August 2001 Newsletter from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright Phil Konstantin (1996-2002)

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                August 2001 Newsletter 
                Phil Konstantin 

  This newsletter will look different from previous newsletters. The 
  company I had been using to send the newsletters has eliminated its free 
  service. So, this will have a different appearance. There might also be 
  some banner ads in the newsletter. That is part of the new company's 
  requirements. Considering it is free, I don't think it will be too 

  I have divided this newsletter into a couple of different sections:
  General Comments
  Special Offers
  Link of the Month
  Interesting Websites
  Treaty of the Month
  Daily History

  Each of the main sections is divided by two long dotted lines.
  Each entry within a section is divided by a short dotted line.

  Genral Comments:

  Last month I mentioned that I was trying to decide what I wanted to do 
  with my vacation. I was trying to decide if I should go to the annual 
  Cherokee festival in Oklahoma (I've never been), or to go to Mexico and 
  visit some of the ruins I did not get to see last year, or both. Thanks 
  to finding some very good airfares (see the link furhter below), I will 
  be able to do both. This will be my first trip to the Cherokee Tribal 
  headquarters in Oklahoma. So, if you are going to the Cherokee festival 
  over the Labor Day holiday, you might see me. I'll be the chubby guy 
  smiling from ear to ear.


  Vonda McIntyre is an e-mail friend of mine. Vonda is an award winning 
  Science Fiction writer (If you thought American Indians debate what we 
  should be called as a group, you should see some of the debates on the 
  proper term for science fiction). She has posed an interesting question, 
  perhaps some of you might have an answer. She does realize there were 
  alcoholic beverages. Her main question is about storable, yeast-based 
  foods. Here is a copy of the question she sent me:

  "Say, I wonder if you have an opinion on a question I keep
  asking people (historians, anthropologists, cooks...), but
  nobody knows the answer: 

  In the eastern hemisphere, many of the food staples
  (especially ones you can store for a while) are based on
  microbial action: bread, cheese, beer, wine, yogurt,
  sauerkraut, tofu. In the western hemisphere (pre-Columbian),
  this is not true.


  I don't mean this question to be, "why wasn't there any

  It's something that's puzzled me, and I'm hoping to find a
  grand unified field theory type answer, but there may not be
  one. It may be piecemeal (for example that none of the
  available native grains in the western hemisphere contained
  any gluten, which makes it hard to make yeast bread out of
  them, and that it's hard to get enough milk to make cheese
  out of, from a guinea pig -- but what about llamas?).

  Anyway, lots of folks have said, "Interesting question," but
  I haven't found any wide-ranging answers to it. Would be
  interested in your opinion."


  Here is part of an e-mail sent to EPA employees. It comes from an 
  unnamed EPA employee:

  MEMORANDUM         July 11, 2001
  SUBJECT: EPA Indian Policy
  TO:       All EPA Employees

      In 1984, EPA became the first Federal agency to adopt a formal 
  IndianPolicy, when William D. Ruckelshaus pledged that the Agency
  would support the primary role of Tribal governments in matters
  affecting American Indian country.

       The United States has a unique legal relationship with Tribal 
  Governments based on the Constitution, treaties, statues, Executive 
  Orders, and court decisions. This relationship includes a
  recognition of the right of tribes as sovereign governments to self-
  determination, and an acknowledgment of the Federal government's
  trust responsibility to the Tribes.

       I hereby reaffirm the Agency=s commitment to this long-
  established policy and the principles therein that guide the Agency
  in building a stronger partnership with Tribal Governments to
  protect the human health and environment of Indian communities.
                        Christine Todd Whitman

