September 2001 Newsletter from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright Phil Konstantin (1996-2002)

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                September 2001 newsletter 
                Phil Konstantin 

  My trip to Oklahoma was a good one. I had a chance to see some of the 
  places where my mother and her family grew up. It was fun to know that 
  many of the people wandering around me were family, even if only very 
  distant cousins. I did get to finally meet one of my more direct 
  cousins, Betty Starr Baker. She is the president of the Stilwell Chamber 
  of Commerce, and a real source of information. The photos I took on the 
  trip are on a new series of pages. The first page is at:

  As a part of this visit, I went to the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma's 
  headquarters, the Cherokee Heritage Center, the Trail of Tears theatre, 
  the Cherokee Holiday parade, and the State of the Cherokee Nation 
  program. I had a chance to meet Principal Chief Chad Smith. I even saw 
  Wilma Mankiller, the former Chief. Now is that a name for a female 
  chief, or what? Tahlequah is really a small country town. It was an 
  interesting experience to hear people talking and singing in Cherokee. 
  Even some of the street signs were in Cherokee.

  It was almost like going home, but not quite. 


  I finally had the chance to talk with my book's publisher recently. His 
  company has gone through several mergers in the last few months. At one 
  of the recent meetings for the new organization, they decided to 
  postpone the release of my book until May or June of 2002. I was 
  disappointed because of the delay. Ted, my publisher, says this is 
  actually a positive thing. The new company will have a better public 
  relations office and sales staff. This could mean more exposure and 
  publicity for the book. OK, that does sound nice, but I still prefer 
  sooner than later!


  I also had a chance to add several new links to some sites. For example, 
  there are quite a few new sites on the OMAHA tribe on the "LINKS TO 


  Featured Link of the Month for September 2001:

  The September 2001 "Link of the Month" is the official website for the 
  Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. The Cherokee website is an excellent 
  example of how a tribe has made use of modern technology. The website 
  contains lots of information for the public and tribal members, as well. 
  It has an extensive audio section, historical information, free 
  downloads of the Cherokee language font, and soon, a language 
  translation section. This is truly a standard for all other tribes. OK, 
  I will admit I am a bit biased, but after all, I am Cherokee. 


  Continuing with my Cherokee theme, this month's treaty is the Treaty of 
  New Echota of 1835. This is the treaty which required the Cherokee 
  Nation to move west of the Mississippi River. It also led to an almost 
  full-fledged civil war among the Cherokees. The circumstances underwhich 
  it was signed are dubious, at best. While the signers may have honestly 
  felt they were doing the best thing possible for the Cherokees, the vast 
  majority of the tribe, and the official tribal leadership, opposed the 
  treaty. It was repudiated by a petition representing alomst 7/8ths of 
  the tribe. The US government, who wanted the treaty, ignored the 
  petition and the illegal manner in which it was signed. The Cherokee 
  nation tooks its case to the US Supreme Court. The court sided with the 
  Cherokees, but Presidet Andrew Jackson refused to enforce the court's 
  decision. This led to the Cherokees forced removal, and the infamous 
  "Road Where They Cried" or the "Trail of Tears."


  This notice comes from Ruth Torres:

  Oct. 12 & 13
  Southern CT State University
  11th Annual Women's Studies Conference
  This year's theme: All Women of Red Nations: Weaving Connections

  Early bird registration ends Sept. 8th. Attend one or both days 
  (different prices).

  Featuring Schaghticoke Trudie Richmond on Friday, 10/12 participating 
  in a panel discussion of "Squaw: Algonkian Linguistics and Colonial
  Politics"...with Jessie Little Doe Fermino and Marge Bruchac.

  For more information (including conference schedule, featured speakers 
  and a registration form) please go to the link here (and pass the word!)


  Here are a few interesting websites I have come across recently.

  This one is called: "The Spartans Of The West"
  Kangi sent it to me. You will have to read it yourself to see how you 
  feel about it.

