings to current and prospective funders,
including: formal requests and renewal proposals, newsletters,
annual report and financial audit, and general correspondence


o Bachelor's degree
o One to three years fundraising experience, with record of
success in grant writing and a proven ability to accomplish
defined goals and objectives
o Familiarity with local and national philanthropic sector,
and understanding of basic concepts of philanthropy
o Experience in fundraising related to family foundations and
donor advised funds desired
o Excellent writing, research and editing skills
o Excellent communication and organizational skills with
attention to detail
o Ability to organize and meet deadlines for a wide variety
of job assignments simultaneously, with minimum supervision
o Strong computer skills, including but not limited to MS
Office, Excel and Power Point
o Knowledge of Raiser's Edge desired
o Must possess good people skills and be able to work closely
with other people at all levels of experience and proficiency
o Knowledge of the higher education process and/or familiarity
with tribal colleges
o Demonstrated experience working with diverse cultures and
specific experience with American Indian communities and
culture desired


o Other tasks and assignments as they arise pertinent to the successful
operation of the American Indian College Fund

A letter of interest, résumé and salary requirements must be
received no later than October 13th, 2006. Please send
application materials to:

Ms. Vicky Stott
American Indian College Fund
Foundation Search Committee
8333 Greenwood Boulevard
Denver, CO 80221
(303) 426-8900
(303) 426-1200 (Fax)


The American Indian College Fund

September 2006

POSITION TITLE:         Data Entry Specialist

STATUS:                 Full-time (non exempt)

SUPERVISOR:             Donor Database Manager

Assists with the high volume of day-to-day data entry and
some clerical support in a deadline-oriented department. Uses
a personal computer to enter a variety of coded data into organization's
fundraising database. Proofreads and verifies
data for accuracy. Assists with the assurance that the
Resource Development departments have easy access to accurate
information on all donors, contacts, and prospects housed
within the fundraising database.


o Responsible for daily data entry for gift processing and
updating constituent records using Raiser's Edge (RE) database.
o Is accountable for the accuracy and integrity of all donor
data files.
o Upholds quality control procedures.
o Uses the batching system efficiently to produce gift receipts
by the Resource Development departments.
o Assists with entering related information to ensure accurate tracking
for donor participation, identification, and involvement
with the Fund.
o Maintains address corrections from returned mail with
information obtained from the US Post Office.
o Insures steps are completed in a timely and accurate manner.
o Maintains satisfactory working relationships with all other
staff and exhibits a positive, helpful, and solution oriented
demeanor when responding to others.
o Performs other duties as assigned.

o The nature of the work requires the ability to work at the
computer for long periods of time, resourcefulness, great
attention to detail/accuracy and good organizational/
interpersonal skills.
o Maintains a high level of confidentiality with constituent
o Must have working knowledge of Microsoft Office software,
including Outlook, Excel and Word.
o Knowledge of Raiser's Edge software helpful but not required.
o Able to sit for extended periods of time during an 8-hour
work day and operate a computer, telephone, photocopier, fax
machine and other business equipment.
o Must be able to effectively and efficiently handle pressure
in regards to multiple tasks and meeting deadlines.
o High School diploma and at least six month to one year of demonstrated
data entry experience.

·Competitive salary and excellent benefits package.

Please submit resumes to the American Indian College Fund,
attn. Lyon Frazier
8333 Greenwood Blvd.
Denver , CO 80221
Or fax to Lyon Frazier at (303) 426-1200

American Indian College Fund Job Description

TITLE                   Receptionist/Admin Support
STATUS                  Full-time (non exempt)
SUPERVISOR              CFO/COO                


Manage the front reception area. Screen, greet and direct visitors.
Answer phones and route calls/messages. Open and distribute mail.
Manage office supplies and faxes. Maintain staff schedule. Log and
scan checks and create bank deposit slips. Assist with RE data entry
and RE clean-up. Other relevant duties as assigned by supervisor.


