July 2004 Newsletter from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2004)

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July 2004 Newsletter from Phil Konstantin - Part 1 


Here is the start of this month's newsletter. I have either been 
exceptionally busy, or doing almost nothing for the last month. I'll 
have more on that later.

I was going to add a section about the U.S. government's efforts 
to get land claimed by the Western Shoshone (Shoshoni). If you 
are not familiar with this, it has caused a great deal of controversy. 
There is more than one group that claims to 
represent the tribe. From my perspective, it reminds me of 
the events leading to what caused the Trail of Tears for the Cherokees 
in the 1830s. Joe RedCloud (I post many comments 
from him in the newsletter) has offered council to the main 
Shoshone group as a representative of the Pine Ridge Sioux. 
He kindly wrote me a detailed e-mail talking about this 
proposal and some of the controversy related to it. During 
a change over in computer systems, I cannot find that e-mail, 
or the files I set aside on this issue. 

I had the same problem with several articles I found and 
e-mails I received about scam charities that pretent to help 
Indian people.

I'll add more on both of these stories in the next part of 
the newsletter.



Featured Link of the Month for July:

The Sullivan-Clinton Campaign of 1779-2004 

This website offers a detailed examination of one of the 
largest government expeditions against American Indians. 
It features many articles, gallaries, audio & visual material 
and other interesting information about the incursion into 
the lands of the "Six Nations" of New York. It is well worth 
a visit. 



This month's "Treaty of the Month" is:

TREATY WITH THE CADDO, 1835. July 1, 1835. | 7 Stat., 470. | 
Proclamation, Feb. 2, 1836. 

It covered Lands ceded to the United States; Boundaries; 
Indians to remove within one year; Money, etc., to be paid 
for cession; An agent of the nation to be appointed by 

You can see a transcript of the treaty on this website:


Random events in July history (I think this is a new list of 
events I have not posted before):

7/1 1835: The Caddo of Louisiana signed a treaty (7 Stat. 470) 
with the United States. They gave up their lands and moved out 
of the lands and territories held by the United States.

7/2 1543: The remnants of Hernando de Soto’s expedition, 
numbering a little over 300 Spaniards led by Luis de Moscoso, boarded 
ships in the Indian village of Aminoya to sail down 
the Mississippi River to Mexico. They had spent six months in 
this village at the confluence of the Mississippi and the 
Arkansas Rivers.

7/3 1724: Frenchman Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont left Fort 
Orleans en route to the "land of the Padoucas." He was going 
there to try to establish peace and trade with them. He was traveling 
with "a hundred Missouris, commanded by their Grand 
Chief, and eight other Chiefs of war, and by sixty-four Osages, 
commanded by four Chiefs of war, besides a few Frenchmen."

7/4 1805: A treaty (7 Stat. 87) with the Wyandot and six 
other Indian nations was concluded at Fort Industry on the 
Miami River in western Ohio. The treaty made references to 
the Greenville Treaty. A new boundary line was established. 
The Indians split $825 from the United States and $125 from 
the Connecticut Land Company, annually, for 500,00 acres of 
land south of Lake Erie (called Sufferers Land). The Indians 
were allowed to hunt and fish in their old lands if they did 
so peacefully. The treaty was signed by thirty-two Indians.

7/5   1973: An ordinance by the Quechan Indian Tribe, Fort 
Yuma, California, had created a zoning and planning commission 
on March 20, 1975. Today, that action was ratified by the 
tribal council.

7/6    1883: President Grant, by executive order, established 
the Yuma Reserve in the Mission Tule Agency in California. 
The reservation covered 74.75 square miles and was home for 
the Yuma Apache Tribe. The reserve was modified by an order 
on August 15, 1894. The reservation was cancelled entirely 
by another order on January 9, 1884.

7/7    1742: To retaliate for an attack on St. Augustine 
by English from Georgia, Spanish Florida Governor Manuel 
Montiano staged an attack on St. Simons Island in Georgia. Montiano’s 
force of almost 3,000 consisted of Spaniards and 
Yamassee Indians. Forces under James Oglethorpe surprised 
the Spaniards. After killing forty Yamassee and 160 Spaniards, 
Oglethorpe’s force, consisting of English, Chickasaws, 
Creeks and Yamacraw, forced the Spaniards off the island.

7/8   1869: Corporal John Kyle and three men from Troop M, 
Fifth Cavalry, were returning to General Carr’s camp when 
they were attacked by Indians near the Republican River in 
Kansas. While wounding two Indians, Corporal Kyle was able 
to lead his men back to the camp. Later that night, Indians attempted to 
stampede the camp’s horses. One of Carr’s 
Pawnee scouts, Co-rux-the-chod-ish (Mad Bear), was wounded, 
but the stampede attempt failed. Mad Bear would be awarded 
the Congressional Medal of Honor for his action. He was 
accidentally wounded by one of the soldiers. Corporal Kyle 
would also be given the Medal of Honor.

7/9 1755: General Edward Braddock’s forces fought a battle. 
The French lost sixty men. The British had 456 killed and 
421 wounded soldiers out of the 1,459 who took part in the 
battle. Other sources say 977 British were killed. Two-thirds 
of the British officers were killed or wounded. Many more 
British died within a few days. The French (records vary) 
had approximately 250 soldiers and up to 600 Indians, of 
which 250 were Miami. The exact number of Indian combatants 
was lost to history. This incident became known as Braddock’s 

7/10   1861: After negotiations with Albert Pike, the 
Confederate Indian representative, the Creeks signed a 
treaty with the Confederate States of America. The 
Confederacy agreed to meet all of the old treaty provisions 
and allowed the Indians to send delegates to the Confederate Congress, 
in addition to several other significant items.

7/11   1869: General Eugene Carr’s Fifth Cavalry had been 
following the trail of hostile Indians for several days. 
He found a large village on Summit Springs Creek off the 
South Platte, just south of present-day Sterling in 
northeastern Colorado. Seven troops of the Fifth Cavalry 
and three companies of Pawnee scouts surprised the village 
when they attacked. The village was captured and burned. 
According to the official army report, fifty-two Indians 
were killed, including Chief Tall Bull. Seventeen Indians 
were captured. No soldiers were killed in the attack. All 
told, 274 horses, 144 mules, a large cache of arms and 
ammunition, and $1,500 were seized. Two white women were 
prisoners in the camp. The army report said that both were 
shot when the soldiers attacked. One died, and the other, 
Mrs. Wiechell, was transported to Fort Sedgwick in the 
northeastern corner of Colorado, where she recovered. The 
army gave Mrs. Wiechell the $1,500.

7/12    1858: A Navajo, who was very angry with his wife, 
went to Fort Defiance in northeastern Arizona to sell 
blankets. While at the fort and for no apparent reason, 
he shot a black boy with an arrow. The boy died a few days 
later. The Navajo fled. The fort authorities demanded his 
return by Navajo leaders. The Navajos were given until 
August 11, 1858, to bring him into the fort. The murderer 
was never produced.

7/13   1981: The Paiute Band of Indians in Utah adopted 
an official tribal membership roll.

7/14    1637: After the defeat of the Pequot force on May 
26, Sassacus and most of the remaining Pequot fled. The 
English managed to force them into a swamp. The English 
demanded the Pequot to surrender. The women, children, 
and sick were let out, but eighty warriors refused to 
give up. They charged the English, and twenty escaped, 
including Sassacus. The English then attacked the remaining 
Indians and killed them all.

7/15   1682: In the name of William Penn, Deputy Governor 
Markham made the first recorded purchase of Indian land 
in Pennsylvania. Part of what was is now Bucks County 
was purchased from fourteen Delaware chiefs for a long 
list of supplies.

7/16   1839: Sam Houston negotiated a treaty with the 
Cherokees living in Texas. They remained neutral in the 
Mexico-Texas conflicts in exchange for title to their 
lands. When Houston presented the treaty to the Texas 
congress, it was not ratified. A well-equipped force 
of almost 500 Texans under General Kelsey Douglass and 
Colonels Edward Burleson and Thomas Rusk defeated 
approximately 800 Cherokees under Chief Philip "The Bowl" 
Bowles at the Battle of the Neches River (near modern 
Tyler, Texas). Almost 100 Cherokees were killed or 
wounded, including Chief Bowles. The Texans lost only 
eight men. The Texas Cherokees left the eastern Texas 
area and moved north to Indian Territory (present-day 
Oklahoma). Burleson eventually became vice president 
of Texas.

