. . . . . . . . ===================================================== Start of Phil Konstantin’s September 2004 Newsletter ===================================================== Greetings, I have been very busy lately. I have had a couple of medical checkups related to the operation on my leg. It seems to be getting a little better. My computer has had a part failure (DVD player/writer). So, I will be offline for a couple of days starting Tuesday in order to get it fixed. It is my understanding that I have not been getting some of my e-mails. When the people that host my website moved me to a more reliable system, I had to go to a new management system. Evidently, this new system has a couple of features that I did not quite understand. The p a g e s @ a m e r i c a n i n d i a n . n e t or p h i l k o n @ r o c k e t m a i l . c o m addresses should work now. If I do not respond to you within a couple of days, please try e-mailing me again. I am taking a couple of American Indian Studies classes online. They are: AIS 100: Introduction to American Indian Studies, and AIS 102: American Indians and the U.S. Political System. I will post some of the more interesting discussions that I come across during this semester. On September 15th, I will be leaving for my first visit to Washington, D.C. I found another of Southwest Airlines’ sales & the roundtrip flight cost only $237. I also found a small European-style hotel not far from the White House and the Mall. It is a little under $50 a night. I am still surprised by how expensive hotels can be. Then again, I have always joked that Motel 6 is too fancy for me. I have always wanted to visit Washington. Having graduated from college with a degree in Political Science, you would think that visiting Washington would have been a requirement. With the opening of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian on September 21st, this just seemed like the right time to go. Fortunately, I have had some overtime lately at work, so I can afford it. The NMAI has invited all American Indian Nations to participate in the opening. There will be a grand procession of the tribes on opening day. One estimate says the procession will be over a mile long. I will be marching with the Cherokee delegation. It should be an amazing day. I will take lots of pictures and share them with you when I return. Phil =============================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =============================== The Link of the Month for September 2004 is the American Indian Health Website. This website specializes in health issues. It offers links to many excellent searchable databases ( Native Health History Database , Native American Ethnobotany Database, Native Elder Research Center ) and other material. If you have any questions on this subject, I recommend using this website has a resource. http://americanindianhealth.nlm.nih.gov/ =============================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =============================== The Treaty of the Month is the Dancing Rabbit Creek Treaty with the Choctaw (Sept. 27, 1830. | 7 Stat., 333. | Proclamation, Feb. 24, 1831 ) . This was a very significant document that covered lots of matters. The treaty was signed by over 100 participants. You can find a transcript here: http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cho0310.htm =============================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =============================== Here are some interesting websites: ------------------------------------------ http://smithsonian.tv/nmai/ You will find videos of Cultural Awareness Seminars held for the staff at the National Musuem of the American Indian. You'll need to have Windows Media Player installed on your computer to view. A high-speed Internet connection is probably nice, too. (From Ruth Garby Torres) http://www.sustainabletourismawards.com/vote.htm The Cherokee Heritage Center is up for an award. You can visit this website in order to vote for them. =============================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =============================== Notices from subscribers: From Bob Ensign: I phoned Washington today regarding Senate Resolution 37 and House Resolution 98. There is not a lot of activity in Washington as they are in-between sessions of Congress. September 7, 2004 will be the first day of the 109th Congress. Senate Resolution 37 is out of committee and ready to go to the floor of the Senate for Unanimous Consent. This means that if any one person there objects to the resolution the resolution dies. House Resolution 98 ( the companion to Res 37) is in the House Resource committee. As far as I can tell no action has been taken by the committee as of yet. The House resolution will have to pass out of this committee to be presented under Unanimous Consent to be adopted. As in the Senate, if any one person objects the resolution fails. There is some