          EPA Policy for the Administration of Environmental         
                    Programs on Indian Reservations                  
                                   November 8, 1984 
  Introduction :                                                    
  The President published a Federal Indian Policy on January 24,    
  1983, supporting the primary role of Tribal Governments in        
  matters affecting American Indian reservations. That policy       
  stressed two related themes: (l) that the Federal Government will 
  pursue the principle of Indian"self-government" and (2) that it   
  will work directly with Tribal Governments on a                   
  "government-to-government" basis.                                 
  The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has previously issued   
  general statements of policy which recognize the importance of    
  Tribal Governments in regulatory activities that impact           
  reservation environments. It is the purpose of this statement to 
  consolidate and expand on existing EPA Indian Policy statements   
  in a manner consistent with the overall Federal position in       
  support of Tribal "self-government" and                           
  "government-to-governments" relations between federal and Tribal 
  Governments. This statement sets forth the principles that will   
  guide the Agency in dealing with Tribal Governments and in        
  responding to the problems of environmental management on         
  American Indian reservations in order to protect human health and 
  the environment. The Policy is intended to provide guidance for   
  EPA program managers in the conduct of the Agency's               
  congressionally mandated responsibilities. As such, it applies to 
  EPA only and does not articulate policy for other Agencies in the 
  conduct of their respective responsibilities.                     
  It is important to emphasize that the implementation of           
  regulatory programs which will realize these principles on Indian 
  Reservations cannot be accomplished immediately. Effective        
  implementation will take careful and conscientious work by EPA,   
  the Tribes and many others. In many cases, it will require        
  changes in applicable statutory authorities and regulations. It   
  will be necessary to proceed in a carefully phased way, to learn 
  from successes and failures, and to gain experience. Nonetheless, 
  by beginning work on the priority problems that exist now and     
  continuing in the direction established under these principles,   
  over time we can significantly enhance environmental quality on   
  reservation lands.                                                
  In carrying out our responsibilities on Indian reservations, the 
  fundamental objective of the Environmental Protection Agency is   
  to protect human health and the environment. The keynote of this 
  effort will be to give special consideration to Tribal interests 
  in making Agency policy, and to insure the close involvement of   
  Tribal Governments in making decisions and managing environmental 
  programs affecting reservation lands. To meet this objective, the 
  Agency will pursue the following principles:                      
  EPA recognizes Tribal Governments as sovereign entities with      
  primary authority and responsibility for the reservation          
  populace. Accordingly, EPA will work directly with Tribal         
  Governments as the independent authority for reservation affairs, 
  and not as political subdivisions of States or other governmental 
  AGENCY STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS.                                 
  In keeping with the principle of Indian self-government, the      
  Agency will view Tribal Governments as the appropriate            
  non-federal parties for making decisions and carrying out program 
  responsibilities affecting Indian reservations, their             
  environments, and the health and welfare of the reservation       
  populace. Just as EPA's deliberations and activities have         
  traditionally involved the interests and/or participation of      
  State Governments, EPA will look directly to Tribal Governments   
  to play this lead role for matters affecting reservation          
  environments .                                                    
  The Agency will assist interested Tribal Governments in           
  developing programs and in preparing to assume regulatory and     
  program management responsibilities for reservation lands. Within 
  the constraints of EPA's authority and resources, this aid will   
  include providing grants and other assistance to Tribes, similar 
  to what we provide State Governments. The Agency will encourage   
  Tribes to assume delegable responsibilities, (i.e.                
  responsibilities which the Agency has traditionally delegated to 
  State Governments for non-reservation lands) under terms similar 
  to those governing delegations to States.                         
  Until Tribal Governments are willing and able to assume full      
  responsibility for delegable programs, the Agency will retain     
  responsibility for managing programs for reservations (unless the 
  State has an expressed grant of jurisdiction from Congress        
  sufficient to support delegation to the State Government). Where 
  EPA retains such responsibility, the Agency will encourage the    
  Tribe to participate in policy-making and to assume appropriate   
  lesser or partial roles in the management of reservation          
  A number of serious constraints and uncertainties in the language 
  of our statutes and regulations have limited our ability to work 
  directly and effectively with Tribal Governments on reservation   
  problems. As impediments in our procedures, regulations or        
  statutes are identified which limit our ability to work e         
  effectively with Tribes consistent with this Policy, we will seek 
  to remove those impediments.                                      
  EPA recognizes that a trust responsibility derives from the       
  historical relationship between the Federal Government and Indian 
  Tribes as expressed in certain treaties and Federal Indian Law.   
  In keeping with that trust responsibility, the Agency will        
  endeavor to protect the environmental interests of Indian Tribes 
  when carrying out its responsibilities that may affect the        
  Sound environmental planning and management require the           
  cooperation and mutual consideration of neighboring governments, 
  whether those governments be neighboring States, Tribes, or local 
  units of government. Accordingly, EPA will encourage early        
  communication and cooperation among Tribes, States and local      
  Governments. This is not intended to lend Federal support to any 
  one party to the jeopardy of the interests of the other. Rather, 
  it recognizes that in the field of environmental regulation,      
  problems are often shared and the principle of comity between     
  equals and neighbors often serves the best interests of both.     
  EPA will seek and promote cooperation between Federal agencies to 
  protect human health and the environment on reservations. We will 
  work with other agencies to clearly identify and delineate the    
  roles, responsibilities and relationships of our respective       
  organizations and to assist Tribes in developing and managing     
  environmental programs for reservation lands.                     
  In those cases where facilities owned or managed by Tribal        
  Governments are not in compliance with federal environmental      
  statutes, EPA will work cooperatively with Tribal leadership to   
  develop means to achieve compliance, providing technical support 
  and consultation as necessary to enable Tribal facilities to      
  comply. Because of the distinct status of Indian Tribes and the   
  complex legal issues involved, direct EPA action through the      
  judicial or administrative process will be considered where the   
  Agency determines, in its judgment, that: (l) a significant       
  threat to human health or the environment exists, (2) such action 
  would reasonably be expected to achieve effective results in a    
  timely manner, and (3) the Federal Government cannot utilize      
  other alternatives to correct the problem in a timely fashion.    
  In those cases where reservation facilities are clearly owned or 
  managed by private parties and there is no substantial Tribal     
  interest or control involved, the Agency will endeavor to act in 
  cooperation with the affected Tribal Government, but will         
  otherwise respond to noncompliance by private parties on Indian   
  reservations as the Agency would to noncompliance by the private 
  sector elsewhere in the country. When the Tribe has a substantial 
  proprietary interest in, or control over, the privately owned or 
  managed facility, EPA will respond as described in the first      
  paragraph above.                                                  
  DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES.                                            
  It is a central purpose of this effort to ensure that the         
  principles of this Policy are effectively institutionalized by    
  incorporating them into the Agency's ongoing and long-term        
  planning and management processes. Agency managers will include   
  specific programmatic actions designed to resolve problems on     
  Indian reservations in the Agency's existing fiscal year and      
  long-term planning and management processes.                      
  William D. Ruckelshaus            