7/17   1876: Colonel Wesley Merritt and Troops A, B, D, 
G, I, K, and M, Fifth Cavalry, found approximately 800 
Indians near Hat Creek (War Bonnet), Wyoming. One Indian 
was killed, and another was wounded. The rest were forced 
back to their reservation at the Red Cloud Agency. The 
one Indian killed was Chief Yellow Hand. He was killed 
in the much heralded single combat with William "Buffalo 
Bill" Cody.

To see some pictures of the area, visit my website at:

7/18   1942: The Six Nations declared war on the Axis 

7/19   1837: On Alaqua Creek in Florida, the local militia, 
led by Colonel Brown of Jackson County, fought Creek 
warriors. The militia won. According to some sources, 
many Creeks either emigrated west or went south and 
joined the Seminoles after this defeat.

7/20   1843: All told, 674 men, women, and children of 
the Wyandot Tribe boarded a steamboat in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, bound for Kansas as part of a treaty they signed 
giving up their lands in Ohio.

7/21     1878: First Lieutenant T. S. Wallace and fifteen 
men from the Third Infantry fought with a band of Nez 
Perce near the Middle Fork of the Clearwater River in 
Montana. The Nez Perce were wanted for attacking whites 
in Montana. They were believed to be former followers 
of White Bird, who left British Columbia to return to 
their ancestral lands in the United States. According 
to army documents from Fort Missoula, six Indians were 
killed, three were wounded, and thirty-one were captured. 
No soldiers were reported to have been killed. Then soldiers captured 
thirty-one horses as well.

7/22    1876: After Custer’s defeat on the Little Big 
Horn River (Greasy Grass), Americans sought revenge on 
the Plains Indians. One way to get back was to punish 
them all, even those who had nothing to do with the 
battle and were living peacefully on reservations. 
General Sherman received orders to impose military rule 
over all of the Plains reservations. All inhabitants 
were now considered to be prisoners of war. Congress 
authorized the construction of two new forts in the 
area of the Yellowstone River.

7/23    1987: The Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump Interpretive 
Center was officially opened in Alberta, Canada. It was 
a World Heritage Site. At this location, local Indians 
stampeded buffalo over a cliff, then butchered them and 
skinned their hides.

7/24   1967: The assistant secretary of the interior 
authorized an election for the adoption of an amendment 
to the constitution and bylaws for the Ponca Tribe of 
Indians of Oklahoma. The election was held on August 26, 

7/25 1895: Bannock warriors engaged in a fight at Jackson 
Hole. The Indians and the settlers were in a dispute over 
the provisions of the Fort Bridger Treaty (15 Stat. 673) 
signed on July 3, 1868.

7/26    1863: Army forces under General Henry Sibley had 
been pursuing the Santee Sioux after their uprising in 
Minnesota the year before. Two days earlier, they had a 
fight in Kidder County, North Dakota, called the Battle 
of Big Mound. They skirmished again near Dead Buffalo Lake. 
After a few exchanges, the Sioux retreated.

7/27   1889: Not long after the establishment of the 
Great Sioux Reservation the U.S. government decided to 
try to reduce the Indians’ holdings once again. The plan 
was to establish several smaller reservations and to open 
up millions of acres for white settlement. Led by General 
George Crook, the treaty commission arrived at the Standing 
Rock Agency to convince the Sioux to sell their lands for 
$1.50 an acre. A previous commission’s efforts to offer them 
fifty cents an acre failed miserably.

7/28    1864: According to some sources, over 5,000 Santee 
and Teton Sioux engaged in a battle at Killdeer, North 
Dakota, with over 2,000 soldiers. General Alfred Sully 
led the army, and Chief Inkpaduta led the Sioux. Artillery eventually 
won the day for the soldiers.

To see some pictures of the area, visit my website at:

7/29   1857: Colonel Edwin "Old Bull" Sumner, with 
three companies of infantry and six troops of cavalry, 
was proceeding down the Solomon’s Fork River in western 
Kansas. The cavalry was a few miles ahead of the infantry 
when they encountered 300 Cheyenne warriors. The Indians 
were rested. The soldiers were tired. A running battle 
ensued with a few deaths on either side. Sumner’s cavalry 
held their own against a large group of Cheyenne. The 
Cheyenne had been told by a medicine man they would be 
immune to the soldier’s bullets if the washed themselves 
in a sacred spring. This was one of the rare occasions 
when the Cheyenne faced the soldiers in an open battle. 
The medicine man was wrong. Disheartened by the "bad 
medicine," the Cheyenne took flight. The cavalry charged 
and followed the Indians for miles. One of the officers 
wounded in the battle was J.E.B. Stuart. Soldiers called 
this the Battle of Solomon’s Fork.

7/30 1957: The state of Florida recognized the Miccosuke 
Seminole Nation.

7/31    1885: Louis Riel addressed the jury in his own 
defense. He had pleaded insanity based on his lawyer’s recommendation. 
Today he denied that he was insane. He 
said he had a mission to help all the peoples of northwestern Canada. He 
was found guilty by the jury.


That's it for now, there is more to come.


End of July 2004 Newsletter from Phil Konstantin - Part 1 

July 2004 Newsletter from Phil Konstantin - Part 2 


FYI, Part 1 of this newsletter may have been labled as May 
2004. The newsletter you received a few days ago, was the 
July newsletter - Part 1.

I mentioned in Part 1 that I have either been exceptionally 
busy, or doing almost nothing for the last month. There 
were two reasons for this. I have been doing my normal job. 
Plus, I have been talking some classes on the proper use 
of two pieces of software: Photoshop and Flash. About a 
month ago, I had a surgical procedure called "Ambulatory Phlebectomy," 
or ligation of the great saphenous vein. 
This was to treat a serious case of varicose veins. This 
appears to have been causing poor circulation in my lower 
leg, and increasing pain in the same area for the last 
five years. Put simply, "Ambulatory Phlebectomy" is the 
removal of a small section of one of the veins. In my 
case, it was done just where my leg joins my pelvis. 
They also did what is called sclerotherapy. In this 
procedure, your doctor injects the vein with a solution 
that scars those vein. The process closes the vein, 
forcing your blood to reroute to healthier veins. The 
procedure lasted about 45 minutes. It wasn't too bad. 
They did hit a nerve that wasn't deadened. That hurt 
a bit. I was able to walk out on my own. My daughter 
Sarah came with me, and drove me home. I had to keep 
my leg propped up as much as I could for a couple of 
days. This happened on my days off, so I went back to 
work without missing any time. I still get a twinge or 
two at the scene of the incision. It is occasionally 
sore where the vein is slowly closing down. Varicose 
veins run in the family. My father had a similar operation 
about 20 years ago. I'm doing well, and the incision 
has been healing nicely.

Now, if I could just lose 100 pounds! :-)

For those of you that have been interested in getting a copy 
f my book, but could not afford it, it has gone down in price, recently. 
You can get a brand new copy for $14.00 (+s&h), and a "used" copy from 
dealers who returned ones that did not sell 
for about $4-5 (+s&h) through any of the links on my website. 
Most of the listed "used" copies have a mark on them to show 
they were once offered for sale, but were returned. Here is 
the link for my store page:

There will be a part 3 in a day or two. It will have a movie 
review (Greu Owl), and anything else I forgot to put in this 



I also mentioned in Part 1 that I had planned on presenting 
some material on the land issues facing the Western Shoshone. 
Some computer problems led to me losing a lot of the material 
I had collected, including some detailed e-mails. I will post 
here a couple of links to some newspaper articles and a website 
from the Western Shoshone Defense Project:

Western Shoshone Defense Project 

An Open Letter to the President of the United States from the 
Western Shoshone Nation - The Worst Case of Injustice to be 
Inflicted Upon American Indians in More than a Century


Bush signs Western Shoshone payout bill into law

Bush signs Western Shoshone legislation

Mohawk: Western Shoshone case shows need for unity

Official Western Shoshone Opposition to H.R. 884

Western Shoshone buy-out bill passes House


During the last couple of months, I have received several 
inquiries from people wanting to know how they can get a DNA 
test that will help them prove their Indian blood. Most of 
these people have wanted the test so they could enroll in a 
tribe. There have been a couple of TV reports on some companies offering 
this type of testing. i cannot speak to ther veracity 
of the methods or quality of the work of any of these companies. 
The science behind them does appear to be accepted by many 
scientist, though. there do appear to be some specific DNA 
segments that indicate a high probablilty of a person's descent 
from the original inhabitants of this continent.

