October 2001 Newsletter from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright Phil Konstantin (1996-2002)

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                October 2001 Newsletter 
                Phil Konstantin 
  The Newsletter starts here:


  I hope all is well with you. I have had another busy month. Somehow or 
  another, I managed to have disagreements with all three of my children 
  on the same day. By itself, that might not seem that out of the 
  ordinary. However, my three children all live in different states. Oh 
  well, such is the nature of being a parent, or a son or daughter.

  Here are a couple of things which have happened in my backyard. My 
  backdoor is a large sliding glass door. From the door, I can see my 
  backyard, and parts of the sky northwest of San Diego. My house is about 
  five to ten miles, "as the crow flies," from the oceans. It is nice to 
  watch the various birds, butterflies and small critters who traverse my 
  little domain.

  One afternoon, I was spraying water on my fruit trees. It does not rain 
  much in San Diego. I was spraying the water up to reach the top part of 
  my nectarine tree, when I noticed a hummingbird about three feet from 
  me. It was flying on the edge of the water spray. As I slowly moved the 
  water from side to side, the bird moved with it. I guess the bird 
  enjoyed the shower. It was a sweet moment.

  I have also noticed a change in the evenings. As I sit on my couch in my 
  living room to watch television, I can see the lights of planes 
  approaching San Diego. There is a regular flight path which goes over my 
  house. The planes are too high to hear, but their running lights are 
  visible at night. The number of flights going over have decreased 
  significantly. We all know the reason for this. I am also close to 
  Miramar Air Station. The Marines operate it now, but it was once the 
  home of the Navy's Top Gun school (as in the movie of the same name). 
  Normally, I can hear the jets practicing "touch and goes" several nights 
  a week. This is no longer the case. I still see the occasional jet, but 
  now they are armed with missles. My work schedule is back to normal. I 
  expect to be back on high alert whenever any new attacks or retaliatory 
  strikes take place. 

  I mentioned that I have volunteered to help out with security at the 
  local mosque. They said they had it covered. Unfortunately, someone 
  threw some firecrackers at the building. No one was hurt, but the 
  thought was not pleasant. Suddenly people are suspicious of people they 
  do not know. As it was during Desert Storm, the CHP gets lots of bogus 
  calls about "suspicious" people. Numerous Hispanic men who have run out 
  of gas on the freeway and are going to get more with their gas can, have 
  been reported as middle-east terrorists with a bomb. 

  Flags are visible all over town. More people seem to be showing their 
  patriotism. I have two flags on my house. My daughter asked me to put 
  them up years ago. Someone at work bought a bunch of t-shirts with flags 
  and "God Bless America" on them. My co-worker, CHP Officer Larry 
  Landeros, thought he could do a better job. He is ey good at graphic 
  designs. So, he created a very nice design. The Commissioner of the 
  California Highway Patrol (the head dude) set up a trust fund to help 
  the survivors of law enforcement officers killed and hurt in the 
  September 11 attacks. Larry sent his design to CHP headquarters to get 
  permission to use the CHP patch. Headquarters liked his design so much, 
  that it is now the official logo of the trust fund. You can see Larry's 
  design, and even order a t-shirt if you like, at the following internet 
  address. The proceeds go to allay the costs of the t-shirts and to the 
  trust fund.



  I will be taking another vacation in Mexico on the 20th of this month. 
  Cheap tickets, and some recent overtime have made this possible. I will 
  be visiting some Aztec ruins and a few more Maya ruins on this visit. I 
  have plans to take lots of pictures. I will set up a website where you 
  can see my pictures. I will be visiting internet cafes in Mexico, and 
  you will be able to see the pictures and my descriptions while I am 
  still in Mexico. I will send out an extra newsletter with the address 
  before I leave.

  Here is some info about my website. I have finally gotten around to 
  updating some of the links on my website. I have gone over the Reference 
  and Tribal home pages to delete outdated links. This takes quite a bit 
  of time, so I am doing it a little at a time.

