October 2005 Newsletter from
"This Day in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2006)

Click Here To Return To The Previous Website

Start of Phil Konstantin’s October 2005 Newsletter


This month's newsletter has been a bit delayed. I have been watching
"Into The West." it finally came out on DVD. I had hoped to write a
review for it. Unfortunately, I have only finished watching the first
episode. One of the first faces I recognized was David Bald Eagle. He
plays White Feather's grandfather, Two Arrows. I spent some time with
him during my trip to the northwest and northern plains states in 2003.
You can see some pictures of us on my website at:
http://americanindian.net/2003s.html and
http://americanindian.net/2003t.html. He was a very interesting man, and
a gracious host.

I'll have more about "Into The West" in a few days. If any of you would
like to pass along your thoughts on this TV mini-series, please pass
them along.

My recovery from spine surgery continues. My neck is not as sore as it
once was. My right should remains sore, though. It still feels weird to
swallow, at times. Overall, I am OK. Thanks for all of the nice e-mails.



The "Link of the Month" for October 2005 is the Kiowa Young Men's
Association. "A grassroots organization, the Kiowa Young Men's
Association is composed of people who live in the Kiowa Community and
keep close ties to what is happening at the local level. The group
participates in the positive activities of the tribe. One standard the
group has adopted is not to be politically involved... to be a part of
the solution rather than part of the problem. The theory is sound
because the Kiowa Tribe needs more positive direction. In addition, the
young men of the Kiowa Nation will inherit what is left by the previous
generation. To insure that the next generation has something good, the
young men have taken the responsibility to forge a positive path."

You might find it interesting to go through their website to see what
they are trying to do.

You can find it at:


The Treaty of the month is the "Treaty with the Kioway, Ka-ta-ka and
Ta-wa-ka-ro, Nations of Indians" (May 26, 1837. | 7 Stat., 533. |
Proclamation, Feb. 21, 1838.). It covers such matters as: Peace and
friendship; Injuries mutually forgiven; Friendly intercourse; Payment
for property stolen; Proviso; Hunting grounds; Payment for injuries to
United States traders; Treatment of other Indians; Presents to Indians;
and, Relations with Mexico.

You can see a transcription of the treaty here:


Events and Notices:

Against the Wind Films, LLC is currently casting for a feature film

CALIFORNIA INDIAN is an independent feature film going into production
relatively soon in mid-October. The film will be shot entirely on
location near the city of Lakeport, CA - 2 hours north of San
Francisco. The project is being co-produced by CHRIS EYRE, director of
directed by TIM RAMOS of the Big Valley Rancheria in Lakeport, CA.

CALIFORNIA INDIAN is a reunion-redemption story about a young urban
Indian named Nick Thomas, who hosts a sports-talk radio show in Los
Angeles. He has to make an urgent trip home to his reservation in
Northern California when his mother, Darlene, lapses into a diabetic

We are seeking to fill the following roles with both SAG and non-union
Native Actors - Background Actors:
LEONARD            (30's) - male, rez
MARIE            (50+) - female, traditional auntie
MELISSA            (20's) female, party-animal
SHIRLEY            (30's) female, shy
TJ            (10) male, troublemaker
JACK            (30's) male, hero-wannabe
TRIBAL LEADER      (40+) - male or female
WANDA            (30+) female, opinionated
WAYNE            (20+) male, Wanda's sidekick
SHANNON            (30+) female, maternal
BARTENDER      (20's) male or female
CATHY            (20's) female, rez bum
FRANKIE            (20's) male, rez bum
PEEPS            (any age) male or female, drug addict
RECEPTIONIST      (any age) female
YOUNG APRIL      (4 yrs old) female

Films, LLC, CASTING, 26500 W. Agoura Rd. #737, Calabasas, CA 91302 or
online at: casting @ californiaindian.com (take out spaces) SUBMISSION
DEADLINE October 7, 2005

Break a leg, and remember me when you need a date to the Oscar's!
Sande Bea Allman



Dean Nell Jessup Newton and the Connecticut Law Review invite you to
their Fall Symposium
Indian Law at a Crossroads
Friday, October 28, 2005
8:30 AM – 4:30 PM
University of Connecticut School of Law
Hartford, Connecticut

This symposium also celebrates the publication of the
Cohen’s Handbook of Federal Indian Law
(2005 Edition)
Nell Jessup Newton, et al., eds.

Honored Guest:
Lucy Kramer Cohen

Speakers include:
v       Robert T. Anderson, Assistant Professor of Law and Director of
the Indian Law Center, University of Washington School of Law
v       Bethany Berger, Assistant Professor of Law, Wayne State
University Law School
v       Philip S. Deloria, Director, American Indian Law Center, Inc.
v       Philip P. Frickey, Richard W. Jennings Professor of Law, Boalt
Hall School of Law, University of California, Berkeley
v       Carole E. Goldberg, Professor of Law and Director, Joint Degree
Program in Law and American Indian Studies, UCLA School of Law
v       Sarah A. Krakoff, Associate Professor of Law and Acting Director
of the Natural Resources Law Center, University of Colorado School of
v       John P. LaVelle, Professor of Law, University of New Mexico
School of Law
v       Nell Jessup Newton, Dean and Professor of Law, University of
Connecticut School of Law
v       Jeremy Paul, Thomas F. Gallivan, Jr. Professor of Real Property
Law and Associate Dean for Research, University of Connecticut School of
v       Judith V. Royster, Professor of Law and Co-director of the
Native American Law Center, University of Tulsa College of Law
v       Joseph William Singer, Professor of Law, Harvard Law School
v       Alexander Tallchief Skibine, S. J. Quinney Professor of Law, S.
J. Quinney College of Law, University of Utah
v       Rennard Strickland, Philip H. Knight Professor of Law,
University of Oregon School of Law
v       Kevin K. Washburn, Associate Professor of Law, University of
Minnesota Law School

Continental breakfast and lunch provided to those who RSVP to the e-mail
address below. FREE admission to the academic community. For more
information, please contact S. Anita Sinha, Swati Mehta or Elizabeth
Larcano at india-@law.uconn.edu or by phone at (860) 570-5331.

For hotel room reservations, please contact the Goodwin Hotel (Hartford)
at (800)922-5006. A conference rate of $109 will be available until
October 12, 2005. Please reference the "UConn Law Symposium" when making
your reservation.