opposition to the Resolutions rising to oppose this effort (As you might expect). All the resolutions are supposed to be passed by September 21, 2004. September 21, 2004 is the opening of the new National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) The indigenous people of the Americas will be gathered in DC in a mile long processional as part of opening ceremonies. The president is supposed to read the resolution at that time. When the 109th Congress opens it will have only two weeks to pass both resolutions and receive the Presidents signature. Many, Many people are working behind the scenes to accomplish this task. Pray for those hidden people to be arrows in the Hands of God. Pray for Senator Brownback (Senate Resolution 37 sponsor), Representative Davis ( House Resolution 98 sponsor) and President Bush. ----------------------- =============================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =============================== News Articles from around the country: Looking Horse explains traditional stand as Unity Ride nears summit http://indiancountry.com/?1093619286 (You can see a picture of Arvol, his wife and me here: http://americanindian.net/2003t.html ) Data shows little change in economic status under Bush http://126.96.36.199/News/2004/003972.asp Buffalo Walk: Eagle Staff Carrier takes to the road http://www.elkodaily.com/articles/2004/08/28/news/local/news1.txt NMAI Director West: Museum will contrast tragedy with good http://www.shobannews.com/stories/2004/08/19/national.html#nmai Campbell seeks a rejoinder on gaming http://indiancountry.com/?1093619191 Indians getting ready for Republican convention http://188.8.131.52/News/2004/003961.asp Moccasin Bend becomes part of National Park Service http://www.wkrn.com/Global/story.asp?S=2227961 Nations helping nations (Editorial) http://indiancountry.com/?1093616805 Skull Valley Goshute meeting ends with arrests http://184.108.40.206/News/2004/003973.asp Supreme Court sends case involving Indian child to tribal court http://www.aberdeennews.com/mld/aberdeennews/news/9503469.htm Juan-Saunders and Norris: An open letter to the UN regarding the Tohono O’odham border http://indiancountry.com/?1093616145 Obituary: Frank Sanache, last Meskwaki Code Talker http://220.127.116.11/News/2004/003929.asp Village helps fill void in Native American community http://www.charlotte.com/mld/observer/news/local/9523749.htm Ho-Chunk Nation buys property in Chicago suburb http://18.104.22.168/News/2004/003977.asp Traditions Applied: Bois Forte Band of Chippewa http://indiancountry.com/?1092926367 Reinventing Tradition http://www.reznetnews.org/culture/040623_winnebago/ History project wraps up in Taloyoak http://north.cbc.ca/regional/servlet/View?filename=aug27oralhistory27082004 Plains tribes first to host Lewis and Clark event http://22.214.171.124/News/2004/003968.asp A Museum to Remember http://www.reznetnews.org/culture/040829_museum/ Mohawks challenge IRS http://indiancountry.com/?1093562712 Eagle Aviary Soon to Be a Reality for Iowa Tribe of OK http://nativetimes.com/index.asp?action=displayarticle&article_id=5002 Bill would transfer land to Pechanga Band http://126.96.36.199/News/2004/003957.asp Albuquerque Diné voice concerns, needs http://thenavajotimes.com/20042608/News/albuquerque_dine.html Stockbridge-Munsee Band sues Oneida Nation for land http://188.8.131.52/News/2004/003927.asp 9/11 memorial totem poles heading to DC http://nativetimes.com/index.asp?action=displayarticle&article_id=5004 COLUMNIST DORREEN YELLOW BIRD: Politicians show a sad ignorance about Indians http://www.grandforks.com/mld/grandforksherald/9425389.htm Bury ‘Deadwood’ http://www.reznetnews.org/voices/040407_deadwood/ =============================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =============================== Cultural Tidbits from the Cherokee Nation newsletter: ************************** Ned Christie - * Cherokee Senator * blacksmith * farmer * marble champion * patriot Ned Christie was born December 14, 1852 in Rabbit Trap, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory, now known as Wauhilla, Oklahoma. He was born into the Bird Clan, and growing up around his father, became very interested in Cherokee Nation politics. He also became a renowned blacksmith and gunsmith. Known by the members of his community as a gentleman, he became well known for his Cherokee Marble skills. He was elected a Cherokee Senator (also known as Executive Councilor) in 1885 during the administration of Chief Dennis Bushyhead. He was known on the legislative floor as a staunch advocate for Tribal Sovereignty, as agreed to in treaties with the United States, and was against the railroads entering Cherokee Nation jurisdiction, as well as the impending allotment of Cherokee lands in severalty to the Cherokee People. Upon the burning of the Cherokee National Female Seminary, a beautiful school building which provided free education to young Cherokee