October 2002 Newsletter from
"This Day in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2002)

Looking for a good book on North American Indians?
Click on the line below:
Good Books



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Start of the October 2002 Newsletter
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Greetings,

I hope things are going well for you and yours. I mentioned last month that I was interviewed by the local media about two "Amber Alert" incidents where the person who had taken a child was found near San Diego. Sure enough, two newsletter subscribers heard my name mentioned on a report on their hometown station. One was in the Pacific Northwest, the other along the Gulf Coast. It never ceases to amaze me how small this world can be.

The Amber Alert, and several of the programs which deal with keeping children safe, reminds me of a husband and wife team I worked with over 10 years ago. A child was kidnapped in their community and they decided to do something about it. They devised one of the first child fingerprinting programs. They also had the original idea to videotape the participating children. This recording was added to a video which showed several things children could do to avoid being kidnapped. The video and the fingerprints were then given to the parents. All of this was provided to the parents for free. The couple paid for the program through corporate sponsors. I have never been a proponent of women wearing makeup. I, of course, believe this is completely up to the person involved. But, my own preference is for less makeup, or none at all. I bring this up because back then I noticed the woman involved in this childsafety project (as I recall, it was called Kindervision) seemed to be wearing more makeup each time I saw her. She also looked a bit tired. About 10 years ago, I left that CHP office to go to where I work now. I went back to that building about a year later for some errand or other, and I saw one of their posters. I asked my former co-worker how the project was going. He told me that the project was OK, but that the woman had died. It turns out that she had a deadly disease during the entire time I worked with her. Her complexion became paler as the illness progressed. The project was so important to her, that she used extra makeup to hide her sickness. Since she made many presentations to business executives to pay for the program, she did not want them to be put off by her illness. In any case, she worked almost up to her death. You really have to admire dedication of that sort.

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Well, I have finally seen a finished copy of my book. I serve on an advisory committee for the Rueben H. Fleet Science Center and Museum in San Diego. They are showing the IMAX film "Lewis and Clark." (This movie does a good job of pointing out the ramifications of this trip on the local tribes.) I mentioned to them that my book might make an appropriate addition to their giftshop while the movie ran. They liked the idea and contacted the marketing people for the publisher in New York. The Center had already set up a book signing with two local authors who had written books related to Lewis & Clark. I was not part of the advance publicity, because they were not sure if the book would be ready in time for the October 28th event. The publisher shipped the very first copies to the Center and fortunately, two dozen copies arrived that Saturday morning. In a comedy of errors, the IMAX projector, which is the main draw of the Center, broke down. So, most people who entered decided to go elsewhere. As a part of a presentation I had prepared for the lecture hall, I made a CD with some photos which I thought might be in the book. At this point, I still did not exactly know what the editors had put in the book. Even though the crowd was small (you really could not call it a crowd), I went ahead with my short discussion. The computer I was using to show the photos also broke. So, no photos. Oh well, I did get to see my book, and I did autograph one for someone who bought a copy. I hope to get my own copy any day now.

I have taken vacation time for the next four weeks. I hope to be able to do some appearances or book signings. I will pass along where any personal appearances I may make will be. My book should be out any time, now. You should be able to find it in the larger bookstores in major cities in the United States. You will definitely be able to order it through any bookstore. The retail price is $35. I have seen it priced from $36 down to a little over $22 on the internet. I do not know what it will sell for at the local stores. That is still a high price for a book. You may want to look at a copy before you get one, just to make sure you think it is worth it.

In order to help get the best deal for subscribers to this newsletter, I created a link to Buy.com on a special page I created for you. They have the best price I have seen on the internet. Their website still says the book qualifies for free shipping. The link is at:

http://americanindian.net/newsletterbook.html

If you order the book by going directly through my website, I get an extra $1 commission. You can also find a link for Amazon.com which charges a slightly higher rate.

For those of you who have said you plan to, or already have, order it, I thank you.

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This month's "Link of the Month, is "The Mesoamerican Ballgame: The Sport of Life and Death." This website appears to have been built to promote a traveling museum exhibit. It requires Flash 5+ to view its features. Once you are inside the site, you will get a chance to play the ball game. You can visit many of the areas of Mesoamerica where the game was played. You can also see some of the artifacts from Mesoamerica. This website is a great example of what the internet can do to produce interactive experiences.