  Special offers:

  I have tried to stay away from making too many "special offers" to the 
  readers of this newsletter. Granted, I have posted a few of the links 
  you will find on my site for good web-based items. For example, I have 
  found a very good website where you can get some very cheap airfares 
  (believe me, I look around a lot before I take a trip, being the 
  worldclass travel cheapskate that I am). I think I get a couple of 
  dollars if you but a ticket through them. I know they charge the same 
  whether you use this link, or go directly to their site. Here is the 
  link to that site:

  Along those lines, I have decided to pass along offers I have had from 
  subscibers to this list. I don't make any claims, or offer any 
  recommendations for any of these products. You will have to decide if 
  you think they are worthy of your hard-earned money. However, the people 
  listed here are offering a discount to subscribers of this newsletter. 
  If you decide to try some of these services, mention the discount listed 
  here. The discount will not be posted on their website. Any of you 
  subscribes who offer a product or service which you are willing to 
  discount for members of this newsletter, I will be happy to list it 

  Michelle operates the "Ojibwa Tea of Life" company. If you mention this 
  newsletter, she will give you a 15% discount. You can find the website 

  Link of the Month:

  The Link of the Month for August 2001 is the "Making of America" 
  website. It is a large collection of books, maps, and a wide variety of 
  other things. If you go to the search section and type in "Indian," it 
  will show you a large selection of digital photocopies of old books. I 
  have used some of the data here to help compile the material for the 
  "Dates" section of my website (and the History section below). I have 
  found it very interesting (depressing, enlightening, etc.) to read the 
  actual words of people involved in making the history of the United 
  States. For example, there are several reprints of works written by 
  George Custer, just to name one. You will also find this website covers 
  many subjects other than on American Indians.

  Interesting Websites

  Here are a couple of interesting websites I have either come across or 
  were suggested by other receipients of the newsletter.

  This website discusses what "we" should be called as a group:

  "What do you want to be called?"


  Here is a website, with tongue firmly in cheek, suggesting a totally 
  politically-correct name for "us."

  "Modern Descendents Of Pre-Columbian Inhabitants Of The Post-Pangean 
  Continent Between Northern Atlantic And Pacific Oceans"


  Not Indian related, but a great picture:

  Night from space:

  Jokes, etc., sent in from subscribers:

  A joke from Ruth:

  One day the Dine chairman comes out to the Schaghticoke reservation. 
  The Dine reservation is the largest in the country while the Connecticut 
  reservations are known as being some of the smallest.

