August 2003 Newsletter from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2002)

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Start of Phil Konstantin's August 2003 Newsletter 
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Greetings,

My, but it is already August. The year is certainly moving along 
quickly. I am back working the evening shift. Not being a morning 
person, I am now finally going through the day not feeling like I need 
an extra three hours of sleep. The only way I want to see sunrise is at 
the end of a day. Even though the length of time I have off is exactly 
the same, I seem to get more done in my off time when I work the evening 
shift.

I have been trying to update the link sections of my pages. With a few 
exceptions, I have deleted all of the non-working links in the Reference 
and Tribal Home Pages sections ( http://americanindian.net/links1.html 
and http://americanindian.net/links2.html ) . I have added a large 
question mark for sites which might not be working, but I expect to 
still be valid. I will slowly be going through the rest of the pages. I 
will also try to add some of the links I have been collecting for the 
last year. 

I am also in the process of doing some minor redesigning of the site to 
remove some of the clutter. This, like everything else, will happen 
slowly.

I mentioned in the last newsletter that I would be reviewing a book 
titled "The Seventh Generation." A couple of extra projects at work have 
cause me to postpone that review until a week or two. What I have seen 
so far is pretty good, and I want to do it justice.

For those of you who do some of your online shopping by using the links 
on my pages, I thank you. I have added some extra links on the store 
page. If you have any plans to do some shopping through Amazon.com, 
Buy.com, Half.com, Netflix.com, or booking a trip or hotel room, you can 
reach them through my site. You price will exactly the same, and I get a 
small commission.

http://americanindian.net/store.html

So, off we go...

Phil 

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The "Link of the Month" for August 2003 is the Federal Communications 
Commission Tribal Initiatives page. From their site: "The Federal 
Communications Commission (FCC) recognizes that the telecommunications 
penetration rate on many tribal lands falls far below the national 
average. We have taken a series of steps, through regulatory action, 
consumer information and tribal outreach, to address the lack of 
telecommunications deployment and subscribership throughout Indian 
Country. Our Commission is working hard to promote the availability of 
telecommunications services to individuals on tribal lands. We hope you 
will find our Tribal pages to be a valuable resource." Check out their 
site...

http://www.fcc.gov/indians/

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This month's Treaty is: TREATY WITH THE CREEKS, 1814. Aug. 9, 1814. | 7 
Stat., 120.   

Some of the matters covered are:   
Cession of territory by the Creeks as equivalent to the expenses of the 
war.
Guaranty of other territory of the Creeks.
Intercourse with British or Spanish posts to cease.
Establishment of military posts.
All property taken to be surrendered.
The prophets and instigators of the war to be given up.
Supplies of corn to be presented to the Creeks.
Permanent peace.
Lines of the territory. 

You can read a copy of this treaty, which ended the Creek War, at this 
location:

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0107.htm

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This month I have taken a look at what one critic called the "800 pound 
gorilla of American Indian movies:" Dances With Wolves.

From the Internet Movie Database website (http://www.imdb.com) :
"Plot Summary for Dances with Wolves (1990): Lt. John Dunbar is dubbed 
a hero after he accidentally leads Union troops to a victory during the 
Civil War. He requests a position on the western frontier, but finds it 
deserted. He soon finds out he is not alone, but meets a wolf he dubs 
"Two-socks" and a curious Indian tribe. Dunbar quickly makes friends 
with the tribe, and discovers a white woman who was raised by the 
Indians. He gradually earns the respect of these native people, and 
sheds his white-man's ways. Summary written by Greg Bole 
{bo-@life.bio.sunysb.edu}    or    Having been sent to a remote outpost 
in the wilderness of the Dakota territory during the American Civil War, 
Lieutenant John Dunbar encounters, and is eventually accepted into, the 
local Sioux tribe. He is known as "Dances with Wolves" to them and as 
time passes he becomes enamoured by the beautiful "Stands With a Fist". 
Not soon after, the frontier becomes the frontier no more, and as the 
army advances on the plains, John must make a decision that will not 
only affect him, but also the lives of the natives he now calls his 
people. Summary written by Graeme Roy {g-@cbmamiga.demon.co.uk} 

There are several ways to look at this movie: just for entertainment, a 
history lesson, social activism, beautiful scenery, a way to understand 
Lakota society in the 1860s, and several others. Some Indian activists 
have decried this movie as just another white man's attempt to exploit 
American Indian culture. The main characters are the two white actors. 
Some activists felt that the leads should have been Indians, with less 
emphasis on Costner's character. Other Indians applauded the movie for 
it more realistic approach in depicting Indians. The Indian characters 
came in all varieties and were much more three dimensional that most 
other movies. Many people gave Costner credit for teaching the 
movie-going public more of the real story of what happened to the plains 
Indians and how they lived.

The Lakota language was used throughout much of the movie. Doris Leader 
Charge (who plays the character Pretty Shield) was the movie's Lakota 
expert.

Michael Blake wrote the novel on which the movie is based. He also wrote 
the screenplay. Like many people, he was highly influenced by Dee 
Brown's "Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee." Blake said, ".I was stunned, 
heartbroken, and enlightened." It is that spirit that he brought to the 
story. 

Originally, the story was set among the Comanche. One of the most 
dramatic scenes in the movie is the buffalo hunt. The production company 
began looking for actual herds of buffalos. They found one of the 
largest private herds just outside of Pierre, South Dakota. The obvious 
supply of American Indians in the area who could act as extras, the wide 
open (and undeveloped) spaces made South Dakota the scene of the movie, 
instead of Texas or Oklahoma. So, the tribe was changed to the Sioux 
(Lakota). Even a non-expert can notice the differences between the 
Pawnee and the Sioux in the movie. This is a definite plus for the 
movie, in that everyone does not dress the same way.

There are two forts mentioned in the movie. Fort Hays was in Kansas. The 
real fort's website says, "Generals George A. Custer, Nelson Miles and 
Philip Sheridan, Major Reno, William "Buffalo Bill" Cody and James B. 
"Wild Bill" Hickok are part of the history of this outpost. Established 
in 1865 in the land of Cheyenne and Arapaho, Fort Hays protected 
railroad workers and travelers on the Smoky Hill Trail." I visited this 
fort when I was a teenager. The strongest memory I have was how high off 
the ground the beds were in the commander's quarters. The website for 
the real fort is at: http://www.kshs.org/places/forthays/ . The other 
fort that is mentioned is Fort Sedgewick. This fort was abandoned after 
only seven years. It was located in the northeastern corner of Colorado, 
near Julesburg.

