September 2004 Newsletter from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2004)

Looking for a good book on North American Indians?
Click on the line below:
Good Books


Start of Phil Konstantin’s September 2004 Newsletter


I have been very busy lately. I have had a couple of 
medical checkups related to the operation on my leg. It 
seems to be getting a little better. My computer has had 
a part failure (DVD player/writer). So, I will be offline 
for a couple of days starting Tuesday in order to get it 

It is my understanding that I have not been getting some 
of my e-mails. When the people that host my website moved 
me to a more reliable system, I had to go to a new 
management system. Evidently, this new system has a 
couple of features that I did not quite understand. The   
p a g e s @ a m e r i c a n i n d i a n . n e t    or 
p h i l k o n @ r o c k e t m a i l . c o m addresses 
should work now. If I do not respond to you within a couple 
of days, please try e-mailing me again.

I am taking a couple of American Indian Studies classes 
online. They are: AIS 100: Introduction to American Indian 
Studies, and AIS 102: American Indians and the U.S. 
Political System. I will post some of the more interesting discussions 
that I come across during this semester.

On September 15th, I will be leaving for my first visit to Washington, 
D.C. I found another of Southwest Airlines’ 
sales & the roundtrip flight cost only $237. I also found 
a small European-style hotel not far from the White House 
and the Mall. It is a little under $50 a night. I am still 
surprised by how expensive hotels can be. Then again, I 
have always joked that Motel 6 is too fancy for me. I have 
always wanted to visit Washington. Having graduated from 
college with a degree in Political Science, you would think 
that visiting Washington would have been a requirement. 
With the opening of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of 
the American Indian on September 21st, this just seemed 
like the right time to go. Fortunately, I have had some 
overtime lately at work, so I can afford it. The NMAI has 
invited all American Indian Nations to participate in the 
opening. There will be a grand procession of the tribes on 
opening day. One estimate says the procession will be over 
a mile long. I will be marching with the Cherokee delegation. 
It should be an amazing day. I will take lots of pictures 
and share them with you when I return.



The Link of the Month for September 2004 is the American 
Indian Health Website. This website specializes in health 
issues. It offers links to many excellent searchable 
databases ( Native Health History Database , Native American Ethnobotany 
Database, Native Elder Research Center ) and 
other material. If you have any questions on this subject, 
I recommend using this website has a resource.


The Treaty of the Month is the Dancing Rabbit Creek Treaty 
with the Choctaw (Sept. 27, 1830. | 7 Stat., 333. | 
Proclamation, Feb. 24, 1831 ) . This was a very significant 
document that covered lots of matters. The treaty was signed 
by over 100 participants.

You can find a transcript here:


Here are some interesting websites:
You will find videos of Cultural Awareness Seminars held 
for the staff at the National Musuem of the American Indian. 
You'll need to have Windows Media Player installed on your 
computer to view. A high-speed Internet connection is 
probably nice, too. (From Ruth Garby Torres)
The Cherokee Heritage Center is up for an award. You can 
visit this website in order to vote for them. 


Notices from subscribers:

From Bob Ensign:
I phoned Washington today regarding Senate Resolution 37 
and House Resolution 98. There is not a lot of activity 
in Washington as they are in-between sessions of Congress. September 7, 
2004 will be the first day of the 109th Congress. 

Senate Resolution 37 is out of committee and ready to go 
to the floor of the Senate for Unanimous Consent. This 
means that if any one person there objects to the resolution 
the resolution dies.

House Resolution 98 ( the companion to Res 37) is in the 
House Resource committee. As far as I can tell no action 
has been taken by the committee as of yet. The House 
resolution will have to pass out of this committee to be 
presented under Unanimous Consent to be adopted. As in 
the Senate, if any one person objects the resolution fails. 

There is some opposition to the Resolutions rising to 
oppose this effort (As you might expect). All the resolutions 
are supposed to be passed by September 21, 2004. September 
21, 2004 is the opening of the new National Museum of the 
American Indian (NMAI)   The indigenous people of the 
Americas will be gathered in DC in a mile long processional 
as part of opening ceremonies. The president is supposed 
to read the resolution at that time. When the 109th Congress 
opens it will have only two weeks to pass both resolutions 
and receive the Presidents signature. Many, Many people are 
working behind the scenes to accomplish this task. Pray for 
those hidden people to be arrows in the Hands of God. Pray 
for Senator Brownback (Senate Resolution 37 sponsor), 
Representative Davis ( House Resolution 98 sponsor) and 
President Bush. 