You can find it at this address:
 http://www.ballgame.org/ 

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Here are some interesting articles which can be seen on the internet:


As museums return stolen religious artifacts, Native Americans are learning that their most sacred objects may kill them
http://www.sfweekly.com/issues/2002-09-04/feature.html/1/index.html

American Indian Chamber of Commerce of southern California - Scholarship Award Application 
http://www.aiccsocal.org/news/scholar.html

Maya Sites to be Flooded by Dam - this site talks about a plan to dam the Usumacinta River in Mexico. If this happens, many sites will be flooded.
http://www.mesoweb.com/reports/dam.html

Sharing the wealth: Tribes in California and Ontario take the lead
http://indiancountry.com/?1033569317

Means in runoff for tribal president
http://www.argusleader.com/news/Fridayarticle2.shtml

Enrollment and degrees conferred in tribally controlled institutions, by institution: Fall 1997, 1998, 1999, 1998-99, and 1999-2000
http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/digest2001/tables/dt220.asp

Big Hole battle relics on display
http://www.montanaforum.com/rednews/2001/09/03/build/tribal/nezperce.php

A great Nez Perce newspaper series
http://www.billingsgazette.com/index.php?display=modules/nezperce.html

Animation about the Department of the Interior
http://www.salon.com/politics/comics/2002/09/27/trust/index.html

Seminole tribal members were 'like brothers and sisters' until dispute over race and money split them
http://www.news-journalonline.com/2002/Sep/22/STAT90.htm

Rock mining stripping away tribal history 
http://www.arizonarepublic.com/news/articles/0918hualapaicanyons.html

Maya Hieroglyphs Recount "Giant War"
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/09/0917_020919_pilas.html

Bison Kill Site Sheds Light on Ice Age Culture
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/07/0722_020722_clovis.html

Young activist from Chickaloon makes elite list in Utne Reader 
http://www.adn.com/life/story/1828696p-1943697c.html

Grieving for the Salmon Nation
http://indiancountry.com/?1033740362

Traditionalists to rally against bloodline initiative 
http://www.montanaforum.com/rednews/2002/10/03/build/tribal/bloodline.php?nnn=2

Davis vetoes sacred sites bill (I mentioned this legislation in a previous newsletter)
http://indiancountry.com/?1033740169

News From the North: A summary of First Nations affairs in Canada
http://indiancountry.com/?1033652622

Native American cooking column
http://indiancountry.com/?1033652427

Mayor "sneaks in" petroglyph road
http://indiancountry.com/?1032185698

Noted Onondaga chief dies
http://indiancountry.com/?1031140934

Obituary: Darrow, Apache chairwoman 
http://www.indianz.com/News/show.asp?ID=2002/10/04/darrow

E. Kisto dies; rancher, O'odham ex-councilman
http://www.azstarnet.com/star/wed/21002KistoObit.html

Meeting at tribal offices peaceful (Seminole)
http://www.news-star.com/stories/100402/New_18.shtml

Seminole Nation of Oklahoma v. Gale Norton
http://www.dcd.uscourts.gov/02-739.pdf

Oil and gas producers balk at tribal land bill 
http://www.newsok.com/cgi-bin/show_article?ID=926088

Suit: Navajos told not to speak Navajo
http://www.indianz.com/News/show.asp?ID=2002/10/02/navajo

Kiowa tribal member finds historic fort 
http://www.indianz.com/News/show.asp?ID=2002/09/30/fort

Nipmucs give BIA more information - Blumenthal files brief supporting recognition denial
http://www.theday.com/news/ts-re.asp?NewsUID=E58B0BC7-42D5-4A25-94AA-99CBD281198F

Agency drafts rules for tribal recognition 
http://www.rep-am.com/statenews/479n.htm

Warrior Dreams (Basketball team)
http://www.reznetnews.org/sports/020930_bball/

Indians in the Capital
http://www.reznetnews.org/culture/020916_powwowdc/

A Native Voice
http://www.reznetnews.org/student/020923_thorpe/

United Tribes Intertribal Council Summit plans tribal futures 
http://www.okit.com/news/2002/SEPTOCT/development.html