Many people did not realize that several "Indian wars" were going on 
during the Civil War. Some historians have felt that many of the 
officers and soldiers who served on the western frontier during the 
Civil War not of the highest caliber. Some of this is reflected in the 
nature of the soldiers in the movie.

When Kevin Costner's character Lieutenant John J. Dunbar arrives at Fort 
Sedgewick, it is abandoned. Even with enough game around that a buck was 
found dead in the pond, the soldiers appeared to have barely survived 
the winter. The Sioux even mention this. Some feel this symbolizes the 
waste of the European culture. It also reflects poorly on those who 
depict the Indians as socially inferior to whites.

One of my favorite lines in the movie can be paraphrased as "stories of 
depredations spread faster than stories about kindness." 

Wes Studi plays another "bad Indian" in this movie. He is making 
something of a career playing the "heavy." He does a convincing job of 
it. I found it interesting that his character's listed name was 
"Toughest Pawnee." 

One of the things I noticed about the movie was the number of times that 
Kevin Costner's character falls down. I counted at least nine times that 
he falls down or is knocked unconscious.

On Interstate 8 near San Diego, there is a Dunbar exit. I work in the 
California Highway Patrol dispatch center. One of the problems commonly 
faced by the dispatchers is difficulty in understanding people who are 
calling us on cellphones or the emergency callboxes. Several times, I 
have heard dispatchers repeating the word Dunbar while trying to 
determine if that is where the caller was. Each time I have heard this, 
I have been tempted to say, "Dun Bear." This is part of an exchange 
between Dunbar and Kicking Bird as they try to learn each other's name.

I was very impressed by the acting by all of the characters in the 
movie. While it is not perfect, I highly recommend it to people who have 
never seen it. A new "extended" version is now available on DVD. It adds 
another 30 minutes, which is used to help further define the characters. 
You can find a link to this DVD on my store page:   
http://americanindian.net/store.html . 

Finally, I will repeat a story I believe I have mentioned here before. 
My late wife Robyn took me out to see Dances With Wolves when it first 
came out. She had expected me to be very excited about it if for no 
other reason than the realistic way it showed the Indian characters. She 
was surprised that I was not very talkative after the movie. I am almost 
always talkative! I was almost sullen. She asked me why I was so quiet. 
I told her that the movie had once again reminded me of what happened to 
the native people of this hemisphere. I was angry at not only what had 
happened in the movie, but about what had happened in real life.

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Interesting material on the internet:

Council corks Black Mesa water for Peabody Energy
http://www.gallupindependent.com/07-26-03blackmesawater.html

Barona Band of Mission Indians Month - a listing of activities. They 
have a great website!
http://baronatribe.com/events.html

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Information sent to me by newsletter readers:

---------------------------

From my cousin Michael Walkingstick

A special message from the Red Cross who has received a message 
regarding an individual that has Hodgkin's Lymphoma and is in desperate 
need of a marrow transplant.

He is critical right now so time is of the essence.

A search of the registry has been conducted and no match was found, but 
frequent registry searches will continue to be done.

His race is Cherokee and European. Because he is of Cherokee descent, 
his chances of finding a match are very slim due to the under 
representation of American Indians on the registry.

The Red Cross would like to put out a plea to the Cherokee communities 
and other Native American communities to sign up for the registry.

If you would like to help, please contact the American Red Cross at; 918 
249-9988

attention; Carole Connor, RN
Program Manager, Bone Marrow Department
Southwest Region Blood Services
---------------------------
Ruth Torres sent this:

Encyclopedia of Native American Treaties Project 

The editor of the Encyclopedia of Native American Treaties, a 
three-volume work to be published by ABC-CLIO, is seeking writers to 
contribute 750-word, signed entries about treaty-related topics such as 
noted treaties, Indian leaders, U.S. officials, treaty sites, 
battles leading to treaties, and terms associated with Native American 
treaties. This encyclopedia, which will include essays by writers from 
many fields and diverse backgrounds, will aim to be a reference source 
for an audience that ranges in scope from students to tribal leaders to 
historians and political scientists and beyond. Each entry will garner 
the writer the humble honorarium of $10; although not monetarily 
lucrative, this is an excellent publishing opportunity for junior 
faculty members and graduate students. We will be happy to send a list 
of unassigned topics, a detailed description of the project, and 
editorial guidelines. The deadline for these entries is September 15, 
2003. 

Please contact 
Stephanie AL Molholt (cinspr-@ku.edu) 
The University of Kansas 
Center for Indigenous Nations Studies 
1410 Jayhawk Blvd., 105 Lippincott 
Lawrence, Kansas 66045-7515 

Dr. Donald L. Fixico, Editor




Ruth also sent this:


Recently I attended a workshop entitled "Effective Leadership: Ethics 
and Public Service". This workshop explored "central themes surrounding 
sound leadership and ethics in public service, as well as roles for 
tribal members in state and national politics."

One of the presenters, Dr. Manley Begay, Jr. spoke specifically on 
Ethics & Leadership in tribal government. Dr. Begay is the Director of 
the Native Nations Institute at the Udall Center for Studies in Public 
Polity at the University of Arizona. He gave a slide presentation that 
offered many worthwhile lessons. I was particularly impressed with this 
particular quote:

"Definition of Good Leadership: Individuals or groups with unfailing 
integrity who are willing to break the status quo practices in Indian 
Country, who can articulate a new vision of the nation's future and who 
both understand and can effectively encourage the foundation changes 
such visions require."

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Juliana D. Marez sent this along:

The Kingdom of Hawai'i 
Nou Ke Akua Ke Aupuni O' Hawai'i 
Announces Secession From the United States of America 
Declaration of Independence - Kana'ka ele'u, Imua! 

The Kana'ka Maolis, Hawai'i's stout-hearted, honorable indigenous 
people, have never recognized the jurisdiction of the United States over 
our lives, lands, seas, customs, and our fortunes. Many Kana'ka Maolis 
have been destroyed attempting to free themselves from the cruelty and 
the injustices of an American government that cares nothing for the 
rights of the indigenous people of Hawai'i, but only for the richness of 
the lands and seas and Hawai'i's strategic military potential. Many 
Kana'ka Maolis have been molested, raped, beaten, imprisoned, and 
murdered in the furtherance of American imperialism. 

Yet we live. 

We, as with the many Peoples of Oceania with whom we share a common 
heritage, feel it is eminently indisputable, based upon all evidences 
extant, that the unlawful overthrow of the kingdom of Hawai'i and the 
forcing of the Kana'ka Maolis into servitude cannot be denied. 