o Screen and allow visitors to enter.
o Greet them and notify person they're to meet.
o Answer and route all incoming calls and messages.
o Open and distribute mail. Log and scan checks.
o Monitor and order office supplies.
o Maintain staff schedule.
o Fax for staff and distribute incoming faxes.
o Prepare and send bank deposits for accounting.
o Assist with Raiser's Edge data entry.
o Provide departmental and project coding for postage, UPS,
and Fed Ex.
o Other administrative duties as assigned.
o Must be available to work A*CF business hours Monday
through Friday (currently 8:30-5:30)


o 1 year relevant experience.
o Proficient with, but not limited to MS Word, Excel,
Outlook, PowerPoint.
o Proficient with the Internet.
o Familiar with and proficient with office machines.
o People oriented with good telephone skills.
o Professional behavior
o Punctual
o Knowledge of Tribal Colleges preferred


Full-time Staff Position Opening

Job Title:
Director Washington Semester American Indian Prog (WINS)
Position Number: 4410
Department: Washington Semester Program
Open Date: 10/05/2006

Project Leader / Advisor
Salary Range for Position: $45,000 - $50,000
Educational Requirements: Master's Degree in relevant
field highly preferred, with at least 3 years experience
working in higher education, preferably with higher
education teaching and administration background.

Position Requirements:
Applicants must have familiarity with AI/AN issues, and
experience working with AI/AN education. Applicants must
possess excellent oral and written communications skills
and superior interpersonal skills. Applicants must be
able to work in a dynamic, high pressure, constantly
changing environment, and must be innovative. Applicants
must have significant experience working with personal
computers with Microsoft Word, Microsoft Access,
spreadsheets, PowerPoint software experience.

This position directs and oversees the Washington Semester
American Indian Program, Washington Internship for Native
Students (WINS), a program designed to provide experiential
education to American Indian/ Alaska Native (AI/AN) college
students from tribal colleges and other institutions of
higher learning across the country. The incumbent will
serve as the primary contact for AI/AN student recruitment,
enrolled students, academic programs and internship aspects,
and all the administrative details of the Program. The
Director will work as follows with: AI/AN communities to
recruit, select, and track qualified WINS students;
Designated internship sponsors to ensure that appropriate
paid internship placements are secured in sufficient
numbers to serve admitted WINS students; WINS students,
WS staff, WINS faculty and others throughout the
university and the Washington, DC area to ensure an
excellent experiential learning program with strong AI/AN
cultural support; and the WINS Advisory Council on policy
and interaction with the AI/AN community.

This position requires a background in higher education
and AI/ AN issues and policies. The incumbent must be a
person who needs minimal supervision.

Amy Morrill Bijeau
Washington Semester Program Internship Director
American University
Washington, DC 20016-8083 USA
tel. 202-895-4967 fax 202-895-4960


To celebrate American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage
Month in November, the Smithsonian's National Museum of
the American Indian in Washington, D.C., will host a
variety of free public programs.

Panel Discussion: On Friday, Nov. 3, at 7 p.m. in the
Rasmuson Theater, a panel discussion will be held on
"Indigenous Archaeology: Respecting Objects, History
and Place."

Dance Performance: The Lepquinm Gumilgit Gogoadim (Our
Own Dance in Our Hearts) Dance Group from Alaska, will
present heritage songs and dances from the Tsimshian
culture Friday, Nov. 3 through Sunday, Nov. 5, at 10:30
a.m. and noon in the Rasmuson Theater.

Storytelling: Hope and Company, led by Ishmael Hope
(Inupiaq/Tlingit) and storytellers, will share stories
about Alaska Native heritage Tuesday, Nov. 7 through
Thursday, Nov. 9 and Saturday, Nov. 11 and Sunday, Nov. 12,
at 2 and 3:30 p.m. in the Rasmuson Theater.

Art Demonstration: David Boxley (Tsimshian) will demonstrate
the art of wood carving from Friday, Nov. 10 through Sunday,
Nov. 12 at 11 a.m., 1 and 3 p.m. in the Potomac Atrium.

