September 2003 Newsletter Part One from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2003)

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Phil Konstantin's September 2003 Newsletter, Part One 
  Sep 02, 2003 00:15 PDT   


It is hard to believe that another month has gone by.

I will be doing this month's newsletter in two parts. The second half 
will be along in a day or two. 

I received lots of e-mail from people who thought they knew the answer 
to the movie trivia quiz. Some of you had it right. Many people thought 
it was "Dances With Wolves." That was a good guess, but not the correct 
answer. Several of the people on the list were in that movie. Rodney 
Grant had a bigger part than Floyd Westerman did, though. The answer is 
at the bottom of this page.


A website worth visiting:

Western Shoshone Defense Project - an activist site with lots of info


Some of the e-mails I received this month:


Maybe you can help this person:

We recently purchased a small track of land near a large spring. The 
property is full of arrowheads. I was wondering if you have any 
information on Warren Count TN.? The property if located West of 
McMinnville. It would seem a site for a very large battle, but I believe 
it was a long time camp. The spring is from a small cave which has long 
ago collapsed. Any information would be helpful.
Judy at   BillandJudy @ blomand.Net


Donna Page, a friend and broadcaster in Los Angeles, sent me this 
notice. It does seem to be legit. And, since I know many of you are very 
concerned about animals, I thought I would pass it along.

Animal Rescue League Request

The Animal Rescue Site is having trouble getting enough people to click 
on it daily to meet their quota of getting free food donated
every day to abused and neglected animals. It takes less than a minute 
to go to their site and click on "feed an animal in need" for free. This 
doesn't cost you a thing. Their corporate sponsors/advertisers use the 
number of daily visits to donate food to abandoned/neglected animals in 
exchange for advertising. Here's the Website! Pass it along to people 
you know.

The address is:



From the Cherokee Nation newsletter:

**** Cultural Tidbits ****
Traditional Cherokee Beliefs

Traditionally, the Cherokee are deeply concerned with keeping things
separated and in the proper classification, or category. For example,
when sacred items are not in use they are wrapped in deerskin, or white 
cloth, and kept in a special box or other place. 

The circle is a familiar symbol to traditional Cherokees. The Stomp
Dance and other ceremonies involve movements in a circular pattern. In
ancient times, the fire in the council house was built by arranging the 
wood in a continuous "X" so that the fire would burn in a circular path.

The rivers, or "Long Man," were always believed to be sacred, and the
practice of going to water for purification and other ceremonies was at 
one time very common. Today, the river, or any other body of moving
water such as a creek, is considered a sacred site, and going to water
is still a respected practice by some Cherokees.

*Note: Cultural information may vary from clan to clan, location to
location, family to family, and from differing opinions and experiences. 
Information provided here are not 'etched in stone'.


Some news stories on websites:

Report: Navajos Underpaid for Pipelines

Finger pointing in death of confiscated Western Shoshone horses

NIGA Chairman appears on national TV

Janklow charged in death of motorcycle driver

Joe Shirley Jr. speaks out on the Navajo Nation

State of Kansas barred from collection $1.25 million tax it claims the
Winnebago Tribe owes.

Cobell: Delay and deception in trust fund case

Schwarzenegger says tribal consultation 'misguided'

Marker dedicated at Carlisle Indian School site

Day of Honor celebrates chief's sacred land donation

Native Hawaiian recognition stalled in Congress

License to Teach: Jicarilla Apache Nation to certify people to teach
Indian language under new Board of Education cert

Oneidas buy Stockbridge land

Miami Tribe buys 25 acres in Cumberland County

Cherokee Freedmen caught in high-level dispute

PM signs historic land deal

Tribes Lavish Cruz With Bustawampum

Across the Big Sky

Honored chief laid to rest: Hundreds attend Peter John's service,
potlatch in Minto

Fight Over Meskwaki Casino and Tribe Reaches the School Yard

Native Americans Study at NASA¬Found=true

$100 toll through Wabaseemoong reserve

Harjo: Prayers to protect Salt Mother and sacred places

Red Cloud School names new leader

Tribal artifacts returned to Maidu graves


Here are some random historical dates:

September 1, 504: Maya Queen "Lady of Tikal" is born.

