August 2002 Newsletter from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2002)



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Start of the August 2002 Newsletter
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You can find a copy of this online at:
http://americanindian.net/newsletter0802.html
or 
http://www.topica.com/lists/americanindian.net/read



Greetings,

I hope July was good to you. I have been working double shifts for the last several weeks. There are only two officers doing what I do. The other one was on vacation, fly fishing on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming. I have never been much of a morning person. As far as I am concerned, the only way to see a sunrise is at the end of my day. So, getting up at 4am was not very much fun. Then again, I have a good job, and things could be much worse.

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While I realize many of you may not be interested in my book, I thought I would update the two of you who are. I had a conference call with my Senior Editor in Pennsylvania, and the marketing people in New York City last Friday.

Let me regress here. There was a series of commercials by Pace Picante Sauce (made in San Antonio) a couple of years back. Each ad featured a bunch of cowpokes eating around a campfire. Eventually, the conversation about the less than good salsa came around to where it was made. Someone reads the label and says, "New York City." The entire assemblage yells in a very heavy western twang, "NEW YORK CITY?!?" I always got a kick out of those commercials. Now, whenever I say New York City, I almost feel compelled to repeat NEW YORK CITY in the same incredulous voice. I had to change my pending vacation from September to October. This is so I can be available to do interviews and promotions for my book. Before the call on Friday, I e-mailed a co-worked who might have to help out while I am gone. I told her not to make plans on when I will be gone until after I talked to my publishers in New York. After I sent the e-mail it struck me that I was doing something I had only see on TV and in the movies. "Let me get back to you after I check with my people back in New York City." WOW! That was exciting. 

Da Capo Press is publishing the book. They are part of Perseus Books Group. And if that isn't confusing enough, the distributor is HarperCollins.

The book will not be available until early October. The scheduled "going on sale" date is October 8. While I can buy copies of the book for less than what they sell for on the internet or in stores, I cannot beat Buy.com's price. They have the best price I have found on the internet. They list the book at $22.05, shipping included. I have set up a "secret" web page with a link to my book just for my newsletter's subscribers. It will take you directly to the Buy.com site for my book. Amazon.com sells it for $24.50. If you buy $49 dollars worth of things at the same time, they include shipping. Oddly enough, two copies of my book comes to exactly $49. The price goes up from there on different sites. I will have a link to the Amazon.com site on my "non-secret" web pages. I get a little over $3 in commissions when someone buys a copy through the link on my public site. I only get about a $1 in commission if you use the link to Buy.com on my site. The prices are the same whether you use the link from my site, or go to their site directly. If you go to them directly, I do not get the "affiliate" commission. So, naturally, if you are interested in buying a copy of my book, I would appreciate it if you get them through the links on my site. 

Here is the location for the Buy.com link to my book. You can also find the Amazon.com link on this page. You can order it now, and they will ship it when they get it.
http://americanindian.net/newsletterbook.html

I would be happy to personally autograph a copy of my book. I am still trying to figure out how to autograph a copy of the book, for someone who lives too far away to bring it to me. Obviously, I could sell you a copy and mail it to you. If I do this, I need to get a business license. I also need to collect sales tax if you are in California. I am still checking into that. 

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If you own or operate a bookstore, here is the person you can contact to order copies:
Anne.King@perseusbooks.com
or
Check out this website:  http://www.dacapopress.com/order.htm



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Link of the Month:

This month’s site is "Native American Constitution and Law Digitization Project." 

It can be found at:        http://thorpe.ou.edu/    . 

"This Project is a cooperative effort among the University of Oklahoma Law Center, the National Indian Law Library, and Native American tribes providing access to the Constitutions, Tribal Codes, and other legal documents." It provided very comprehensive links to detailed information on Codes, Cohen's Handbook, Constitutions, Indian Land Titles, IRA Era Constitutions and Charters, Oklahoma, Opinions of the Solicitor, Supreme Court, Treaties, and Tribes. You can find tons of information through this excellent site.