  A Schaghticoke member gives the Dine chairman a tour of the reservation 
  in her car. In about two minutes the tour is over and they arrive back 
  at the tribal pavilion. The Dine chairman says, "Is that all?"

  Puzzled the Schaghticoke lady says, "What do you mean?"

  "Why," says the Dine Chairman. "I could get in my car all day and 
  never leave my reservation."

  The Schaghticoke's face lights up in understanding and says "Yeah, I 
  know what you mean. I had a car just like that."

  Definitions from Kangi (reservation humor, mostly)

  Commodify (kah MOD if eye) - uncanny ability of Indian women to convert 
  the ingredients of any standard cookbook recipe to commodity 
  ingredients such as powdered milk, powdered eggs and canned meat.

  Pow-wow-vow (pow wow vow) - the standard pledge of the pow-wow Romeo:
  "Sure, baby, I'll meet you at the next pow-wow. You're the only 
  jingle-dress dancer for me. Really! Look at this face. Would I lie?"

  Moccashoe (Mock ah shoe) - contemporary dance footwear designed by 
  beading the top of tennis shoes or aquasocks instead of making moccasins 
  the old-fashioned way.

  Skinship (SKIN-ship) - the eventual relative connection that all Indian 
  people discover within ten minutes of meeting each other.

  Vis-a-cheese (VEES ah cheez) - mode of exchange in which a block of
  commodity cheese can purchase other goods or services.

  Indinferior (IN din FEER ee your) - a manifestation of self-oppression; 
  the practice of Indians who look down on other Indians either for not 
  speaking the language or not being fullblood or not participating in 
  ceremonies or not living on the rez or not wearing braids or not dancing 
  in pow-wows or not having -- etc., etc., blah-blah.

  BI-ailment (BEE EYE ALE ment) - an affliction within the Bureau of
  Indian Affairs, characterized by the inability to keep track of millions 
  of dollars.

  Triballistic (tribal ISS tik) - to become irrational and incoherent upon 
  hearing the latest self-serving, short-sighted and illogical decision 
  made by the local tribal council.

  Rezercize (REZ er size) - the involuntary health regime of walking 
  everywhere on the rez since your ndn car broke down for good.

  Fordrum (FORD drum) - the instrument used for singing purposes when a
  regular drum is not available; usually the dented hood of a one-eyed

  Frybreadth (FRY bredth) - a unit of measurement based on the standard
  size of a piece of auntie's frybread.

  Alter-native (alter NAY TIV) - an individual who was born and raised in 
  the non-Indian culture but recently "discovered" a "hidden" Indian 
  ancestor so now assumes a name such as Laughing Rainbow, White Wolf or
  Dreams of Eagles, calls all Indian people Brother and Sister and wears
  genuine Hong Kong beadwork; usually found in the East and West coast
  region but with documented sighting in other regions as well.

  Councilmenopause (cown sil MEN oh paws) - a disorder characterized by
  hot flashes, profuse sweating impairment of speech and loss of memory;
  normally occurs only to tribal councilmen when cornered by a 

  Disinderstanding (DISS inder stand ing) - when non-Indians think that
  they understand why tribes and individual Indians are the way they are, 
  but attribute any and all behavior to the overall culture or the 

  Treaty of the Month:

  This month's treaty is between the United States and the Creek Nation. 
  It also involves the Seminoles. I picked it because it was signed during 
  August. You can find the treaty at the following link:
  Random historical events for August

  August 1: 1813: Today, Fort Stephenson, at modern Fremont, Ohio, will be 
  attacked by British Major Henry A.Proctor, and 1200 British and Indians. 
  The fort is defended by Major George Croghan, and 120 men. The Americans 
  will fire only when the British and Indians are at close range. During 
  the two day battle, the Americans will have only one man killed. The 
  British and Indians will sustain more than 1200 casualties. 

  August 2: 1792: MOHEGAN Samson Occom dies today in New Stockbridge, New 
  York. A protege of Rev.Eleazar Wheelock, Occom will learn numerous 
  foreign languages, become an ordained minister, be the first Indian to 
  preach in England, minister to many Indian tribes, and be instrumental 
  in the establishment of Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. 