Call for Papers
Abstract/Proposals by 15 November 2005

Southwest/Texas Popular & American Popular Culture Associations 27th
Annual Conference
Albuquerque, NM. February 8-11, 2006
Hyatt Regency Albuquerque
330 Tijeras
Albuquerque, NM 87102
Phone: 1.505.842.1234
Fax: 1.505.766.6710

Panels now forming on topics related to American Indians Today.

American Indian culture is diverse and an examination of the culture,
influences, adaptation, and cultural syncretism as it is presented in
contemporary America is welcome. Proposals that build on American
Indian culture, traditions, customs and life ways are of particular

One may propose any aspect of: film; theater; literature; poetry;
oral tradition; myth; legend; philosophy; arts (painting; sculpture;
weaving; basketry; pottery; dance; music, etc.); fashion; artifacts;
American Indian foods; journalism; imagery or lack of in mainstream
media; photography; anthropology; archaeology; identity; cultural and
spiritual appropriation; stereotypes, mascots, etc.

Should you think that your proposal may not fit but does address
American Indians in contemporary America be creative, be bold, send
an abstract. I am interested in all aspects of American Indian culture.

Send an abstract of 100-250 words. Inquiries regarding any topical
area or the formation of a panel presentation should be directed to me
and will be pleased to accommodate. Send your submission to me by 15
November 2005:

Richard L. Allen, Area Chair
American Indians Today
Cherokee Nation
P.O. Box 948 = 20
Tahlequah, Oklahoma 74465
(918) 456-0671 Ext. 2466
Email: ral-@cherokee.org

Details regarding the conference (listing of all areas, hotel,
registration, tours, etc.) can be found at http://www.swtexaspca.org


San Diego State University Speakers List

Information for Speaker Series for November, Native American month

Title Federal Indian Policy in the 21st Century.
Speaker: Dr. Kevin Gover, (Pawnee), Professor of Law and Amer. Indian
Studies at ASU, Dr. Gover has also worked as a specialist for the
American Indian Policy Review Commission, a research group chartered by
Congress to study a wide range of issues important to Native Americans,
as well as Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Indian Affairs under
Interior Secretary and former Arizona Governor, Bruce Babbitt, from
1996-2001. As Assistant Secretary he concentrated on upgrading Indian
law enforcement, rebuilding decrepit Indian schools, reforming trust
services and overhauling the Bureau of Indian Affair's management
system. He will lecture on the topic of American Indian
Self-Determination and Sovereignty.
Date Tuesday, Nov 1
Time 6:00-8:00 pm
Location: Backdoor

Title "American Indian Empowerment and Nation-Building Strategies for
the New Millennium"
Speaker Dr. Joely De La Torre, (Luiseno) Associate Professor of Public
Administration at CSU San Bernardino, is a specialist in American Indian
Tribal Governments. She develops training and education programs for
tribal managers and leaders. Dr. De La Torre will speak on contemporary
issues facing California Indian peoples.
Date Tues Nov 15
Time 6:00-8:00 pm
Location: Backdoor

Title The Doctrine of Discovery in Federal Indian Law.
Speaker Mr. Steve Newcomb (Shawnee-Lenape). Mr. Newcomb is a
professional journalist who writes for Indian Country Today. He is also
a co-founder of the Indigenous Law Institute, and teaches writing at
Kumeyaay Community College.
Date Tues Nov 22
Time 6:00-8:00 pm
Location: Backdoor

Title: American Indian Spirituality, Yesterday and Today.
Speaker Mr. Joseph Red Bear, (Lakota) President, San Diego chapter of
AIM (American Indian Movement) will speak about his lifelong involvement
in both AIM and the Native American Church.
Date Tues Nov 29
Time 6:00-8:00 pm
Location: Backdoor


Contact: Penny Costello                                                  
              (402) 472-3522                                             
                                  (402) 472-8675 fax
NAPT, PO Box 83111                                                       
Lincoln, NE 68501

LINCOLN, Neb. – To share the art of storytelling, the Native American
Public Telecommunications Native Radio Project has a call out for radio
play scripts. This is a project of the Native American Public
Telecommunications and Native Voices at The National Autry Center with
planning funds from the Ford Foundation. The script entry deadline is
November 15, 2005, and to get application procedure information visit

The goal of NRT project is to bring audio theater to the American Indian
Radio on Satellite by Native authors, theater and recording artists.

Selections will be announced during mid-April 2006. Native American and
Canadian First Nations theatre companies, authors and playwrights who
are located in the United States are eligible. The criteria for
submission is short works, 10-minute plays and one-acts will be
considered. Existing plays from theatre companies will be considered,
based on the panel members’ assessment of their adaptability to an audio

Like any good theater, radio theater always beings with a well written,
perceptive, entertaining script. Use of sound and appropriateness to the
medium is considered.

The applicant must secure production, performance broadcast and
recording rights. Any genres will be considered with preference given to
contemporary Native stories.

Application Process

Complete and sign application form.

Submit six copies of the script, using 8.5 x 11 paper with 1-inch
margins and a 12-point standard typeface. The title page should include
the title of the script, names of all authors, name and address, phone
and fax numbers, and email address of the corresponding author. The
subsequent pages should include only the manuscript title and page
numbers. The judging will be "blind."

Submit the $15 readers fee with the application package.

Include a self-addressed stamped postcard for receipt notification.

Send to NAPT, PO Box 83111, Lincoln, NE 68501, or street address: 1800
N. 33rd St. Lincoln, NE 68583.

For more information about the project and opportunities for Native
Theater and audio artists, visit http://www.airos.org or
http://www.museumoftheamericanwest.org/visit/nativevoices.php. For more
information about National Audio Theatre Festivals visit

NAPT is a non-profit radio and television program development and
distribution organization based in Lincoln, Neb. at Nebraska Educational
Telecommunications with a mission to support the creation, distribution
and promotion of Native Public Media.


Who will be the "Greatest Native American"? It's up to you to decide!

The Red Roots Educational Project and The Native Truth received over 500
emails and today we're unveiling the entire list of 211 nominees! This
list represents the greatest of the greats: scientists, ballerinas,
businessmen, politicians, authors, advocates, tribal chiefs, athletes,
teachers, activist, community leaders, astronauts, and musicians are
just a few of the professions - and qualities - noted and celebrated.
Now it's up to you to vote for who you think should be recognized as the
Greatest Native American of all time!

How can you vote? It's simple. Go to www.terrijean.com, click on the
Greatest Native American tab at the top of the page, read over the list,
and cast your vote by sending an email to terri-@bright.net (with
"vote" in the subject line). I'll tally them together, place each name
in chronological order determined by their number of votes, and announce
the winner on Friday, October 14th (that's in 5 weeks!).