SKINS: Another "Indan" Movie 
http://www.okit.com/arts/2002/augsept/skins.html

Skins: a review
http://www.modamag.com/skins.htm

Skins - A film review by Max Messier 
http://www.filmcritic.com/misc/emporium.nsf/2a460f93626cd4678625624c007f2b46/71dde6bf3696a91588256c3000098580?OpenDocument

Skins: another review
http://www.offoffoff.com/film/2002/skins.php3

Skins - review bulletin board
http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/Skins-1115377/reviews.php?critic=all

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Banned Books Week was September 21–28, 2002. While this is not specifically an American Indian related issue, I thought you might be interested in the subject matter. This website from the American Library Association has lots of information. I was a bit surprised to see the number of requests to have Harry Potter books removed from libraries. Some conservative religious groups feel it promotes a belief in witchcraft.

http://www.ala.org/bbooks/

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The Treaty of the Month:

TREATY WITH THE SHAWNEE, ETC., Oct. 26, 1832. 7 Stat., 397. Proclamation, Feb. 12, 1833.  "Articles of a treaty made and entered into at Castor Hill, in the county of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri, this twenty-sixth day of October, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two, between William Clark, Frank J. Allen and Nathan Kouns, Commissioners on the part of the United States, of the one part, and the Chiefs, Warriors and Counsellors of the Shawnoes and Delawares, late of Cape Girardeau, in behalf of their respective bands, of the other part." It involved Cession of land to United States, Payment to Delawares, Payment to claims against Delawares, Payments to Shawnees and Annuities.
http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/sha0370.htm

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Messages:

To ALL Aboriginal Women & Men Writers & Visual Artists 
 
Call for Submissions for New Book: 
 
SKY WOMAN FALLS INTO THE MILLENNIUM 
 
We want to hear about the Aboriginal women or female youth who have inspired, moved or shaped you in some significant way. Take us on your journey of how these people have made a difference in your life. How have 
they inspired you? 
 
This publication is open to both Aboriginal women and men writing on the impact of Aboriginal women and/or female youth in their lives. 
 
deadline for submissions: NOV. 1, 2002 
 
About Native Women in the Arts 
Native Women in the Arts is an organization for First Nations, Inuit and Metis women from all artistic disciplines who share the common interest of culture, art, community and the advancement of Indigenous peoples. 
 
Native Women in the Arts has published 155 Aboriginal women to date. Our publications have produced an immense ripple effect of confidence building and has spawned more Aboriginal women and female youth to write and publish.  Not only has this immense ripple effect materialized in the discipline of literary arts and publishing, but also within the performing, visual arts, and cultural development projects. 
 
We are proud to announce that in October 2001, My Home As I Remember (edited by Lee Maracle and Sandra Laronde) won the Mixed Media Arts Award (written and visual arts) at the Returning the Gift Festival in Oklahoma. 
 
Quotes on our publications: 
"My Home As I Remember is so beautiful! I just received my personal copy of the book yesterday. I just wanted to drop you a note to let you know and to thank you for the incredible work. I'm so excited. I can't believe it!"  (April Lindala, Delaware/Mohawk) 
 
Please read: 
Writers: Must include a short biography, address, phone number, e-mail. Prefer material computer generated on paper or email, single spaced. Maximum accepted is 5 poems or 2,500 words of prose. 
 
Visual Artists: Must include short biography, address, phone number, e-mail. Send slides or photos (no originals). Label all submissions carefully (name, title, medium and date of artwork). Photos should be labeled on the back.  Slides should clearly show correct orientation of artwork. This could be realistic, expressionistic or abstract art. 
 
Send your submissions to the mailing or email address below, or contact us directly: 
 
Native Women in the Arts 
401 Richmond Street West, Suite 363 
Toronto, Ontario M5V 3A8 Canada 
phone: (416) 598-4078 
fax: (416) 598-4729 
email: nwia@interlog.com 
 
(Please note that submissions will be read by a selection committee of five people in December 2002. All candidates will be notified by February 2003). 