I had seen this site some time ago, and placed in my "add this to my site when I find time" file. One of my subscribers sent the link to me as a suggested site. I remembered how much I liked it, and I have added it to the reference links pages, and made it "Link of the Month." I have tried, with no success, to find the e-mail of the person who reminded me of this site. Thank you for suggesting it.  

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This month’s "Treaty of the Month" is the "TREATY WITH THE PAWNEE—GRAND, LOUPS, REPUBLICANS, ETC., 1848." It was signed "near the head of Grand Island, on the south side of the Nebraska or Great Platte River." The treaty, among a list of other things, cedes land to the United States, arranges for the payment of goods, etc., in consideration of foregoing cession, and "Friendship and fidelity pledged." Lieutenant-Colonel Ludwell E. Powell signed for the United States. "chiefs and head-men of the four confederated bands of Pawnees, viz: Grand Pawnees, Pawnee Loups, Pawnee Republicans, and pawnee Tappage" signed for their tribes. You can see a copy of the treaty here:

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/paw0571.htm

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Here are some interesting websites I have come across, or were sent to me by readers of the newsletter. This should keep you busy for a while…

Haney for Governor Campaign, "full-blooded" American Indian running for Governor in Oklahoma 
http://www.haney2002.com/

Call for Cherokee Writers:
http://www2.enia.net/users/dpanther/page7.html

Albanians Visit Cherokee Nation Salina Clinic
http://www.cherokee.org/NewsArchives/Archives2002/7-02-20.htm

Duwamish will take their case for recognition to Congress-Tribe decides to sidestep White House in its effort to gain recognition; Chinook also rejected
http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/77794_tribes09.shtml

Hot Issues in Native Journalism from Pechanga.Net
http://www.pechanga.net/hot_issues_in_native_journalism.htm

How the Eastern Pequots overcame the big lie - from Indian Country Today
http://indiancountry.com/?1026487894

The Reading Red Report from the Native American Journalists Association
http://www.naja.com/red.html

Northern Plains Indian Law Center 
http://www.law.und.nodak.edu/NPILC/home.html

RezNet: "Reznet, a new online newspaper, will pay American Indian students to write for their school newspaper -- even if their colleges don’t have one."
http://www.reznetnews.org/

Ron Honyouti - Hilili Katsina Doll (A great site by my freind Karen Strom, follow the instructions, and the Katsina will spin around)
http://www.ronhonyouti.net/katsina/Ron/Hilili.html

San Diego Native Community Is Diverse from RezNet
http://www.reznetnews.org/culture/020620_culturemain/020620_natives

Fifth Annual Native American Music Awards - Saturday, September 7, in Milwaukie
http://www.nammys.com/

The Persistence of Indians-In search of Native America from ChristianityToday.com
http://www.christianitytoday.com/bc/2002/004/23.16.html

Wakpa Sica Reconciliation Place 
http://www.wakpasica.org/

Native Word of the Day from National Native News
http://www.nativenews.net/nnn_nwotd%20archives.shtml

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News stories:


Native warrior heroes didn’t end with the Indian wars: Jack Montgomery died last month - from Indian Country
http://indiancountry.com/?1028294146

U.S. violates Shoshone human rights
http://indiancountry.com/?1028293446

Pope starts Americas tour that features Indian Saints
http://indiancountry.com/?1028035994

A distinguished gentleman warrior in the cause for Indian justice
http://indiancountry.com/?1027692428

Las Vegas Paiutes oust entire council
http://indiancountry.com/?1027691940

Interview with Roberta Jamieson, Six Nations elected chief
http://indiancountry.com/?1026740532

Calif. tribes and BIA at odds over settlement - from Indianz.com
http://www.indianz.com/News/show.asp?ID=2002/08/02/hoopayurok

Pueblos could regain part of ancestral lands from The Santa Fe New Mexican  
http://www.sfnewmexican.com/site/news.cfm?newsid=4931754&BRD=2144&PAG=461&dept_id=367954&rfi=6