Family Day: A Family Day program on "North Pacific Coast
Weaving Traditions" will take place Saturday, Nov. 11,
from 10:30 a.m. to 3 p.m. in the Education Workshop on the
third level. Tlingit weaver Lorene Boxley will talk about
Tlingit women's weaving and participants will have an
opportunity to create their own mat or basket to take home.

Performance: Tobias Vanderhoop (Aquinnah Wampanoag) will
present "A Wampanoag Thanksgiving" Tuesday, Nov. 14 through
Thursday, Nov. 16, at 10:30 a.m., 1 and 3 p.m. in the
Rasmuson Theater. Through story, song, drumming and dance,
visitors will learn how Wampanoags traditionally offered
thanks before contact with non- Natives.

Film: "Stolen Spirits of Haida Gwaii" will be screened in
the Rasmuson Theater Friday, Nov. 24, at 7 p.m. and Saturday,
Nov. 25, at 1:30 p.m.

All programs are subject to change, for a complete schedule
of public programs, visit http://www.AmericanIndian.si.edu .


Kashaya strategic meeting

On October 16th, 2006, several individuals from federal,
state, and local agencies, private firm and university
archaeologists, and representatives from Native American
tribes will be meeting in Santa Rosa, in Sonoma County, to
discuss the current state of archaeology and professional
ethics in California. The purpose of the meeting is one
part problem solving, one part conflict resolution, and one
part network building. The October strategic meeting is the
second in a series of ongoing discussions that will take
place around the state with important stakeholders in how
California’s cultural resources are managed.

These meetings stem from an open forum held by Society for
California Archaeology President Frank Bayham at the 2006
SCA annual meeting regarding archaeological standards and
ethics as they are practiced around the state. The dialogue
that was started at the annual meeting was continued at an
event hosted by the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians in Riverside County,
and included representatives from the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers, the Native American Heritage Commission,
county and city officials, representatives from several
local Native American tribal groups, private sector
archaeologists, and both vice-presidents and the president
of the SCA. The event was organized by Bennae Calac, Cultural Resource
Coordinator for the Soboba, Reno Franklin, Tribal
Historic Preservation Officer for the Kashia Band of Pomo
Indians, and Michael Newland, Northern California Vice-
President of the Society for California Ar! chaeology and
Staff Archaeologist from the Anthropological Studies Center
at Sonoma State University.

As one of the organizers, I would personally like to invite
you to attend this meeting and lend your experience and wisdom
to the group as we strategize on ways to improve the quality
of work being conducted in the state, the consultation process
between tribes, agencies, private property owners, and
archaeologists, and the cultural sensitivity of all
participants to differing points of view. The individuals
invited are people whom the organizers feel can make important
contributions to the dialogue and whom we believe should have
representation at the meeting. The meetings are specifically
not meant to be finger-pointing or axe-grinding events; the
purpose is proactive, cooperative planning on multiple levels
to address problem areas in the field of cultural resources management.
Nor can each meeting be all-inclusive of all the individuals who should
have a say in how cultural resources
are managed; as the mee! tings progress throughout the state,
each will have a different make-up of contributors as we
widen the range of input and participation.

To that end, we hope you can attend. Several high-level
state agency representatives have committed to coming, and
we believe that the meeting will be both productive and have a
meaningful, beneficial, long-term effect. Recent changes in
legislation, the current political climate, and the nature of
consultation with interested parties all indicate that major
changes are underway within our field. These meetings hope
to help guide those changes and to place an emphasis on where
future effort will be needed. As you will see in the agenda,
several options have been put on the table for ways to address
problem areas; these are meant to facilitate dialogue, and
you may not agree with some of the proposed actions. No formal
decisions have been made, and while progress has been made on
some issues even since June, others will require long-term
solutions made on the legislative level. Agai! n, the goal
of the meetings is promote discussion and reach concensus, and
your input is important and is being actively sought.
I understand that this is short notice; this unfortunately
could not be avoided. This meeting will immediately follow
the California Indian Conference in San Rafael, and several
tribal representatives at the CIC will be attending this
meeting. The October event will be hosted by the Kashia Pomo
at the Sonoma County Indian Health Project, 144 Stony Point
Road in Santa Rosa, a newly constructed building with a large
meeting room. Refreshments will be provided. I have attached
an agenda so that you can see what material was covered in the
last meeting and what we hope to address in this meeting.
If you have any questions, please feel free to call me (707)
664-2734 or email michael.-@sonoma.edu .
We hope to see you there.