I am not aware of any significant organization that will accept 
these tests as proof of a person's Indian ancestry. Who knows, 
some of those "pan-Indian" or "all tribes" groups might use this 
type of thing to add an air of legitimacy to their organization. 
However, for many people, just knowing that they really are part Indian, 
is a very important thing.

Here is the website for one of the companies that says it does 
this kind of work. Again, I cannot tell you how accurate their 
claims or methods are:

Native American DNA testing:


From the Cherokee Nation newsletter:

**** Cultural Tidbits **** 

State of Sequoyah The U.S. government attempted to abolish 
the governments of the Five Civilized Tribes effective March 
4, 1906. This was through the Curtis Act. Most of the members 
of the United States Congress were in favor of Indian Territory 
and Oklahoma Territory combining into one state. Most of the 
Native Americans, and some whites who legally resided in 
Indian Territory, were adamantly against united with Oklahoma Territory. 
In April, 1905, President Theodore Roosevelt 
promoted single statehood at each stop of his railroad 
campaign throughout Indian Territory. However, a separate 
state, consisting of the Five Civilized Tribes located in 
Indian Territory, was proposed. The name of that state would be 
"Sequoyah." J.A. Norman wrote, "Oklahoma has already thrown 
down the gauntlet of statehood by holding this summer a 
convention to form a constitution for Oklahoma and Indian 
Territories as one state. We, as Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, 
Chickasaw, Seminole, and Osage Indians, together with the 
whites and blacks in our midst, have the same right to call 
a constitutional convention, to adopt a constitution for the 
Indian Territory’s new state, called "Sequoyah," and submit 
it to the next congress to ratify as it is already duly bound 
to do so by sacred and solemn treaties. American citizens, the 
loyal patriotic matter is now us to you." It was said that 
Norman’s letter "Lighted a match and set the prairies on fire." Norman 
later joined with Cherokee Chief Rogers, and Choctaw 
Chief McCurtain, and called for a constitutional convention. 
They were soon joined by Muscogee (Creek) Chief Porter and 
Seminole Chief Brown. However, Chickasaw Chief Johnston was 
in favor of joint statehood with Oklahoma and refused to 
participate. However, he later sent William Murray who was 
his private secretary. The convention convened on August 22, 
1905 and was held at the Hinton Theater in downtown Muskogee, Muscogee 
(Creek) Nation, Indian Territory. The hall was 
decorated with pictures of the Cherokee inventor Sequoyah, 
pictures of the Five Civilized Tribes’ Chiefs, as well as 
American flags and a picture of Theodore Roosevelt. The 
festivities were embelished by the Muskogee Merchant’s Band. 
The Muskogee Phoenix reported that ". . . hardshelled single 
staters figuratively wept bitter tears." The elected Chairman 
of the Constitution Committee was W.W. Hastings (Cherokee) of Tahlequah. 
Some of the hottest debates were the boundaries 
of the proposed 48 counties, but suffrage for women was also 
a topic of much discussion. Due to the matrilineal structure 
of the Cherokee society, the Cherokee representatives fought earnestly 
for the right to vote being given to both sexes. 
The Principal Chiefs stated on October 1, "Indian Territory 
has reached to period of transition from tribal government 
to that of statehood. The policy of the United States expressed 
in treaties and upheld by the United States government has 
always consistently maintained the position that out of the 
country owned and occupied by the nations of the Indian 
Territory at the right time a state or states should be formed 
by its people. This time was fixed by the agreements closing 
the tribal governments March 4, 1906. Through this transition 
our present government shall not be annihilated but transformed 
into material for a nobly builded state. This shall we have 
life, not death." It was signed, "the Principal Chiefs of the Cherokee, 
Choctaw, Seminole and Creek Nations. The Sequoyah Constitution was 
published on October 14, 1905 with an election 
on November 7. 65,352 votes were cast, and 56,279 were for 
the ratification of the constitution. Only 9,073 were against. 
A copy of the constitution, along with the results of the 
votes, were sent to U.S. Congress. However, Congress would not 
even consider it. The St. Louis Republic editorialized, "the 
Indians are powerless to enforce the bargains which Congress 
made with them, and organized government is absolutely necessary 
to the whites who have gone, and are still going fast, into 
the Territory." A handbill promoting the State of Sequoyah stated, 
"These treaties so far as they apply to the lands owned 
by the Five Civilized Tribes, and to those lands alone, have 
never been repealed, but expressly ratified in later treaties... 

If these promises are not binding upon the United States, then 
our government and people can be bound by no treaty. If we do 
not scrupulously respect the rights flowing from these treaties 
no one can reasonably place confidence in our national honor. 
In 1907, Indian and Oklahoma territores were merged into one 
state whose name is a Choctaw word for ‘home of the red man,’ – 


National Indian Education Association 
700 N. Fairfax Street, Suite 210 Alexandria, VA 22314 
703-838-2870 / 703-828-1620 fax 

Testimony of Cindy La Marr President, National Indian Education 
Association Before the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs on 
the No Child Left Behind Act June 16, 2004 

Chairman Campbell, Vice Chairman Inouye and Members of the 
Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, thank you for this 
opportunity to submit testimony on behalf of the National 
Indian Education Association (NIEA) with regard to the impact 
of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act on Indian students 
and educators of Indian students. NIEA actively advocates 
on behalf of our membership and their requests to address 
concerns and issues relating to the education of Native 
youth throughout the nation. Thank you for responding to 
NIEA's request for an oversight hearing on the NCLB. It is 
an important beginning as we work together to implement 
the newly signed Executive Order on American Indian and A
laska Native Education and address issues related to the NCLB Act. 

"No Child Left Behind" Act 
The primary legislation that authorizes federal spending on education, 
the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) 
was reauthorized in January of 2002, now known as the "No 
Child Left Behind" Act. NCLB requires states to set 12-year 
goals to ensure that all students meet state academic standards 
and to close achievement gaps between rich and poor, and 
minority and non-minority students. The central pillars of 
NCLB are: 
(1) increased accountability through testing; 
(2) more choices for parents and students who attend Title 
I schools that fail to meet State standards; 
(3) greater flexibility for states, school districts, and 
schools in the administration of NCLB programs; and 
(4) a major emphasis on reading through the Reading 
First initiative. 

In addition, Title VII of the NCLB specifically addresses 
programs for American Indian students. Title VII of the NCLB 
It is the policy of the United States to fulfill the Federal 
Government’s unique and continuing trust relationship with 
and responsibility to the Indian people for the education 
of Indian Children. The Federal Government will continue to 
work with local educational agencies, Indian tribes and organizations, 
postsecondary institutions, and other entities 
toward the goal of ensuring that programs that serve Indian 
children are of the highest quality and provide for not only 
the basic elementary and secondary educational needs, but 
also the unique educational and culturally related academic 
needs of these children. (NCLB, Section 7101) 

This provision squarely situates Federal Indian Education 
policy within the Federal Government’s trust responsibility 
to Indian people. The real question is what can be accomplished 
and will the Federal Government make a commitment sufficiently 
great as to ensure the success of that policy, whose purpose 
is largely to undo the extraordinary harm that the Federal 
government has done to Indian peoples over the course of many 
years. True success will come only when Indian students are 
receiving a high quality education that not only prepares them 
for the demands of contemporary society, but also thoroughly 
grounds them in their own history, culture and language. 

Congress coupled the new reforms in ESEA with historic increases 
in funding and targeting schools with high percentages of low-
income children. However, the President's FY05 Budget under 
funds ESEA by $9.4 billion below the authorized level. Our 
emphasis right now should be to follow through on this previous 
commitment made by the President and Congress, and to meet the 
goals of the NCLB, especially for Indian children.. 