Historical records, particularly those concerning biography and 
genealogy, document a general consensus affirming Hawai'i's 
independence. Tradition, history, literary analysis, and, above all of 
these, the test of prayerful research and truth-seeking investigation 
unite to demonstrate the authenticity of the facts proving that the 
kingdom of Hawai'i was destroyed by the United States government. 

The culture of the United States is inimical to our ancestral traditions 
and customs. For nearly 2,000 years we determined our lives under the 
laws of our kingdom and by the sanctity of our lands, but the United 
States imposed its will on us through deceit, fraud, theft, conspiracy, 
and military force. 

We, the indigenous people of Hawai'i, emphatically reject incorporation 
into the United States of America, and hereby announce secession. We do 
this with clarity of mind, good conscience, and a determined will. We 
are ready to sacrifice our worldly assets and our very lives to see the 
kingdom of Hawai'i restored. So say we all. 

May Almighty God's will be done. 
Aei'a Ke Akua Mano Lo'a Kauo'ha ha'na, ho'oko. 

I am Edmund Kelii Silva, Jr., Ali'i Nui (Sovereign) of the kingdom of 
Hawai'i. On my mother's side I am the direct lineal descendent of King 
Kamehameha the Great, and heir to the throne. And, on my father's side 
I am the direct lineal heir to King Kamehameha Nui of the kingdom of 
Maui before King Kamehameha the Great unified the lands. On November 
22, 2002, the prime minister of the Hawaiian kingdom, along with the 
Council of Regency, Na Kupuna Council O' Hawai'i Nei, the Na Kupuna 
Council Hawai'i Moku of the legislative body of government, and the 
Royal Kupunas of the House of Nobles, proclaimed that I am the lawful 
successor to Ali'i Nuis (High Chiefs) of ancient Hawai'i. 

My islands have always been alive in the sacred blessing of a paradise 
on earth. At one with the land, the Kana'ka Maolis have always known 
God in the beauty of their lives, in the strength of their humanity, and 
in their faith in the goodness of their fellow man. At one with the 
timeless seas, we have always known power in the force of life and in 
the force of all the earth's treasures. At one with the winds, the 
rains, and the sun, we have always known the wonder of nature. And, at 
one with the stars, we have always revered the mystery of creation. In 
harmony with the lands, the seas, and the skies of our birth, ours is a 
duality of spirit. We value greatly compassion and charity, while we 
are capable of powerful response against threats to our lands, culture, 
and families. We are proud of our beauty while we esteem humility as 
among the most precious of virtues. Youthful in play, we are an ancient 
culture respecting the dignity of elder wisdom. We live our lives in 
open joy, seeking perfection in obedience to God. We are Kana'ka Maolis. 
We are Hawaiians. 

For centuries, we have lived in harmony with nature and each other. My 
people were free of disease and corruption, and our laws and customs 
were just and noble. In 1778, the arrival from England of Captain Cook 
and his crew changed everything. Welcomed openly and mistaken for gods, 
Cook and his men left behind the catastrophe of venereal diseases, 
chicken pox, and measles, along with their accompanying madness, 
suffering, and death. What did we know of deceit? What did we know of 
know of Western diseases and corruption? What did we know of greed? Had 
we known more, our relations with this alien society would have 
certainly taken a different course. 

Word of the beauty and riches of our islands spread quickly among the 
haole (foreign) nations. Our lands were torn apart. American 
missionaries, businessmen, and politicians came to the islands in great 
numbers, promoting their various agendas. They introduced private land 
ownership, money, and other hallmarks of western culture. Hawai'i's 
sugar cane crop and its strategic location were of particular interest. 
American incursions continued to erode Hawaiian values throughout the 
19th century. 

In 1810, King Kamehameha the Great unified the Hawaiian islands under a 
monarchial government. The Kana'ka Maolis ratified the Hawaiian 
constitution in 1839 and 1840. The United States recognized the 
independence of the kingdom of Hawai'i and extended full and complete 
diplomatic recognition to the Hawaiian government until 1893. In 1826, 
1842, 1875, and 1887, the United States and the kingdom entered into 
treaties governing commerce and navigation. 

On March 8, 1892, John L. Stevens, the American minister to the Hawaiian 
islands, sent a letter to the American president. In this letter, 
Minister Stevens described his plan to subvert the lawful Hawaiian 
government by staging a false rebellion amongst the inhabitants of 
Hawai'i. In the face of this "rebellion," Minister Stevens would call 
upon American military forces to occupy the island and "protect" 
American interests. Thus, Minister Stevens could invade a foreign 
country without the approval of congress. Moreover, he could occupy the 
kingdom and set up a provisional government to advance American 
interests exclusively. This would give America complete control of the 
lucrative Hawaiian agricultural industry. 

On January 14, 1893, Minister Stevens and a small group of non-Hawaiians 
staged a "rebellion" on the island of Hawai'i. By design, American naval 
forces invaded the kingdom and imprisoned Hawaiian monarch Queen 
Lili'uokalani and high-ranking representatives of the Hawaiian 
government in the Iolani Palace. On January 17, 1893, a Committee of 
Safety representing American and European sugar planters, descendants of 
missionaries, and financiers deposed the Hawaiian monarch and declared 
the establishment of a provisional government. On February 1, 1893, 
Minister Stevens proclaimed Hawai'i to be a protectorate of the United 
States. 

On December 18, 1893, President Grover Cleveland addressed the United 
States congress and acknowledged the deceitful work of Minister 
Stevens, saying, " The ownership of Hawai'i was tendered to us by a 
provisional government set up to succeed the constitutional ruler of the 
Hawaiian islands, who had been dethroned, and it did not appear that 
such a provisional government had the sanction of either popular 
revolution or suffrage." 

Queen Lili'uokalani was imprisoned in the Iolani Palace under military 
guard as her people suffered the robbery of their self-determination, 
the theft of their lands, and the devastation of disease brought to the 
islands by the haole capitalists. She died broken-hearted, her prayers 
for justice and the redemption of her lands unfulfilled. 

In the wake of the manufactured coup, the Kana'ka Maolis were reduced to 
a pitiful handful of survivors. As our numbers dwindled, the American 
government secured a stranglehold on our stolen lands and sold them off 
to the highest bidders. This exploitation was foreign to us and we were 
defenseless against it. Soon there was little left to steal or subvert. 
Nothing was left of our laws and our government. We were a conquered 
people. 