Michael Newland


Lecuture Series In celebration of National American Indian
and Alaskan Native Heritage Month:

Joe Morris
Navajo Code Talker
Friday, November 17
7:00-9:00 p.m.
Grossmont College
Student Center

Mike Connolly
Kumeyaay History
Tuesday, November 21
6:00-8:00 p.m.
SDSU Aztec Center
Casa Real

Steve Newcomb
Pagans in the Promised Land: An Indigenous Critique of
American Indian Existence
Tuesday, November 28
6:00-8:00 p.m.
SDSU Aztec Center
Casa Real

Sponsored by the Grossmont College Department of Cross-Cultural Studies
and the San Diego State University Departmentof American Indian Studies



Sixth Annual Indian Law Conference
Saturday, October 28, 2006 8:30 AM – 5:30 PM
Stanford Law School, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, CA 94305
Keynote Speaker: Nell Jessup Newton, Dean of Hastings
College of the Law

8:30 to 9 AM - Registration
9 AM - Opening Prayer

9 to 10:30 AM
Panel Discussion: Transportation Issues in Indian Country in California
Moderator: Jim Glaze, Attorney, Sonosky, Chambers, Sachse, Endreson &
Perry, LLP
Tom Davis, Planner, Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians
Cynthia Gomez, Chief, Native American Liaison Branch, California
Department of Transportation

10:30 to 10:45 AM - Break

10:45 AM to 12:15 PM - Panel Discussion: Current Trends in
Implementation of Public Law 280
Moderator: Meredith Drent, Attorney, Alexander, Berkey, Williams &
Weathers, LLP
Panelists: Carole Goldberg, Professor, University of California-Los
Angeles School of Law
Duane W. Champagne, Professor, Department of Sociology, University of
California-Los Angeles School of Law

Lunch will be served at 12:15pm

12:30 to 1:00 PM - CILA Organizational Matters: Board Elections and
Other Business
Moderator: Christine Williams, President, Board of Directors, CILA

1:00 to 2:30 PM - Recent Developments in California Indian Law
Joanne Willis Newton, Attorney, Law Offices of Joanne Willis Newton
Panelists: Pat Sekaquaptewa, Professor, University of California-Los
Angeles School of Law
Scott Morgan, Senior Planner, Governor’s Office of Research and Planning
Attorney (TBA), California Indian Legal Services

2:30 to 2:45 PM - Break

2:45 TO 4:15 PM - Panel Discussion: Ethics and Tribal Government
Moderator: Christine Williams, Attorney, Center for Families, Children,
& the Courts
Scott Williams, Attorney, Alexander, Berkey, Williams & Weathers, LLP
Tom Peckham, Attorney, Nordhaus Law Firm, LLP

4:15 to 5:00PM - Keynote Address: The Updated Cohen’s Handbook — Writing
a Treatise in a Postmodern World
Nell Jessup Newton, Dean, Hastings College of the Law
CILA extends its gratitude to the sponsors that have made this event

Registration fees, covering conference materials, continental breakfast
and lunch, are:
$150 for attorneys (MCLE credit anticipated)
$85 for non-attorneys and newly admitted attorneys (1-5 years)
$15 for students
Elders and speakers are free, but must return the completed
registration form for our records.

The California Indian Law Association sponsors the Allogan Slagle
Scholarship Fund, which supports Native law students, especially those
from California Indian nations and California urban Indian communities.
We ask that you consider making a generous donation to this fund. Checks
should be made out to the California Community Foundation/Allogan Slagle
Fund. For further information, go to

Information about the conference is also available at CILA’s website at

Questions may be directed to:
Colin Hampson at (619) 546-5585 or champson @ sonosky.com or
Christine Williams at (415) 865-8024 or christine.williams @ jud.ca.gov


News stories and articles:

Climate Changes and the Inuit

Victory for Klamath River salmon

Post-fire hunts yield remnants of past civilizations

NIGA survey on gaming results

Columbus marked by nighttime ceremony

How should we remember Columbus?