News Articles from around the country:

Looking Horse explains traditional stand as Unity Ride 
nears summit
(You can see a picture of Arvol, his wife and me here: )

Data shows little change in economic status under Bush

Buffalo Walk: Eagle Staff Carrier takes to the road

NMAI Director West: Museum will contrast tragedy with good

Campbell seeks a rejoinder on gaming

Indians getting ready for Republican convention

Moccasin Bend becomes part of National Park Service

Nations helping nations (Editorial)

Skull Valley Goshute meeting ends with arrests

Supreme Court sends case involving Indian child to tribal court

Juan-Saunders and Norris: An open letter to the UN regarding the Tohono 
O’odham border

Obituary: Frank Sanache, last Meskwaki Code Talker

Village helps fill void in Native American community

Ho-Chunk Nation buys property in Chicago suburb

Traditions Applied: Bois Forte Band of Chippewa

Reinventing Tradition

History project wraps up in Taloyoak

Plains tribes first to host Lewis and Clark event

A Museum to Remember

Mohawks challenge IRS

Eagle Aviary Soon to Be a Reality for Iowa Tribe of OK

Bill would transfer land to Pechanga Band

Albuquerque Diné voice concerns, needs

Stockbridge-Munsee Band sues Oneida Nation for land

9/11 memorial totem poles heading to DC

COLUMNIST DORREEN YELLOW BIRD: Politicians show a sad ignorance about 

Bury ‘Deadwood’


Cultural Tidbits from the Cherokee Nation newsletter:

Ned Christie - *   Cherokee Senator   *   blacksmith   *    farmer   * 
marble champion   *   patriot

Ned Christie was born December 14, 1852 in Rabbit Trap, 
Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory, now known as Wauhilla, 
Oklahoma. He was born into the Bird Clan, and growing up 
around his father, became very interested in Cherokee Nation politics. 
He also became a renowned blacksmith and gunsmith. 
Known by the members of his community as a gentleman, he 
became well known for his Cherokee Marble skills.

He was elected a Cherokee Senator (also known as Executive Councilor) in 
1885 during the administration of Chief 
Dennis Bushyhead. He was known on the legislative floor 
as a staunch advocate for Tribal Sovereignty, as agreed 
to in treaties with the United States, and was against the 
railroads entering Cherokee Nation jurisdiction, as well 
as the impending allotment of Cherokee lands in severalty 
to the Cherokee People.

Upon the burning of the Cherokee National Female Seminary, 
a beautiful school building which provided free education 
to young Cherokee women, he traveled to Tahleqauh (the Capitol 
of the Cherokee Nation) to attend a special council meeting regarding 
the fire. While in town, on May 4, 1887, a U.S. 
Deputy Marshal named Dan (or Dave) Maples was killed. 
Because Christie was seen in the vicinity, as it was common 
to camp and visit around the Town Branch creek where Maples 
was camped, he was accused by John Parris as having been 
the shooter. Ned immediately, upon learning of the accusation, 
approached several important people in the 
Cherokee Nation, including his father Watt who was an former Senator, 
and decided to return to Wauhilla and attempt to 
garner evidence in his defense. (more next month…)

(I have a couple of pictures of Ned Christie on my website at: )


This month’s movie review is of the 2003 film, The Missing. 

A brief description of the movie from the website 
is: “In 19th-century New Mexico, a 
father (Tommy Lee Jones) comes back home, hoping to 
reconcile with his adult daughter Maggie (Cate Blanchett). 
Maggie's daughter is kidnapped, forcing father and 
estranged daughter to work together to get her back.” 
The Missing is an action-filled, suspense, thriller, western. Somewhat 
similar to the classic ‘The Searchers,’ The Missing 
adds a considerable amount of Hollywood mysticism. 

Tommy Lee Jones plays Samuel Jones (Chaa-duu-ba-its-iidan). 
The meaning of Chaa-duu-ba-its-iidan provides a bit of 
comic relief later in the film. Jones’ character has been 
living with the Apache for the last 20 years. Not long after 
Jones tries to reconcile with his daughter, Pesh-Chidin, 
(played by Eric Schweig, also in Skins) kidnaps Blanchette’s daughter. 
Pesh-Chidin is a psychopathic killer with mystical 
powers. He and his band of renegades have just “broke-out” 
of their reservation. They are kidnapping white girls in 
order to sell them to into slavery in Mexico.