  August 3: 1889: General Crook, and the other treaty commissioners, were 
  having no luck in convincing the large groups of SIOUX and the Standing 
  Rock Agency to agree to move to smaller reservations, and to sell their 
  "excess" lands for $1.50 an acre. Sitting Bull continued to "disrupt" 
  the meetings with his angry denunciation of any attempts to sell Indian 
  lands. Crook decided he would make more progress by talking to the 
  tribal leaders individually. On this date, without informing Sitting 
  Bull, Crook held a final meeting. Local agent James McLaughlin had his 
  tribal police surround the meeting site to prevent any of the 
  rabble-rousers from attending. Eventually, Sitting Bull worked his way 
  past the police, and addressed the meeting. Sitting Bull was incensed 
  because he had not been informed of the meeting. McLaughlin told the 
  meeting that everyone knew of the meeting. At that time, Chief John 
  Grass, and many of the other Chiefs came forward to sign the treaty, and 
  to break up the large reservation. Sitting Bull vented his frustration 
  at the other Chiefs, but he was out voted. 

  August 4: 1862: In July, the money promised to the SANTEE SIOUX in 
  Minnesota was scheduled to arrive. When Little Crow, and the other 
  SIOUX, reported to their reservation's upper agency on the Yellow 
  Medicine River, they were told the money had not arrived. The winter had 
  been bad, and the summer crops were poor. Little Crow asked Agent Thomas 
  Galbraith to open up the local warehouse, which was full of food. 
  Galbraith said there would be no food if there was no money. On this 
  date, Little crow, and 500 SIOUX warriors surround the badly outnumber 
  soldiers guarding the warehouse. The SANTEE break in and start unloading 
  supplies. The commanding officer of the garrison, Timothy Sheehan, 
  understands the frustration of the hungry Indians, and he convinces 
  Galbraith to officially issue the food to the SANTEE. Little Crow also 
  gets a promise that the lower agency will also issue supplies. The 
  SANTEE then leave peacefully. 

  August 5: 1881: The Crow Dog murder case goes to the Supreme Court. 

  August 6: 1846: The old settlers and the new emigrants factions of the 
  CHEROKEE have been arguing over who has legal control of the CHEROKEE 
  Nation since the late 1830s. It has even been proposed that the nation 
  split into two tribes. Today, the different sides will sign a treaty in 
  Washington,D.C. The treaty will confirm that there will only be one 
  CHEROKEE Nation. 

  August 7: 1869: A solar eclipse is draw on Lone Dog's chronicle of the 

  August 8: 1699: The TOHOME Indians live along the gulf coast in Alabama 
  and Mississippi. Tiday, in Biloxi, they will formally establish peaceful 
  relations with the French. 

  August 9: 1911: Ishi ("the last of his tribe") comes into Oroville, 

  August 10: 1815: The half brother of Cornplanter, Skaniadariio (Handsome 
  Lake) was born near Ganawagus, New York sometime around 1735. He fought 
  in many battles during the French and Indian Wars, and during the 
  American Revolution. Later he would battle alcoholism. One day a vision 
  led him to give up drinking and to promote traditional Indian ways among 
  his people. He became a Chief among the SENECA based on his wise 
  council. He once spoke before President Jefferson on behalf of his 
  people. His teachings have been handed down among the IROQUOIS. He died 
  today in Onondaga. 

  August 11: 1988: The ALEUT receive restitution for loses in WWII today. 

  August 12: 1878: The PAIUTE Chief Oytes, and his followers, will 
  surrender today. This will effectively end the PAIUTEs' participation in 
  the BANNOCK war. 

  August 13: 1587: Manteo, a CROTAN Indian has converted to the Church of 
  England. Today, he is baptized by Sir Walter Raleigh. In respect for his 
  help with Raleigh's colonists, Raleigh gives him the title of "Lord of 
  Roanoke and of Dasamonquepeuk." 

  August 14: 1559: Tristan de Luna y Arellano has been appointed to 
  establish Spanish settlements on Pensacola Bay by the Spanish Viceroy in 
  Mexico. Today, his expedition of 13 ships, several priests, 500 
  soldiers, and 1000 settlers will arrive in Pensacola Bay, in Florida. 
  Much of the expedition will be killed or starve because of a hurricane 
  which struck the area a few days later. 

  August 15: 1642: In instructions to the Pennsylvania Governor John 
  Printz, of New Sweden, the Queen of Sweden wished for "the wild nations" 
  to be treated kindly, and in a humane manner. She also stated that the 
  Indians were the "rightful lords" of this land, and must be treated 

  August 16: 1812: SHAWNEE Chief Tecumseh has been commissioned as a 
  Brigadier General by the British. With his Indians forces, he will be 
  instrumental in the surrender of American force at Fort Detroit, today. 