The rules for this poll are simple:
1. All votes must be casts by midnight October 12, 2005
2. Send all votes to terri-@bright.net with "vote" in the subject
3. We cannot accept any further nominations for this list.
4. Please share this with as many people, organizations, and newsgroups
as you can.
5. Check back on October 14th for the final list - in order of votes -
of Great Native Americans.
6. Vote for as many people as you want, but please consider the
7. I am the only person organizing this poll. I hope you'll take pity on
me and limit constant voting for your favorite nominee. If you could
keep your repeat voting to under 5 per email address (per name), that
would be most appreciated.

Note: This unscientific poll is for educational, inspirational and
entertainment purposes only. We at the RREP and NT believe this project
is a worthy one, and together we should acknowledge, celebrate, and
learn more about the many incredible and important contributions
indigenous people have made to their communities, to the United States
and to the world. To learn more about the origin of this project, and
why we feel it is so important, please visit our home page at

I look forward to receiving your vote!

Terri Jean
The Red Roots Educational Project/ The Native Truth

The list can also be found by clicking

For anyone participating in this project, might I suggest taking a few
days to read through each person on the list before emailing your
choice? Each Native candidate deserves careful time and consideration.
We are dealing with generations and centuries of leaders and heroes, and
trying to read all the material in one sitting is overwhelming (it was
for me). We have an opportunity to combine our voices and raise
awareness among peoples of the world. In my humble opinion, this
deserves more than a "quick vote."

Warm Regards,
Gina Boltz, Director
Native Village Publications
A National Heritage Foundation


News stories:

Venezuela offers support to indigenous
SEATTLE - While setting new global standards for the recognition of
indigenous rights in Venezuela, President Hugo Chavez has made an offer
to bring low-cost gasoline to the poor in the United States, including
American Indian tribal communities.
      ''There is an offer on the table for low-cost heating oil and
gasoline for poor communities in the United States,'' said Robert Free
Galvan, who is contacting tribes in the United States with Venezuela's

     ''Hopefully, Indian tribes and Native entities will take advantage
of this opportunity to become stronger in the global community.''

     Galvan's comments came after he attended the 16th World Festival of
Students and Youth in Caracas, Venezuela, Aug. 7 - 15, which was
attended by 40,000 people.

     ''I was amazed at 12-cent-a-gallon gas,'' said Galvan, adding that
he fell in love with the beauty of the green mountains and blue ocean
waters in Venezuela.

     Chavez has already sent hundreds of thousands of barrels of oil to
the region hit by Hurricane Katrina.

     Venezuela owns CITGO Petroleum Corp., which has eight refineries in
the United States, and has set aside up to 10 percent of its refined oil
products to be sold directly to organized poor communities, and
institutions in the United States without intermediaries.

     Galvan said Chavez and his revolution for indigenous rights gained
the respect of indigenous people at the world gathering in Venezuela.
During the opening procession of nations, Chavez gave a ''thumbs up'' to
the banner displaying the words ''Leonard Peltier.''

     ''Chavez acknowledged indigenous people by having them open and
bless the gathering,'' Galvin said.

       The first speaker was a Native woman, one of three indigenous
representatives in the Venezuela Assembly (or Congress), who gave
testimony to advances for indigenous people.

       ''Chavez hugged all the indigenous leaders in front of the world
and gave deeds of territory to the tribes,'' Galvan said of the communal
land titles given to six communities of the Karina, which is one of
Venezuela's 28 indigenous peoples.

      Chavez' Mission Guaicaipuro lists 15 more indigenous groups to
receive their ancestral land before the end of 2006. Galvan pointed out
that earlier Chavez called for a halt to the celebration of Columbus Day
and replaced it with ''Indigenous Resistance Day.''

      The U.S. government, Galvan said, has reacted to Chavez'
leadership and far-sweeping reforms for indigenous rights with racism.

      ''The United States government is very racist. Chavez is
indigenous and part black, and is in control of one of the world's
largest oil reserves,'' Galvan said.

      Galvan said he decided to attend the world gathering after hearing
of the movement for ''fair trade,'' as opposed to ''free trade,'' which
is igniting the indigenous rights movement in Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru,
where the majority of the population is indigenous.

      The economic alliance promotes fair trade as an alternative to the
World Trade Organization, North American Free Trade Agreement or Central
American Free Trade Agreement, he said.

     ''These trade agreements seem to favor the rich and powerful
corporations. Chavez has spent billions of oil dollars on education,
feeding and housing the people of his country in order to rebuild the
situation in his government which was inherited from the previous
government that had channeled much of the country's resources into a few
hands,'' Galvan said.

       Finally, the Venezuelan government contacted Galvan at home in
Seattle and set in motion a new effort to bring low-cost gasoline to
Indian tribal members and cultural exchanges between indigenous of the
north and south.

     Galvan said he suggested Venezuela provide low-cost gasoline to
poor U.S. communities while he was in Venezuela in August. ''I suggested
this to them while I was in Caracas. Maybe they were already thinking of
this, or maybe I ignited the idea. I like to think the latter.''

Native communities and entities wanting to learn more about Venezuela's
offer of low-cost gasoline and heating oil can e-mail Robert Free at


Families dig archaeology
September 13, 2005
Gale Courey Toensing

BROOKFIELD, Conn. - A dozen archaeology buffs spent two sweltering
August weekends digging in a farm field for artifacts of an ancient
culture, and were rewarded with a rare prize: a stemmed quartz knife
that dates back at least 3,000 years.

The event, Family Archaeology Weekend, was hosted by the Institute for
American Indian Studies, which is located in nearby Washington. The
weekend included an orientation session on a Friday night and four days
of digging in the soil over two weekends. Participants were evenly
divided between adults and children.

Archaeologist and anthropologist Dr. Lucianne Lavin, who has been
director of research at the institute for a year and a half, held
several such weekends when she taught at a community college. This was
the first Family Archaeology Weekend held by the institute, and Lavin
hopes to make it an annual event.

''The goal of the weekend was to introduce people to archaeology and why
it's important to preserve these sites, and also how to dig them
properly. The whole idea is to share the scientific information we find
about these long-dead cultures not only with our colleagues, but also
with the general public so they understand the importance of these
archaeological sites and how it really is a part of our heritage,''
Lavin said.