As a considerable part of the movie involves Pesh-Chidin, 
his band of renegades, and a couple of Apaches who come to 
Jones’ aid, there are quite a few American Indian actors 
in the movie. Steve Reevis is Two Stones; Jay Tavare is 
Kayitah; Simon Baker is Honesco, Kayitah's son; Deryle J. 
Lujan is Naazhaao/'Hunter.' 

According to director Ron Howard, as much as it is a 
character-driven suspense drama, The Missing is also the 
story of an arduous journey through New Mexico. "This 
story is a true expedition that starts out in the high 
country and ends up at the Mexican border in the high 
desert," says Howard. "Like the characters, we went from 
snow to heat waves. That made the story palpable for 
audiences in grasping the characters' transitory experience." 

The movie was filmed in the Valles Caldera in the high 
country north of Santa Fe, near the national park at 
Los Alamos. At the Zia Pueblo, an eerie, desiccated mesa 
of white gypsum, 65 mph winds suddenly kicked up, 
blinding and choking the cast and crew. Some exterior 
shots were made at the Santa Clara Pueblo. The producers 
reproduced the ancient site to shoot more of the interior 

To quote from the movie’s official website, “In terms of the 
Native American characters, it is much more time-specific, 
Weiss says, "Because of when the film takes place, we were 
able to show what was happening to the Apache nation at 
that time, how sad it was that they were being forcibly 'westernized.' 
Any time a costume designer is asked 
to help represent a group where there has been an attempt to dispense 
with their identity, it is an honor as well as a responsibility. The 
Apaches were on a part of their journey 
where their clothing was becoming 'westernized' without 
choice. Through dress, their culture and identity was being 
stripped away. Although Kayitah and Honesco's clothes remain 
closer to their tribal base, availability of materials had 
become easier. The Apache scouts would often wear pieces 
of the Calvary uniform. But when the military no longer 
wanted any part of them, the visual history gets mixed up 
and you can see it in their clothing, which reflects where 
they have been rather than who they are." 

Pesh-Chidin, however, knows exactly who he is, and everything 
about his clothing conveys a sense of demonic power and 
foreboding, according to Weiss. "Pesh is an outsider. If 
he is foreboding, it's because those who know that they 
have the power to terrify can emit an aura of the abuse of 
power, an emotional clearing around them. The power of Pesh 
is toxic. Whatever gifts he had as a healer became tainted. 
He chose a path of evil pride. He wears his trophies (the 
tintypes), which are a roster of his victims. Anyone who has 
to wear his past to shield a misuse of power is someone who 
should not only shed his costume, but his soul."

One of Howard's boldest gambles in The Missing was the use 
of Apache dialogue (with subtitles) against a backdrop of 
palpable action. The reason it worked so well and didn't 
interfere with the momentum, says Grazer, "is because we 
treated it in a very vital way. The characters who spoke 
Apache, did so in a modern way. There was humor. There was 
an edge to it. It was how real people would talk, not like characters in 
a history book."

In preparation for the film, Jones, Tavare, Baker and other 
Apache characters had to learn how to speak Chiricahua, a 
dialect of the Apache language. The Missing contains several 
scenes with interchanges in this difficult and demanding 
Apache tongue. "There are five or six different groups of 
Apaches, each of whom speak a slightly different language," 
explains Jones. "We had to study the Chiricahua dialect 
carefully and thoroughly." 

The actors were taught by teachers who also served as 
consultants on the film -- Elbys Hugar and Berle Kanseah, 
Chiricahua elders with an impressive Apache pedigree, as 
well as Scott Rushforth, a college professor with a 
specialty in Native American languages. "Apache is one of 
the most difficult of all the native languages to perfect," 
explains Tavare. "It has glottal stops, sibilent Ls, and 
there are some words that, even if you pronounce them 
correctly, if you punctuate them in the wrong place, mean 
something completely different." 