women, he traveled to Tahleqauh (the Capitol of the Cherokee Nation) to attend a special council meeting regarding the fire. While in town, on May 4, 1887, a U.S. Deputy Marshal named Dan (or Dave) Maples was killed. Because Christie was seen in the vicinity, as it was common to camp and visit around the Town Branch creek where Maples was camped, he was accused by John Parris as having been the shooter. Ned immediately, upon learning of the accusation, approached several important people in the Cherokee Nation, including his father Watt who was an former Senator, and decided to return to Wauhilla and attempt to garner evidence in his defense. (more next month…) (I have a couple of pictures of Ned Christie on my website at: http://americanindian.net/cherokee4.html ) =============================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =============================== This month’s movie review is of the 2003 film, The Missing. A brief description of the movie from the website http://www.imdb.com is: “In 19th-century New Mexico, a father (Tommy Lee Jones) comes back home, hoping to reconcile with his adult daughter Maggie (Cate Blanchett). Maggie's daughter is kidnapped, forcing father and estranged daughter to work together to get her back.” The Missing is an action-filled, suspense, thriller, western. Somewhat similar to the classic ‘The Searchers,’ The Missing adds a considerable amount of Hollywood mysticism. Tommy Lee Jones plays Samuel Jones (Chaa-duu-ba-its-iidan). The meaning of Chaa-duu-ba-its-iidan provides a bit of comic relief later in the film. Jones’ character has been living with the Apache for the last 20 years. Not long after Jones tries to reconcile with his daughter, Pesh-Chidin, (played by Eric Schweig, also in Skins) kidnaps Blanchette’s daughter. Pesh-Chidin is a psychopathic killer with mystical powers. He and his band of renegades have just “broke-out” of their reservation. They are kidnapping white girls in order to sell them to into slavery in Mexico. As a considerable part of the movie involves Pesh-Chidin, his band of renegades, and a couple of Apaches who come to Jones’ aid, there are quite a few American Indian actors in the movie. Steve Reevis is Two Stones; Jay Tavare is Kayitah; Simon Baker is Honesco, Kayitah's son; Deryle J. Lujan is Naazhaao/'Hunter.' According to director Ron Howard, as much as it is a character-driven suspense drama, The Missing is also the story of an arduous journey through New Mexico. "This story is a true expedition that starts out in the high country and ends up at the Mexican border in the high desert," says Howard. "Like the characters, we went from snow to heat waves. That made the story palpable for audiences in grasping the characters' transitory experience." The movie was filmed in the Valles Caldera in the high country north of Santa Fe, near the national park at Los Alamos. At the Zia Pueblo, an eerie, desiccated mesa of white gypsum, 65 mph winds suddenly kicked up, blinding and choking the cast and crew. Some exterior shots were made at the Santa Clara Pueblo. The producers reproduced the ancient site to shoot more of the interior details. To quote from the movie’s official website, “In terms of the Native American characters, it is much more time-specific, Weiss says, "Because of when the film takes place, we were able to show what was happening to the Apache nation at that time, how sad it was that they were being forcibly 'westernized.' Any time a costume designer is asked to help represent a group where there has been an attempt to dispense with their identity, it is an honor as well as a responsibility. The Apaches were on a part of their journey where their clothing was becoming 'westernized' without choice. Through dress, their culture and identity was being stripped away. Although Kayitah and Honesco's clothes remain closer to their tribal base, availability of materials had become easier. The Apache scouts would often wear pieces of the Calvary uniform. But when the military no longer wanted any part of them, the visual history gets mixed up and you can see it in their clothing, which reflects where they have been rather than who they are." Pesh-Chidin, however, knows exactly who he is, and everything about his clothing conveys a sense of demonic power and foreboding, according to Weiss. "Pesh is an outsider. If he is foreboding, it's because those who know that they have the power to terrify can emit an aura of the abuse of power, an emotional clearing around them. The power of Pesh is toxic. Whatever gifts he had as a healer became tainted. He chose a path of evil pride. He wears his trophies (the tintypes), which are a roster of his victims. Anyone who has to wear his past to shield a misuse of power is someone who should not only shed his costume, but his soul." One of Howard's boldest gambles in The Missing was the use of Apache dialogue (with subtitles) against a backdrop of palpable action. The reason