  I continue to be surprised by the number of people who visit my website. 
  The main page has been visited over 1,000,000 times since I created it 
  in 1996. I have had at least one visitor from the folowing countries:
  Swaziland, San Marino, Oman, Guatemala, Botswana, Macedonia, Nicaragua, 
  Vatican City State (Holy See), Uganda,Brunei Darussalam, Northern 
  Mariana Islands, Fiji and El Salvador. 

  If you would like to see the entire list, use the address below.



  The treaty of the month is "The Treaty With The Oto, Etc." signed on 
  October 1836. You can find it at this website:



  Here are some interesting websites:

  Myths of the Cherokees:

  Political cartoons about Osama bin Laden


  Here are some random historical events for October:

  October 1, 1800: The San Ildefonso Treaty is signed today. A secret part 
  of this treaty signed by France and Spain is for Spain to return the 
  lands in Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to France. 

  October 2, 1818: Lewis Cass, Jonathan Jennings, and Benjamin Parke, 
  representing the United States, sign a treaty with the POTAWATOMI & WEA 
  Indians today on the St.Mary's River on the Indiana-Ohio border. The 
  tribe will exchange vast holdings in Indiana for an annual payment of 

  October 3, 1873: Captain Jack is hanged today for his part in the MODOC 

  October 4, 1878: Dull Knife, and his band of Northern CHEYENNE, cross 
  the Union Pacific line at Alkali station, Nebraska. Stationed in Fort 
  Sidney, in western Nebraska, Major T.T.Thornburgh, and 140 soldiers, 
  board a waiting train in an attempt to catch up to Dull Knife. 

  October 5, 1813: Near the Thames River in Canada, today, American 
  forces, led by General William Henry Harrison, and British-Indian 
  forces, led by Henry Proctor and Tecumseh, will fight a decisive battle. 
  Harrison's forces were much stronger. Setting up an ambush, the British 
  and the Indians forces took up different positions. When Harrison's 
  forces attacked the 700 British soldiers, they caved in almost 
  immediately. Tecumseh's Indians, fighting in a swamp, held out until 
  Tecumseh was killed. At the end of the fighting, 600 British were 
  captured, 18 were killed. Thirty-three Indians were killed, while none 
  were captured. The American forces lost 18 men, as well. 

  October 6, 1774: In what would be called Lord Dunmore's War, Virginia 
  Governor, John Murray, the Earl of Dunmore will authorize an Army of 
  Virginians to go into SHAWNEE territory, despite the royal proclamation 
  of October 7th, 1763, which prohibited European settlements west of the 
  Appalachian Mountains. Dunmore had granted lands to veterans in the 
  prohibited area, and he planned on helping them get it. Today around 800 
  SHAWNEEs, under Chief Cornstalk, will attack Dunmore's force of 850 men 
  at Point Pleasant, in present day western West Virginia, on the Ohio and 
  Kanawha Rivers. The fighting would last all day. Both sides would suffer 
  numerous casualties. Cornstalk would lose the battle, and eventually 
  sign a peace treaty with the Virginians. 

  October 7, 1759: Last year, TAWEHASH Indians helped to destroy the 
  Spanish Mission of San Saba de la Santa Cruz in east Texas. The Spanish 
  have finally gathered a punative expedition, leading 1,000 Spanish and 
  pro-Spanish Indians, Diego Ortiz Parrilla will attack the TAWEHASH 
  village today. With their allies the COMANCHEs and the TAWAKONIs, the 
  TAWEHASH fight back. The TAWEHASH will win the day, and force the 
  retreat of the Spanish allied forces, killing as many as 100 men in the 

  October 8, 1779: El Mocho was an APACHE; but, he was captured by the 
  TONKAWAs. His bravery and natural leadership abilities, eventually led 
  the TONKAWAs to make him their Principal Chief. Today, he will meet with 
  Spanish Governor Athanase de Mezieres in San Antonio. They will sign a 
  peace treaty; and, El Mocho (Spanish for mutilated) will be honored with 
  a Medal of Honor. The peace would only last for a few years. 

  October 9, 1978: The CHEROKEE Tribal Council adopts an official flag, 
  designed by Stanley John, today. 