"In my mind, there was never any question that the actors 
playing Native Americans would have to speak Apache," 
Howard explains. "We were extremely fortunate that Elbys, 
Berle and Scott agreed to help us. Elbys in particular, 
comes from a line of great Apache leaders. Her grandfather 
is Cochise and her great-grandfather is Naiche. Cochise 
is well known as a formidable and infamous Chiricahua 
warrior. Naiche was the chief of the Chiricahua band that 
evaded the military for many years, along with Geronimo, 
who is better known. But in truth, Geronimo was just the 
medicine man." 

The actors went beyond the rudiments of Chiricahua to 
learn many of its subtleties. "One of the great joys for 
me was how intriguing and entertaining the culture is and 
how that comes across in the language," says Howard. "Much 
of the humor in the film comes in the interactions between 
Jones and Kayitah (Jay Tavare) and the Apaches talking 
about the white folks. They are famous for their dry sense 
of humor. It's quite an amazing culture." In the script, 
Chiricahua Apaches have given the wandering Jones an 
affectionate and humorous name. It emerged from a 
conversation producer Ostroff had with Rushforth. "Dan 
asked me what the Chiricahua might call someone like Jones, 
who can't settle down, abandons his family, and is alone," 
says Rushforth. "The Chiricahua hold family in extremely 
high regard, so I jokingly told Dan that they'd call Jones 
'shit out of luck.' Dan passed my comment along to Ron 
Howard, who thought it was funny, and the name stuck." 
The actors studied with their teachers for about seven 
weeks prior to filming and continued throughout the 
production. For Hugar, who has compiled two Chiricahua 
dictionaries with Rushforth, it was a chance to demonstrate 
the beauty and intricacy of the language, which is in 
danger of disappearing. "It was an opportunity to show 
young people that they can learn the language, too, which 
is important, because it's dying out," says Hugar. "When 
I was working as a curator at a museum, I had a class of 
about 50 kids and asked how many understood their language 
and could speak any Apache. Just two of them raised their 

The actors appreciated learning not only the language, 
but also the nuances of the culture. "It was wonderful 
to work with the Apache elders," Tavare says. "Their 
stories were fascinating and gave me a stronger sense 
of my character." 

While the movie heightens the evil nature of Pesh-Chidin, 
it also features American Indian characters that are more well-rounded. 
Granted, this is intended to be a thriller, not an anthropological 
study. The DVD version of the movie has some interesting background 
information of the production of the 

If you would like to get a copt of the DVD, I have it posted 
on my store page at:


Here is some humorous material….

From Joe RedCloud (no it is NOT real) :
These are excellent examples of what a truly talented, albeit slightly 
disturbed, computer graphics artist can accomplish. 
It does LOOK real. But it isn't. It's just hysterical. I 
NEED a car like this. Or, to be more precise, my evil twin 
Skippy does.


From Jay Crosby:

One hand on wheel, one hand on horn:

One hand on wheel, middle finger out window:

One hand on wheel, middle finger out window, cutting 
across all lanes of traffic:

One hand on wheel, one hand on newspaper, foot solidly on accelerator:

One hand on wheel, one hand on nonfat double decaf cappuccino, cradling 
cell phone, brick on accelerator, gun in lap:

Both hands on wheel, eyes shut, both feet on brake, quivering 
in terror:
From MONTANA, but driving in CALIFORNIA.

Both hands in air, gesturing, both feet on accelerator, 
head turned to talk to someone in back seat:

One hand on 12oz double shot latte, one knee on wheel, cradling 
cell phone, foot on brake, mind on radio game, banging head 
on steering wheel while stuck in traffic:

One hand on wheel, one hand on hunting rifle, alternating 
between both feet being on the accelerator, and both feet 
on brake, throwing McDonald's bag out the window:

Four-wheel drive pick-up truck, shotgun mounted in rear 
window, beer cans on floor, Prairie Dog tails attached to 

Two hands gripping wheel, blue hair barely visible above 
windshield, driving 35 on the Interstate, in the left lane 
with the left blinker on:

One hand on the wheel, the other on his sister:


Also from Jay…

Question: What is the truest definition of Globalization?
Answer: Princess Diana's death.
Question: How come?
Answer: An English princess with an Egyptian boyfriend 
crashes in a French tunnel, driving a German car with a 
Dutch engine, driven by a Belgian who was drunk on Scottish 
whisky, (check the bottle before you change the spelling) 
followed closely by Italian Paparazzi, on Japanese 
motorcycles; treated by an American doctor, using 
Brazilian medicines. 