September 2, 1732: The first treaty between the Iroquois Confederation, 
and the Pennsylvania Provincial Council is signed in Philadelphia. The 
parties agree to peaceful relations between them. The Iroquois also 
promise to try to persuade the Shawnees to leave Allegheny Valley. The 
Principal Indian Chief present is Shikellamy of the Onondaga.

September 3, 1855: Little Thunder has taken over as Chief after the   
killing of Conquering Bear in the fight with Lieutenant Grattan’s men. 
He has almost 250 warriors in his camp on the Blue River. General 
William S. Harney has 600 soldiers. After the fighting, there are 100 
dead Sioux, and five dead soldiers, according to Harney. Harney takes 
seventy prisoners, almost all women and children. Based on his actions, 
the Sioux gives Harney the name "The Butcher".

September 4, 1801: A two-day conference begins at Southwest Point,   
located at the juncture of the Tennessee and the Clinch Rivers.   
Representatives of the United States and the Cherokees discuss more   
roads through Cherokee lands. Because of a lack of enforcement by the 
United States of previous treaties, the Cherokees do not agree to any 
U.S. proposals.

September 5, 1877: Many sources say Crazy Horse is fatally wounded while 
in captivity at Fort Robinson, Nebraska.

Youcan see the pictures I took of the site and the monument on this 

September 6, 1877: Army records show Crazy Horse died on the night of 
September 6th at Fort Robinson, Nebraska.

September 7, 1968: The Indian Council Fire awards this year's Indian 
Achievement Award to Rev. Dr. Roe B. Lewis, of Phoenix, Arizona. Lewis, 
a Pima-Papago, is cited for his efforts in educational counseling for 

September 8, 1565: Pedro Menendez de Aviles, accompanied by 1,500   
soldiers and colonists establishes the town of St. Augustine, Florida. 
St. Augustine is the oldest constantly occupied European town in the 
United States. To secure his foothold in the area, de Aviles attacks the 
French settlements on the nearby St. Johns River.

September 9, 426: Yax K’uk Mo establishes a Maya dynasty at Copán, 

September 10, 1782: A force of forty British Rangers and 250 Indians 
attack the fort built in Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia). None of 
the soldiers are killed on either side. A few Indians die in the 
fighting. Some historians feel this is the last battle of the American 
Revolutionary war.

September 11, 1858: Colonel Miles, with five companies of soldiers, and 
fifty Mexicans, enter the Canyon de Chelly, in north eastern Arizona. 
The Navajos have not produced the Fort Defiance murderer of July 12, 
1858. In fact, the Navajos have tried to pass off a killed Mexican 
prisoner as the sought for Navajo. The soldiers kill a few Navajos in 
the canyon. The soldiers camp in the canyon that night. The Navajos 
launch an ineffectual attack from the canyon walls. A captured Navajo 
convinces the other Navajos to stop the attack.

September 12, 379: Maya King Yax Nuun Ayiin I (Curl Nose) takes the 
throne of Tikal, Guatemala. He is quite young.

See the pictures I took of this area on this page:

September 13, 1794: A force of 550 Kentucky and Tennessee Militia, led 
by Major James Ore, attacks the Chickamauga village of Nickajack on the 
Tennessee River. Many women and children are captured. Seventy braves 
are killed, including the village Chief "The Breath." Ore's forces 
torches most of the village after the fighting.

September 14, 1763: Senecas fight with a supply wagon train just south 
of Niagara, as part of the Pontiac Rebellion. The train is carrying 
supplies from Fort Schlosser to Fort Niagara. One source cites this as 
the worst defeat of the war for the army.

September 15, 1874: “Treaty 4 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The Cree 
and Saulteaux Tribe of Indians at the Qu’appelle and Fort Ellice” is 
signed in Canada.

September 16, 1850: In a letter to the President of the United States, 
Senator John Fremont states Spanish law gave Indians rights to their 
lands. He feels the United States has to enact some laws to revoke the 
Indians' rights. Under the treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, the United 
States agreed to recognize Spanish land titles in the newly acquired 

September 17, 1799: Commissioners have established a camp at the 
juncture of the Flint and the Chattahoochee Rivers in Creek Territory. 
They are there to eventually draw a treaty line through Creek lands. 
During the summer many Creeks have visited the camp to complain of the 
land cession. Chief Hopoheilthle Micco, and some Tallassee followers, 
attack the camp. They steal supplies and insult the commissioners. 
Later, Creek Chiefs beat the Tallassee Chief to death for his actions.