Despairing Indian youths need help, Senate told from NewsOK.com
http://www.newsok.com/cgi-bin/show_article?ID=895303

Fire crews dig in for archaeology - Mesa Verde battle includes preservation  
http://www.denverpost.com/Stories/0%2C1413%2C36%257E4624%257E769387%257E%2C00.html

Tribes' health demand unanswered
http://www.newsok.com/cgi-bin/show_article?ID=894666

Remember vets with Indian flag
http://www.newsok.com/cgi-bin/show_article?ID=894241

Long road to surrender: 1877 fight that never was... from the Billings Gazette
http://www.billingsgazette.com/index.php?display=rednews/2002/07/29/build/local/75-nezperce.inc

Primary election still postponed — for now - from the Navajo Times
http://thenavajotimes.com/elex06.html

Court Rules in Favor of Delaware Federal Recognition - from NativeTimes.com
http://www.okit.com/news/2002/julyaug/delawaresovereignty.html

Southwest drought causes scarcity of plants that tribes need for rituals 
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/news/archive/2002/07/28/national1256EDT0559.DTL

Osages Swear in new Chief and Council
http://www.okit.com/news/2002/julyaug/osagechief.html

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OK, I cannot help myself. Here is a link to a site called "INSULTINGLY STUPID MOVIE PHYSICS."  This is a good site which discusses some of Hollywood's more glaring errors in physics. No, you cannot hear an explosion in outer space. Sound does not work that way. Yes, I know it is not American Indian related. We do share an interest in  accuracy, though.
http://www.intuitor.com/moviephysics/

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INTERESTING E-MAILS:

The following is part of an e-mail exchange I had with Wendall Cochran. He was named a "Living National Treasure Cherokee/Master Craftsmen" by the Cherokee Nation in 1991. 

My e-mail to him:

I have done a bit of research and I cannot find much as to whether the Cherokee had a "naming ceremony." Do you know if we did in the old days? If so, do you know anything about it? I would like to know for myself, and the occassional inquiries I receive.
 
Thank you for your time,
 
Phil Konstantin


His reply to me:

The term "old Days" leaves much to interpretation...and the imagination.  I can't remember reading anything in any of the usual texts about specific "naming" ceremonies among the Cherokees, such as those we generally think about in terms of "rites of Passage", puberty rituals (circumcisms, first hunt or war, vision quests, etc.), in the same way those kinds of activities were institutionalized in other cultural Indian societies I've read about, like the Plains Indians, S.W. Pueblo groups and South American Rain Forest folks.  In the modern sense, Cherokees continue to have a peculiar propensity to "re-name" their children at home within the extended family structure, once they develop personalities or "human" traits that distinguish them from simply being babies.  I am constantly amused that Cherokee families go to great length to give their children elaborate formal sounding "Christian" names on their birth certificates, and later bestow a uniquely familiar nick-name on them soon after birth or at least within a couple of years while still toddlers, which they are burdened with for the rest of their lives.  For instance, here are some of my friends and relatives Christian/English first names and their nick names:  Ramona = Horse; Lamont = Goose;  Clayton = Skip; Price William = Lazy Boy (My father's  Cherokee name, which he hated, but was used by his Cherokee speaking family when referring to him in casual conversation all his life, even as an adult, and he died at age 93.);  Bert = June Bug, shortened to June; John Arthur = Chuggie.  Generally, these names were bestowed for some quirky behavior they displayed as children and the moniker stuck throughout life; one man I know is called Mooch because as a young child he begged for candy.  One can assume that one historical character, Dragging Canoe, was named for having at some episode actually drug a canoe.  Many Cherokee names for places are named literally for an event, action or description of the physical local using both a noun and verb, as in the name of our Capitol city of Tahlequah, meaning literally "two will do", Dahlonega, Georgia is so named for the gold that was discovered near by.  I asked an old full blood woman about giving me a Cherokee name and she thought I was being silly, so she started calling me Deen, for no reason other than she liked the name.  It didn't mean anything, and it was only a term of endearment between the two of us.  I have started nick naming other people I know and like for purely physical characteristics they embody, such as Sarge and bear.  I'm not sure I understand the obsession "non-traditional" Cherokees have for wanting to impose "European/Christian-traditional" values (and/or other tribal traditions) on our cultural selves other than to satisfy their yearning to compensate for their lack of connection to the true reality of who and what we are.  And, I would suppose, it gives an added dimension to what they believe is missing in their quest to find a social/cultural/traditional identity, due to their long-ago severed association with the main body of Cherokees.   Just because one tribe institutionalized a ceremonial formality, like naming ceremonies, don't necessarily mean that another, or all, Indian tribes did the same thing.  Pan-Indianism is contagiously epidemic, and if one is not wary of its consequences, can and will in time be fatal to the heart and soul of the purity of the culture one wants to preserve, perpetuate -- or want to identify with. Pow-wows, I find, have been a root cause of much confusion and mis-understanding of  practices and values of individual tribes that participate.  I am especially saddened by individuals, of indeterminate tribal blood-relationships, who "buy into"  the Pow-wow culture in order to connect with their "Indian-ness",  and as a result foster notions that if the Kiowa or Comanche or Sioux or Winnebago do certain things, then the Cherokees also must have the same type of practices.  Not true; and to pursuit that practice (resulting an superimposing one cultural layer over another) in the context of wanting to be more Indian, rather than simply being Cherokee who are not by tradition as socially flamboyant as the Plains Indian, is a betrayal of our Southeastern Woodland heritage.  Muddling the water, so to speak, is not the sin we can accuse only the white man of doing to our history...Indians are just as guilty, perhaps even more so, which in my estimation makes the sin even greater and more grave.  When I ponder the amount of mis-information and mis-understanding I hear from those seeking "truth", I am reminded of a definition I once read for the word "ignorance": knowing too much of what is not necessarily true.  By now you are probably wondering what kind of nut is writing this; well , if I were to have been given an Indian name, it would have been the same given to an Indian character in a western novel I read years ago: Flapping Mouth, or just Flap for short. Because I am typing this, can one have flapping fingers?  Have a good life.  By the way, do what you want about having a Naming Ceremony; Cherokees, being cussedly individualistic, do what they want in spite of rules or repercussions.  Culturally, it seems there are no formal restrains to prevent you from doing what ever the hell you want, as long as you don't injure or prevent someone else from doing what they can or want to do.  

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Here is part of an e-mail I received from Kayeri Akweks

Hi Everybody,   I am coordinating the information booth at the market this year.  I have called several of you asking if you wish to have flyers , brochures, etc. at the Market's Info booth.  If so, please  send your handouts to the address below or bring it to the first day of the market, August 3rd, 10:00 am.  And could you let me know what you plan to send/bring?  Thanks!

Kayeri Akweks, Special Projects Manager
ONABEN: A Native American Business Network
503-968-1500 or 1-800-854-8289
11825 SW Greenburg Rd., Suite B3
Tigard, OR 97223
www.onaben.org

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As most of you know, all of the information on my website is provided for free. To help cover some of my operational costs (computer stuff, website charges, etc…), I have links to some business sites. These folks give me a small "finder’s fee" if you buy anything on their site, if you reach them through a link on my site. No purchases are required, but, if you are looking for something which you plan on buying through the net, I would appreciate your using these links. The prices would be exactly the same if you went to these companies’ websites directly.

I have a page called the AmericanIndian.Net Store. I have links to all of these companies on this page. You can also find links to specific books on this page.

http://americanindian.net/store.html
---

American Indian History Books
American Indian Biography Books
American Indian Studies Books
American Indian Literature Books
Native Peoples of Canada Books
American Indian Cookbooks
"Native Healing" Books
American Indian Music
--- This link will take you to Half.com & ebay . They offer all kinds of goodies at good prices. I just bought a CR-RW at a great price through them.
http://www.qksrv.net/click-414737-940542
--- You can get very good airline & hotel prices here:
http://partner.onetravel.com/go/go.cfm?GoID=17157
Thanks for your help!