it worked so well and didn't interfere with the momentum, says Grazer, "is because we treated it in a very vital way. The characters who spoke Apache, did so in a modern way. There was humor. There was an edge to it. It was how real people would talk, not like characters in a history book." In preparation for the film, Jones, Tavare, Baker and other Apache characters had to learn how to speak Chiricahua, a dialect of the Apache language. The Missing contains several scenes with interchanges in this difficult and demanding Apache tongue. "There are five or six different groups of Apaches, each of whom speak a slightly different language," explains Jones. "We had to study the Chiricahua dialect carefully and thoroughly." The actors were taught by teachers who also served as consultants on the film -- Elbys Hugar and Berle Kanseah, Chiricahua elders with an impressive Apache pedigree, as well as Scott Rushforth, a college professor with a specialty in Native American languages. "Apache is one of the most difficult of all the native languages to perfect," explains Tavare. "It has glottal stops, sibilent Ls, and there are some words that, even if you pronounce them correctly, if you punctuate them in the wrong place, mean something completely different." "In my mind, there was never any question that the actors playing Native Americans would have to speak Apache," Howard explains. "We were extremely fortunate that Elbys, Berle and Scott agreed to help us. Elbys in particular, comes from a line of great Apache leaders. Her grandfather is Cochise and her great-grandfather is Naiche. Cochise is well known as a formidable and infamous Chiricahua warrior. Naiche was the chief of the Chiricahua band that evaded the military for many years, along with Geronimo, who is better known. But in truth, Geronimo was just the medicine man." The actors went beyond the rudiments of Chiricahua to learn many of its subtleties. "One of the great joys for me was how intriguing and entertaining the culture is and how that comes across in the language," says Howard. "Much of the humor in the film comes in the interactions between Jones and Kayitah (Jay Tavare) and the Apaches talking about the white folks. They are famous for their dry sense of humor. It's quite an amazing culture." In the script, Chiricahua Apaches have given the wandering Jones an affectionate and humorous name. It emerged from a conversation producer Ostroff had with Rushforth. "Dan asked me what the Chiricahua might call someone like Jones, who can't settle down, abandons his family, and is alone," says Rushforth. "The Chiricahua hold family in extremely high regard, so I jokingly told Dan that they'd call Jones 'shit out of luck.' Dan passed my comment along to Ron Howard, who thought it was funny, and the name stuck." The actors studied with their teachers for about seven weeks prior to filming and continued throughout the production. For Hugar, who has compiled two Chiricahua dictionaries with Rushforth, it was a chance to demonstrate the beauty and intricacy of the language, which is in danger of disappearing. "It was an opportunity to show young people that they can learn the language, too, which is important, because it's dying out," says Hugar. "When I was working as a curator at a museum, I had a class of about 50 kids and asked how many understood their language and could speak any Apache. Just two of them raised their hands." The actors appreciated learning not only the language, but also the nuances of the culture. "It was wonderful to work with the Apache elders," Tavare says. "Their stories were fascinating and gave me a stronger sense of my character." While the movie heightens the evil nature of Pesh-Chidin, it also features American Indian characters that are more well-rounded. Granted, this is intended to be a thriller, not an anthropological study. The DVD version of the movie has some interesting background information of the production of the movie. If you would like to get a copt of the DVD, I have it posted on my store page at: http://americanindian.net/store.html =============================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =============================== Here is some humorous material…. From Joe RedCloud (no it is NOT real) : These are excellent examples of what a truly talented, albeit slightly disturbed, computer graphics artist can accomplish. It does LOOK real. But it isn't. It's just hysterical. I NEED a car like this. Or, to be more precise, my evil twin Skippy does. http://184.108.40.206/Big-boys/Images/pigeon.swf http://members.optusnet.com.au/~jimbeamblack/cat.mpg ------------------------ From Jay Crosby: HOW TO IDENTIFY WHERE A DRIVER IS FROM... One hand on wheel, one hand on horn: CHICAGO. One hand on wheel, middle finger out window: NEW YORK. One hand on wheel, middle finger out window, cutting across all lanes of traffic: NEW JERSEY. One hand on wheel, one hand on newspaper, foot solidly on