The dig took place on a farm that has belonged to a local family for
more than 200 years. The area is rich with American Indian history and
legend. The site is close to the Housatonic River opposite Lover's Leap,
a hilltop where Lillinonah, the daughter of Weantinogue Chief Waramaug,
and her white lover reputedly died in a ''Romeo and Juliet''-type

''The Weantinogue were a fairly large tribe, but we don't know much
about them because there's very little written about them. Their land
was taken over quite early, sold off for money, but mostly for trade
goods. They had no idea of single proprietorship, so they had no idea
they were selling it forever,'' Lavin said.

When Weantinogue lands were sold off, many tribal members moved up the
river to Schaghticoke, ''which was a major Native American refuge for
Pootatucks, some Pequots and tribal people from all over coming in -
Tunxis, Narragansetts - just trying to get away from the white man. Some
stayed and some just moved further west,'' Lavin said.

Archaeologists from the institute first began to conduct digs on the
farm site in the 1980s, and have found artifacts carbon-dated to more
than 4,000 years old, Lavin said.

Hundreds of artifacts have been found over the years, the quartz knife
among the best, Lavin said.

''Usually they're broken and shattered, but this was a complete stemmed
knife. The fellow who found it was on a dig for the first time. He was
thrilled. He shrieked, 'Look! Look!''' Lavin said.

The dig also yielded a number of prehistoric hand spades and arrowheads
made out of jasper, a material whose nearest source is the Delaware
River valley: ''which means they actually had trade routes into the
Delaware valley,'' Laving said.

The diggers also found non-portable artifacts, such as post molds and
fireplaces, as well as historic glass from the 1700s and 1800s.

Michelle Balfour, one of the weekend diggers, brought her 12-year-old
son and his friend to the event.

''I've always wanted to do an archeological dig. It's history and it's
like an adventure. I'm not at all familiar with Native Americans or the
local Native American history, so it's a neat way to come and learn
about history in our area and introduce the kids to the idea of
archaeology and to make history seem like a real living thing, instead
of something you do in the classroom,'' Balfour said.

It was the first ''official'' dig for Kevin Pierwola, too, but he has
been finding American Indian artifacts for years.

''Mostly, I just surface-hunt on plowed cornfields. When I was a kid my
father got me into artifact hunting, and I just never left it alone. I
have thousands of arrowheads,'' Pierwola said.

Pierwola said he was not familiar with the details of current events of
the local Schaghticoke Tribal Nation, which is seeking federal
acknowledgement, but he understood the concept of federal recognition.

''It means they can say they are who they are. It means you can have a
casino, but I don't think that's necessarily why many tribes try to get
acknowledgement. It's more like saying, 'We do have a culture that goes
back before English contact,'' Pierwola said.

Both Balfour and Pierwola said they will participate in a dig again next
year if it is offered.


BIA delays decision on Eastern Pequots

Published on 9/12/2005

The Bureau of Indian Affairs has delayed for one month its decision on
federal recognition for the Eastern Pequot tribe.

Tribal Chairwoman Marcia Jones Flowers said she received a letter
Saturday night informing her of the new Oct. 12 deadline for a decision.
She went to the reservation to inform members who were holding a weekend
vigil in anticipation of today's decision. A committee of tribal
members used a phone tree system to let tribal members know of the

“Our members are disappointed, but they're OK with it,” Flowers said.
“My attitude is, if the Bureau feels this is in the best interest for
the tribe, I say, take 30 days and we're fine with waiting.”

The BIA recognized the tribe in 2002, but a federal appeals board, known
as the Department of the Interior Board of Indian Appeals, overturned
the decision in May and sent the tribe's petition back to the BIA for

The 1,100-member tribe has been seeking federal acknowledgement for
almost 30 years while two other tribes in the region - the Mashantucket
Pequots and the Mohegans - went on to establish profitable gaming
enterprises on their reservations and set up government programs that
provide members with health care, education and housing. Recognized
tribes have sovereign status.


Mankiller calls for media campaign to offset incorrect image of gaming
Speaks of the value of tribal self-determination and hard-earned

Adam W. McMullin and L.A. Franck 8/31/2005, NativeTimes.com

Despite remarkable progress in recent decades, tribes still have to
confront prejudices that linger in the public mind, affecting policy on
everything from tribal sovereignty and treaty rights to housing and
other issues, according to Wilma Mankiller, renowned author, activist,
former Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, and recipient
of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, among other honors and awards.

In California, for example, Governor Schwarzenegger campaigned on a
notion that tribes don’t pay taxes—and tribes did not adequately clarify
the matter, Mankiller told attendees at the National American Indian
Housing Council’s 31st Anniversary Convention in Uncasville,

“If tribal people don’t prepare a strategic coordinated response to the
media attacks on tribal government—especially gaming tribes—it will
eventually impact all federal Indian policy, including housing,”
Mankiller said in her keynote speech on June 13. “There has never been a
time when the media accurately depicted the issues and lives of Native
people, but I believe it has become much worse in recent years as
federal support for social programs has declined, as more and more
tribal governments have turned to gaming to generate revenue for basic
services like housing, education, and health care.”

To get the opportunity to do a self-help home building program,
Mankiller recalled, her Cherokee tribe had to overcome skepticism from
outside: They don’t even work for a living…They’ll never build homes…

“But we knew they would.” Indeed, self-help had groups of tribal members
acting according to traditional Native values, said Mankiller. “We saw
that people in the community helped each other. They were

Ever-weary of Indian stereotypes, whether they be romanticizing or
vilifying, Mankiller recalled visitors who come to tribal lands
expressing surprise, even disappointment upon finding no teepees, no
people dressed in buckskin—“Where are all the Indians?” they would ask.

“Probably at WalMart,” Mankiller would quip. Then there was an instance
in which someone asked her the origin of her name. “It was a nickname,”
Mankiller replied: “and I earned it.”

Self-Determined Tribes Do Housing Better

Calling it a “sea change” in the way tribal housing is conducted,
Mankiller spoke eloquently and passionately about the self-determination
that tribes are striving to realize fully, contrasting it with memories
of how things used to be.

“Only thirty years ago, the Department of Housing and Urban Development,
the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the Indian Health Service determined
priorities for tribal governments largely in a vacuum in Washington, DC.
They allocated funds for a very narrow set of rigidly defined
one-size-fits-all programs with little acknowledgment of, or
accommodation for, the very diverse culture, lands, and populations of
tribal people.”

Mankiller called the mid-1970s “an era of sweeping self-governance” and
cited dramatic changes in federal policies, laws and regulations that
enabled tribes to determine their own priorities, and consolidate
programs and allocate resources where they were most needed. That
eventually led to the landmark legislative act driving Indian housing in
the current era.