September 18, 1864: Confederate Cherokees, led by Brigadier General 
Stand Watie, and other Confederate forces, capture a Union wagon train 
in modern Mayes County, Oklahoma. This supply shipment has enough food 
and other goods for 2,000 soldiers and is valued at one and a half 
million dollars. This is the last significant Civil War engagement in 
Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). 

September 19, 1867: In an effort to end Red Cloud's War, a new peace 
commission comes to the end of the Union Pacific tracks near Platte 
City, Nebraska. The commissioners include General William Tecumseh 
Sherman, Indian Commissioner Nathaniel Taylor, Indian Agent William 
Harney, Indian Agent John Sanborn, General Alfred Terry, and a few 
others. The Indians are represented by Man Afraid, Pawnee Killer, Turkey 
Leg, Swift Bear, Standing Elk, Big Mouth, Spotted Tail, and several 
others. The Indians tell of the problems they are having due to people 
invading their lands. Later, the commissioners tell the Indians the 
"Great Father" wants them to move to reservations on the Missouri and 
the Cheyenne River. The Indians are not happy with this suggestion. The 
Indians have their own names for most of the commissioners: "Great 
Warrior" Sherman, "One Star Chief" Terry, "White Whiskers" Harney, and 
"Black Whiskers" Sanborn. The conference ends soon, and the 
commissioners ask the Indians to meet them at Fort Laramie, in 
southeastern Wyoming, in November.

September 20, 1822: Lakota Chief Red Cloud (Makhpiya-Luta) is born. 

September 21, 1936: The Secretary of the Interior authorizes an election 
for a Constitution and By-Laws for the Covelo Indian Community of the 
Round Valley Reservation in California. The election is held on November 
7, 1936.

September 22, 1784: Today, marks the first "run-in" between a Russian 
settlement in Alaska and the local inhabitants. 

September 23, 1730: Seven Cherokee representatives in London, England, 
sign "Articles of Agreement." This agreement establishes a formal 
alliance with England for the next fifty years. This gives the English 
exclusive trade rights with the Cherokees, and makes the Cherokees 
military allies. The Cherokees are led by Chiefs Oukah-ulah and 
Attakullaculla (Little Carpenter).

September 24, 1858: Qualchan, son of Yakama Chief Owhi, rides into 
Colonel George Wright's camp. Qualchan is wanted for what the settlers 
consider as murder for his part in the recent fighting. Qualchan is 
taken into custody and hanged later.

September 25, 1806: Zebulon Pike’s expedition reaches a Pawnee village 
on the Solomon Fork River in what is modern Kansas.

September 26, 1867: Approximately 110 members of the First Cavalry, 
Twenty-Third Infantry and fifteen Warm Springs Indian (Boise Indian 
scouts) scouts, fight with approximately seventy-five Paiute, thirty Pit 
River, and a few Modoc Indians. band of Indians in Infernal Canyon, near 
Pitt River, south of modern Alturas, California. Lt. Colonel George 
Crook is commanding the military forces. Chief Si-e-ta leads the 
combined Indian force. One officer, six soldiers, and one civilian are 
killed in this three day fight. Eleven soldiers are wounded. Indians 
losses are twenty killed, twelve wounded and two captured.

September 27, 1830: The "Dancing Rabbit Creek Treaty" (7 stat. 333) is 
concluded, whereby, the Choctaws agree to sell lands in Mississippi and 
to move to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Their new lands are 
bounded by Fort Smith along the Arkansas River, to the source of the 
Canadian Fork, to the Red River, to Arkansas Territory. This is the 
first treaty after the passage of the Indian removal act. Many Chiefs 
get large parcels of land or money for signing, including Principal 
Chief Greenwood le Flore. The Choctaws have three years to complete the 
move. The United States is represented by Generals John Coffee and John 

September 28, 1841: Aagaunash (Billy Caldwell) is born the son of an 
Indian mother and a British Officer. He lives with Indians most of his 
life, and eventually becomes a Potawatomi Chief. He serves as Tecumseh's 
secretary, and as a liaison to the British until the end of the War of 
1812. He fights for the United States against Red Bird, and Black Hawk. 
He also signs several peace treaties for the Potawatomis. He dies in 
Council Bluffs, Iowa.