This is sent to you by an American, using Bill Gates's 
technology, and you're probably reading this on your 
computer, that use Taiwanese chips, and a Korean monitor, 
assembled by Bangladeshi workers in a Singapore plant, 
transported by Indian lorry-drivers, hijacked by 
Indonesians, unloaded by Sicilian longshoremen, and 
trucked to you by Mexican illegals.....

That, my friends, is Globalization


This is from Ed Clark:
Number One Idiot of 2003 
I am a medical student currently doing a rotation in 
toxicology at the poison control center. Today, this 
woman called in very upset because she caught her little 
daughter eating ants. I quickly reassured her that the 
ants are not harmful and there would be no need to bring 
her daughter into the hospital. She calmed down and at 
the end of the conversation happened to mention that she 
gave her daughter some ant poison to eat in order to kill 
the ants. I told her that she better bring her daughter 
into the emergency room right away. 

Number Two Idiot of 2003 
Early this year, some Boeing employees on the airfield 
decided to steal a life raft from one of the 747s. They 
were successful in getting it out of the plane and home. 
Shortly after they took it for a float on the river, they 
noticed a Coast Guard helicopter coming towards them. It 
turned out that the chopper was homing in on the emergency 
locator beacon that activated when the raft was inflated. 
They are no longer employed at Boeing. 

Number Three Idiot of 2003 
A true story out of San Francisco: A man, wanting to rob a 
downtown Bank of America, walked into the branch and wrote 
"this iz a stikkup. Put all your muny in this bag." While 
standing in line, waiting to give his note to the teller, he 
began to worry that someone had seen him write the note and 
might call the police before he reached the teller's window. 
So he left the Bank of America and crossed the street to 
Wells Fargo. After waiting a few minutes in line, he handed 
his note to the Wells Fargo teller. She read it and, surmising 
from his spelling errors that he wasn't the brightest light 
in the harbor, told him that she could not accept his stickup 
note because it was written on a Bank of America deposit slip 
and that he would either have to fill out a Wells Fargo deposit 
slip or go back to Bank of America. Looking somewhat defeated, 
the man said, "OK" and left. He was arrested a few minutes 
later, as he was waiting in line back at Bank of America. 

Number Four Idiot of 2003 
A guy walked into a little corner store with a shotgun and 
demanded all of the cash from the cash drawer. After the 
cashier put the cash in a bag, the robber saw a bottle of 
Scotch that he wanted behind the counter on the shelf. He 
told the cashier to put it in the bag as well, but the 
cashier refused and said, because I don't believe you are 
over 21." The robber said he was, but the clerk still refused 
to give it to him because he didn't believe him. At this 
point, the robber took his driver's license out of his wallet 
and gave it to the clerk. The clerk looked it over and agreed 
that the man was in fact over 21 and he put the Scotch in the 
bag. The robber then ran from the store with his loot. The 
cashier promptly called the police and gave the name and 
address of the robber that he got off the license. They 
arrested the robber two hours later. 

Idiot Number Five of 2003 
A pair of Michigan robbers entered a record shop nervously 
waving revolvers. The first one shouted, "Nobody move!" When 
his partner moved, the startled first bandit shot him. 

Idiot Number Six of 2003 
Seems this guy wanted some beer pretty badly. He decided that 
he'd just throw a cinder block through a liquor store window, 
grab! some booze, and run. So he lifted the cinder block and 
heaved it over his head at the window. The cinder block 
bounced back and hit the would be thief on the head, knocking 
him unconscious. It seems the liquor store window was made 
of Plexiglas. The whole event was caught on videotape. 

Idiot Number Seven of 2003 
Ann Arbor: The Ann Arbor News crime column reported that 
a man walked into a Burger King in Ypsilanti, Michigan at 
12:50 A. M., flashed a gun and demanded cash. The clerk 
turned him down because he said he couldn't open the cash 
register without a food order. When the man ordered onion 
rings, the clerk said they weren't available for breakfast. 
The man, frustrated, walked away. 

Please note that all of the above people are allowed to vote 
(and breed).