A basic tenet of federal Indian policy is that the education 
of Indians is the responsibility of the federal government. 
The NCLB law directly addresses improving the quality of 
education for Indian students in the BIA school system; 
however, over 92% of the nation’s Indian children attend 
State run public schools. U.S. Department of Education’s 
National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) most recent 
data charts (2001) indicate 584,153 Indian children attend the nation’s 
public schools, while only about 49,000 attend BIA 
schools. The 460,285 children served under NCLB Title VII 
Formula Grants to school districts (OIE data, 2001), generate 
minimal funds, at an average of $226 per pupil per year. These 
meager amounts of money cannot come close to guaranteeing 
equal access to quality educational services for the vast 
majority of Indian students attending State-run public schools 
across the nation. In order to develop a comprehensive approach 
to improve the educational level of Indian people, federal 
policy must be developed and implemented in collaboration with 
Tribes and Indian educators. 

State public education systems and local public schools must be 
made accountable to put policies and programs into practice 
that uphold the rights of American Indian students to reap 
the benefits of education reform as promised in NCLB. NIEA 
has serious concerns about several obstacles this Act presents 
to Indian communities, particularly to those who live in remote, 
isolated and economically disadvantaged environments. Key factors that 
inhibit the successful implementation of NCLB in Indian communities 
include: Financial Resources. Schools serving Indian students receive 
inadequate levels of funding through Title VII 
to allow for the development of culturally oriented academic programs. 
President Bush’s proposed FY 2005 Budget for the 
Department of Education, while providing for an overall increase 
of 3%, provides no increases for the Title VII programs serving American 
Indian students. 

According to a September 2003 GAO report on BIA schools, the 
BIA student population “is characterized by factors that are generally 
associated with higher costs in education. Almost 
all students live in poverty, and more than half are limited 
in English proficiency. A substantial number have disabilities.” 
(GAO Report: GAO-03-955, p. 5). 

Similar factors would increase costs to non-BIA schools with 
large Indian populations. Time Frames for Results. The time 
frames for results do not adequately account for the investment 
in time and resources required to develop effective culturally 
based education approaches or to develop curricula that reflect 
the cultural and linguistic heritage of the community. In Indian 
Country, there is no “one size fits all” when it comes to 
culturally based curricula. Each Indian community has to develop 
its own curriculum because each Indian community has its own language, 
culture and history. 

Obviously, developing sound curricula is going to be a lengthy 
and costly process. Testing Validity and Reliability. School-
based testing requirements fail to recognize the implication 
of the high student mobility and drop-out rates that are characteristic 
of Indian communities. Therefore, year-to-year measures and comparisons 
of the effectiveness of school-based improvements are meaningless. Also, 
tests measuring academic performance and achievement are generally 
culturally inappropriate for Indian students. As a result, cultural and 
Indian language programs are often subsumed as schools shift the 
curriculum to 
meet the stringent academic standards measured by these tests. 

Definition of “Highly Qualified.” 
According to NCLB, the definition of a highly qualified teacher refers 
to subject matter competence as defined by certification 
and college majors. The statute does not add to this definition 
the concept of capacity and knowledge of local traditions, beliefs and 
values in order to be an effective teacher of Indian students 
or the fact that remote and isolated communities have limited 
access to highly qualified teachers as defined. 

Available Knowledge of “What Works.” Knowledge of “what works” 
for Indian education programs may exist but often are not 
locally available. High quality information that is both 
available and accessible is needed in order to develop effective 
strategies to improve school programs. Available Strategic Partnership. 
Accomplishment of the broad based goals of the 
statute requires strategic partnerships. The availability of 
these partnerships in small, rural and isolated communities 
is limited and often very difficult to coordinate Accountability. Many 
schools that serve Indian populations simply do not have 
the resources to meet the NCLB standards. Alternatives are not readily 
available and accountability must be guided by 
practicality and a real focus on supporting disadvantaged 
school systems in their efforts to improve educational 
outcomes. Other Issues. NCLB also provides confused guidance 
on adequate yearly progress mandates, inadequate assessment 
examples for limited English proficient students, weakened protections 
to prevent high dropout rates to occur, a lack of 
focus on parental involvement, a lack of recognition of 
paraprofessional’s qualifications, and a basic denial of civil 
rights protections for children. 

The recent waivers and extensions of time frames for results 
granted by Secretary of Education, Rod Paige, are also needed 
in Indian County, as they relate to teacher qualifications and 
regulations mandating the testing of special education students 
and those who speak limited English. 

Executive Order on American Indian and Alaska Native Education 
On April 30, 2004, President Bush signed the Executive Order on American 
Indian and Alaska Native Education (E.O. 13336) whose purpose is to 
assist American Indian and Alaska Native students 
to meet the challenging academic standards of the No Child Left Behind 
Act in a manner consistent with tribal traditions, 
languages and cultures. NIEA worked closely with the U.S. 
Department of Education and The White House in the drafting of 
the Executive Order. NIEA has high expectations that the EO will 
lead to specific proposals to enhance Indian education under the NCLB. 
It will take extensive consultation with Indian Country 
and sufficient Federal funding to fulfill the promise of this Executive 
Order and of the NCLB. 

Through this EO, Congress and the Administration have recognized 
that a culturally based education approach is, for Natives, not 
only an educational strategy for improved achievement but also a 
fundamental "civil right” for Indian people. Indian communities 
have a fundamental right to support and retain their languages 
and culture. The EO firmly establishes several major principals 
with regard to Indian education, including: ń recognition of the legal 
relationship between the United States and American Indian tribes, as 
well as a special relationship with Alaska Native entities; ń the 
commitment of the Federal government to work with tribes on a 
government-to-government basis; ń evidence of the Administration's 
support for tribal sovereignty and tribal self-determination; ń 
parameters to assist American Indian and Alaska Native students to meet 
the challenging academic standards of the 
No Child Left Behind Act in a manner consistent with tribal traditions, 
languages and cultures. This is an important step 
towards refining the No Child Left Behind Act so that it works 
for Indian students in a manner that supports Indian culture. 

Budget Issues FY 2005 Department of Education Budget Request. 
The FY 2005 Budget Request proposes a 3% increase for the 
Department of Education. However, Indian Education program 
funding levels would remain the same as for FY 2004 (and remain 
down from the FY 2003 level); the Education for Native Hawaiians program 
would remain the same as for FY 2004, as would the 
Alaskan Indian Education Equity Funding. It is difficult to understand 
why these programs were not given an equitable 
funding increase. The FY 2005 Budget Request for Impact Aid, 
which provides financial support to school districts affected 
by Federal lands, is also proposed to be held flat. Because 
of the trust status of most Indian lands, this program is 
extremely important for public schools located on or near 
Indian lands. Also, the President’s FY 2005 Budget Request 
includes a $1 billion increase (8 %) for low-income school 
grants which are provided through Title I of the NCLB. 

This increase falls more than $7 billion short of the NCLB 
authorized level. The President’s budget would also provide a 
$1 billion increase (10 %) for special education grants which 
are authorized through the Individuals with Disabilities 
Education Act which still is less than half the full funding 
authorization level when the IDEA was first adopted in 1975. T
hese inadequate increases also eliminates 38 education programs 
that provide vital services to Indian children, such as dropout 
prevention, gifted and talented education, school counseling, 
and after-school programs. While increases in Title I funding 
are relatively large overall; if a relatively small portion of 
that increase were placed in the Title VII Indian Education 
Funding, the impact would be vast. 

Data does not show how Title I increases have benefited Indian students. 
NIEA recommends that some portion of Title I funds be shifted to Title 
VII Indian Education programs, or that a 
concerted measure be put into place that guarantees Title I 
funds truly reach Indian students. 