“Since NAHASDA, the many practical models of creative housing programs
developed by tribal people have demonstrated that tribal housing
programs, whether operated by the tribal governments or housing
authorities, perform better when they are able to chart their own
course, allocate their own resources, and establish priorities based on
local needs,” said Mankiller.

Even with NAHASDA, however, some tribes operate as if the old constructs
still exist, Mankiller commented, while still placing emphasis on the
emergence of self-determining innovative tribes.

The Power to Overcome

In introducing Mankiller to the audience, NAIHC Board Vice Chairman John
Williamson said: “Her latest book, Every Day Is a Good Day, features 19
Native American women gathered ’round in a conversation about their life
experiences, which for most people would be too much to endure, but for
these strong survivors instills the enlightened wisdom that every day is
indeed a good day.”

Mankiller is optimistic, she said, owing in large part to her overcoming
cancer twice, kidney disease, and a serious car accident—and also to her
being Cherokee: “It’s a cultural value of our people and many tribes,”
who have withstood the loss of millions of acres of land, undergone
displacement, and for a time went underground with their culture but
were still able to preserve it. It’s a better prescription for clarity
looking forward than the alternative.

“It’s hard to see the future with tears in your eyes,” she said, citing
a favorite quote of hers. “Take all the busy-ness out of your mind and
focus on the task at hand: improve housing,” Mankiller encouraged the


E-mails from subscribers:
FYI, I do not vouch for any of these requests...


Please contact Laura directly, if you have some good ideas, or

Hello Phil,

I coordinate multicultural programming at the University where I work
and am trying to plan a program for next month celebrating Native
American History Month. Do you have any ideas about things I could do.
I am in Dallas, TX and have had a hard time locating individuals to come
to campus. I have contacted the local chamber of commerce but am
frustrated. I would really like to have something interesting. We are
a small campus-about 1600 students who mostly are working adults.

Thank you for any thoughts you may have.


Laura Smith
Student Services Coordinator II
University of North Texas Dallas Campus
8915 S. Hampton Road
Dallas, Texas 75232


This is for the school in Riverside, california:

Sherman Indian Highschool Reunion 2005
Saturday, Oct 8th @ 6:00PM-Midnight
Pechanga Resort & Casino
$30.00 per dinner

All alumni encouraged to attend and
bring a friend or two!
More info and RSVP contact:
Janet Honine (951) 276-6332 ext 327 or jhon-@sihs.bia.edu


"Love Caring Sharing and Respect"
Here are the reasons why the teachings of the medicine wheel are so

The oldest teachings ever given to humans are:

One should never traumatize a woman specially when she is pregnant
because not only the woman is hurt but the unborn child is damaged.

When a woman is traumatized she experiences anger and or fear.
Both of these states of mind produce adrenaline.
If the woman is pregnant, her unborn child experiences it too.
The damage cause to the child is adrenaline addiction.
This is an issue of respect and if taken care of, will help to reduce
violence in our society.

One should not have sexual activities during pregnancy

When a woman has an orgasm, a very powerful endorphin
circulates in her blood and provides her with much pleasure
but the unborn child also experiences it and can develop an addiction
to that endorphin and become a sexual offender.
Taking care of this will help to reduce the world population to a
reasonable level.

One should love the child specially the newborn child
for if love is not given, the child will grow up wanting
and eventually forget it is love it wants and just want.

Before our soul enters our body, it meets with the Being of Light
the same one we meet in near death experiences. It happened to me
and I can tell you that when your soul leaves your body, it can see
trough obstacles, hear thing several kilometers away, keeps right on
thinking and once it returns to the body, remember it all.
This new knowledge about our soul applies to the soul of the child, it
remembers the love it experienced when it was with the Being of Light
and that is why it is so thirsty for love.

If Love is not given to the child, it will grow up wanting.
That wanting is what is destroying the life support system of planet
Earth Not the business community, it just benefits from it.

This is why Love and caring are so important.

Sharing will help distribute the wealth of nature to all.
That will stop social inequities and make much more people happy and

Is that not what we want ????

Gaston Lavoie
190 Boulevard Desjardins, Apt 210
Place de la Colline
Maniwaki, Québec


Hi, My name is Ron Quinalty. I was wondering if you may know of someone
that may have any interest in purchasing a very nice book, that was left
to my wife? Her grandmother was a book collector and when she passed
away she left this book to my father-in-law, which has recently passed.
The name of the book is, History of Indian Territory, by DC Gideon. It
was published in 1901. We would like to see this book go to someone that
would appreciate it. An appraiser has viewed this book and was
remarkably impressed with it's condition. He's quite familiar with the
book being a previous owner of a copy, and he said that copy was sold to
an individual in England, for fifteen hundred dollars, several years
ago. Just wondering if you have some interest, or know someone that
Ron Quinalty



10/04/2005 Connecticut Post Editorial

Schaghticoke Tribe awaits ruling again

If there's any Indian tribe in Connecticut that merits federal
recognition, it's the Schaghticoke Tribal Nation.
Their bid for federal recognition is living proof of just how out of
whack the entire recognition process is within the U.S. Department of
the Interior.

The Schaghticoke Indians have been recognized as a tribe by the state of
Connecticut and its colonial antecedents since 1736. They applied for
federal recognition in 1981, years before federal legislation put Indian
tribes into the gaming casino business.

Yet, the tribe, after years of meticulously documenting their history,
won recognition from the Bureau of Indian Affairs in January 2004 only
to see that decision reversed by the agency's appeals board when the
state challenged it.

Schaghticoke Chief Richard Velky said he's confident the tribe will be
victorious when a new BIA decision is announced, possibly as soon as
Oct. 12.

Still, the lengthy and costly federal process eventually forced the
Schaghticokes — who for many years had been doing their own research —
to entertain thoughts of operating a gaming casino if they were
federally recognized. It was the only way to attract investor funding to
continue their recognition application and fight off challengers such as
the state of Connecticut.

Obviously, the BIA's upcoming decision is awaited not only by the tribe,
but also Bridgeport officials and residents, who remain open to the
possibility of a casino in the state's largest city. The Schaghticokes
say Bridgeport is one of the communities they are considering.

Bridgeport can certainly use the tax revenues and job opportunities for,
much like the Schaghticokes, the city has often been treated as a
second-class citizen by the state and is fiscally ailing.

No matter what decision is rendered, however, the Schaghticoke
experience is a case study of why Congress needs to completely overhaul
the federal Indian recognition process.