World War II reminded the American government that the Hawaiian islands 
were a strategic resource as well as an economic one. Upon conclusion 
of the war, America began a campaign of propaganda and political 
pressure to absorb the wondrous islands of my kingdom into the American 
empire. On August 21, 1959, the American government completed the 
destruction of Hawaiian culture by incorporating our lands into the 
United States. In a political maneuver, the Kana'ka Maolis were offered 
only the options of choosing American statehood or continuing as an 
American territory. Our numbers were too few, our spirit too battered, 
and our political acumen too undeveloped for us to make a statement in 
opposition. 

A look at Hawai'i today illustrates America's contribution to our lands; 
there is destruction and desecration of a scope unparalleled in 
contemporary history. Once, ours was a pristine kingdom lovingly 
maintained by my people. We understood the sanctity of life with the 
environment. We lived in harmony with nature. We lived our lives within 
the rhythms and seasons of the seas and the lands. Now the land reeks 
with the smell of internal combustion engines, and suffers the ravages 
of unchecked greed and the monstrosity of monolithic "progress." Asphalt 
ribbons bind the land between concrete monuments to hedonism. Zealous 
developers trample the rich and fertile soul underfoot, hurrying to 
build another shopping mall. 

Tourists in the shadows of ATM machines eat processed ice cream shipped 
from the mainland, while coconut trees are uprooted and replanted to 
shade American hotels designed in Los Angelos. American soldiers seek 
ribald pleasures on the back streets of Oahu. Organized crime in epic 
proportions threatens the sanctity of homes, schools, churches, and work 
places. Whatever became of the true beauty, the spiritual quietude, our 
peaceful culture? Their loss is the legacy of Minister Stevens. 

Albeit grievously wounded by the American invasion, the Hawaiian soul 
remains alive. Though forced into dormancy by the relentless pressure of 
American threats and demonstrations of violence, our dual spirit now 
quickens. Those who would annihilate us have mistaken our open and the 
crucible of nearly two centuries of haole indecencies. 

Seeds of understanding and activism in the kingdom began to be seen in 
the 1970's. In a resurgence of spirit, the Kana'ka Maolis began to 
resurrect their traditional arts, culture, and modes of expression. 
There was once again energy and pride among the people. 

In the 1980's, seeking redress, we brought our grievances before the 
United States congress. Time and again, we were offered platitudes and 
meaningless gestures. There was little, if any, evidence of the rights 
and privileges purportedly attendant upon citizenship in the United 
States. In our anger, we responded. 

In 1991, The Hawaiian state legislature voted for a resolution 
encouraging debate on the restoration of the Hawaiian nation. In 1992, 
the legislature voted for a much stronger resolution stating that "the 
citizens of the state of Hawai'i recognize the inherent right of the 
indigenous Hawaiian people to sovereignty and self-determination." 

In 1993, United States Senators Inouye and Akaka introduced and 
successfully campaigned for Public Law 103-150, "The Apology Bill." 
Facing significant political pressure, President William J. Clinton 
signed the bill on November 23, 1993. As expected, the American congress 
acknowledged the injustices perpetrated against my people but made no 
effort to take responsibility for, or action to right, the wrongs of so 
many years. 

On September 28, 2000, Na Kupuna Council Hawai'i Moku, under authority 
of Article 33 of the Hawaiian constitution ratified in 1839-1840 (under 
which Queen Lili'uokalani ruled), appointed Samuel Keolamauloa Kaluna, 
Jr., regent and lawful prime minister of the Hawaiian kingdom. 

The American Declaration of Independence asserts that "governments are 
instituted among men, deriving their just power from the consent of the 
governed." The Kana'ka Maolis refuse to be governed by the United 
States. Moreover, the Kana'ka Maolis have never given their consent to 
be governed by the United States. The Kana'ka Maolis established a 
constitutional government, ratified in 1839-1840, which describes our 
government and sets the rights of the people, the responsibilities and 
structures of government , and the systems by which laws may be 
promulgated and enforced. 

In keeping with our traditional heritage and culture, we approach this 
matter peacefully and with dignity. As we respect the dignity of those 
who have abused us, so do we expect that we shall receive the same 
respect in kind. We remember well the lessons we have been taught in our 
prior relationships with the American government. We shall no longer 
blindly trust the government of the United States. As we proceed, we 
shall do so under the supervision of international law agencies. We call 
on the United Nations to monitor these proceedings. 

Toward resolution, we shall purchase our lands back from those who have 
benefited from their theft. As we do so, we shall return the lands to 
the paradisiacal state in which they existed prior to the destruction, 
devastation, and desecrations wrought in the name of "progress". We 
shall restore our stolen right of self-determination by setting up the 
government under which we will live. We shall no longer allow the United 
States government to dictate the laws under which we live. 

We have taken our cause before the ministers and sovereigns of nations 
around the world. The response of civilized and honorable countries has 
been unilaterally supportive. The response of the United States has 
been disingenuous and dismissive. This response from the United States 
is not a surprise but a disappointment. 

We call on all honorable and honest peoples of the world to support us 
in this just cause. We call upon these nations to recognize our 
government and our sovereignty, while we call upon those who have 
desecrated our seas, stolen our lands, and mutilated our bodies to hear 
our righteous plea. We call upon Almighty God to guide us as we proceed. 


"Au'we, au'we!" Alas, my people cry for beloved Hawai'i. Their ceaseless 
laments are borne to heaven upon the restless winds. Their cries echo in 
the endless pounding of the surf on the shores of our islands. Their 
tears fall upon the asphalt and concrete of Americanized Hawai'i. 
"Au'we, au'we." The spirits of Hawai'i past walk the lands and grieve 
for our paradise lost. 

The cries of my people are heard but not felt by the United States 
government, which acknowledges the unlawful taking of our lands but 
inappropriately offers as token compensation Native American status. The 
cries of my people are heard but not felt by the United Nations, which 
deigns to offer sympathy, but scant assistance. 

The cries of the old and the young, the cries of my mother, my father, 
my children, Prime Minister Kaluna, the House of Nobles, the citizens of 
the kingdom, and the spirits of my ancestors, ring in my ear. I have 
heard their cries since childhood: "Au'we, au'we!" It breaks my heart. 
Now a man, I can no longer tolerate my people's pain, nor shall I. 

I am Edmund Kelii Silva, Jr., direct lineal descendent of King 
Kamehameha the Great, direct lineal heir to King Kamehameha Nui of Maui, 
and Ali'i Nui of the people of Hawai'i. I come in the name of Almighty 
God and of my people, and under authority of the Hawaiian constitution 
in effect on January 17, 1893, and hereby declare Hawai'i to be an 
independent, sovereign nation. In the name of Almighty God and of my 
people, I hereby declare the nation of Hawai'i to be free and 
independent from the influence and authority of any and all other 
nations. In the name of Almighty God and of my people, I hereby declare 
the nation of Hawai'i to be a sovereign nation grounded in the noble 
culture of an old and honorable people. 