FY 2005 Department of the Interior Budget Request. The overall Interior 
budget is proposed to be cut by 0.5%, which includes 
$66 million cut for Indian school construction funding. The 
Senate needs to resolve this oversight and restore the education funds 
proposed to be cut put back into the Interior budget. 
Based on the BIA's budget book, education programs are targeted 
for reductions of nearly $79 million, which includes: 

Scholarships reduced by $547,000; 
Early Childhood Development reduced by $33,000, which includes 
the highly regarded Family and Child Education (FACE) program 
and a cut to the Therapeutic Residential Model (TRM) program 
to help at-risk Indian students. 
Student Transportation reduced by $58,000; 
Administrative Cost Grants/Administrative Cost Grants Fund 
reduced by $3.2 million; 
School Statistics reduced by $2,000, although the No Child Left Behind 
Act calls for maintenance of performance-related data; 
Tribal Colleges and Universities are proposed to be cut by $5.2 million, 
with the United Tribes Technical College in North 
Dakota and Crownpoint Institute of Technology in New Mexico 
slated for elimination; and 
Replacement school construction and for facilities improvement 
and repair is proposed to be reduced by $69 million, or when 
reduced by related offsets, $65 million,. 

The House Appropriations Committee recently requested funds 
be restored and includes $645 million for BIA education, a 
$4 million increase over current funding levels. The Committee 
also recommended restoration of funding for BIA school 
construction, the United Tribes Technical College and the 
Crownpoint Institute. Conclusion Although our concerns reflect 
a negative tone, NIEA is encouraged by the atmosphere of the 
Congress to move forward with real efforts to address the needs 
of our children. The priority for them to have a successful 
future rests on our shoulders and they should not have to 
sacrifice while we deliberate their basic educational needs. 
NIEA respectfully urges this Committee to make Indian education 
a priority, working to find ways to ensure true progress for 
Indian students. We encourage this committee to hold field 
hearings and listening sessions throughout Indian Country to 
hear the Indian voice. It is eloquent and compelling, and 
without exception calls for a greater investment in our 


Job Openings:
Various Contract Positions, 
Contract Positions 
Visitor Services Representatives: 
9 - Twelve month contract positions 
9 - Four month contract positions 
This will is a contract position equivalent to the Federal 
GS-05 level $27,597 yr 
The Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian is 
seeking individuals to join its Visitor Services Department 
as Visitor Services Representatives for the Museum in Washington, D.C. 
The Museum's Visitor Services department supports a wide 
range of daily operations in the public areas of the Mall Museum located 
in Washington, D.C. 

The Visitor Services Representative is responsible for 
facilitating visitation to NMAI by creating a welcoming 
environment for all visitors to the museum. They will direct 
line queues both inside and outside the museum; issue timed 
entry passes; provide visitor orientation prior to entry; 
answer questions concerning the museum regarding exhibits, 
education, membership, and questions about the surrounding 
area including directions to other museums, parking, etc. and distribute 
museum guides, brochures and maps. They will 
also facilitate access to the Museum's two theaters; answer 
questions; introduce films; maintain attendance records; and 
provide crowd control. 

Experience and skills desired in: 
Ability to communicate orally to interact with visitors and 
answer content-related questions. 
Knowledge of crowd management and emergency procedures. 
Ability to print, distribute, and collect timed entry passes. 
Knowledge of Native American tribal customs and cultures. 

To apply, send your most recent resume along with a separate 
sheet (s) or cover letter that gives specific examples of the 
experiences that have prepared you for the job responsibilities 
and the four job skills listed above. 

Applications will be reviewed in two rounds. The deadline for 
the first round is July 15th, 2004. Any unfilled positions will 
then be filled with applications postmarked before July 30, 2004. 
Send completed application via e-mail, fax or regular mail: 
E-mail applications to Scott Tucker at tuck-@si.edu 
FAX applications to 202-314-3902. 
Mail applications to Scott Tucker, Visitor Services Manager 
National Museum of the American Indian 
Mall Museum Transition Office 
901 D Street, SW Suite 704 
Washington, DC 20024 
Contract Positions will begin on Sept 1, 2004 in Washington, 
DC. For further information, call Scott Tucker at 202-252-0049. 
Application procedures require submission of a resume and a 
cover letter with a specific description of how the candidate 
meets the position requirements. For more job information, a 
list of specific position requirements, and instructions for 
sending applications, e-mail Scott Tucker at tuck-@si.edu, 
or call him at 202-252-0049. 

Also, be sure to check the Museum's website to search for all new 
job listings, www.nmai.si.edu. 
The Smithsonian is an equal opportunity employer. 


Native Food Summit 2004 
September 9-11,2004 Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
Sponsored by First Nations Development Institute.


Four Directions UK works with Native Americans to protect 
Sacred Places. Through education and activism we work to 
raise awareness, secure protection, highlight injustices 
and deepen understanding of the sacredness of land.

Current campaigns include:

Medicine Lake Highlands
Sacred to five Indian Nations, the Medicine Lake Highlands 
of northern California are threatened by Federally approved geothermal 

San Francisco Peaks, Arizona
The San Francisco Peaks are sacred to 13 tribes, including the Navajo, 
Hopi and Yavapai Apache. A ski resort development is proposed on the 
Peaks which are part of the Coconino National 
Forest and fall under the U.S. Forest Service's domain.

Coteau, North Dakota
A proposal to expand an existing coal strip mine will destroy 
approximately 1349 sacred sites, burials and stone effigies, 
all of which are within the 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty territory.

Western Shoshone
The USA continues in its efforts to force a land settlement upon 
the Western Shoshone people.

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
The threat posed by plans to drill for oil in the Refuge has 
not gone away and the Gwich'in people continue to campaign to preserve 
the Porcupine caribou herd.

Mini-bus Appeal
We're also working to secure funding to run a Tribal Colleges 
mini-bus in Montana and South Dakota to enable students to 
make field trips to visit cultural, historic and sacred sites.


Four Directions UK is about being active; about doing, 
experiencing and seeing. Our main aims are:

To raise awareness of the reality of "Native America" as it 
is today, particularly with regards to sacred sites, land 
claims and the repatriation of sacred remains and objects

To network and campaign on these issues and to help our members 
to do so To promote and facilitate the expansion and development 
of Native Studies courses in the UK

To build lasting working relationships with Native American 
Nations, organisations and individuals

It costs nothing to become a member of Four Directions UK. 
Simply sign up to receive our regular email "Alerts!", bulletins 
and articles. Send a blank email to 
four.dir-@virgin.net with "Subscribe" in the subject.

visit our Website at www.fourdirections.org.uk



Apology Resolution Ready for Vote Following SCIA’s Approval


Albuquerque team owned by Mission tribe member INDIANAPOLIS -- 

The American Basketball Association is adding an expansion team 
based in Albuquerque, New Mexico comprised exclusively of Native 
American players, league co-founder Joe Newman announced Monday. 
The team's owner, CEO and president is WS Spider Ledesma II of 
the Mission tribe, who is of Mexican-Indian ancestry. Ledesma 
played professionally in Europe and attended NBA Veteran's Camp 
in 1987 and 1988. "We've been working with Spider Ledesma for 
over a year, trying to put together an organization and team 
for Native America," Newman said. 

"With diversity a key ABA goal, we can't think of anything more fitting. 
We are very proud to have a team named 'Native America' 
in the ABA and playing in the great city of Albuquerque." Players 
of North American Indian descent can try out for the team at 
various regional tryouts scheduled between July 10 in Billings, Montana 
and August 21 in Phoenix, Arizona. 


From: Andre Cramblit 
Subject: Losing Soul 
City Is Losing a Part of Its Soul in Playa Vista 
COMMENTARY By Peter Nabokov 

Over the last few months, one of the largest American Indian 
burial grounds ever found in California - or the nation - has 
been rising out of the earth in West Los Angeles, more than 
275 bodies at last count. You can see the site from Lincoln Boulevard - 
those big green tents on land that developers mean 
to turn into an Edenic stream, open space for the 13,000 people 
who will populate the master-planned Playa Vista community. 
Each day more resting places of Los Angeles' original 
inhabitants, those we know as the Gabrielino-Tongva, are 
being exposed and their bones brushed clean. Rib cages and 
skulls, basketry remnants and personal goods are sifted from 
the dirt. Some of the remains are 4,000 years old; some date 
from the days of the Spanish missions. Each is laid in a 
cardboard banker's box - stacks of them fill metal shipping containers - 
to be reinterred someplace else. It is all being 
done as competently, rapidly, legally and as quietly as 

By the time most of us get around to realizing what has 
happened, Los Angeles will have lost its last, best chance 
to suitably memorialize these people, and to redress, in 
even a small way, a criminal chapter in our history - the 
eviction and decimation of California's native peoples. 
None of this is underhanded. The brigade of reputable 
archeologists hired by Playa Vista is apparently doing a 
professional job, energized by an unparalleled opportunity 
to learn about the past. 