  October 10, 1540: Today, de Soto enters a village called Athahachi. Here 
  he will meet the village chief, Tascaluca. Tascaluca will be taken as a 
  hostage by de Soto to insure the cooperation of the Chief's followers. 

  October 11, 1874: Satanta has become despondent about his life-term in 
  the Huntsville, Texas, prison. He has slashed his wrists trying to kill 
  himself, but he is unsuccessful. He will be admitted to the prison 
  hospital. Today, Satanta will jump from a second floor balcony. He will 
  land head first, and die. 

  October 12, 1833: Captain John Page leaves Choctaw Agency, Mississippi 
  with 1000 CHOCTAW for the Indian Territory. Many of the CHOCTAW are old, 
  lane, blind, or sick. 

  October 13, 1864: Little Buffalo, with 700 of his fellow COMANCHEs, and 
  KIOWAs, launched a series of raids along Elm Creek, ten miles from the 
  Brazos River, in north-western Texas, today. Sixteen Texans and perhaps, 
  twenty Indians will be killed in the fighting with the settlers, and the 
  Rangers, in the area. 

  October 14, 1880: Victorio's APACHEs are attacked by the Mexican army 
  near tres castillos, in Chihuahua, Mexico. Victorio will be shot, and 
  killed by a Mexican sharpshooter. Many of his followers will be killed, 
  as well. The Mexicans will report killing seventy-eight men, and 
  capturing sixty-eight women and children. 

  October 15, 1876: Lt.Col.E.S.Otis' force of 237 soldiers, and 96 wagons 
  of supplies for the soldiers at the mouth of the Tongue River, are 
  attacked again on Spring Creek. This time the Indians are approximately 
  800 strong, according to Army reports. A running battle continues. The 
  Indians will send numerous sorties against the wagons. They will also 
  set fire to the prairie grass, forcing the wagons to drive through the 
  flames. Several people will be killed and wounded on both sides. 

  October 16, 1837: After having fought for the government in the SEMINOLE 
  Wars, Jim Boy "Tustennuggee Emathla", a CREEK leader, and some other 
  CREEK Chiefs, arrive in New Orleans today, en route to the Indian 

  October 17, 1863: Kit Carson has been conducting a campaign against the 
  NAVAJOs who have not reported to their assigned reservation. This will 
  be called the Canyon de Chelly Campaign. Carson will effect a scorched 
  earth policy, trying to starve the NAVAJOs into submission. Today, 2 
  NAVAJOs will appear at Fort Wingate, in western New Mexico, under a flag 
  of truce. One of the two is El Sordo, brother to NAVAJO leaders 
  Barboncito, and Delgadito. He will propose that the NAVAJOs live next to 
  the fort, so the soldiers can keep an eye on them at all times. They 
  still do not wish to move away from their homelands to the Bosque 
  Redondo Reservation. The Army will turn down the proposal, and insist 
  the NAVAJOs go to the reservation. 

  October 18, 1820: Today, a treaty will be negotiated between Andrew 
  Jackson and the CHOCTAWs. The CHOCTAWs will give up lands in Mississippi 
  for land in western Arkansas. Part of the lands that Jackson promised to 
  the Indians belonged to Spain, or were already settled by Europeans. 
  This would be called the Treaty of Doak's Stand. Chief Pushmataha will 
  be one of the signers. 

  October 19, 1841: Today, TALLAHASSEE SEMINOLE Chief Tiger Tail (Thlocko 
  Tustennuggee) will surrender to American forces based on the 
  intervention of SEMINOLE Chief Alligator (Hallpatter Tustennuggee). In 
  only 3 months, though, Tiger Tail will escape from government detention 
  in Fort Brooke. 

  October 20, 1832: Marks Crume, John Davis, and Jonathan Jennings, 
  representing the United States, and POTAWATOMI Indians sign a treaty 
  today at Tippecanoe. The Indians will give up lands near Lake Michigan 
  for $15,000 a year, debt relief, and for supplies. 