(signed) 
His Royal Majesty Edmund Kelii Silva, Jr. Ali'i Nui 
Nou Ke Akua Ke Aupuni O' Hawai'i 

The House of the Royal Family 

Edmund Kelii Silva, Sr., Father To the Ali'i Nui 
Direct Heir to King Kamehameha Nui Of Maui 

Cecelia Ku'ulei Silva, Mother to the Ali'i Nui 
Direct Heir to King Kamehameha the Great 

Prince Edmund Kelii Silva, III, Son to the Ali'i Nui 
Princess Gabrielle Leilani Silva, Daughter to the Ali'i Nui 
Princess Collette Maile Silva, Daughter to the Ali'i Nui 

(signed) 
Regent, Prime Minister Samuel Keolamauloa Kaluna, Jr. 
Na Kupuna Council Hawai'i Nei, Na Kupuna Council Hawai'i Moku 


CERTIFICATION OF MAILING 

I, Samuel Keolamauloa Kaluna, Jr., do hereby certify that a true and 
correct copy of the foregoing Declaration of Independence was placed in 
the United States Mail, sufficient postage prepaid, correctly addressed 
to the following at their respective addresses as indicated, on the 23rd 
day of June, 2003.


George W. Bush 
President of the United States 
The Presidential White House 
1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 25500 


Kofi Annan 
Secretary General, United Nations 
S-378 
New York, New York 10017 

(signed) 
Samuel Keolamauloa Kaluna, Jr. 
Prime Minister-Kingdom of Hawai'i 


---------------------------

Michael Walkingstick also sent this interesting story:

My great grandfather was named James Monroe.

Pretty common names , I guess, but there is always more to a name , yes?

See, his father was Edward, who was perhaps the first in our family to 
really have to deal day to day with the trappings of being an Indian in 
white society. Edward's father was Quanee, who was a child during the 
Trail of Tears era. And Quanee's father, who was Edward's grandfather, 
was James.

James was a child in the early 1800's there in Georgia. When he was a 
small boy of school age, President James Monroe, famous for his 
diplomacy, came to the Cherokee Nation and visited the schools there at 
Brainerd, Spring Place and stayed with some of the more elite Cherokee 
who had succeeded quite favorably in the business of the Whites, maybe 
even more successful than their White counterparts. The schools there in 
the Cherokee Nation were very favorably reported in the New England 
papers and there were even a few who eventually left those missionary 
schools and went 'up north' to become educated. John Ridge comes to mind 
with his sojourn to Cornwall. and of course , anyone who studies 
Cherokee history knows of the subsequent drama he was involved in.

But, here is the President of the United States, visiting with the Vanns 
and the Ridges and the Rosses, the rich and elite of the Cherokee...... 
and then over to the side, perhaps watching all this from the side of a 
road, or watching from a distance as the great President of the United 
States is led into the neighborhood school, is little James 
WalkingStick.... and perhaps, late at night, when he should be sleeping, 
he is listening as the old men talk of this visit and their optimism and 
respect for Pres. James Monroe leaves a lasting impression on this young 
Cherokee. So much so, that he tells the story to his children and to his 
grandchildren, of the day when he was a boy, and the Great Father of 
the United States of America came to his village, his school, his home, 
and perhaps in walking by, even ruffled this one's shorn black hair and 
studied the ill-fitting clothes of the culturally crossed Cherokee and 
smiled at this young boy....and he tells this story to his own grandson, 
who in turn names his first born son, James Monroe Walkingstick.

This is what I love about studying about my ancestry. There are others 
who are so much better at the data, the 'who begat who' and the dates 
and the numerical data of what is known as genealogy.I want to know 
their stories. 

I want to tell the stories as my grandfathers and uncles did, I want to 
tell about how great grandfather James was standing there when the 
President of the United States came through, and promised that this 
family was safe as long as the grass grows and the rivers run.....I want 
to be able to tell this story to the subsequent generations to come.

Let others, who are much better at the data and the hard facts of 
genealogy, set the course. I appreciate their hard work and the map they 
have laid for the rest of us.

But for me, I hope for a day when I can sit with little children, who in 
wide eyed wonder will sit at my feet and be enthusiastic and excited, to 
hear why their grandfathers had such names......to know why there is a 
George Washington Adair, and a Thomas Jefferson Blackfox, and even an 
Andrew Jackson Easky.

I want to tell the stories as my ancestors did.



A follow up to the story:


I want to thank you all for your kind responses to my little story 
here...... but, I gotta retrack on my thinking...dang, it was such a 
good story too.... but Monroe's presidency was in the early 
1820's......James walkingstick would have been a young man, not a 
child.....so perhaps what I should have said was that maybe he himself 
was privy to some of the meetings with Monroe, or sat in on a council 
where Monroe talked, ......that would have made an even bigger 
impression on him, ennit?

So, the little bit about him being a boy in the story is not accurate, 
but the rest is sure food for thought.

Wado.

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Some humorous material:

These came from my daughter Sarah:

Gardening Rule: When weeding, the best way to make sure you are removing 
a weed and not a valuable plant is to pull on it. If it comes out of the 
ground easily, it is a valuable plant. 

The easiest way to find something lost around the house is to buy a 
replacement. 

Never take life seriously. Nobody gets out alive anyway. 

There are two kinds of pedestrians -- the quick and the dead. 
                     
An unbreakable toy is useful for breaking other toys. 
                       
Health is merely the slowest possible rate at which one can die. 
                    
The only difference between a rut and a grave is the depth. 
                      
Get the last word in: Apologize. 
                   
Give a person a fish and you feed them for a day; teach that person to 
use the Internet and they won't bother you for weeks. 
                     
Some people are like Slinkies . . . not really good for anything, but 
you still can't help but smile when you see one tumble down the stairs. 
                      
Health nuts are going to feel stupid someday, lying in hospitals dying 
of nothing. 
                       
Have you noticed since everyone has a camcorder these days no one talks 
about seeing UFOs like they use to? 
                       
In the 60's, people took acid to make the world weird. Now the world is 
weird and people take Prozac to make it normal. 
                      
Politics is supposed to be the second oldest profession. I have come to 
realize that it bears a very close resemblance to the first. 
                       
How is it one careless match can start a forest fire, but it takes a 
whole box to start a campfire? 

AND THE # 1 THOUGHT FOR THE DAY: 
You read about all these terrorists -- most of them came here legally, 
but they hung around on these expired visas, some for as long as 10 -15 
years. Now, compare that to Blockbuster; you are two days late with a 
video and those people are all over you. Let's put Blockbuster in charge 
of immigration. 