accelerator: BOSTON. One hand on wheel, one hand on nonfat double decaf cappuccino, cradling cell phone, brick on accelerator, gun in lap: LOS ANGELES. Both hands on wheel, eyes shut, both feet on brake, quivering in terror: From MONTANA, but driving in CALIFORNIA. Both hands in air, gesturing, both feet on accelerator, head turned to talk to someone in back seat: ITALY. One hand on 12oz double shot latte, one knee on wheel, cradling cell phone, foot on brake, mind on radio game, banging head on steering wheel while stuck in traffic: SEATTLE. One hand on wheel, one hand on hunting rifle, alternating between both feet being on the accelerator, and both feet on brake, throwing McDonald's bag out the window: TEXAS. Four-wheel drive pick-up truck, shotgun mounted in rear window, beer cans on floor, Prairie Dog tails attached to antenna: WYOMING. Two hands gripping wheel, blue hair barely visible above windshield, driving 35 on the Interstate, in the left lane with the left blinker on: FLORIDA. One hand on the wheel, the other on his sister: ARKANSAS. ------------------------------ Also from Jay… INTERNATIONAL THINKING AT ITS BEST! Question: What is the truest definition of Globalization? Answer: Princess Diana's death. Question: How come? Answer: An English princess with an Egyptian boyfriend crashes in a French tunnel, driving a German car with a Dutch engine, driven by a Belgian who was drunk on Scottish whisky, (check the bottle before you change the spelling) followed closely by Italian Paparazzi, on Japanese motorcycles; treated by an American doctor, using Brazilian medicines. This is sent to you by an American, using Bill Gates's technology, and you're probably reading this on your computer, that use Taiwanese chips, and a Korean monitor, assembled by Bangladeshi workers in a Singapore plant, transported by Indian lorry-drivers, hijacked by Indonesians, unloaded by Sicilian longshoremen, and trucked to you by Mexican illegals..... That, my friends, is Globalization -------------------------------- This is from Ed Clark: Number One Idiot of 2003 I am a medical student currently doing a rotation in toxicology at the poison control center. Today, this woman called in very upset because she caught her little daughter eating ants. I quickly reassured her that the ants are not harmful and there would be no need to bring her daughter into the hospital. She calmed down and at the end of the conversation happened to mention that she gave her daughter some ant poison to eat in order to kill the ants. I told her that she better bring her daughter into the emergency room right away. Number Two Idiot of 2003 Early this year, some Boeing employees on the airfield decided to steal a life raft from one of the 747s. They were successful in getting it out of the plane and home. Shortly after they took it for a float on the river, they noticed a Coast Guard helicopter coming towards them. It turned out that the chopper was homing in on the emergency locator beacon that activated when the raft was inflated. They are no longer employed at Boeing. Number Three Idiot of 2003 A true story out of San Francisco: A man, wanting to rob a downtown Bank of America, walked into the branch and wrote "this iz a stikkup. Put all your muny in this bag." While standing in line, waiting to give his note to the teller, he began to worry that someone had seen him write the note and might call the police before he reached the teller's window. So he left the Bank of America and crossed the street to Wells Fargo. After waiting a few minutes in line, he handed his note to the Wells Fargo teller. She read it and, surmising from his spelling errors that he wasn't the brightest light in the harbor, told him that she could not accept his stickup note because it was written on a Bank of America deposit slip and that he would either have to fill out a Wells Fargo deposit slip or go back to Bank of America. Looking somewhat defeated, the man said, "OK" and left. He was arrested a few minutes later, as he was waiting in line back at Bank of America. Number Four Idiot of 2003 A guy walked into a little corner store with a shotgun and demanded all of the cash from the cash drawer. After the cashier put the cash in a bag, the robber saw a bottle of Scotch that he wanted behind the counter on the shelf. He told the cashier to put it in the bag as well, but the cashier refused and said, because I don't believe you are over 21." The robber said he was, but the clerk still refused to give it to him because he didn't believe him. At this point, the robber took his driver's license out of his wallet and gave it to the clerk. The clerk looked it over and agreed that the man was in fact over 21 and he put the Scotch in the bag. The robber then ran from the store with his loot. The cashier promptly called the police and gave the name and address of the robber that he got off the license. They arrested the robber two hours later. Idiot Number Five of 2003 A