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Symposium on Coverage of American Indian Issues in the New England Press

Hosted by the Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development

Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
Coordinators:  Katherine A. Spilde, Sr. Research Associate & Leigh A. Gardner, Research Assistant Harvard Project on American Indian EconomicDevelopment
(617) 496-4212, kate_spilde@ksg.harvard.edu

AGENDA, October 13-14, 2002

This Symposium is the first meeting of tribal leaders, policy makers, scholars, and media professionals in New England.  The purpose of the Symposium is to identify common patterns of media coverage of American Indian issues, to discuss their implications for tribal communities, to explore new ways to articulate a Native voice in media, and to create an understanding between tribal leaders, policy makers and media professionals in New England regarding the challenges and opportunities for accurate and meaningful coverage .This event is free and open to the public.


Panelists:
Professor John M. Coward, University of Tulsa; Author of The Newspaper Indian: Native American Identity in the Press, 1820-90.
Professor Mary Ann Weston, Northwestern University; Author of Native Americans in the News: Images of Indians in the Twentieth Century Press.
Kenneth M. Reels, Chairman, Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation
Mark Brown, Chairman, Mohegan Tribe
Marcia Jones Flowers, Chairwoman, Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation
Beverly Wright, Chairperson, Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah)
Matthew Thomas, Chief Sachem, Narragansett Indian Tribe
Glenn Marshall, President, Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe
Marcia Flowers, Chair, The Eastern Pequot Nation
Richard L. Velky, Chief, Schaghticoke Tribal Nation

Moderator: Kevin Gover, Attorney, Steptoe and Johnson, Washington, D.C.


I. Policy Impacts of New England Media Coverage: Covering a Town is not the Same as Covering a Tribal Government
Mark Van Norman, Executive Director, National Indian Gaming Association
Tex Hall, President, National Congress of American Indians
Tom Acevedo, Chief of Staff,  Mohegan Tribe
John Guevremont, Governmental Relations, Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation
Moderator: John Tahsuda, Sr. Minority Counsel, Senate Committee on Indian Affairs

II. Native Media: The Role of the Native Voice in the National Policy Dialogue
Victor Rocha, Editor and Webmaster, www.pechanga.net
Mark Trahant, CEO, Robert C. Maynard Institute for Journalism, Oakland, CA.
Paula Peters, Staff Writer, Cape Cod Times
Michael Johnson, Owner, Nativeopinion.com
Moderator: Paul DeMain, Managing Editor and CEO, News from Indian Country

This Event is Sponsored by the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation and the Mohegan Tribe

The Symposium is intended to educate and inform as many as possible about the above issues; it is therefore open to the public, and we welcome the attendance of any interested party.


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TO THE SUNDANCE NATIONS OF THE GREAT PLAINS

SEPT. 26, 2002

1.  Northern Cheyenne
2. Arapaho
3. Shoshoni
4. Crow Tribe
5. Dakota Sioux Treaty Council
6.  National Congress of American Indians-Washington, D.C.

Brothers, greetings:

I, Bernard Red Cherries, Jr., Northern Cheyenne Sundance Priest, humbly request your presence at a meeting on October 20th, 2002, at the Tim Lame Woman residence at Rosebud Creek, 3½ miles east of Busby, Montana, at 1 PM.  The purpose of this meeting is to address concerns involving our Sacred Sundance Ceremonial and the exploitation thereof.  The following to include discussions of the current issues of exploitation involving the following ceremonials:  Sacred Sweat-lodge and related ceremonials atached to our most sacred ways of life.

It has been some time now since we as Traditional Ceremonial Persons who depend on these ways for our very lives have said or done anything to aggressively approach this touchy subject.  It has come time now to speak up and make a joint stand to protect that which our Grandfathers have left for us.  It is our responsibility to ensure these ways remain sacred and as original as it was in the time of our Grandfathers. To do nothing and simply not say anything would be the same as approving of the current abuse to continue.

It is these very Sacred Ways that our Grandfathers fought so hard to protect and were caused to suffer, not only at the policies of the United States Government, but the general public, as well. When the Sacred Sundance was banned by the government, our elders made numerous trips to Washington, D.C., begging to be allowed to practice these very
Sacred Ceremonials. When they were denied, they simply went underground and as a result of their bold actions and courage today, we still have our Sacred Songs and Language in which we communicate with the Sacred Spirits, Sacred Powers, Earth, Stars, Moons, and Elements; none of which could be fully understood or duplicated by anyone other than our own kind by virtue of having been customarily taught through our Physical and Spiritual participation in these very Sacred Ceremonies.