  This site also came to me through Kangi. His comments were: "Excellent 
  collection of quotes documenting the genocidal beliefs and actions of 
  whites against Indians. All the "greats," from Columbus to Limbaugh, 
  are here."

  This site came from my mother from Sally ["the gr-granddaughter of Tandy 
  Walker Adair/ He was brother to Joseph Adair (my grandfather)," my 
  mother notes]. 
  Enoeguski the characters and their real-life counterparts


  Most of you know I am a California Highway Patrol officer in my spare 
  time. Otherwise, I would spend all of my time on the computer. August 
  was a sad month for us. CHP Officer Stephen Linen was killed by a drunk 
  driver north of San Diego. This is the second officer to be killed on 
  the same stretch of highway in ten months. Both involved drunk drivers 
  returning from a night of partying in Tijuana, Mexico. If you would like 
  to read more about this tragedy, use the link below.


  Here are some randomly picked historical events for the month of 

  September 1, 1845: Tired of the continuing feud between the "Old 
  Settlers" and the "New Emigrants" factions of the CHEROKEE Nation, 54 
  CHEROKEE families will leave the Indian Territory reservation to join 
  relatives in Texas. 

  September 2, 1877: Victorio flees the San Carlos Reservation 

  September 3, 1719: Today, Frenchman Bernard de la Harpe, discovers an 
  Indian village on the Arkansas River, near Muskogee. La Harpe had 
  traveled up the Red river, then went overland across Oklahoma. He will 
  describe the land as fertile, and the people (probably a CADDOAN tribe) 
  as friendly, and hard working. La Harpe will claim the land for France. 

  September 4, 1886: Geronimo surrenders to General Nelson Miles at 
  Skelton Canyon south of Apache Pass. 

  September 5, 1814: Today will see the start of the two day battle of 
  Credit Island, near present day Davenport, Iowa. Major Zackary Taylor, 
  and 334 American soldiers are making their way up the Mississippi River 
  attacking British positions with considerable success. Today they will 
  encounter a force of 1000 Indians and British. The allied army will 
  force Taylor to withdraw to safety in Saint Louis. 

  September 6, 1839: Today, a conference is held by both the "old 
  settlers" and the "new emigrant" CHEROKEEs in Tahlequah, Indian 
  Territory (Oklahoma). John Ross will be elected Principal Chief of the 
  newly rejoined CHEROKEE Nation. David Vann will be elected Second Chief. 
  A new constitution will be adopted. The convention will continue until 
  October 10, 1839. Many "old settlers" wil disavow any actions taken by 
  this convention. They believe that the old settler government is still 
  in power. 

  (NOTE: If you visit my Cherokee photos page from my recent trip, you 
  will see this date on the Cherokee Flag and seal.)

  September 7, 1957: An Act of Congress gives the CHILKAT Indians mineral 
  rights to their lands near Klukwan. They will be one of only a very 
  small number of Alaskans with this provision. 

  September 8, 1865: Today, a grand council of the formerly pro-Union, and 
  pro-Confederacy Indians is held at Fort Smith, Kansas. The newly 
  appointed Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Dennis N.Cooley, will chair 
  the meeting. Most of the Indians are told that they have forfeited their 
  lands, and annuities by their traitorous support of the south. Each 
  tribe would have to plead its case for mercy. 

  September 9, 1891: Two KICKAPOO Chiefs, chosen to accompany Americans to 
  the Capitol to obtain some money owed to them, are forced, in their 
  words, to sign an "agreement" by Secretary of the Interior John W.Noble. 
  This agreement would sell the United States, the KICKAPOO's "surplus 
  lands" at thirty cents an acre. Many forgeries, and the signatures of 
  dead Indians, and signatures of fictitious Indians were added to the 
  agreement. Congress would approve the agreement on March 30, 1893. 

  September 10, 1782: Today, a force of 40 British Rangers and 250 Indians 
  will attack the fort built in Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia). 
  None of the soldiers will be killed on either side. A few Indians will 
  die in the fighting. Some historians feel that this is be the last 
  battle of the American Revolutionary war. 