pair of Michigan robbers entered a record shop nervously waving revolvers. The first one shouted, "Nobody move!" When his partner moved, the startled first bandit shot him. Idiot Number Six of 2003 Seems this guy wanted some beer pretty badly. He decided that he'd just throw a cinder block through a liquor store window, grab! some booze, and run. So he lifted the cinder block and heaved it over his head at the window. The cinder block bounced back and hit the would be thief on the head, knocking him unconscious. It seems the liquor store window was made of Plexiglas. The whole event was caught on videotape. Idiot Number Seven of 2003 Ann Arbor: The Ann Arbor News crime column reported that a man walked into a Burger King in Ypsilanti, Michigan at 12:50 A. M., flashed a gun and demanded cash. The clerk turned him down because he said he couldn't open the cash register without a food order. When the man ordered onion rings, the clerk said they weren't available for breakfast. The man, frustrated, walked away. Please note that all of the above people are allowed to vote (and breed). -------------------- =============================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =============================== The following message was forwarded to me from the San Diego Police Department regarding a new car-jacking scheme. It's just a little something I thought I'd share to promote awareness for you and your family: While parked in a parking lot, you unlock your car and get inside. You lock all your doors, start the engine and shift into REVERSE. You look into the rearview mirror to back out of your parking space and you notice a piece of paper stuck to the middle of the rear window. So, you shift into PARK, unlock your doors and jump out of your car to remove that paper (or whatever it is) that is obstructing your view... When you reach the back of your car, that is when the car- jackers appear out of nowhere, jump into your car and take off! Your engine was running, (ladies would have their purse in the car) and they practically mow you down as they speed off in your car. BE AWARE OF THIS NEW SCHEME THAT IS NOW BEING USED. Just drive away and remove the paper that is stuck to your window later, and be thankful that you read this email. I hope you will forward this to friends and family...especially to women! A purse contains all identification, and you certainly do NOT want someone getting your home address. They already HAVE your keys! =============================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =============================== Here are some random historical dates: September 1, 504: Maya Queen "Lady of Tikal" is born. September 2, 1732: The first treaty between the Iroquois Confederation, and the Pennsylvania Provincial Council is signed in Philadelphia. The parties agree to peaceful relations between them. The Iroquois also promise to try to persuade the Shawnees to leave Allegheny Valley. The Principal Indian Chief present is Shikellamy of the Onondaga. September 3, 1855: Little Thunder has taken over as Chief after the killing of Conquering Bear in the fight with Lieutenant Grattan’s men. He has almost 250 warriors in his camp on the Blue River. General William S. Harney has 600 soldiers. After the fighting, there are 100 dead Sioux, and five dead soldiers, according to Harney. Harney takes seventy prisoners, almost all women and children. Based on his actions, the Sioux gives Harney the name "The Butcher". September 4, 1801: A two-day conference begins at Southwest Point, located at the juncture of the Tennessee and the Clinch Rivers. Representatives of the United States and the Cherokees discuss more roads through Cherokee lands. Because of a lack of enforcement by the United States of previous treaties, the Cherokees do not agree to any U.S. proposals. September 5, 1877: Many sources say Crazy Horse is fatally wounded while in captivity at Fort Robinson, Nebraska. (You can see a picture of where he was killed on my website at: http://americanindian.net/2003p.html ) September 6, 1877: Army records show Crazy Horse died on the night of September 6th at Fort Robinson, Nebraska. September 7, 1968: The Indian Council Fire awards this year's Indian Achievement Award to Rev. Dr. Roe B. Lewis, of Phoenix, Arizona. Lewis, a Pima-Papago, is cited for his efforts in educational counseling for Indians. September 8, 1565: Pedro Menendez de Aviles, accompanied by 1,500 soldiers and colonists establishes the town of St. Augustine, Florida. St. Augustine is the oldest constantly occupied European town in the United States. To secure his foothold in the area, de Aviles attacks the French settlements on the nearby St. Johns River. September 9, 426: Yax K’uk Mo establishes a Maya dynasty at Copán, Honduras. September 10, 1782: A force of forty British Rangers and 250 Indians attack the fort built in Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia). None of the soldiers are