Today in a fad-like fashion, our very Sacred Ways are being carried out in epidemic proportions all across this country, including overseas, being changed and misinterpreted by those not Traditionally or Ceremonially qualified to do so.  The purpose of this gathering is not to further aggression or hatred towards no-one, but simply to call for protection of our Sacred Ceremonials, so we as our Grandfathers had done, can protect these ways for our Grandchildren.

The current policy of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act has not protected us or our Sacred Ceremonies and the Cultural and Spiritual integrity of our most Sacred Ways that are being changed to suit those other than it was intended for (our own).  Today there is a misguided, misconcepted, and often corrupted overused view of what some Nations refer to as "Turtle Island", and the coming together of all Nations in a Great Sundance Circle. I for one have yet to have heard anything from my elders about a "Turtle Island" and this great coming together of all Nations; In fact I was told of how we should be cautious of the "trickster" and how he would attempt to divide us, how he would use all of his knowledge, education and money to fool us!!!  How we will be sincere and they will take from us the heart of all that exists, our lifeline, the Sacred Sundance.

If you look around you in all directions, you will now see what I write about.  In some cases, I would assume it is permissible to allow for those of other Nations to pray with us, but to keep the cultural, Traditonal and Ceremonial integrity to the Traditonal, validated ceremonially taught leaders to hold and be the interpreters for our grandchildren.  These ways must remain protected now, as we are now in the capacity to do so. A unified declaration to request protection and relevant changes to the American Indian Religious Freedom Act will be presented to the National Congress of American Indians on November 10-15th, 2002, in San Diego, California. To request for this protection is our responsibility as Traditional Sundance Peoples and Leaders. Copies of this protection endeavor will be given to Congress and Senate through their elected officials.

Today there are now being held Sundances all across this country in State parks, National parks, and private lands, away from the Traditional authority, and besides this is a Tribal Level Ceremony that requires the participation of the entire tribe, young and old. So by doing so, those that hold or run these Sundances away from the Traditionals and People elude any corrective measure or action by the Traditional Leaders, Warrior Societies, and at best, give society a false impression of our very Sacred Ways.  These Ceremonies cannot be bought like some dime store novelty or duplicated by non-natives, as our language is our key to communicating with the Earth, Spirits and Sacred Elements. Summoning the Powers in our Native Tongue and Song is priceless and irreplaceable.

We will have a Sweat Lodge Ceremony prior to our meeting, this will begin at around 1 PM, with refreshments to follow.  After the meeting, a traditional dry meat meal will be served. I urge those of you to come with an open heart and mind and I remind all of you that this is neither a breeding ground for the hatred of others or place to assassinate one's character, but a Sacred Gathering so we as Traditional People, Practitionaers, and Spiritual Leaders can come together in a respectful and humble manner to address this issue of abuse and exploitation, and come up with a solution to protect our very Sacred Ceremonial Ways of Life.

So I humbly come before you and ask as a brother to join me in this endeavor to protect the Sacred Ways for our Grandchildren and future generations to come.
Ha-ho
Bernard Red Cherries Jr. Norhtern Cheyenne Sundance-Arrow Priest, Elk Society Headsman.  7th generation direct descendant of Chief Little Wolf, who along with Dull Knife fought to bring the Northern Cheyenne home, from the Indian Territories-Oklahoma to the North Country, where "we forever will remain"

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A bit of humor:


A year-long contest in London attempted to find the funniest joke in the world. Here's the winner:


"A couple of New Jersey hunters are out in the woods when one of them falls to the ground. He doesn't seem to be breathing, his eyes are rolled back in his head. 

"The other guy whips out his cell phone and calls the emergency services. He gasps to the operator: 'My friend is dead! What can I do?' 

"The operator, in a calm, soothing voice, says: 'Just take it easy. I can help. First, let's make sure he's dead.' 

"There is a silence, then a shot is heard. The guy's voice comes back on the line. He says: 'OK, now what?"' 


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Here are some random historical dates:

October 1, 630: Tajoom Uk'ab' K'ak', Maya King of Calukmal dies.

October 2, 1853: As a part of the "Walker War" in southern Utah, several Utes seek refuge in the local fort. Instead of protecting the Indians, they are killed by the settlers.