September 29, 1872: Colonel R.S. Mackenzie, and Troops A, D, F, I, and 
L, Fourth Cavalry, and some Tonkawa scouts are near the North Fork of 
the Red River, near modern Lefors, Texas, when they discover a Comanche 
camp of 200 lodges. Mackenzie attacks, and destroys most of the 
encampment. According to government reports, twenty-three Indians are 
killed, approximately 125 warriors are captured. One soldier is killed, 
and three are wounded. Many horses and mules are seized by the army. For 
"gallantry in action," Private Edward Branagan, Farrier David Larkin, 
Sergeant William Foster, and First Sergeant William McNamara, Private 
William Rankin, Company F, Corporal Henry McMasters, Company A, Corporal 
William O'Neill, Company I, Blacksmith James Pratt, Company I, and 
Sergeant William Wilson will be awarded the Congressional Medal of 
Honor. This is Wilson's second Medal of Honor. This will become known as 
the “Battle of the North Fork of the Red River” Some sources report this 
to be the Kotsoteka Comanche village of Mow-way.

September 30, 1877: Today through October 5th, according to army 
reports, elements of Colonel Nelson Miles' Second Cavalry, capture 800 
Nez Perce horses According to army documents, Captain Owen Hale, Lt. 
J.W. Biddle, twenty-two soldiers and seventeen Indians are killed. 
Captain Myles Moylan, Captain E.S. Godfrey, Lt. G.W. Baird, Lt. Henry 
Romeyn, thirty-eight soldiers, eight civilians and forty Nez Perce are 
wounded. Almost 20% of the soldiers are wounded or killed during the 
fighting at Bear Paw Mountain, near modern Havre, Montana. The army will 
issue Congressional Medals of Honor to the following soldiers during 
this campaign: First Lieutenant George W. Baird, Fifth Infantry, for 
"distinguished gallantry in action"; First Lieutenant Mason Carter, 
Fifth Infantry, for leading a charge "under a galling fire"; Second 
Lieutenant Oscar Long, Fifth Infantry, for taking over command of a 
troop of cavalry when their officers were killed; Second Lieutenant 
Edward McClernand, Second Cavalry, for using "skill and boldness when 
attacking a band of hostiles"; Captain Edward S. Godfrey, Seventh 
Cavalry, for leading his men while severely wounded; Captain Myles 
Moylan, for gallantry leadership until he is severely wounded; First 
Sergeant Henry Hogan, Company G, Fifth Infantry, for carrying severely 
wounded Lieutenant Henry Romeyn out of the line of fire (this is Hogan's 
second award, see October 21, 1876); First Lieutenant Henry Romeyn, 
Fifth Infantry for vigorously prosecuting the fight; Major (and surgeon) 
Henry Tilton for rescuing wounded men. 

See the pictures I took of the battlefield on this page:


Here is the answer to the question "what movie feaures all of the 
following American Indian actors?"

Floyd 'Red Crow' Westerman
Rion Hunter
Wes Studi
Steve Reevis 
Nellie Red Owl    
Rodney A. Grant
Leonard Crow Dog

The answer is: Oliver Stone's "The Doors." The Doors is the somewhat 
biography of Jim Morrison and the 1960's rock group, The Doors. I say 
'somewhat biography' because Stone intentionally altered some of the 
facts (and made up a few other incidents) to further his "story." These 
people were in the movie playing various Indians that Morrison met or 
whose souls symbolically occupied Morrison (Stone's explanation). There 
is one exception, Rodnet A. Grant plays himself. With the exception of 
Floyd 'Red Crow' Westerman, none of them are on the screen for very 
long. Blink and you will miss Wes Studi entirely.


That's it for this part of the newsletter. Have a great month.

Phil Konstantin



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