Recognition: Out Of Control
Even Indian tribes are disgusted with the recognition process
Published on 9/12/2005

To hear representatives of the Schaghticoke Tribal Nation tell it, the
politicization of the federal recognition process has made nobody happy,
least of all their tribe. Because the process has become so rife with
politics, it seems as if tribes are compelled to commit to building a
gambling casino just to attract the necessary funds from investors to
help pay for the work needed to get recognized.

The Schaghticoke experience is a case in point.

The Bureau of Indian Affairs recognized the Schaghticokes last year. But
this past May, judges from the Department of the Interior's Board of
Indian Appeals overturned the decision and referred it back to the BIA
for reconsideration.

Schaghticoke Chief Richard L. Velky said one reason that the decision
was overturned, the tribe was told, is that its marriage rate during the
decade of 1841-50 was at issue. But the tribe was also told that they
couldn't submit any documentation or response while the agency
reconsiders its decision.

Chief Velky is frustrated because the tribe has been trying to get
federal recognition for nearly a quarter-century. They've been at this
since 1981. In 1997, Chief Velky said, the tribe decided it couldn't
continue without an investor. “We were in this process for 16 years
without one,” Mr. Velky said, with tribal members laboriously doing
research on their own. That needed to change, they decided. The tribe
promised Fred DeLuca, the founder of the Subway chain of restaurants, a
percentage of gambling revenues should the tribe become federally
recognized and be able to open a casino.

Since then, the tribe has spent $12 million providing documentation to
get recognized. And the process isn't over yet.

“The staff members (of the BIA) are fair. The leaders (of the agency)
aren't,” Mr. Velky said. “This shouldn't be a process that you need
lawyers and millions of dollars to get through.”

The Day has been against legalized gambling for decades. But the
Schaghticokes make a legitimate point that the process takes too long
and is far too expensive for virtually any tribe to gain federal
recognition. It's gotten to the point that any tribe that truly didn't
want to engage in gambling would have to do so just to finance the
process. The vision of casino gambling, with its promise of huge
revenues, has attracted more tribes to try to get federally recognized
so the waiting list is decades long. At the same time it has also
attracted big-money investors in the process as tribes try to fight
their way through the bureaucracy.

The process of federal recognition has lost its way.


New York tax foreclosures revive painful memories
September 12, 2005
by Jim Adams

ONEIDA NATION HOMELANDS, N.Y. - Foreclosure stirs up a long, dark
history for New York state American Indians.

These memories shadow the Oneida Indian Nation's decision to contest
tax bills in 22 localities that have issued them in the aftermath of the
U.S. Supreme Court's City of Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation of New
York decision. Although local officials have derided the legal strategy
as a rear-guard action, it can also be seen as the reaction to a long
history in which state and county governments tried to use foreclosure
actions to drive Indians from tribal land.

This history goes back to the early 19th century. Although the state
Legislature received a sound rebuff from the U.S. Supreme Court, county
officials tried the same tactic in the early 20th century. They
succeeded for a time in evicting Oneidas from their land, until federal
courts intervened.

With this background, it should be no wonder that the Sherrill case is
being fought so tenaciously. In the original suit, the city of Sherrill
tried to collect taxes on several Oneida properties. The nation refused
to pay, saying that the land was part of its treaty reservation and had
reverted to sovereign tribal status when it was repurchased. In an 8 - 1
decision on March 29, the Supreme Court rejected this ''unilateral''
assertion of sovereignty.

The Sherrill case was remanded to federal District Court for a final
order, which is still pending. In the meantime, the federal judge issued
an injunction against further collection efforts by the city. But Oneida
County filed its own foreclosure action June 1 over 59 parcels. The
nation filed a federal lawsuit July 27 to stop the action and in early
August paid $650,000 against the estimated $5 million due.

Oneida spokesman Mark Emery said the contribution was not a tax
payment, but ''a good faith payment to resolve the tax dispute.'' The
county reciprocated by suspending the foreclosure action.

At the same time, the nation filed suit in state Supreme Court (the
lower rung of the state court system) against 22 school districts and
local governments to block tax bills. The suits argue that under federal
and state laws not at issue in the Sherrill case, the land cannot be
assessed or should be assessed at zero value because it can't be sold.
Said Emery, ''The nation has filed these suits in state court to prove
that under state law, no taxes are due.''

The Sherrill decision also opened a round of mechanic's lien suits
arising from a dispute with the lead contractor in the Turning Stone
Resort and Casino expansion project. Although the Oneidas, owners of
Turning Stone, can still assert sovereign immunity against lawsuit, the
property itself is not on sovereign territory, according to the Sherrill
decision. (The Oneidas have since filed applications with the Department
of Interior to put their 17,000 acres of reacquired land into trust or
restricted fee status.)

The Oneida County clerk's office has recorded 10 mechanic's liens
totaling more than $7 million from subcontractors of Hunt Construction
Groups of Arizona, one of two main contractors on the $350 million
expansion project. The Oneida Nation refuses to pay Hunt in a dispute
over its work on the project. Said Emery, ''The subcontractors' issues
are between the subcontractors and Hunt per their contracts. As for the
nation's relationship with Hunt, the nation has issues with Hunt
regarding the completion of the project and is doing the best it can to
resolve the issues.''

(The Oneida Indian Nation is also owner of Four Directions Media, the
publisher of Indian Country Today.)

Although New York tribes are more legally sophisticated than in the
past, the foreclosure cases resonate with a similar round of suits in
the 1840s.

In 1840, the state Legislature passed a highway tax on the Seneca
Nation's Allegany and Cattaraugus reservations and the following year
authorized the counties of Erie and Cattaraugus to do the same. When the
Senecas refused to pay by 1848, the state comptroller advertised the
land for sale and by 1859 conveyed nearly 34,000 reservation acres to a
private buyer.

New York state courts upheld the sale, and the state even refused a
payment of taxes by a previous owner, but the U.S. Supreme Court thought
otherwise. In 1867 it ruled, in the famous New York Indians case, that
the taxes were ''illegal and void.''

''We must say,'' wrote Justice Samuel Nelson, ''regarding these
reservations as wholly exempt from taxation ... the exercise of this
authority over them is an unwarrantable interference, inconsistent with
the original title of the Indians, and offensive to their tribal

He hinted archly that these actions, and the original state
legislation, were meant to help ''unworthy persons'' harass the Senecas
off their land, ''secured by the most sacred of obligations of the
Federal government.''

Although the Supreme Court, at least that of the 1860s, made clear it
disapproved of New York state's ''illegal'' actions, the scolding didn't
stop the issue from coming up again. In 1907, the state's courts used
another foreclosure action to evict Oneida families from the last 32
acres in tribal hands. The emotion of the eviction at county hands is
still a powerful tribal memory.