---------------------------
My mother sent me this one:

The following is an actual question given on a University of Washington 
chemistry mid-term. The answer by one student was so "profound" that the 
professor shared it with colleagues, via the Internet, which is, of 
course, why we now have the pleasure of enjoying it as well. 

Bonus Question: 
Is Hell exothermic (gives off heat) or endothermic (absorbs heat)? 

Most of the students wrote proofs of their beliefs using Boyle's Law 
(gas cools when it expands and heats when it is compressed) or some 
variant. 

One student, however, wrote the following: 
First, we need to know how the mass of Hell is changing in time. So, we 
need to know the rate at which souls are moving into Hell and the rate 
at which they are leaving. I think that we can safely assume that once a 
soul gets to Hell, it will not leave. Therefore, no souls are leaving. 
As for how many souls are entering Hell, let's look at the different 
religions that exist in the world today. Most of these religions state 
that if you are not a member of their religion, you will go to Hell. 
Since there is more than one of these religions and since people do not 
belong to more than one religion, we can project that all souls go to 
Hell. With birth and death rates as they are, we can expect the number 
of souls in Hell to increase exponentially. 

Now, we look at the rate of change of the volume in Hell because Boyle's 
Law states that in order for the temperature and pressure in Hell to 
stay the same, the volume of Hell has to expand proportionately as souls 
are added. 
This gives two possibilities: 
1) If Hell is expanding at a slower rate than the rate at which souls 
enter Hell, then the temperature and pressure in Hell will increase 
until all Hell breaks loose. 
2) If Hell is expanding at a rate faster than the increase of souls in 
Hell, then the temperature and pressure will drop until Hell freezes 
over... 

So which is it? 
If we accept the postulate given to me by Teresa during my Freshman year 
that, "...it will be a cold day in Hell before I sleep with you," and 
take into account the fact that I still have not succeeded in having an 
affair with her, then #2 above cannot be true, and thus I am sure that 
Hell is exothermic and will not freeze over." 

THIS STUDENT RECEIVED THE ONLY "A". 



Mom also sent this website. 
http://users.chartertn.net/tonytemplin/FBI_eyes/   You have to SEE it to 
understand.


---------------------------

Jeff Tempest sent this:

Subject: Pilot Gripe Sheets

After every flight, pilots fill out a form called agripe sheet, which 
conveys to the mechanics problems encountered with the aircraft during 
the flight that need repair or correction. The mechanics read and 
correct the problem, and then respond in writing on the lower half of 
the form what remedial action was taken, and the pilot reviews the gripe 
sheets before the next flight. Never let it be said that ground crews 
and engineers lack a sense of humor. Here are some actual logged 
maintenance complaints and problems as submitted by Qantas pilots and 
the solution recorded by maintenance engineers. By the way, Qantas is 
the only major airline that has never had an accident.

(P = The problem logged by the pilot.)
S = The solution and action taken by the engineers.)


P: Left inside main tyre almost needs replacement.
S: Almost replaced left inside main tyre.

P: Test flight OK, except auto-land very rough.
S: Auto-land not installed on this aircraft.

P: Something loose in cockpit.
S: Something tightened in cockpit.

P: Dead bugs on windshield.
S: Live bugs on back-order.

P: Autopilot in altitude-hold mode produces a 200 feet per minute 
descent.
S: Cannot reproduce problem on ground.

P: Evidence of leak on right main landing gear.
S: Evidence removed.

P: DME volume unbelievably loud.
S: DME volume set to more believable level.

P: Friction locks cause throttle levers to stick.
S: That's what they're there for.

P: IFF inoperative.
S: IFF always inoperative in OFF mode.

P: Suspected crack in windshield.
S: Suspect you're right.

P: Number 3 engine missing.
S: Engine found on right wing after brief search.

P: Aircraft handles funny.
S: Aircraft warned to straighten up, fly right, and be serious.

P: Target radar hums.
S: Reprogrammed target radar with lyrics.

P: Mouse in cockpit.
S: Cat installed.

P: Noise coming from under instrument panel. Sounds like a midget 
pounding on something with a hammer.
S: Took hammer away from midget.

---------------------------

Joseph RedCloud sent this:


30 Years Difference

1973: Long hair
2003: Longing for hair

1973: The perfect high
2003: The perfect high yield mutual fund

1973: KEG
2003: EKG

1973: Acid rock
2003: Acid reflux

1973: Moving to California because it's cool
2003: Moving to California because it's warm

1973: Growing pot
2003: Growing pot belly

1973: Trying to look like Marlon Brando or Liz Taylor
2003: Trying NOT to look like Marlon Brando or Liz Taylor

1973: Seeds and stems
2003: Roughage

1973: Killer weed
2003: Weed killer

1973: Hoping for a BMW
2003: Hoping for a BM

1973: The Grateful Dead
2003: Dr. Kevorkian

1973: Going to a new, hip joint
2003: Receiving a new hip joint

1973: Rolling Stones
2003: Kidney Stones

1973: Being called into the principal's office
2003: Calling the principal's office

1973: Screw the system
2003: Upgrade the system

1973: Disco
2003: Costco

1973: Parents begging you to get your hair cut
2003: Children begging you to get their heads shaved

1973: Passing the drivers' test
2003: Passing the vision test

1973: Whatever
2003: Depends


Just in case you weren't feeling too old today, this will certainly 
change things. Each year the staff at Beloit College in Wisconsin puts 
together a list to try to give the faculty a sense of the mindset of 
this year's incoming freshmen. Here's this year's list:

The people who are starting college this fall across the nation were 
born in 1983.

They are too young to remember the Columbia space shuttle blowing up.

Their lifetime has always included AIDS.

Bottle caps have always been screw off and plastic.

The CD was introduced the year they were born.

They have always had an answering machine.

They have always had cable.

They cannot fathom not having a remote control.

Jay Leno has always been on the Tonight Show.

Popcorn has always been cooked in the microwave.

They never took a swim and thought about Jaws.

They can't imagine what hard contact lenses are.

They don't know who Mork was or where he was from.

They never heard: "Where's the Beef?", "I'd walk a mile for a Camel", or 
"de plane Boss, de plane."

They do not care who shot J. R. and have no idea who J. R. even is.

McDonald's never came in Styrofoam containers.

They don't have a clue how to use a typewriter.