The Indian monitors on the site - 
mournfully walking from grave to grave, making sure that no 
bones are photographed and that each bead and arrowhead is 
handled properly - are exercising to the letter of the law 
a host of Indian grave-protection statutes passed since the 
1980s. The multiple Indian groups still in contention over 
the site have every democratic right to debate how to handle 
the situation - whether to protest the grave removals or 
make pacts with the powerful Playa Vista lawyers. 

Even environmentalists, who have resisted development at Playa 
Vista and the associated West Bluffs for nearly two decades, 
are understandably grateful for a little more wetland, and 
grow silent when it comes to fighting on behalf of the Indians' cultural 
claims. And the Playa Vista developers? They too are 
acting on the letter of the law, protected by the 
powerlessness of the Gabrielinos, who like so many native 
California peoples never won federal recognition as a tribe. 
They are free to boast about the picture-perfect "riparian 
corridor" they will create out of a neglected ditch, to 
explain how disinterring and reinterring bones adds up to 
respect for Indian tradition. It's all so "correct." Yet 
it's all so wrong. Other graveyards get automatic respect. 
Who would touch Westwood's national cemetery? A graveyard in 
Ventura is piously characterized as a "pioneer" cemetery and 
left as a park where visitors can meditate on those who came 

Whenever African American slave graveyards turn up, they are 
likewise accorded sacred handling and pride of place. And in Victoria, 
British Columbia, politically adept Chinatown 
associations combined with civic pride to save a Chinese 
cemetery on a prime piece of waterfront. Shouldn't that happen 
here? Shouldn't the discovery of a sacred zone of such 
magnitude as this burial ground have caused everyone to halt 
work and take stock - and then to find imaginative ways to 
redeem the past? Shouldn't a Gabrielino park or museum 
memorialize this place, anchored by the solemn right of these 
dead to remain there, with their possessions, forever? Not at 
Playa Vista. 

In years past, Hughes Aircraft and other landowners bulldozed 
away other graves here. And just this year, on nearby West 
Bluffs, a village site was destroyed to clear the way for a 
114-home luxury neighborhood. Now this last remaining bit of 
what we know as Saa'angva, the Gabrielino communities of 
Ballona Creek, is getting its cosmetic surgery. After we 
complete the eviction of the Indian bodies, spirits and 
histories at Playa Vista and make what's left into a picture-
perfect creek, we will gradually forget who first humanized 
this landscape and settled our city. Everyone is just doing 
his or her job. Everything about this is wrong. * 


Links to interesting articles:

Juliana Marez sent me this one on a very interesting article:

Guts and Greast: The Diet of Native Americans by Sally Fallon and Mary 
G. Enig, PhD 

Miss USA’s costume offends Native viewers
photo of the costume: 


I may have already posted this, but it bears repeating, if 
I have...

Sally Sent Me This... 
An elder Cherokee was teaching his grandchildren about life.

He said to them, "A fight is going on inside me; it is a 
terrible fight and it is between two wolves. One wolf 
represents fear, anger, envy, sorrow, regret, greed, 
arrogance, self-pity, guilt, resentment, inferiority, 
lies, false pride, competition, superiority, and ego.

The other stands for joy, peace, love, hope, sharing, 
serenity, humility, kindness, friendship, empathy, 
generosity, truth, compassion, and faith. This same fight 
is going on inside you, and inside every other person, too."

They thought about it for a minute and then one child asked 
his grandfather,

"Which wolf will win?"

The old Grandpa simply replied, "The one you feed."



Jay Crosby sent this bit of humor

Dilbert's Rules of Order 
1.I can only please one person per day. Today is not your day. Tomorrow 
is not looking good either. 
2. I love deadlines. I especially like the whooshing sound they 
make as they go flying by. 
3. Tell me what you need, and I will tell you how to get along without 
4. Accept that some days you are the pigeon and some days the 
5. Needing someone is like needing a parachute. If they aren't 
there the first time, chances are you won't be needing them 
6. I don't have an attitude problem, you have a perception 
7. Last night I lay in bed looking up at the stars in the sky, 
and thought to myself, where the heck is the ceiling? 
8. My reality check bounced. 
9. On the keyboard of life, always keep one finger on the 
escape key. 
10. I don't suffer from stress, I am a carrier. 
11. You are slower than a herd of turtles stampeding through 
peanut butter. 
12. Do not meddle in the affairs of dragons, because you are 
crunchy and taste good with ketchup. 
13. Everybody is somebody else's weirdo. 
14. Never argue with an idiot. They drag you down to their 
level and then beat you with experience. 
15. A pat on the back is only a few centimetres from a kick 
in the butt. 
16. Don't be irreplaceable - if you can't be replaced, you 
can't be promoted. 
17. After any salary raise, you will have less money at the 
end of the month than you did before. 
18. The more crap you put up with, the more crap you are
going to get. 
19. You can go anywhere you want if you look serious and 
carry a clipboard. 
20. Eat one live toad first thing in the morning and nothing 
worse will happen to you for the rest of the day. 
21. People who go to conferences are the ones who shouldn't. 
22. If it wasn't for the last minute, nothing would get done. 
23. When you don't know what to do, walk fast and look worried. 
24. Following the rules will not get the job done. 
25. When confronted by a difficult problem, you can solve it more easily 
by reducing it to the question "How would the Lone Ranger handle this?". 


I really enjoyed this one!!!!!!!

From Donna Page:

To all my dear friends, thank you SO much for all the chain 
letters you sent me in 2003. If it weren't for you I might be dead ... 
or worse! Here are just a few of the ways my life has changed because of 
those wonderful & Informative chain letters: 

* I stopped drinking Coca Cola after I found out that it's good 
for removing toilet stains. 
* I stopped going to the movies for fear of sitting on a needle infected 
with AIDS. 
* I smell like a dog since I stopped using deodorants because 
they cause cancer.
* I don't leave my car in the parking lot or any other place 
and sometimes I even have to walk about 7 blocks for fear that someone 
will drug me with a perfume sample and try to rob me.
* I also stopped answering the phone for fear that they ask me 
to dial a stupid number and then I get a phone bill from hell 
with calls to Uganda, Singapore and Tokyo.
* I stopped buying gas at EXXON-MOBIL
* I stopped consuming several foods for fear that the chemicals 
they contain may turn me gay.
* I also stopped eating chicken and hamburgers because they 
are nothing other than horrible mutant freaks with no eyes or feathers 
that are bred in a lab so that places like McDonald's 
can sell their Big Macs.
* I also stopped drinking anything out of a can for fear that 
I will get sick from the rat feces and urine.
* I think I'm turning gay because when I go to parties, I don't 
look at women no matter how hot they are for fear that they 
will put something in my drink, take my kidneys and leave me 
taking a nap in a bathtub full of ice somewhere in Mexico.
* I also donated all my savings to the Amy Bruce account. A 
sick girl that was about to die in the hospital about 7,000 
times. Funny that girl, she's been 7 since 1993...
* I went bankrupt from bounced checks that I made expecting the $15,000 
that Microsoft and AOL were supposed to send me when I participated in 
their special e-mail programs.
* My Ericcson phone never arrived and neither did the passes 
for a paid vacation to Disneyland. But I am positive that all 
this is the cause of a stinking chain that I broke or forgot 
to follow or an email I didn't forward.

IMPORTANT NOTE: If you don't send this e-mail to at least 1200 
people in the next 10 seconds, a bird will poop on you today at 
7pm and the price of gas will go to $5.00 a gallon, but only at 
the stations where you buy gas.- 

Note from Phil: 
I did get to retire on my share of the $30,000,000 the assassinated 
Nigerian Government official left in a numbered account that his 
relatives could not access without my help. 