  October 21, 1867: (through October 28th) Today starts the biggest 
  US-Indian conference ever held. The conference was held near Fort Dodge, 
  Kansas near what was called Medicine Lodge Creek. The name came from a 
  KIOWA "medicine lodge" which was still standing from a recent KIOWA "sun 
  dance" ceremony. Of the KIOWA & COMANCHE treaty, some KIOWA signers 
  were: Satanta, Satank, Black Bird, Kicking Bird, & Lone Bear. (15 stat. 

  October 22, 1859: Today, the "Camp on Pawnee Fork", which will 
  eventually become Fort Larned, is established in Kansas. The military 
  base is established to protect travelers on the Santa Fe Trail from 
  "hostile Indians." The fort will be abandoned almost 20 years later. 

  October 23, 1874: This morning, a bunch of SIOUX take axes to the 
  stripped tree that Red Cloud Agency Agent J.J.Saville has planned as a 
  flagpole. The Indians do not want a flag on their reservation. When 
  Saville gets no help in stopping the choppers from Indian leaders, he 
  sends a worker to get help from Fort Robinson, in northwest Nebraska. As 
  the two dozen soldiers from the fort are riding toward the agency, a 
  large group of angry SIOUX surrounds them. They try to instigate a 
  fight. Suddenly, the SIOUX police, led by Young Man Afraid of His 
  Horses, ride up and form a cordon around the soldiers. The SIOUX police 
  will escort the soldiers to the agency stockade, averting a possible 
  fight. Many SIOUX will be frustrated by the events, and will leave the 

  October 24, 1840: Col.John Moore with 90 Texans, and 12 "friendly" LIPAN 
  Indians, come upon a COMANCHE village on the Red Fork of the Colorado 
  River, in central Texas. The Texans sneak up on the village, and attack. 
  According to the Texans, 148 COMANCHEs are killed, and 34 are captured. 
  Only 1 Texan dies. The Texans also seize almost 500 horses. The village 
  will be burned. 

  October 25, 1862: The TONKAWAs were living on a reservation in the 
  Washita River in Indian Territory, after having been removed from a 
  reservation on the Brazos River, in Texas. The TONKAWAs have earned the 
  enmity of other tribes because they acted as scouts for the army. On 
  this date, DELAWARE, SHAWNEE, and CADDO Indians attacked the TONKAWA 
  village. 137 of the 300 TONKAWAs were killed in the raid. 

  October 26, 1882: The Navy shells the TLINGITS today. 

  October 27, 1970: The PIT RIVER Indians engage in a skirmish with local 
  law enforcement today in Burney, California. 

  October 28, 1932: The mineral rights sales ban for the PAPAGO 
  Reservation is canceled. 

  October 29, 1805: Lewis & Clark meet the CHILLUCKITTEQUAW Chief and 
  medicine man. 

  October 30, 1805: 1876: President grant, by Executive Order today, 
  revokes the White Mountain-San Carlos (CHIRICAHUA) Reserve. The area 
  bounded by Dragoon Springs to Peloncillo Mountain Summit to New Mexico 
  to Mexico will revert to the public domain. The reserve was established 
  on December 14, 1872. 

  October 31, 1879: After the Standing Bear trial, where it was ruled that 
  the government could not force an Indian to stay in any one reservation 
  against their will, Big Snake decides to test the law. He asks for 
  permission to leave his reservation to visit Standing Bear. His request 
  is denied. He will eventually leave his PONCA Reservation to go to the 
  CHEYENNE Reservation, also in Indian Territory. Big Snake will be 
  returned to the PONCA Reservation, when General Sherman decides the 
  Standing Bear ruling applies only to Standing Bear. Big Snake will make 
  the PONCA Agent, William Whiteman, very angry. Whiteman will order Big 
  Snake arrested. Today, Big Snake will be arrested and charged with 
  threatening Whiteman. In Whiteman's office, after denying any such 
  actions, Big Snake refuses to go with the soldiers there to arrest him. 
  A struggle develops, and Big Snake is shot and killed. 


  As I was writing this, the sun started to go down. It is going to be a 
  beautiful one. So, I am going to wrap this up.

  Thanks for listening and reading....


  This is the end of the newsletter.


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