The foreclosure involved non-payment of a mortgage instead of taxes,
but when the federal court stepped in, it found it was just as illegal.
The United States sued Julia Boylan, holder of the mortgage, and the 2nd
Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that the sale of tribal land was null and

Finding that the Oneidas were ''a distinct people, tribe, or band,''
the three-judge panel wrote: ''The right of self-government has never
been taken from them. It has never been questioned, and no attempt made
at subjecting them as a people, and it has always been considered and
recognized by the states as a right of the federal government to make
provisions for the dispositions of their lands, and until such was made
by the federal government the right of occupancy remained in the

Even the Sherrill decision recognized Oneida sovereignty over the 32
acres in the Boylan case. Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg offered the
presumably ''multilateral'' Interior land-into-trust process as an
alternate means of extending tribal sovereignty over reacquired
reservation territory. Although local officials might be disappointed,
the foreclosure ploy might be no more successful at dispossessing
Indians than it was in the last two centuries.


Interesting websites:

I don't know the source of these figures, or how accurate they are, but
they sound interesting. There are some very fascinating figures here and
they are updated by your computer clock by the second from births and
deaths to food, environment,



Humorous or interesting non-Indian material:

From Bev Fox in Australia:

12-Step Internet Recovery Program

1) I will have a cup of coffee in the morning and read my newspaper like
I used to, before the Internet.

2) I will eat breakfast with a knife and fork and not with one hand

3) I will get dressed before noon.

4) I will make an attempt to clean the house, wash clothes, and plan
dinner before even thinking of the Internet.

5) I will sit down and write a letter to those unfortunate few friends
and family that are Internet-deprived.

6) I will call someone on the phone who I cannot contact via the

7) I will read a book...if I still remember how.

8) I will listen to those around me and their needs and stop telling
them to turn the TV down so I can hear the music on the Internet.

9) I will not be tempted during TV commercials to check for email.

10) I will try and get out of the house at least once a week, if it is
necessary or not.

11) I will remember that my bank is not forgiving if I forget to balance
my checkbook because I was too busy on the Internet.

12) Last, but not least, I will remember that I must go to bed sometime
... and the Internet will always be there tomorrow!


Here are some random historical events for October:

October 1, 1800: The San Ildefonso Treaty is signed today. A
secret part of this treaty signed by France and Spain is for
Spain to return the lands in Louisiana west of the Mississippi
River to France.

October 2, 1818: Lewis Cass, Jonathan Jennings, and Benjamin
Parke, representing the United States, sign a treaty with the
POTAWATOMI & WEA Indians today on the St.Mary's River on the
Indiana-Ohio border. The tribe will exchange vast holdings in
Indiana for an annual payment of $2,500.

October 3, 1873: Captain Jack is hanged today for his part in
the MODOC War.

October 4, 1878: Dull Knife, and his band of Northern CHEYENNE,
cross the Union Pacific line at Alkali station, Nebraska.
Stationed in Fort Sidney, in western Nebraska, Major T.T.
Thornburgh, and 140 soldiers, board a waiting train in an
attempt to catch up to Dull Knife.

October 5, 1813: Near the Thames River in Canada, today,
American forces, led by General William Henry Harrison, and
British-Indian forces, led by Henry Proctor and Tecumseh,
will fight a decisive battle. Harrison's forces were much
stronger. Setting up an ambush, the British and the Indians
forces took up different positions. When Harrison's forces
attacked the 700 British soldiers, they caved in almost
immediately. Tecumseh's Indians, fighting in a swamp, held
out until Tecumseh was killed. At the end of the fighting,
600 British were captured, 18 were killed. Thirty-three
Indians were killed, while none were captured. The American
forces lost 18 men, as well.

October 6, 1774: In what would be called Lord Dunmore's War,
Virginia Governor, John Murray, the Earl of Dunmore will
authorize an Army of Virginians to go into SHAWNEE territory,
despite the royal proclamation of October 7th, 1763, which
prohibited European settlements west of the Appalachian
Mountains. Dunmore had granted lands to veterans in the
prohibited area, and he planned on helping them get it. Today
around 800 SHAWNEEs, under Chief Cornstalk, will attack
Dunmore's force of 850 men at Point Pleasant, in present day
western West Virginia, on the Ohio and Kanawha Rivers. The
fighting would last all day. Both sides would suffer numerous
casualties. Cornstalk would lose the battle, and eventually
sign a peace treaty with the Virginians.

October 7, 1759: Last year, TAWEHASH Indians helped to destroy
the Spanish Mission of San Saba de la Santa Cruz in east Texas.
The Spanish have finally gathered a punative expedition, leading
1,000 Spanish and pro-Spanish Indians, Diego Ortiz Parrilla will attack
the TAWEHASH village today. With their allies the COMANCHEs
and the TAWAKONIs, the TAWEHASH fight back. The TAWEHASH will
win the day, and force the retreat of the Spanish allied
forces, killing as many as 100 men in the process.

October 8, 1779: El Mocho was an APACHE; but, he was captured
by the TONKAWAs. His bravery and natural leadership abilities,
eventually led the TONKAWAs to make him their Principal Chief.
Today, he will meet with Spanish Governor Athanase de Mezieres
in San Antonio. They will sign a peace treaty; and, El Mocho
(Spanish for mutilated) will be honored with a Medal of Honor.
The peace would only last for a few years.

October 9, 1978: The CHEROKEE Tribal Council adopts an official
flag, designed by Stanley John, today.

October 10, 1540: Today, de Soto enters a village called
Athahachi. Here he will meet the village chief, Tascaluca.
Tascaluca will be taken as a hostage by de Soto to insure
the cooperation of the Chief's followers.

October 11, 1874: Satanta has become despondent about his
life-term in the Huntsville, Texas, prison. He has slashed
his wrists trying to kill himself, but he is unsuccessful.
He will be admitted to the prison hospital. Today, Satanta
will jump from a second floor balcony. He will land head first,
and die.

October 12, 1833: Captain John Page leaves Choctaw Agency,
Mississippi with 1000 CHOCTAW for the Indian Territory. Many
of the CHOCTAW are old, lane, blind, or sick.

October 13, 1864: Little Buffalo, with 700 of his fellow
COMANCHEs, and KIOWAs, launched a series of raids along Elm
Creek, ten miles from the Brazos River, in north-western Texas,
today. Sixteen Texans and perhaps, twenty Indians will be
killed in the fighting with the settlers, and the Rangers,
in the area.