From: Andre Cramblit
BEING INDIAN IS.............. 
Being Indian Is-feeding anyone and everyone who comes to your 
door hungry, with whatever you have. 
Being Indian Is-having every third person you meet tell you about 
his great-grandmother who was a real Cherokee princess and 
realizing Natives didn’t have royalty, and knowing this 
stereotypes hurts your Cherokee friends 
Being Indian Is-being broke all year long because you 
try to make every pow wow, basketball, and softball tourney. 
Being Indian Is- knowing what the pow-wow trail, basketball/
softball circuit really means. 
Being Indian Is-knowing that terrorism happened on this soil 
before September 11 
Being Indian Is-loving frybread and deer meat. 
Being Indian is knowing at least someone with a Haskell Story. 
Being Indian is knowing how to snag and then lie about it. 
Being Indian Is-masking your emotions in times of stress. 
Being Indian Is-making a bad joke just cause it amuses you. 
Being Indian is to not pay your phone bill or light bill to 
feed your family. 
Being Indian Is-knowing why Natives love to 49. 
Being Indian Is-respecting your elders who have earned it. 
Being Indian Is-never giving up the struggle for survival. 
Being Indian Is-trading your surplus commodities for something 
you are in more need of. 
Being Indian Is-having a smile on your face when you explain 
that not every tribe gets a Per-Cap from gaming proceeds. 
Being Indian Is-being known for your great sense of humor and 
having the ability to make jokes and laughter out of the worse 
situation. Being Indian Is-not rioting in the streets but 
occupying godforsaken places like Alcatraz, Mount Rushmore, the 
New York-Canadian bridge, etc. and Whiteclay, Nebraska!!! 
Being Indian is to be judged harder by other natives then non-natives. 
Being Indian Is-Wondering why sovereignty can’t come up with 
better ideas than casinos and smoke shops 
Being Indian Is-Being courted by presidential candidates every 
four years and forgotten the day after the election 
Being Indian Is-owning land and not being able to rent, leases, 
sell or even farm it yourself without BIA approval. 
Being Indian Is- feeling Red Eagle, Medicine Cloud, and Pretty 
Bear are more beautiful names than Smith, Johnson, or Jones. 
Being Indian Is-watching your daughter give away her only pair 
of overshoes to somebody who needs them more than her. 
Being Indian Is-having your all-Indian school team playing 
against 7 men on the basketball court. 
Being Indian Is-playing basketball at the outdoor hoops on 
the rez till 3:00 am. 
Being Indian Is-not having enough behind to hold up yer Levi’s 
(substitute wranglers for you rodeo Natives) 
Being Indian Is-either borrowing or lending money to your skin brothers 
and sisters at least once a week. (If I have $20 in my pocket I have a 
cousin who is going hungry”) 
Being Indian Is-having people ask if they can touch your hair 
or take your picture. 
Being Indian is to be asked consist if you still live in tipis 
or ride horses every where you go. 
Being Indian Is-worrying about diabetes, alcoholism, heart 
disease, drugs, your elders health, AIDs, SIDs, FAS, lung 
Being Indian Is-knowing why the rez car in "Smoke Signals" 
was funny! Being Indian is knowing what they meant in smoke 
signals by do you have your passports. 
Being Indian is knowing how to barter or trade so every one 
comes out ahead. 
Being Indian Is-being told “you know where I come from if 
someone admires something…” 
Being Indian Is-having more cousins than trees have leaves. 
Being Indian Is-arguing about what tribe makes the best NDN 
Being Indian Is-cutting the mold off the commodity cheese so 
you can eat it anyway. 
Being Indian Is-having to explain *again* why you don't like 
the mascot. (So don't explain more than once, more than likely,
they will abuse your words anyway) 
Being Indian Is-cursing F.A.S. 
Being Indian Is-fighting the likes of Gale Norton. 
Being Indian Is-celebrating Slate Gorton’s Defeat and wondering 
how Ahnult got elected 
Being Indian Is- knowing the Reservation of Education. 
Being Indian is understanding that the worst thing the white 
man could have done is educate us and watching his fear of how 
much we actually know his world. 
Being Indian Is-eating salmon (substitute as appropriate: 
commods, potatoes, zucchini, to little, etc.) for the 6th meal 
in a row. 
Being Indian Is-knowing to many people that have died of 
cirrhosis, exposure, or an "accident". 
Being Indian Is-knowing history started before 1492. 
Being Indian Is-laughing with your friends so much your 
face muscles hurt. 
Being Indian Is-calling someone your cousin but not 
remembering exactly how you are related 
Being Indian Is-singing 49 songs using a garbage can for a 
drum. Being Indian Is-road trips cross-country . . . just because .. . 
Being Indian is knowing you treaty rights....
1648, 1677, 1794,1855,1868 
Being Indian is having the strength to move your family at 
any given moment, for any given reason of another . . . 
and making it . . . Being Indian Is-reading about your 
ancestors and relations in an anthropologist paper. 
Being Indian Is-wondering why new agers are so lost 
Being Indian Is-knowing someone in Oklahoma City, Albuquerque, 
San Francisco, Minneapolis or any other relocation center. 
Being Indian Is-losing your job after the grant ends. 
Being Indian is losing your job because you're different. 
Being Indian Is-having a song come to you at the oddest times 
Being Indian Is-explaining about why you like your hair long 
Being Indian Is-counting the number of brown people photographed 
in magazine advertisements. 
Being Indian Is-celebrating the Makah whale hunt. 
Being Indian Is-full of acronyms that affect your world (BIA, 
Being Indian is not a right-- it's a privilege 
Being Indian is knowing your language or trying to learn it 
Being Indian is concerned about Bush and the next 4 years 
Being Indian Is-shaking your head in dismay at plastic medicine 
men but not saying much cause you know some. 
Being Indian Is celebrating your 4th cousins twice removed 
birthday with the rest of your family 
Being Indian is driving the Rez bomb one-year to long 
Being Indian is being mistaken as Mexican cause your brown 
Being Indian is having strangers tell you how cool you are in 
bars (when they are drunk) and they had an Indian friend when 
they were young 
Being Indian is living the digital divide 
Being Indian is, yumm, commod canned meat and instant mashed 
potatoes Being Indian Is-knowing how many people can sleep on 
the floor of a Motel 6 
Being Indian is hating macaroni necklaces 
Being Indian is-knowing the guy who cried a tear for the 
environment wasn’t 
Native Being Indian Is-wearing a tourney shirt, jacket or 
sweatshirt. Being Indian is waiting for the red Michael Jordan 
Being Indians is admitting you don’t like pow wows, beads, the 
smell of sage or being related to everyone on the rez 
Being Indian is being proud of Jim Thorpe, Billy Mills, Notah 
Begay and Naomi Lang knowing sovereignty is a two-edge sword 
full of good and bad 
Being Indian is understanding the difference between a cousin 
a cozin 
Being Indian is knowing that per caps are another form of 