killed on either side. A few Indians die in the fighting. Some historians feel this is the last battle of the American Revolutionary war. September 11, 1858: Colonel Miles, with five companies of soldiers, and fifty Mexicans, enter the Canyon de Chelly, in north eastern Arizona. The Navajos have not produced the Fort Defiance murderer of July 12, 1858. In fact, the Navajos have tried to pass off a killed Mexican prisoner as the sought for Navajo. The soldiers kill a few Navajos in the canyon. The soldiers camp in the canyon that night. The Navajos launch an ineffectual attack from the canyon walls. A captured Navajo convinces the other Navajos to stop the attack. September 12, 379: Maya King Yax Nuun Ayiin I (Curl Nose) takes the throne of Tikal, Guatemala. He is quite young. (See photos of Tikal on my website at: http://americanindian.net/mexico20.html ) September 13, 1794: A force of 550 Kentucky and Tennessee Militia, led by Major James Ore, attacks the Chickamauga village of Nickajack on the Tennessee River. Many women and children are captured. Seventy braves are killed, including the village Chief "The Breath." Ore's forces torches most of the village after the fighting. September 14, 1763: Senecas fight with a supply wagon train just south of Niagara, as part of the Pontiac Rebellion. The train is carrying supplies from Fort Schlosser to Fort Niagara. One source cites this as the worst defeat of the war for the army. September 15, 1874: “Treaty 4 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The Cree and Saulteaux Tribe of Indians at the Qu’appelle and Fort Ellice” is signed in Canada. September 16, 1850: In a letter to the President of the United States, Senator John Fremont states Spanish law gave Indians rights to their lands. He feels the United States has to enact some laws to revoke the Indians' rights. Under the treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, the United States agreed to recognize Spanish land titles in the newly acquired California. September 17, 1799: Commissioners have established a camp at the juncture of the Flint and the Chattahoochee Rivers in Creek territory. They are there to eventually draw a treaty line through Creek lands. During the summer many Creeks have visited the camp to complain of the land cession. Chief Hopoheilthle Micco, and some Tallassee followers, attack the camp. They steal supplies and insult the commissioners. Later, Creek Chiefs beat the Tallassee Chief to death for his actions. September 18, 1864: Confederate Cherokees, led by Brigadier General Stand Watie, and other Confederate forces, capture a Union wagon train in modern Mayes County, Oklahoma. This supply shipment has enough food and other goods for 2,000 soldiers and is valued at one and a half million dollars. This is the last significant Civil War engagement in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). September 19, 1867: In an effort to end Red Cloud's War, a new peace commission comes to the end of the Union Pacific tracks near Platte City, Nebraska. The commissioners include General William Tecumseh Sherman, Indian Commissioner Nathaniel Taylor, Indian Agent William Harney, Indian Agent John Sanborn, General Alfred Terry, and a few others. The Indians are represented by Man Afraid, Pawnee Killer, Turkey Leg, Swift Bear, Standing Elk, Big Mouth, Spotted Tail, and several others. The Indians tell of the problems they are having due to people invading their lands. Later, the commissioners tell the Indians the "Great Father" wants them to move to reservations on the Missouri and the Cheyenne River. The Indians are not happy with this suggestion. The Indians have their own names for most of the commissioners: "Great Warrior" Sherman, "One Star Chief" Terry, "White Whiskers" Harney, and "Black Whiskers" Sanborn. The conference ends soon, and the commissioners ask the Indians to meet them at Fort Laramie, in southeastern Wyoming, in November. September 20, 1822: Lakota Chief Red Cloud (Makhpiya-Luta) is born. September 21, 1936: The Secretary of the Interior authorizes an election for a Constitution and By-Laws for the Covelo Indian Community of the Round Valley Reservation in California. The election is held on November 7, 1936. September 22, 1784: Today, marks the first "run-in" between a Russian settlement in Alaska and the local inhabitants. September 23, 1730: Seven Cherokee representatives in London, England, sign "Articles of Agreement." This agreement establishes a formal alliance with England for the next fifty years. This gives the English exclusive trade rights with the Cherokees, and makes the Cherokees military allies. The Cherokees are led by Chiefs Oukah-ulah and Attakullaculla (Little Carpenter). September 24, 1858: Qualchan, son of Yakama Chief Owhi, rides into Colonel George Wright's camp. Qualchan is wanted for what the settlers consider as murder for his part in the recent fighting. Qualchan is taken into custody and hanged later. September 