  September 11, 1858: Col.Miles, with 5 companies of soldiers,and 50 
  Mexicans, enter the Canyon de Chelly, in north eastern Arizona. The 
  NAVAJOs have not produced the Fort Defiance murderer of July 12, 1858. 
  In fact, the NAVAJOs have tried to pass off a killed Mexican prisoner as 
  the sought for NAVAJO. The soldiers will kill a few NAVAJOs in the 
  canyon. The soldiers will camp in the canyon that night. The NAVAJOs 
  launch an ineffectual attack from the canyon walls. A captured NAVAJO 
  convinces the other NAVAJOs to stop the attack. 

  September 12, 1878: Lt.H.S.Bishop, with 30 troopers, and a few SHOSHONE 
  scouts, attack a band of BANNOCK Indians on the Dry Fork of the Snake 
  River, southwest of Yellowstone Lake, in Wyoming. One Indian is killed, 
  and 7 are captured during the fighting. The captive say they are from 
  the Boise Reservation, and had escaped from the fight on September 4, 
  1878 on Clark's Fork with Col.Miles. While the Army had reported 11 
  Indians killed, the captives said the correct figure was 28. This will 
  be the last significant battle of the BANNOCK War. According to an 
  official government report, 40 whites, and 78 Indians will be killed 
  during the war. 

  September 13, 1878: Dull Knife, and his Northern CHEYENNE followers, 
  have left their reservation in Indian Territory. They are head back to 
  their old homelands. Today, they will cross the Cimarron River, 150 
  miles north of Fort Reno, in central Indian Territory, and establish a 
  camp in some canyons. A group of ARAPAHOs, will talk with Dull Knife, 
  and tell him the nearby soldiers want them to return to the reservation. 
  Dull Knife refuses, and the soldiers attack. The Indians have the best 
  strategic positions, and they will pin down the soldiers. After making 
  their escape, the CHEYENNEs will be pursued along their entire northward 

  September 14, 1777: Spanish Governor Galvez issues an act today, in New 
  Orleans. He orders the military, and Spanish subjects to "respect the 
  rights of these Indians in the lands they occupy and to protect them in 
  the possession thereof." 

  September 15, 1797: On this date, the SENECA sign a treaty with Robert 
  Morris, and Jeremiah Wadsworth, on the Genesee River, in Ontario County, 
  New York, to get a two square mile piece of the TUSCARORA Reservation. 

  September 16, 1850: Today in a letter to the President of the United 
  States, Senator John Fremont states that Spanish law gave Indians rights 
  to their lands. He feels the United States will have to enact some laws 
  to revoke the Indians' rights. Under the treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, 
  the United States agreed to recognize Spanish land titles in the newly 
  acquired California. 

  September 17, 1778: The first DELAWARE treaty: DELAWARE Principal Chief 
  Koquethagechton (White Eyes) is appointed as a Colonel at the treaty 
  signing today. He will work to see the DELAWARE Nation become the 14th 
  American State. The treaty will be signed in Pittsburgh, by three 
  Chiefs: White Eyes, The Pipe, and John Killbuck, & Andrew and Thomas 

  September 18, 1813: After the "massacre" at Fort Mims, Alabama, by the 
  "Red Stick" CREEKs, the word of the CREEK uprising spreads. Today in 
  Nashville, Tennessee, Governor William Blount will call on the State 
  Legislature to "teach these barbarous sons of the woods their 
  inferiority." The cry for vengence will ring throughout the area. In a 
  few weeks, Andrew Jackson will begin his campaign against the CREEK. 

  September 19, 1737: Today is the start of the walking for the "Walking 
  Purchase" from the DELAWARE. The walkers would be Solomon Jennings, 
  Edward Marshall, and James Yates. The "walkers would barely stay below a 
  run. By the next day at noon, Edward Marshall had covered 65 miles. 
  Yates, who passed out from the exertion, would die three days later. 
  Jennings gave up the first day and was sickly for the rest of his life. 
  Many Indians complained than the "walk" did not live up to the spirit of 
  the agreement. 