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History section:

Here is the website for the public version of the August history dates:
http://americanindian.net/August.html

Here are some randomly picked historical events for July

August 1, 1832: General Henry Atkinson, called "White Beaver" by the Indians, army regulars, and 3,000 civilian volunteers, fight with Black Hawk's forces at the battle of Bad Axe River, a few miles south of present day La Crosse in southwest Wisconsin. Approximately 150 Indians are killed in the fighting. (See August 3, 1832)

August 2, 1675: Captain Thomas Wheeler, with twenty militia, and three Indian guides, have arranged for a meeting with the Nipmucks on August 1st. The whites hope to make the Nipmucks allies in their fight against the Wampanoags. However,  the Nipmucks have already joined up with King Philip's Wampanoags. When the Nipmucks are not at the  meeting site, the English search for them, against the advice of their Indian guides. Today, a joint force of Nipmucks and Wampanoags attack Wheeler's force. Half of Wheeler's force is killed in the initial attack. Wheeler retreats to Brookfield, in central Massachusetts. Wheeler, and the eighty local residents move into a small, wooden, community fort. The Indians stage a siege, and make several unsuccessful attempts to burn the building. One settler manages to escape, and run for help. Within a few days Major Simon Willard, and four dozen men reach Brookfield, and engage the Indians. The English claim to have killed eighty warriors in the subsequent fighting. 

August 3, 1832: Black Hawk has been chased back westward to the Mississippi River. General Winfield Scott has outfitted a steamboat, "The Warrior," with artillery. Today he confronts Black Hawk. Initially Black Hawk attempts to parlay, but the 1,300 white forces are out for blood. In the subsequent fighting, almost 200 warriors are killed, while the soldiers lose a tenth of that. Black Hawk escapes, but he is captured by other Indians, some time later. About 200 Sac Indians make it across the river, only to be killed by Sioux Indians on the west bank. 

August 4, 1845: Peter Jones (Kahkewaquonaby) is a Mississauga Ojibwa chief. While on a speaking tour of Scotland to raise money for missionary efforts in his homeland, his picture is taken. This is considered to be one of the first photographs ever made of an American Indian. 

August 5, 1838: The second group of Cherokee prisoners forcibly removed to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) arrive in their new lands in the Indian Territory. Of the 875 who originally left Ross' Landing (Chattanooga, Tennessee) on June 13th, only 602 arrive. While some of the captive Cherokees escape, many of the 273 missing Cherokees die en route. 

August 6, 1763: After yesterday's inconclusive fighting at Bushy Run, in southwestern Pennsylvania, Henry Bouquet's force of almost 450, devise a plan to surprise the Wyandot, Shawnee, Mingo and Delaware who are fighting then. Bouquet fakes a retreat which leads the following Indians into a trap. Both sides lose a total of about 100 men in the fighting. The Indians give up the battle, and Bouquet continues on to relieve Fort Pitt. Some of the Indians involved in "Pontiac's Rebellion" are less inclined to fight in the future, after this battle. 

August 7, 659: Yukukun has forced Maya King Shield Skull of Tikal (Guatemala) into exile. Today, Shield Skull appears in Palenque, (Mexico).  Some sources say this happened on August 16, 659.

August 8, 1587: A little over a week ago, one of the English colonists in the Roanoke colony in North Carolina is killed by an Indian.  Colony leader John White leads two dozen men in a raid to punish the killer. Their zeal for revenge outweighs their judgment, though. They kill a Croatan Indian, but it is the wrong one. Some historians believe this might have led to the eventual disappearance of the Roanoke colony. 

August 9, 1843: Penatekas Comanche Chief Pahayuca signs a truce with Texas Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Joseph Eldredge. A full-fledged treaty is not arranged, though. 