25, 1806: Zebulon Pike’s expedition reaches a Pawnee village on the Solomon Fork River in what is modern Kansas. September 26, 1867: Approximately 110 members of the First Cavalry, Twenty-Third Infantry and fifteen Warm Springs Indian (Boise Indian scouts) scouts, fight with approximately seventy-five Paiute, thirty Pit River, and a few Modoc Indians. band of Indians in Infernal Canyon, near Pitt River, south of modern Alturas, California. Lt. Colonel George Crook is commanding the military forces. Chief Si-e-ta leads the combined Indian force. One officer, six soldiers, and one civilian are killed in this three day fight. Eleven soldiers are wounded. Indians losses are twenty killed, twelve wounded and two captured. September 27, 1830: The "Dancing Rabbit Creek Treaty" (7 stat. 333) is concluded, whereby, the Choctaws agree to sell lands in Mississippi and to move to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Their new lands are bounded by Fort Smith along the Arkansas River, to the source of the Canadian Fork, to the Red River, to Arkansas Territory. This is the first treaty after the passage of the Indian removal act. Many Chiefs get large parcels of land or money for signing, including Principal Chief Greenwood le Flore. The Choctaws have three years to complete the move. The United States is represented by Generals John Coffee and John Eaton. (See the Treaty of the month link above for a transcript of this treaty) September 28, 1841: Aagaunash (Billy Caldwell) is born the son of an Indian mother and a British Officer. He lives with Indians most of his life, and eventually becomes a Potawatomi Chief. He serves as Tecumseh's secretary, and as a liaison to the British until the end of the War of 1812. He fights for the United States against Red Bird, and Black Hawk. He also signs several peace treaties for the Potawatomis. He dies in Council Bluffs, Iowa. September 29, 1872: Colonel R.S. Mackenzie, and Troops A, D, F, I, and L, Fourth Cavalry, and some Tonkawa scouts are near the North Fork of the Red River, near modern Lefors, Texas, when they discover a Comanche camp of 200 lodges. Mackenzie attacks, and destroys most of the encampment. According to government reports, twenty-three Indians are killed, approximately 125 warriors are captured. One soldier is killed, and three are wounded. Many horses and mules are seized by the army. For "gallantry in action," Private Edward Branagan, Farrier David Larkin, Sergeant William Foster, and First Sergeant William McNamara, Private William Rankin, Company F, Corporal Henry McMasters, Company A, Corporal William O'Neill, Company I, Blacksmith James Pratt, Company I, and Sergeant William Wilson will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. This is Wilson's second Medal of Honor. This will become known as the “Battle of the North Fork of the Red River” Some sources report this to be the Kotsoteka Comanche village of Mow-way. September 30, 1877: Today through October 5th, according to army reports, elements of Colonel Nelson Miles' Second Cavalry, capture 800 Nez Perce horses According to army documents, Captain Owen Hale, Lt. J.W. Biddle, twenty-two soldiers and seventeen Indians are killed. Captain Myles Moylan, Captain E.S. Godfrey, Lt. G.W. Baird, Lt. Henry Romeyn, thirty-eight soldiers, eight civilians and forty Nez Perce are wounded. Almost 20% of the soldiers are wounded or killed during the fighting at Bear Paw Mountain, near modern Havre, Montana. The army will issue Congressional Medals of Honor to the following soldiers during this campaign: First Lieutenant George W. Baird, Fifth Infantry, for "distinguished gallantry in action"; First Lieutenant Mason Carter, Fifth Infantry, for leading a charge "under a galling fire"; Second Lieutenant Oscar Long, Fifth Infantry, for taking over command of a troop of cavalry when their officers were killed; Second Lieutenant Edward McClernand, Second Cavalry, for using "skill and boldness when attacking a band of hostiles"; Captain Edward S. Godfrey, Seventh Cavalry, for leading his men while severely wounded; Captain Myles Moylan, for gallantry leadership until he is severely wounded; First Sergeant Henry Hogan, Company G, Fifth Infantry, for carrying severely wounded Lieutenant Henry Romeyn out of the line of fire (this is Hogan's second award, see October 21, 1876); First Lieutenant Henry Romeyn, Fifth Infantry for vigorously prosecuting the fight; Major (and surgeon) Henry Tilton for rescuing wounded men. (See my photos of the battlefield here: http://americanindian.net/2003w.html ) =============================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =============================== That's it for this newsletter. Have a great month. Phil =================================================== End of Phil Konstantin’s September 2004 Newsletter =================================================== . . . . . . . . . .
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