The following message was forwarded to me from the San 
Diego Police Department regarding a new car-jacking scheme. 
It's just a little something I thought I'd share to promote awareness 
for you and your family: 

While parked in a parking lot, you unlock your car and get 
inside. You lock all your doors, start the engine and shift 
into REVERSE. You look into the rearview mirror to back 
out of your parking space and you notice a piece of paper 
stuck to the middle of the rear window. So, you shift into 
PARK, unlock your doors and jump out of your car to remove 
that paper (or whatever it is) that is obstructing your 

When you reach the back of your car, that is when the car-
jackers appear out of nowhere, jump into your car and take 
off! Your engine was running, (ladies would have their 
purse in the car) and they practically mow you down as 
they speed off in your car. 


Just drive away and remove the paper that is stuck to your 
window later, and be thankful that you read this email. I 
hope you will forward this to friends and family...especially 
to women! A purse contains all identification, and you 
certainly do NOT want someone getting your home address. 
They already HAVE your keys! 


Here are some random historical dates:

September 1, 504: Maya Queen "Lady of Tikal" is born.

September 2, 1732: The first treaty between the Iroquois Confederation, 
and the Pennsylvania Provincial Council is 
signed in Philadelphia. The parties agree to peaceful 
relations between them. The Iroquois also promise to try 
to persuade the Shawnees to leave Allegheny Valley. The 
Principal Indian Chief present is Shikellamy of the Onondaga.

September 3, 1855: Little Thunder has taken over as Chief 
after the killing of Conquering Bear in the fight with 
Lieutenant Grattan’s men. He has almost 250 warriors in his 
camp on the Blue River. General William S. Harney has 600 
soldiers. After the fighting, there are 100 dead Sioux, and 
five dead soldiers, according to Harney. Harney takes seventy prisoners, 
almost all women and children. Based on his actions, 
the Sioux gives Harney the name "The Butcher".

September 4, 1801: A two-day conference begins at Southwest 
Point, located at the juncture of the Tennessee and the 
Clinch Rivers. Representatives of the United States and the Cherokees 
discuss more roads through Cherokee lands. Because 
of a lack of enforcement by the United States of previous 
treaties, the Cherokees do not agree to any U.S. proposals.

September 5, 1877: Many sources say Crazy Horse is fatally 
wounded while in captivity at Fort Robinson, Nebraska.
(You can see a picture of where he was killed on my website
at: ) 

September 6, 1877: Army records show Crazy Horse died on 
the night of September 6th at Fort Robinson, Nebraska.

September 7, 1968: The Indian Council Fire awards this 
year's Indian Achievement Award to Rev. Dr. Roe B. Lewis, 
of Phoenix, Arizona. Lewis, a Pima-Papago, is cited for his 
efforts in educational counseling for Indians.

September 8, 1565: Pedro Menendez de Aviles, accompanied by 
1,500 soldiers and colonists establishes the town of St. 
Augustine, Florida. St. Augustine is the oldest constantly 
occupied European town in the United States. To secure his 
foothold in the area, de Aviles attacks the French settlements 
on the nearby St. Johns River.

September 9, 426: Yax K’uk Mo establishes a Maya dynasty at 
Copán, Honduras.

September 10, 1782: A force of forty British Rangers and 
250 Indians attack the fort built in Wheeling, Virginia 
(now West Virginia). None of the soldiers are killed on 
either side. A few Indians die in the fighting. Some 
historians feel this is the last battle of the American Revolutionary 

September 11, 1858: Colonel Miles, with five companies of 
soldiers, and fifty Mexicans, enter the Canyon de Chelly, 
in north eastern Arizona. The Navajos have not produced 
the Fort Defiance murderer of July 12, 1858. In fact, the 
Navajos have tried to pass off a killed Mexican prisoner as 
the sought for Navajo. The soldiers kill a few Navajos in 
the canyon. The soldiers camp in the canyon that night. The 
Navajos launch an ineffectual attack from the canyon walls. 
A captured Navajo convinces the other Navajos to stop the 

September 12, 379: Maya King Yax Nuun Ayiin I (Curl Nose) 
takes the throne of Tikal, Guatemala. He is quite young.
(See photos of Tikal on my website at: )

September 13, 1794: A force of 550 Kentucky and Tennessee 
Militia, led by Major James Ore, attacks the Chickamauga 
village of Nickajack on the Tennessee River. Many women 
and children are captured. Seventy braves are killed, 
including the village Chief "The Breath." Ore's forces 
torches most of the village after the fighting.