Governor General to honour 12 Aboriginal youths with the Aboriginal Role
Model Awards

U.S. Supreme Court refuses Russell Means case

Text of Russell Means Jurisdiction Decision:

Upper Lake Melville Assembly Members Ready to Govern

Native American activist remembered

Columbus Day should honor indigenous people

Committee to advise on Nunavik justice system

Eradicating Columbus

Scholarly conference highlights federal recognition, sovereignty

Eel -- or not?

Columbus Day: American Holocaust and Slave Trader

Save the ancient rock art

Residential school settlement hearings begin in Nunavut

Minneapolis schools, Indian agencies reach pact


That's it for now.

Have a great month.

Phil Konstantin

End of Phil Konstantin's October 2006 Newsletter - Part 2

Monthly Newsletter

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Four of the five books I have worked on. I either wrote, co-wrote, or contributed to each of these beeks

This is the cover to my first book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy. Click on the cover to order a copy or to get more info.
This Day in North American Indian History
This Day in North American Indian History is a one-of-a-kind, vastly entertaining and informative book covering over 5000 years of North American Indian history, culture, and lore. Wide-ranging, it covers over 4,000 important events involving the native peoples of North America in a unique day-by-day format.

The thousands of entries in This Day in North American Indian History weave a compelling and comprehensive mosaic of North American Indian history spanning more than five millennia-every entry an exciting opening into the fascinating but little- known history of American Indians.

Over 100 photographs and illustrations - This book has 480 pages, weighs 2.2 pounds and is 8" by 9.5" in size. The Dates, Names and "Moons" section of these pages are based on the book.

This is the cover to my 4th book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info.
This is the cover to my 4th book. Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info."

Native American History For Dummies

I wrote six of the twenty-four chapters in this book. I am credited with being the technical editor. Book Description:
Native American History For Dummies introduces readers to the thousand-year-plus history of the first inhabitants of North America and explains their influence on the European settlement of the continent. Covering the history and customs of the scores of tribes that once populated the land, this friendly guide features vivid studies of the lives of such icons as Pocahontas, Sitting Bull, and Sacagawea; discusses warfare and famous battles, offering new perspectives from both battle lines; and includes new archaeological and forensic evidence, as well as oral histories that show events from the perspective of these indigenous peoples. The authors worked in concert with Native American authorities, institutions, and historical experts to provide a wide range of insight and information.
This is the cover to my 3rd book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info.
This is the cover to my 3rd book. Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info
Treaties With American Indians I wrote an article and several appendix items for this book.
Clips from a review on Amazon.com: *Starred Review* In the 93 years from 1778 until 1871, there were more than 400 treaties negotiated by Indian agents and government officials. Editor Fixico and more than 150 contributors have crafted a three volume comprehensive tool that will soon become essential for anyone interested in the topic. A resource section with lists of ?Alternate Tribal Names and Spellings,? ?Tribal Name Meanings,? (<---- I wrote this part) Treaties by Tribe,? and ?Common Treaty Names? and a bibliography and comprehensive index are repeated in each volume. This impressive set has a place in any academic library that supports a Native American studies or American history curriculum. It is the most comprehensive source of information on Canadian-Indian treaties and U.S.-Indian treaties. Also available as an e-book.

"The Wacky World of Laws"
It was just released in May 2009.
The Wacky World of Laws. Click on the cover to order a copy or to get more info.

The Wacky World of Laws is a compilation of U.S. and International Laws that are out of the ordinary. With the U.S. churning out 500,000 new laws every year and 2 million regulations annually, this book is the ideal go-to book fro everyone who wants a good laugh at the expense of our legal system. Law so often can be boring! Now with The Wacky World of Laws, you can be the hit of any water cooler conversation, and amaze your friends with precious legal nuggets.

I wrote most of this book. It is my fifth book.

(copyright, © Phil Konstantin, 2010)

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