You know you are living in the year 2003 when:

1. Your reason for not staying in touch with some family and friends is 
because they don't have e-mail. 

2. You have a list of 15 phone numbers to reach your family of three.

3. Your grandmother asks you to send her a JPEG file of your newborn so 
she can create a screen saver.

4. You pull up in your own driveway and use your cell phone to see if 
anyone is home.

5. Every commercial on television has a web site address at the bottom 
of the screen.

6. You buy a computer and 3 months later it's out of date and sells for 
half the price (or less) than you paid for it.

7. Leaving the house without your cell phone, which you didn't have the 
first 20 or 30 years of your life, is now a cause for panic and you turn 
around to go get it.

8. Using real money, instead of a credit or debit card, to make a 
purchase would be a hassle and take planning.

9. You just tried to enter your password on the microwave. 

10. You consider second-day air delivery painfully slow. 

11. Your dining room table is now your flat filing cabinet.

12. Your idea of being organized is multiple-colored Post-it notes.

13. You hear most of your jokes via e-mail instead of in person.

14. You get an extra phone line so you can get phone calls.

15. You disconnect from the Internet and you get this awful feeling, as 
if you just pulled the plug on a loved one.

16. You get up in the morning and go online before getting your coffee. 

17. You wake up at 2 AM to go to the bathroom and check your e-mail on 
your way back to bed. 

18. You start tilting your head sideways to smile. :)

19. You're reading this and nodding and laughing.

20. Even worse; you know exactly who you are going to forward this to!

Come on don't act like you don't remember!

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Here is the website for the public version of the August history dates:
http://americanindian.net/August.html

Here are some randomly picked historical events for July

August 1, 1832: General Henry Atkinson, called "White Beaver" by the 
Indians, army regulars, and 3,000 civilian volunteers, fight with Black 
Hawk's forces at the battle of Bad Axe River, a few miles south of 
present day La Crosse in southwest Wisconsin. Approximately 150 Indians 
are killed in the fighting. (See August 3, 1832)

August 2, 1675: Captain Thomas Wheeler, with twenty militia, and three 
Indian guides, have arranged for a meeting with the Nipmucks on August 
1st. The whites hope to make the Nipmucks allies in their fight against 
the Wampanoags. However, the Nipmucks have already joined up with King 
Philip's Wampanoags. When the Nipmucks are not at the meeting site, the 
English search for them, against the advice of their Indian guides. 
Today, a joint force of Nipmucks and Wampanoags attack Wheeler's force. 
Half of Wheeler's force is killed in the initial attack. Wheeler 
retreats to Brookfield, in central Massachusetts. Wheeler, and the 
eighty local residents move into a small, wooden, community fort. The 
Indians stage a siege, and make several unsuccessful attempts to burn 
the building. One settler manages to escape, and run for help. Within a 
few days Major Simon Willard, and four dozen men reach Brookfield, and 
engage the Indians. The English claim to have killed eighty warriors in 
the subsequent fighting. 

August 3, 1832: Black Hawk has been chased back westward to the 
Mississippi River. General Winfield Scott has outfitted a steamboat, 
"The Warrior," with artillery. Today he confronts Black Hawk. Initially 
Black Hawk attempts to parlay, but the 1,300 white forces are out for 
blood. In the subsequent fighting, almost 200 warriors are killed, while 
the soldiers lose a tenth of that. Black Hawk escapes, but he is 
captured by other Indians, some time later. About 200 Sac Indians make 
it across the river, only to be killed by Sioux Indians on the west 
bank. 

August 4, 1845: Peter Jones (Kahkewaquonaby) is a Mississauga Ojibwa 
chief. While on a speaking tour of Scotland to raise money for 
missionary efforts in his homeland, his picture is taken. This is 
considered to be one of the first photographs ever made of an American 
Indian. 

August 5, 1838: The second group of Cherokee prisoners forcibly removed 
to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) arrive in their new lands 
in the Indian Territory. Of the 875 who originally left Ross' Landing 
(Chattanooga, Tennessee) on June 13th, only 602 arrive. While some of 
the captive Cherokees escape, many of the 273 missing Cherokees die en 
route. 

August 6, 1763: After yesterday's inconclusive fighting at Bushy Run, in 
southwestern Pennsylvania, Henry Bouquet's force of almost 450, devise a 
plan to surprise the Wyandot, Shawnee, Mingo and Delaware who are 
fighting then. Bouquet fakes a retreat which leads the following Indians 
into a trap. Both sides lose a total of about 100 men in the fighting. 
The Indians give up the battle, and Bouquet continues on to relieve Fort 
Pitt. Some of the Indians involved in "Pontiac's Rebellion" are less 
inclined to fight in the future, after this battle. 

August 7, 659: Yukukun has forced Maya King Shield Skull of Tikal 
(Guatemala) into exile. Today, Shield Skull appears in Palenque, 
(Mexico). Some sources say this happened on August 16, 659.
You can see pictures of this area here:   
http://www.americanindian.net/mexico14.html

August 8, 1587: A little over a week ago, one of the English colonists 
in the Roanoke colony in North Carolina is killed by an Indian. Colony 
leader John White leads two dozen men in a raid to punish the killer. 
Their zeal for revenge outweighs their judgment, though. They kill a 
Croatan Indian, but it is the wrong one. Some historians believe this 
might have led to the eventual disappearance of the Roanoke colony. 

August 9, 1843: Penatekas Comanche Chief Pahayuca signs a truce with 
Texas Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Joseph Eldredge. A full-fledged 
treaty is not arranged, though. 

August 10, 1973: An election on July 18th, approved a Constitution and 
By-Laws for the Cortina Band of Indians on the Cortina Indian Rancheria 
in Colusa County, California. Marvin Franklin, Assistant to the 
Secretary of the Interior ratifies the results.

August 11, 1680: The Pueblo Rebellion takes place in New Mexico under 
the leadership of a Tewa named Popé. Popé has arranged for an attack on 
as many of the Spanish missions as possible to all take place on the 
same day. Some sources say this happens on August 10th.

August 12, 1676: During a skirmish with white colonists, King Philip of 
the Wampanoags is urged to end the battle by one of his warriors. Philip 
becomes so angry with the warrior for suggesting this that he clubs him 
to death. The dead warrior's brother, Alderman, goes to Captain Benjamin 
Church, and offers to lead him to King Philip. Today, good to his word, 
Alderman showed Church, and his men, King Philip's camp in a swamp at 
Mount Hope. The soldiers surrounded Philip. As Philip attempted to 
escape by a back trail, Alderman, stationed there by Church, shoots, and 
kills him. Philip's head is taken to Plymouth and displayed on a pole 
for two decades. This ends King Philip's War. As many as 600 English, 
and perhaps five times that number of Indians, are killed during the 
war. 