  September 20, 1822: Red cloud is born today. 

  September 21, 1904: Chief Joseph (Hinmaton-yalatkit or Hein-mot 
  too-ya-la-kekt) dies today. 

  September 22, 1711: The TUSCARORA Indians, under Chief Hencock, join the 
  COREE, PAMLICO, MACHAPUNGA, and BEAR RIVER Indians in an attack on the 
  white settlements on the Trent and Pamlico Rivers in North Carolina. 
  Almost 130 white adults, and half that many children will be killed. The 
  war will spring from whites settling in Indian lands, and Indian 
  retaliations. A Swiss promoter, Baron Christoph von Graffenried had 
  ordered the Indians removed, when he had discovered them on lands he had 
  obtained from the Crown, at New Bern, in western North Carolina. 

  September 23, 1875: As the Black Hills conference is reconvened, Red 
  Cloud is now present. None of the Indians are interested in parting with 
  their sacred "Paha Sopa", the Black Hills. Before Red Cloud can speak, a 
  band of 300 of Crazy Horse's warriors rush in on horseback. Crazy 
  Horse's representative, Little Big Man exclaims he will kill any Chief 
  who agrees to give away the Black Hills. While the SIOUX police will 
  move Little Big Man away from the commissioners, the commissioners 
  realize that most of those present agree that the Black Hills will not 
  be given away. The commissioners decide to return to Fort Robinson, in 
  northwestern Nebraska. 

  September 24, 1858: Qualchan, son of YAKAMA Chief Owhi, rides into 
  Colonel George Wright's camp today. Qualchan is wanted for what the 
  settlers consider as murder for his part in the recent fighting. 
  Qualchan will be taken into custody and hanged later today. 

  September 25, 1975: First Indian prayer in the United States Senate. 

  September 26, 1675: Virginia Col.John Washington, and Maryland Major 
  Thomas Trueman, troops surround the main base of the SUSQUEHANNOCK 
  Indians. They are there to discover if the Indians are responsible for 
  attacking colonial settlements. Trueman calls out the SUSQUEHANNOCK for 
  a conference under a flag of truce. Five Chiefs come out of their 
  fortified position to talk. They deny being involved in the attacks. 
  Trueman has them led away and killed. Trueman would get off with a minor 
  fine from the Maryland Assembly for this act. 

  September 27, 1827: According to some historians, today marks the end of 
  the "WINNEBAGO Expedition." After the "Red Bird War", which started on 
  June 29, 1827, WINNEBAGO Chief Red Bird surrenders today, in response to 
  the Army's threat to destroy the entire tribe. Red Bird will be found 
  guilty of murdering several settlers and rivermen; but, he will die in 
  prison before he is sentenced. 

  September 28, 1874: Brevet Major General (Col.) Ranald Mackenzie, with 
  approximately 600 soldiers, leads an attack on the Indians residing in 
  the Palo Duro Canyon, in the Texas panhandle. Four Indians, and no 
  soldiers are reported killed. However, much of the Indians provisions 
  will be destroyed, including as many as 1400 Indian horses killed by the 
  soldiers. It will be a major psychological blow for the few southern 
  plains Indians still not living on reservations. 

  September 29, 1973: The House Interior Committee votes to approve a bill 
  which would re-establish federal recognition of the MENOMINEEs Indians 

  September 30, 1809: William Henry Harrison, representing the United 
  States, and the DELAWARE, MIAMI, POTAWATOMI & EEL RIVER Indians, will 
  sign a treaty today at Fort Wayne. Three million acres in Indiana and 
  Illinois will be trades larger annuities, and $5,200 in supplies. 


  That's it for this newsletter. I hope you had as nice of a Labor Day 
  holiday as I did.


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