October 3, 1764: Leaving Fort Pitt with more than 1,500 soldiers and militia, Colonel Henry Bouquet leads his men into Ohio in search of hostile Indians.

October 4, 1693: In 1680, Tewa leader Popé spurred an uprising of the Pueblos against the Spanish mission in New Mexico. Diego de Vargas leads an expedition to reconquer the area. His force consists of 100 soldiers, seventy-three settler families, eighteen priests, and some Indian allies. 

October 5, 1724: French peace envoy Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont has been charged with making peace among the Indians of modern Kansas, part of the French territory of Louisiana. He holds a council. The council included representatives of the "Canza, Padouca, Aiaouez (Iowa?) and the Othouez (Otto?). The various Chiefs and representative all agree to peace and smoke each others peace pipes.

October 6, 1786: A large force of primarily Kentucky militiamen attack a peaceful Shawnee village on the Mad River, not far form modern Bellefontaine, Ohio. The force is led by Benjamin Logan. One of the Colonels is Daniel Boone. Many Indians are killed, including Chief Molunthy, and a few prisoners are recovered.
   
October 7, 1844: A treaty conference is held between Texans, headed by Sam Houston, and the Anadarko, Lipan Apache, Caddo, Cherokee, Comanche, Delaware, Hainai, Kichai, Shawnee, Tawakoni and the Waco. 
   
October 8, 1869: Army records indicate that members of the First Cavalry fight with a band of Indians in Chiricahua Pass in Arizona. Two soldiers are wounded. Twelve Indians are killed.

October 9, 1861: Cherokee Chief John Ross presents a treaty with the Confederate States of America to the Cherokee National Assembly for their consideration and ratification.
   
October 10, 1771: Spanish soldiers attack the wife of a Kumeyaay chief. The Chief attacks the involved soldiers, and he is killed.
   
October 11, 1869: A confrontation has developed between Canadian surveyors and Louis Riel's Metis cousin, Andre Nault. Andre does not want the surveyors on his land. Riel and a dozen other Metis respond to help. Riel walks up, steps on the surveyor's chain and says, "You go no further." This is the start of a rebellion which rocks Canada.  
   
October 12, 1758: British soldiers have built a fort in southwestern Pennsylvania, southwest of  modern Johnston. The fort is named after the British Commander in Chief Lord Ligonier. A force of more 1,000 French and a few hundred Indians attack the fort The attack is unsuccessful. The French and Indians retreat to Fort Duquense. 
    
October 13, 1528: According to some sources, Cabeza de Vaca and eighty other Spaniards come across one of the mouths of the Mississippi River. They are unable to enter the river though. They continue their journey west.

October 14, 1754: Anthony Henday represents the Hudson Bay Company. His is on an expedition to try to set up trade between his company and the Blackfeet . He has his first meeting with a Chief of that tribe. The Chief tells Henday the Blackfeet have everything they need and there is no need to trade with anyone.
  
October 15, 1748: Lands are allotted to the Tuscarora Indians, by an act of the North Carolina General Assembly at Newbern.
    
October 16, 1869: The Metis create the National Council of the Metis (Comité National des Métis). This group is charged with representing the Metis in negotiations with the Canadian government. Louis Riel is named Secretary of the group.

October 17, 1978: The Triball Controlled Community College Assistance Act of October 17, 1978 (106 Stat. 797) is passed by Congress. Its purpose is to "provide for grants for the operation and improvement of tribally controlled community colleges to ensure continued and expanded educational opportunities for Indian students. Encourages partnership between institutes of higher learning and secondary schools serving low income and disadvantaged students to improve retention and graduation rates, improve academic skills, increase opportunities and employment prospects of secondary students."
     
October 18, 1724: French peace envoy Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont has been sent from Fort Orleans to establish peace among the Indians of modern Kansas (part of then Louisiana). He meets the Padoucas in their home territory.
  
October 19, 612: Maya Queen Muwaan Mat (Lady Beastie) ascends to the throne in Palenque, Mexico.
  
October 20, 1959: The Revised Constitution and By-Laws of the Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota is voted on. It is approved by a vote of 251 to 81.