  August 17: 1876: President Grant, by Executive Order today, corrects a 
  survey mistake, and returns Uncompahgre Park, and some prime farm land, 
  to the UTE Reservation. 

  August 18: 1863: As a part of the Canyon de Chelly Campaign, Kit Carson, 
  and General James Charlatan, were trying to starve the NAVAJOs into 
  submission. Today, General Charlatan will put a bounty on NAVAJO 
  livestock. Every good horse or mule would bring twenty dollars, quite a 
  sum for those days. Each sheep would earn one dollar. 

  August 19: 1854: a MINICONJOU SIOUX, named High Forehead, kills a sickly 
  cow near Fort Laramie, in southeastern Wyoming. The cow's owner 
  complains to the fort's commander. A brash Brevet Second Lieutenant John 
  L.Grattan, and 30 volunteers leave the fort today to find the SIOUX 
  involved. Grattan goes to Conquering Bear's BRULE SIOUX camp near Ash 
  Hollow, and demands the Indian who shot the cow. Grattan makes numerous 
  threats at the SIOUX, but they won't hand over High Forehead. During the 
  parlay, a shot rings out, and Grattan's artillery gunners open fire on 
  the camp. Conquering Bear tries to get both sides to stop shooting, but 
  he is hit by an artillery round. Eventually, all but one of Grattan's 
  men will be killed in the fighting. 

  August 20: 1851: One in a series of treaties with California Indians is 
  signed today at Lipayuma. This treaty says it will set aside lands for 
  the Indians and protect them from Americans. 

  August 21: 1871: Treaty Number Two (Manitoba Post Treaty), is concluded 
  between the Canadian Government, and the CHIPPEWA. They sell 35,700 
  square miles of land, in exchange for certain reservation lands, an 
  annuity, schools and other items. 

  August 22: 1862: Today, 800 SANTEE SIOUX will attack Fort Ridgely, in 
  south-central Minnesota. The fort is defended by approximately 150 
  soldiers, and two dozen volunteers. The SIOUX will sneak up to the fort, 
  and try to set fire to it. When the SIOUX attacked, the Army responded 
  with an artillery barrage. Little Crow will be wounded in the fighting, 
  and Mankato will take over. The artillery will make the difference in 
  the fighting, and the SIOUX will retreat. 

  August 23: 1724: British forces under Capt. Moulton stage a supprise 
  attack on an ABENAKI village at Norridgewock. 27 people, including a 
  resident French priest Father Rasles, would be scalped by the English. 
  The village would be burned. This would be a big blow to the spirit of 
  the local Indians. 

  August 24: 1869: For his actions on July 8, 1869, Mad Bear will receive 
  the Congressional Medal of Honor today. 

  August 25: 1737: A agreement will be signed today by Thomas Penn and 
  MUNSEE Chiefs Manawkyhickon and Nutimus. The agreement will call for 
  Indian lands to be sold along the Delaware river for the distance that a 
  man could walk in a day and a half. This would be called the "Walking 
  Purchase" and would be performed on September 19, 1737. 

  August 26: 1858: In what would be called "The Battle of Four Lakes," 
  force under Colonel George Wright fight for about three hours with COEUR 
  Army will defeat the Indians. 

  August 27: 1832: Black Hawk surrenders. 

  August 28: 1676: The last Indian surrenders in the King Philip's War. 

  August 29: 1758: The First State Indian reservation, in New Jersey, is 
  established today. 

  August 30: 1690: A combined force of British, YAMASSEE and YUCHI Indians 
  attack the Spanish mission of San Juan de Guacara in northern Florida, 
  today. Many TIMUCUA indians in the area have been converted to 
  Christianity or are loyal to the Franciscan monks. All of the TIMUCUA 
  Indians at the mission will be killed in the fighting. 

  August 31: 1905: Today, Ely Samuel Parker (Donehogawa) dies in New York 
  City. During his lifetime he will be a SENECA Chief, an engineer, a 
  lawyer, the New York City Building Superintendent, a Brigadier General 
  in the Civil War where he will write the surrender papers signed at 
  Appomattox, and the first Indian Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Born in 
  1828, he will be buried in Buffalo, New York. 


  That's it for this newsletter.

  Have a great month,


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My mortgage loan compnay My Mortgage Loan Company photos of the 2006 SDSU powwow 2006 SDSU Powwow