September 14, 1763: Senecas fight with a supply wagon 
train just south of Niagara, as part of the Pontiac 
Rebellion. The train is carrying supplies from Fort 
Schlosser to Fort Niagara. One source cites this as the 
worst defeat of the war for the army.

September 15, 1874: “Treaty 4 Between Her Majesty The 
Queen and The Cree and Saulteaux Tribe of Indians at 
the Qu’appelle and Fort Ellice” is signed in Canada.

September 16, 1850: In a letter to the President of the 
United States, Senator John Fremont states Spanish law 
gave Indians rights to their lands. He feels the United 
States has to enact some laws to revoke the Indians' 
rights. Under the treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, the United 
States agreed to recognize Spanish land titles in the 
newly acquired California.

September 17, 1799: Commissioners have established a camp 
at the juncture of the Flint and the Chattahoochee Rivers 
in Creek territory. They are there to eventually draw a 
treaty line through Creek lands. During the summer many 
Creeks have visited the camp to complain of the land 
cession. Chief Hopoheilthle Micco, and some Tallassee 
followers, attack the camp. They steal supplies and insult 
the commissioners. Later, Creek Chiefs beat the Tallassee 
Chief to death for his actions.

September 18, 1864: Confederate Cherokees, led by Brigadier 
General Stand Watie, and other Confederate forces, capture 
a Union wagon train in modern Mayes County, Oklahoma. This 
supply shipment has enough food and other goods for 2,000 
soldiers and is valued at one and a half million dollars. 
This is the last significant Civil War engagement in Indian Territory 
(present day Oklahoma). 

September 19, 1867: In an effort to end Red Cloud's War, a 
new peace commission comes to the end of the Union Pacific 
tracks near Platte City, Nebraska. The commissioners include 
General William Tecumseh Sherman, Indian Commissioner 
Nathaniel Taylor, Indian Agent William Harney, Indian Agent 
John Sanborn, General Alfred Terry, and a few others. The 
Indians are represented by Man Afraid, Pawnee Killer, Turkey 
Leg, Swift Bear, Standing Elk, Big Mouth, Spotted Tail, and 
several others. The Indians tell of the problems they are 
having due to people invading their lands. Later, the 
commissioners tell the Indians the "Great Father" wants 
them to move to reservations on the Missouri and the 
Cheyenne River. The Indians are not happy with this 
suggestion. The Indians have their own names for most 
of the commissioners: "Great Warrior" Sherman, "One Star 
Chief" Terry, "White Whiskers" Harney, and "Black Whiskers" 
Sanborn. The conference ends soon, and the commissioners 
ask the Indians to meet them at Fort Laramie, in 
southeastern Wyoming, in November.

September 20, 1822: Lakota Chief Red Cloud (Makhpiya-Luta) 
is born. 

September 21, 1936: The Secretary of the Interior authorizes 
an election for a Constitution and By-Laws for the Covelo 
Indian Community of the Round Valley Reservation in 
California. The election is held on November 7, 1936.

September 22, 1784: Today, marks the first "run-in" 
between a Russian settlement in Alaska and the local 

September 23, 1730: Seven Cherokee representatives in 
London, England, sign "Articles of Agreement." This 
agreement establishes a formal alliance with England 
for the next fifty years. This gives the English exclusive 
trade rights with the Cherokees, and makes the Cherokees 
military allies. The Cherokees are led by Chiefs Oukah-ulah 
and Attakullaculla (Little Carpenter).

September 24, 1858: Qualchan, son of Yakama Chief Owhi, rides 
into Colonel George Wright's camp. Qualchan is wanted for 
what the settlers consider as murder for his part in the 
recent fighting. Qualchan is taken into custody and hanged 

September 25, 1806: Zebulon Pike’s expedition reaches a 
Pawnee village on the Solomon Fork River in what is modern 

September 26, 1867: Approximately 110 members of the First 
Cavalry, Twenty-Third Infantry and fifteen Warm Springs 
Indian (Boise Indian scouts) scouts, fight with 
approximately seventy-five Paiute, thirty Pit River, and 
a few Modoc Indians. band of Indians in Infernal Canyon, 
near Pitt River, south of modern Alturas, California. Lt. 
Colonel George Crook is commanding the military forces. 
Chief Si-e-ta leads the combined Indian force. One officer, 
six soldiers, and one civilian are killed in this three 
day fight. Eleven soldiers are wounded. Indians losses 
are twenty killed, twelve wounded and two captured.