August 10, 1973: An election on July 18th, approved a Constitution and By-Laws for the Cortina Band of Indians on the Cortina Indian Rancheria in Colusa County, California. Marvin Franklin, Assistant to the Secretary of the Interior ratifies the results.

August 11, 1680: The Pueblo Rebellion takes place in New Mexico under the leadership of a Tewa named Popé. Popé has arranged for an attack on as many of the Spanish missions as possible to all take place on the same day. Some sources say this happens on August 10th.

August 12, 1676: During a skirmish with white colonists, King Philip of the Wampanoags is urged to end the battle by one of his warriors. Philip becomes so angry with the warrior for suggesting this that he clubs him to death. The dead warrior's brother, Alderman, goes to Captain Benjamin Church, and offers to lead him to King Philip. Today, good to his word, Alderman showed Church, and his men, King Philip's camp in a swamp at Mount Hope. The soldiers surrounded Philip. As Philip attempted to escape by a back trail, Alderman, stationed there by Church, shoots, and kills him. Philip's head is taken to Plymouth and displayed on a pole for two decades. This ends King Philip's War. As many as 600 English, and perhaps five times that number of Indians, are killed during the war. 

August 13, 1587: Manteo, a Crotan Indian has converted to the Church of England. He is baptized by Sir Walter Raleigh. In respect for his help with Raleigh's colonists, Raleigh gives him the title of "Lord of Roanoke and of Dasamonquepeuk." 

August 14, 1812: Tecumseh tells Sir Isaac Brock, "We gave the forest-clad mountains and valleys full of game, and in return what did they give our warriors and our women? Rum and trinkets and a grave." 

August 15, 1642: In instructions to the Pennsylvania Governor John Printz of New Sweden, the Queen of Sweden wishes for "the wild nations" to be treated kindly, and in a humane manner. She also states that the Indians are the "rightful lords" of this land, and must be treated accordingly. 

August 16, 1812: Shawnee Chief Tecumseh has been commissioned as a Brigadier General by the British. With his Indians forces, he is instrumental in the surrender of American force at Fort Detroit. 

August 17, 1805: In one of the most amazing coincidents in history, Lewis and Clark meet Sacajawea's brother. 

August 18, 1862: Santee Sioux attack the lower agency in Minnesota as one of the first moves of the "Santee Sioux Uprising." As many as 400 whites died the first day. 

August 19, 1782: Battles have been fought in many areas around Kentucky and Virginia. On August 16, 300 to 400 Indians, and a few whites, led by British Captain William Caldwell and Simon Girty, attack the settlement at nearvy Bryan's Station, near Lexington, Kentucky.When reinforcements arrive, the Indians retreat to the area called the "Blue Licks." The Blue Licks is a spring on the middle fork of the Linking River. Despite the advise of many frontiersmen such as Daniel Boone to wait for more soldiers, the militia takes off after the Indians. The militia falls into the Indians' trap and around seventy soldiers are killed.

August 20, 1794: Little Turtle has seen how skillfully General Wayne is at organizing his forces. Knowing this will not be like the easy encounters he has had with Harmar, and St. Clair, Little Turtle suggests making peace with the whites. He is called a coward, and Turkey Foot takes his place as War Chief. 800 warriors, including 100 Cherokees are waiting for Wayne's forces near Fort Miami, near present day Toledo, Ohio. Many of the Indians have been fasting for days, to be "pure for battle." Wayne takes this into consideration, and slows his advance so they are weaker. 

August 21, 1871: Treaty Number Two (Manitoba Post Treaty), is concluded between the Canadian Government, and the Chippewa. They sell 35,700 square miles of land, in exchange for certain reservation lands, an annuity, schools and other items. 

August 22, 1877: As a part of their flight to Canada, the Nez Perce enter Yellowstone Park. They will encounter many tourists in their travels through the park. 	

August 23, 1955: An election is authorized to adopt an amended Constitution and By-Laws for the Hualapai Tribe of the Haulapai Reservation in Arizona by the Assistant Secretary of the Interior. The election is on October 22, 1955.