October 21, 1770: Spanish and Opata Indians forces, led by Bernardo de Gálvez, cross the Rio del Norte (Rio Grande) into modern Texas near modern Ojinaga, Chihuahua. This is a punitive expedition directed toward the Apache. A former Apache captive is leading them to the village where he was held. 

October 22, 1785: Boats carrying seventy soldiers, under the leadership of Captain Walter Finney, land at the juncture of the Great Miami and the Ohio Rivers. They build a fort here called Fort Finney.

October 23, 1518: Diego de Velásquez, the governor of Cuba, , appoints Hernán Cortés "captain-general" of an expedition to Mexico. 
  
October 24, 1778: From today until December 3, 1786, Domingo Cabello y Robles serves as Governor of Texas. During his term, he arranges a peace with the Comanche.

October 25, 1764: Colonel Henry Bouquet has led a force of more than 1,500 soldiers into Ohio looking for captives of the recent wars and hostile Indians. Near modern Coshocton, Ohio, local Indians deliver over 200 prisoners to Bouquet. Many of the smaller children do not wish to leave their "adopted" Indian parents.

October 26, 1853: Captain John Gunnison, and eight others in the Pacific Railroad survey along the 38th parallel, are killed during a fight with Paiute Indians in the Sevier River valley of Utah. The Paiute hunting party of twenty are led by Moshoquop. Moshoquop's father has been killed by other whites only days before. The Mormons and the Paiutes have been fighting for some time. Some sources put this fight on October 25th. The is sometimes considered a part of the "Walker War."
 
October 27, 1973: The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Interior has authorized an election to approve an amendment to the Constitution and By-Laws of the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida. Amendment III is approved by a vote of 44 to 8, Amendment IV is approved 39 to 13, Amendment V is approved 42 to 10.

October 28, 1852: Fort Chadbourne is established in west Texas near modern Bronte. It was designed to protect the local settlers and the Butterfield Stage from the local Comanches.

October 29, 373: Maya leader Bahlum-Kuk performs his accession ritual at Palenque, Mexico.
   
October 30, 1866: Elements of the Twenty-third Infantry fight some Indians near Malheur County, Oregon. Two Indians are killed, three are wounded and eight are captured, according to army records
     
October 31, 1799: William Augustus Bowles, the self-proclaimed "Director General and Commander-In-Chief of the Muskogee Nation" issues a proclamation. He states that the Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1795 is null and void because it covers ancestral Indian lands. Spain and the United States have no right to trade sovereignty over lands which belong to others.


=================

That's it for this newsletter. Have a great month.

Phil Konstantin
phil@americanindian.net
philkon@rocketmail.com
http://americanindian.net

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End of the October 2002 Newsletter
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My website's home page My Website's Home Page My main links page with connections to thousands of other websites Links: (8,700 and counting) my page with tribal name meanings & alternate tribal names Tribal Names
Indian tribal moon names & other calendar information Indian Moons My personal photos Personal Photos My biography My Biography
What happened to a sleepy driver Sleepy Driver My website about NASA & the Space Program The Space Program photos & info of my trip to some ancient ruins in Mexico & Guatemala Ancient Ruins in Central America
photos & info on my trip to some ancient Maya ruins in 2000 Maya Ruins in Mexico My late wife Robyn's page about whales & whale watching Whales Awards this site has received & WebRings to which this site belongs Awards & Webrings
photos & descriptions of the 2001 Cherokee National Holiday in Tahlequah, Oklahoma Cherokee Holiday 2001 a page with basic info for the Cherokee Nation (Oklahoma) Cherokee Enrollment an archive of my past monthly newsletters My Newsletters
places where you can shop to support this site My Store a page about the California Highway Patrol California Highway Patrol locations of 'Indian Era' forts Indian Era Forts
copies of articles I have written Articles I Wrote photos of northwestern USA historical sites & reservations Northwestern USA Indian Country photos of the opening of the National Museum Of The American Indian in Washington, D.C. ( 2004) American Indian Museum in D.C. 2004
reviews of Movies, Books and other things... Movie & Book Reviews photos an info about the guests and happenings at KUSI TV in San Diego KUSI TV, my other job photos of Mesa Verde and Utah in 2006 Mesa Verde and Utah in 2006
My mortgage loan compnay My Mortgage Loan Company photos of the 2006 SDSU powwow 2006 SDSU Powwow  






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