September 27, 1830: The "Dancing Rabbit Creek Treaty" (7 
stat. 333) is concluded, whereby, the Choctaws agree to 
sell lands in Mississippi and to move to Indian Territory 
(present day Oklahoma). Their new lands are bounded by 
Fort Smith along the Arkansas River, to the source of the 
Canadian Fork, to the Red River, to Arkansas Territory. 
This is the first treaty after the passage of the Indian 
removal act. Many Chiefs get large parcels of land or 
money for signing, including Principal Chief Greenwood 
le Flore. The Choctaws have three years to complete the 
move. The United States is represented by Generals John 
Coffee and John Eaton.
(See the Treaty of the month link above for a transcript
of this treaty)

September 28, 1841: Aagaunash (Billy Caldwell) is born the 
son of an Indian mother and a British Officer. He lives with 
Indians most of his life, and eventually becomes a Potawatomi 
Chief. He serves as Tecumseh's secretary, and as a liaison 
to the British until the end of the War of 1812. He fights 
for the United States against Red Bird, and Black Hawk. He 
also signs several peace treaties for the Potawatomis. He 
dies in Council Bluffs, Iowa.

September 29, 1872: Colonel R.S. Mackenzie, and Troops A, D, 
F, I, and L, Fourth Cavalry, and some Tonkawa scouts are 
near the North Fork of the Red River, near modern Lefors, 
Texas, when they discover a Comanche camp of 200 lodges. 
Mackenzie attacks, and destroys most of the encampment. 
According to government reports, twenty-three Indians are 
killed, approximately 125 warriors are captured. One soldier 
is killed, and three are wounded. Many horses and mules are 
seized by the army. For "gallantry in action," Private Edward Branagan, 
Farrier David Larkin, Sergeant William Foster, 
and First Sergeant William McNamara, Private William Rankin, 
Company F, Corporal Henry McMasters, Company A, Corporal 
William O'Neill, Company I, Blacksmith James Pratt, Company 
I, and Sergeant William Wilson will be awarded the 
Congressional Medal of Honor. This is Wilson's second 
Medal of Honor. This will become known as the “Battle of 
the North Fork of the Red River” Some sources report this 
to be the Kotsoteka Comanche village of Mow-way.

September 30, 1877: Today through October 5th, according to 
army reports, elements of Colonel Nelson Miles' Second 
Cavalry, capture 800 Nez Perce horses According to army 
documents, Captain Owen Hale, Lt. J.W. Biddle, twenty-two 
soldiers and seventeen Indians are killed. Captain Myles 
Moylan, Captain E.S. Godfrey, Lt. G.W. Baird, Lt. Henry 
Romeyn, thirty-eight soldiers, eight civilians and forty 
Nez Perce are wounded. Almost 20% of the soldiers are 
wounded or killed during the fighting at Bear Paw Mountain, 
near modern Havre, Montana. The army will issue 
Congressional Medals of Honor to the following soldiers 
during this campaign: First Lieutenant George W. Baird, 
Fifth Infantry, for "distinguished gallantry in action"; 
First Lieutenant Mason Carter, Fifth Infantry, for 
leading a charge "under a galling fire"; Second Lieutenant 
Oscar Long, Fifth Infantry, for taking over command of a 
troop of cavalry when their officers were killed; Second 
Lieutenant Edward McClernand, Second Cavalry, for using 
"skill and boldness when attacking a band of hostiles"; 
Captain Edward S. Godfrey, Seventh Cavalry, for leading 
his men while severely wounded; Captain Myles Moylan, for 
gallantry leadership until he is severely wounded; First 
Sergeant Henry Hogan, Company G, Fifth Infantry, for 
carrying severely wounded Lieutenant Henry Romeyn out of 
the line of fire (this is Hogan's second award, see 
October 21, 1876); First Lieutenant Henry Romeyn, Fifth 
Infantry for vigorously prosecuting the fight; Major (and 
surgeon) Henry Tilton for rescuing wounded men. 
(See my photos of the battlefield here: )


That's it for this newsletter. Have a great month.


End of Phil Konstantin’s September 2004 Newsletter


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