October 14, 1880: Victorio's APACHEs are attacked by the Mexican
army near tres castillos, in Chihuahua, Mexico. Victorio will
be shot, and killed by a Mexican sharpshooter. Many of his
followers will be killed, as well. The Mexicans will report
killing seventy-eight men, and capturing sixty-eight women
and children.

October 15, 1876: Lt.Col.E.S.Otis' force of 237 soldiers, and
96 wagons of supplies for the soldiers at the mouth of the
Tongue River, are attacked again on Spring Creek. This time
the Indians are approximately 800 strong, according to Army
reports. A running battle continues. The Indians will send
numerous sorties against the wagons. They will also set fire
to the prairie grass, forcing the wagons to drive through the
flames. Several people will be killed and wounded on both

October 16, 1837: After having fought for the government in
the SEMINOLE Wars, Jim Boy "Tustennuggee Emathla", a CREEK
leader, and some other CREEK Chiefs, arrive in New Orleans
today, en route to the Indian Territory.

October 17, 1863: Kit Carson has been conducting a campaign
against the NAVAJOs who have not reported to their assigned reservation.
This will be called the Canyon de Chelly
Campaign. Carson will effect a scorched earth policy, trying
to starve the NAVAJOs into submission. Today, 2 NAVAJOs will
appear at Fort Wingate, in western New Mexico, under a flag
of truce. One of the two is El Sordo, brother to NAVAJO
leaders Barboncito, and Delgadito. He will propose that the
NAVAJOs live next to the fort, so the soldiers can keep an
eye on them at all times. They still do not wish to move
away from their homelands to the Bosque Redondo Reservation.
The Army will turn down the proposal, and insist the NAVAJOs
go to the reservation.

October 18, 1820: Today, a treaty will be negotiated between
Andrew Jackson and the CHOCTAWs. The CHOCTAWs will give up
lands in Mississippi for land in western Arkansas. Part of
the lands that Jackson promised to the Indians belonged to
Spain, or were already settled by Europeans. This would be
called the Treaty of Doak's Stand. Chief Pushmataha will be
one of the signers.

October 19, 1841: Today, TALLAHASSEE SEMINOLE Chief Tiger Tail (Thlocko
Tustennuggee) will surrender to American forces
based on the intervention of SEMINOLE Chief Alligator
(Hallpatter Tustennuggee). In only 3 months, though, Tiger
Tail will escape from government detention in Fort Brooke.

October 20, 1832: Marks Crume, John Davis, and Jonathan
Jennings, representing the United States, and POTAWATOMI
Indians sign a treaty today at Tippecanoe. The Indians will
give up lands near Lake Michigan for $15,000 a year, debt
relief, and for supplies.

October 21, 1867: (through October 28th) Today starts the
biggest US-Indian conference ever held. The conference was
held near Fort Dodge, Kansas near what was called Medicine
Lodge Creek. The name came from a KIOWA "medicine lodge"
which was still standing from a recent KIOWA "sun dance"
ceremony. Of the KIOWA & COMANCHE treaty, some KIOWA signers
were: Satanta, Satank, Black Bird, Kicking Bird, & Lone Bear.
(15 stat.589)

October 22, 1859: Today, the "Camp on Pawnee Fork", which
will eventually become Fort Larned, is established in Kansas.
The military base is established to protect travelers on the
Santa Fe Trail from "hostile Indians." The fort will be
abandoned almost 20 years later.

October 23, 1874: This morning, a bunch of SIOUX take axes to
the stripped tree that Red Cloud Agency Agent J.J.Saville has
planned as a flagpole. The Indians do not want a flag on their
reservation. When Saville gets no help in stopping the choppers
from Indian leaders, he sends a worker to get help from Fort
Robinson, in northwest Nebraska. As the two dozen soldiers
from the fort are riding toward the agency, a large group
of angry SIOUX surrounds them. They try to instigate a fight. Suddenly,
the SIOUX police, led by Young Man Afraid of His
Horses, ride up and form a cordon around the soldiers. The
SIOUX police will escort the soldiers to the agency stockade,
averting a possible fight. Many SIOUX will be frustrated by
the events, and will leave the reservation.

October 24, 1840: Col.John Moore with 90 Texans, and 12
"friendly" LIPAN Indians, come upon a COMANCHE village on
the Red Fork of the Colorado River, in central Texas. The
Texans sneak up on the village, and attack. According to the
Texans, 148 COMANCHEs are killed, and 34 are captured. Only 1
Texan dies. The Texans also seize almost 500 horses. The
village will be burned.

October 25, 1862: The TONKAWAs were living on a reservation in
the Washita River in Indian Territory, after having been removed
from a reservation on the Brazos River, in Texas. The TONKAWAs
have earned the enmity of other tribes because they acted as
scouts for the army. On this date, DELAWARE, SHAWNEE, and
CADDO Indians attacked the TONKAWA village. 137 of the 300
TONKAWAs were killed in the raid.

October 26, 1882: The Navy shells the TLINGITS today.

October 27, 1970: The PIT RIVER Indians engage in a skirmish
with local law enforcement today in Burney, California.

October 28, 1932: The mineral rights sales ban for the PAPAGO
Reservation is canceled.

October 29, 1805: Lewis & Clark meet the CHILLUCKITTEQUAW
Chief and medicine man.

October 30, 1805: 1876: President grant, by Executive Order
today, revokes the White Mountain-San Carlos (CHIRICAHUA)
Reserve. The area bounded by Dragoon Springs to Peloncillo
Mountain Summit to New Mexico to Mexico will revert to the
public domain. The reserve was established on December 14,

October 31, 1879: After the Standing Bear trial, where it
was ruled that the government could not force an Indian to
stay in any one reservation against their will, Big Snake
decides to test the law. He asks for permission to leave
his reservation to visit Standing Bear. His request is
denied. He will eventually leave his PONCA Reservation to
go to the CHEYENNE Reservation, also in Indian Territory.
Big Snake will be returned to the PONCA Reservation, when
General Sherman decides the Standing Bear ruling applies
only to Standing Bear. Big Snake will make the PONCA Agent,
William Whiteman, very angry. Whiteman will order Big Snake
arrested. Today, Big Snake will be arrested and charged
with threatening Whiteman. In Whiteman's office, after
denying any such actions, Big Snake refuses to go with
the soldiers there to arrest him. A struggle develops, and
Big Snake is shot and killed.


That’s all for now.

Stay safe,


End of Phil Konstantin’s October 2005 Newsletter 


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