August 24, 1869: For his actions on July 8, 1869, Mad Bear receives the Congressional Medal of Honor. 

August 25, 1665: Construction begin on the first of four forts which are built in Chambly, Quebec, southeast of Montreal. This fort is called Fort St. Louis. Later versions are called Fort Chambly. Its primary purpose is to defend nearby settlers from attacks by the Iroquois.

August 26, 1876: Treaty 6 is signed by the Cree, Chipewyan and Saulteaux and the Canadian government covering much of modern Alberta and Saskatchewan. 

August 27, 1935: The Indian Arts and Craft Act (104 Stat. 4662) is passed by Congress. Its purpose is to "promote the economic welfare of the Indian tribes and Indian individuals through the development of Indian arts and crafts and the expansion of the market for the products of Indian art and craftsmanship."

August 28, 1686: According to a alleged copy of a deed dated with today's date, Delaware Chiefs Mayhkeerickkishsho, Sayhoppy, and Taughhoughsey, sell lands along the Delaware River to William Penn. The deed specified that the land encompass the distance "back into the woods as far as a man can go in a day and a half." A copy of this deed is found by Thomas Penn in 1734. The implementation of this deed is called "The Walking Purchase." The walk is started on September 19, 1737. The manner in which it is done leads to recriminations on both side. Some sources say this happens on August 30th. 

August 29, 1759: Mohegan Samson Occom is ordained as a minister by the Suffolk Presbytery of Long Island, New York. While living with Rev. Eleazar Wheelock, he has studied numerous foreign languages, including Hebrew and Greek. Eventually, he is sent to England to help raise funds for Wheelock's Indian "Charity" School. Occom is the first Indian Minister to deliver a sermon in England. His fund-raising efforts are so outstanding that Wheelock's School can afford to move to New Hampshire, and eventually become Dartmouth College. 

August 30, 1813: The "Red Sticks," the anti-whites faction of the Creeks, attack Fort Mims, just north of Mobile, Alabama, on Lake Tensaw. 800 Red Stick Creeks warriors (some estimates range between 400 and a 1,000), led by Chiefs Peter McQueen and William Weatherford (Lume Chathi - Red Eagle), rush into the open fort, at noon, and kill 107 soldiers, and 260 civilians, including 100 Negro slaves. The fort commander, Major Daniel Beasley, has done a poor job of preparing the fort for the Creek War. This laxity leads to the success of the Creek attack. The defenders are brutally attacked and only a few Americans escape. The defense of the fort is led by militia Captain Dixon Bailey, a half-blood Creek. Bailey dies in the fighting. During the five-hour battle, between thirty-six and 100 Red Stick Creeks are killed according to different sources. 

August 31, 1925: The Mi'kmaq Membertou First Nation reserve of Membertou #28B is established in Nova Scotia.

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That's it for this newsletter. Have a great month. You can find a copy of this online at:

http://americanindian.net/newsletter0702.html

or

http://www.topica.com/lists/americanindian.net/read
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End of the August 2002 Newsletter
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photos & descriptions of the 2001 Cherokee National Holiday in Tahlequah, Oklahoma Cherokee Holiday 2001 a page with basic info for the Cherokee Nation (Oklahoma) Cherokee Enrollment an archive of my past monthly newsletters My Newsletters
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copies of articles I have written Articles I Wrote photos of northwestern USA historical sites & reservations Northwestern USA Indian Country photos of the opening of the National Museum Of The American Indian in Washington, D.C. ( 2004) American Indian Museum in D.C. 2004
reviews of Movies, Books and other things... Movie & Book Reviews photos an info about the guests and happenings at KUSI TV in San Diego KUSI TV, my other job photos of Mesa Verde and Utah in 2006 Mesa Verde and Utah in 2006
My mortgage loan compnay My Mortgage Loan Company photos of the 2006 SDSU powwow 2006 SDSU Powwow  






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