August 13, 1587: Manteo, a Crotan Indian has converted to the Church of 
England. He is baptized by Sir Walter Raleigh. In respect for his help 
with Raleigh's colonists, Raleigh gives him the title of "Lord of 
Roanoke and of Dasamonquepeuk." 

August 14, 1812: Tecumseh tells Sir Isaac Brock, "We gave the 
forest-clad mountains and valleys full of game, and in return what did 
they give our warriors and our women? Rum and trinkets and a grave." 

August 15, 1642: In instructions to the Pennsylvania Governor John 
Printz of New Sweden, the Queen of Sweden wishes for "the wild nations" 
to be treated kindly, and in a humane manner. She also states that the 
Indians are the "rightful lords" of this land, and must be treated 
accordingly. 

August 16, 1812: Shawnee Chief Tecumseh has been commissioned as a 
Brigadier General by the British. With his Indians forces, he is 
instrumental in the surrender of American force at Fort Detroit. 

August 17, 1805: In one of the most amazing coincidents in history, 
Lewis and Clark meet Sacajawea's brother. 
You can see some pictures of the area where this happened here: 
http://americanindian.net/2003d.html

August 18, 1862: Santee Sioux attack the lower agency in Minnesota as 
one of the first moves of the "Santee Sioux Uprising." As many as 400 
whites died the first day. 

August 19, 1782: Battles have been fought in many areas around Kentucky 
and Virginia. On August 16, 300 to 400 Indians, and a few whites, led by 
British Captain William Caldwell and Simon Girty, attack the settlement 
at near by Bryan's Station, near Lexington, Kentucky.When reinforcements 
arrive, the Indians retreat to the area called the "Blue Licks." The 
Blue Licks is a spring on the middle fork of the Linking River. Despite 
the advise of many frontiersmen such as Daniel Boone to wait for more 
soldiers, the militia takes off after the Indians. The militia falls 
into the Indians' trap and around seventy soldiers are killed.

August 20, 1794: Little Turtle has seen how skillfully General Wayne is 
at organizing his forces. Knowing this will not be like the easy 
encounters he has had with Harmar, and St. Clair, Little Turtle suggests 
making peace with the whites. He is called a coward, and Turkey Foot 
takes his place as War Chief. 800 warriors, including 100 Cherokees are 
waiting for Wayne's forces near Fort Miami, near present day Toledo, 
Ohio. Many of the Indians have been fasting for days, to be "pure for 
battle." Wayne takes this into consideration, and slows his advance so 
they are weaker. 

August 21, 1871: Treaty Number Two (Manitoba Post Treaty), is concluded 
between the Canadian Government, and the Chippewa. They sell 35,700 
square miles of land, in exchange for certain reservation lands, an 
annuity, schools and other items. 

August 22, 1877: As a part of their flight to Canada, the Nez Perce 
enter Yellowstone Park. They will encounter many tourists in their 
travels through the park. 
You can see some pictures of the area on this website: 
http://www.americanindian.net/2003f.html


August 23, 1955: An election is authorized to adopt an amended 
Constitution and By-Laws for the Hualapai Tribe of the Haulapai 
Reservation in Arizona by the Assistant Secretary of the Interior. The 
election is on October 22, 1955.

August 24, 1869: For his actions on July 8, 1869, Mad Bear receives the 
Congressional Medal of Honor. 

August 25, 1665: Construction begin on the first of four forts which are 
built in Chambly, Quebec, southeast of Montreal. This fort is called 
Fort St. Louis. Later versions are called Fort Chambly. Its primary 
purpose is to defend nearby settlers from attacks by the Iroquois.

August 26, 1876: Treaty 6 is signed by the Cree, Chipewyan and Saulteaux 
and the Canadian government covering much of modern Alberta and 
Saskatchewan. 

August 27, 1935: The Indian Arts and Craft Act (104 Stat. 4662) is 
passed by Congress. Its purpose is to "promote the economic welfare of 
the Indian tribes and Indian individuals through the development of 
Indian arts and crafts and the expansion of the market for the products 
of Indian art and craftsmanship."

August 28, 1686: According to a alleged copy of a deed dated with 
today's date, Delaware Chiefs Mayhkeerickkishsho, Sayhoppy, and 
Taughhoughsey, sell lands along the Delaware River to William Penn. The 
deed specified that the land encompass the distance "back into the woods 
as far as a man can go in a day and a half." A copy of this deed is 
found by Thomas Penn in 1734. The implementation of this deed is called 
"The Walking Purchase." The walk is started on September 19, 1737. The 
manner in which it is done leads to recriminations on both side. Some 
sources say this happens on August 30th. 

August 29, 1759: Mohegan Samson Occom is ordained as a minister by the 
Suffolk Presbytery of Long Island, New York. While living with Rev. 
Eleazar Wheelock, he has studied numerous foreign languages, including 
Hebrew and Greek. Eventually, he is sent to England to help raise funds 
for Wheelock's Indian "Charity" School. Occom is the first Indian 
Minister to deliver a sermon in England. His fund-raising efforts are so 
outstanding that Wheelock's School can afford to move to New Hampshire, 
and eventually become Dartmouth College. 

August 30, 1813: The "Red Sticks," the anti-whites faction of the 
Creeks, attack Fort Mims, just north of Mobile, Alabama, on Lake Tensaw. 
800 Red Stick Creeks warriors (some estimates range between 400 and a 
1,000), led by Chiefs Peter McQueen and William Weatherford (Lume Chathi 
- Red Eagle), rush into the open fort, at noon, and kill 107 soldiers, 
and 260 civilians, including 100 Negro slaves. The fort commander, Major 
Daniel Beasley, has done a poor job of preparing the fort for the Creek 
War. This laxity leads to the success of the Creek attack. The defenders 
are brutally attacked and only a few Americans escape. The defense of 
the fort is led by militia Captain Dixon Bailey, a half-blood Creek. 
Bailey dies in the fighting. During the five-hour battle, between 
thirty-six and 100 Red Stick Creeks are killed according to different 
sources. 

August 31, 1925: The Mi'kmaq Membertou First Nation reserve of Membertou 
#28B is established in Nova Scotia.


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That's it for now. I am sure I will have more to say soon.....

You should be able to read previous newsletters at this link:
http://www.topica.com/lists/americanindian.net/read

For some unknown reason, this service will breakup some lines of the 
text and not print e-mail addresses correctly. So here is my e-mail 
address in a slightly altered format. Perhaps this will print.

philkon at rocketmail

Phil
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End of Phil Konstantin's August 2003 Newsletter 
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