And the New You could be Indian if....... 
You could be Indian if you attend a General Custer memorial 
dinner, and you wear an Arrow shirt 
You could be Indian if someone at a picnic yells "Hey, you with 
the blanket, over here" and you think it's an invitation for 
You could be Indian if your dancing to "Running Bear" at your 
local bar and it begins to Rain 
You could be Indian if you put a "Free Peltier" sticker on your truck, 
and the FBI wiretaps your house 
You could be Indian if you get into a verbal fight with the 
waiter at your local Mexican restaurant over----Sopapilla, or 
is it Fry Bread? You could be Indian if someone inadvertently 
points out directions with his lips and you know exactly where 
he is talking about. 
You could be Indian if some one asks you your stance on 
immigration, and you just laugh 
You could be Indian if during a night out on the town, you 
announce you're going home and then you drive over five hours 
to get there. You could be Indian if you should turn your head 
while all about you are turning theirs and blaming it on you 
You could be Indian if you use commodity can labels for your 
art collage project 
You could be Indian if when you get hit in the head with an old 
piece of frybread you see bluebirds 
You could be an Indian if all the people in the community or 
town you live in are your cousins! (cousin-brother/cousin-sister) 
You could be Indian if your car starts with a screwdriver 
You could be Indian if you don't understand the purpose for 
storage lockers or their high rental costs, Why, the cars parked 
in your front yard store just as much stuff, plus it's free 
You could be Indian if your head automatically turns at the 
sound of "shhhhhhhht" 
You could be Indian if as a young child, learning your ABC's 
was hard because you wondered what the joke was every time 
you heard "A" (AAAYE) 
You could be Indian if in your everyday life you unintentionally 
seem to be breaking taboos 
You could be Indian if you use the pick up line "...SAY, THOSE 
You could be Indian if you use the pick up line "...HEY, DIDN'T 
You could be Indian if you wake up after your 18th birthday with 
a wrecked truck, a hickey and bus ticket to Haskell 
You could be Indian if your relative gets a nice jacket that you 
wish you had so say, "Geez Hey, I REEEAAALLLY like that Jacket." 
(and he gives it to you) 
You could be Indian if you have had a dog named Bear 
You could be Indian if your travel luggage is designer black 
Hefty Cinch Sacks! 
You could be Indian if you think that the Basic Food Groups are 
Spam, commodity cheese, frybread, and Pepsi 
You could be Indian if your dance outfit is in a suitcase held together 
by duct tape and pow-wow bumper stickers 
You could be Indian if you drive over 25mph and the paint peels 
off your rez truck. You tell your friends that you are letting 
Mother Nature sand it for you before you get a paint job 
You could be Indian and a Pow Wow drum lead singer if your vocal nodules 
exceed the size of your tonsils 
You could be Indian if the first day at your new public school 
you're waiting for circle and the rest of the class stands for 
the pledge of allegiance, and as you look around the room you're 
the only one who doesn't know the words 
You could be Indian if your new History teacher is talking about 
a completely different Columbus then the one your grandmother 
told you about 
You could be an Indian if you tell an ignorant individual 
(dictionary definition) that you are Native American and he/she 
asks if you live in a tipi. 
You could be an Indian if you walk down the hall of a big 
corporation and someone asks you if you could mop up the mess 
that they made and you do it with a smile, but don't tell them 
your their new boss. 
You could be an Indian if you walk into a pub in Texas and strike 
up a conversation with a female patron and find yourself surrounded by 
individuals concerned for the safety of the female patron. 
You could be an Indian, and probably a breed, if you could play cowboys 
and Indians all by yourself as a kid. 
You could be Indian if someone asks you for directions and you 
put aside you Commod grilled cheese sandwich and point the way 
with your lips. 
You could be Indian if you see a rattlesnake after a ground 
squirrel and the first thing you think is "appetizer and main course". 
You could be Indian if you can never get a date with that cute 
rez girl you like, but you can't keep the "New-Agers" off ya 
You could be Indian if you take your car to Midas for a new 
muffler and they tell you first you need a new pipe to run from 
the engine to it 
You could be Indian if someone asks you what you think the 
meaning of life is, and you (jokingly) say "Frybread" 
You could be Indian if drunken guys at a party see your long 
hair and caress your arm as you go by until they also see your irritated 
You could be Indian if every time you saw people doing the 
Tomahawk chop, you wish you had one 
You could be Indian if every time the topic of gambling comes 
up, someone always asks what you think of casinos on rez's 
You could be Indian if you have more aunts and uncles than your 
grandparents had children. 
You could be Indian if you DIDN'T grow up on the rez, and you've 
been called "apple" for it 
You could be Indian if all your heroes have always killed cowboys 
You could be Indian if white people introduce themselves by 
saying they are descendent from a Cherokee princess. 
You could be Indian if you've ever 49'd, 69'd, then 86'd outta 
there. You could be Indian if at the local Indian bar you've 
referred to as bait or an appetizer by the healthier Indian 
You could be Indian if you've often referred to yourself as 
"FLABBIO, the great Indian lover." 
You could be an Indian at college if you refuse to date anyone 
who isn't a skin and you haven't a date for months 
You could be an Indian if your car has almost as much personality 
as you do 
You could be Indian if your car's three best friends are Duct 
Tape, Baling Wire, and WD40. 
You could be Indian if you can get at least 1500 miles out of 
a spare donut tire 
You could be Indian if you get a sense of nostalgia when you 
hear the song "Indian Car" 
You could be Indian if the first thing that comes to your mind 
when you hear the word "commodity" is CHEESE! 
You could be Indian if when you first meet your sweetheart you 
wonder if he/she knows how to cook frybread. 
You could be Indian if as you watch an old western with some 
friends, you are the only one yelling, "Go Cheyenne" 
You could be Indian if a photographer is taking a family picture, 
and he says "CHEESE", and everyone in hearing distance lines up. 
You could be Indian if you read more in the bathroom than 
anywhere else. 
You could be Indian if you had a 3 family garage sale every 
other Saturday. 
You could be Indian if when you are away at college and you 
write to your dad for money and it goes like this: Dear dad no 
mun, no fun. your son and he replies: Dear son, Too bad, so sad. 
Your dad. 


Q: How many people does it take to change a light bulb in 

A: 1 to successfully change the light bulb and to post to the 
mail list that the light bulb has been changed. 14 to share 
similar experiences of changing light bulbs and how the light 
bulb could have been changed differently. 7 to caution about 
the dangers of changing light bulbs. 27 to point out spelling/
grammar errors in posts about changing light bulbs. 53 to 
flame the spell checkers. 156 to write to the list 
administrator complaining about the light bulb discussion 
and its inappropriateness to this mail list. 41 to correct 
spelling in the spelling/grammar flames. 109 to post that 
this list is not about light bulbs and to please take this 
email exchange to alt.lite.bulb. 203 to demand that cross 
posting to alt.grammar, alt.spelling and alt.punctuation about changing 
light bulbs be stopped. 111 to defend the posting to 
this list, saying that, "We are all using light bulbs and 
therefore the posts **are** relevant to this mail list." 306 
to debate which method of changing light bulbs is superior, 
where to buy the best light bulbs, what brands of light bulb 
work best for this technique, and what brands are faulty. 27 
to post URLs where one can see examples of different light 
bulbs. 14 to post that the URLs were posted incorrectly and 
to post corrected URLs. 3 to post about links they found from 
the URLs that are relevant to this list, which makes light 
bulbs relevant to this list. 33 to collate all posts to date, 
then quote them including all headers and footers, and then 
add "Me Too." 12 to post to the list that they are unsubscribing because 
they cannot handle the light bulb controversy. 19 to 
quote the "Me Too's" to say, "Me Three." 4 to suggest that 
posters request the light bulb FAQ. 1 to propose new 
alt.change.lite.bulb newsgroup. 47 to say that this is just 
what this list was meant for, leave it here. 143 votes for a 
new list: alt.lite.bulb. 38 votes proclaiming the advantages 
in using vintage light bulbs. 

From Peter Crowheart:
1. There are three religious truths: 
a. Jews do not recognize Jesus as the Messiah. 
b. Protestants do not recognize the Pope as the leader of the Christian 
c. Baptists do not recognize each other in the liquor store 
or at Hooters.

How To Know You Are At A Native Wedding Reception 
nobody has invitations…..
only hand-drawn maps .
an average of 12 people attend per invitation .
no one goes to the wedding, but everyone goes to the reception .
the bride's kids are the flower girls and the ring-bearer .
the reception is at night and you wonder how white people have weddings 
during the day .
everyone has their own pepsi, dr pepper and coke .
all the centerpieces are gone. 
everyone's kids are running around crazy and all you want to do is throw 
a bottle at them .
the men dress in zoot suits…and the bride is dressed in pink .
the food menu has chile stew, fry bread and beans (don't forget the 
potato salad) .
people are taking foil-covered food plates home .
people are taking huge pieces of cake home .
one relative is drunk and hugging everyone telling them "i love you very 
much" .
the dollar dance lasts over an hour .
there are seven bridesmaids .
the cake was made by daughter, the cake lady, and not the bakery .
the aunties and grandmas dance together .
you have to clean up the community building before you leave. 
the wedding reception ends at 6:00 am the next day at the bride's house 
a fight breaks out .


And finally........

Check out this Portland, Oregon car dealership’s TV ads: (Trunk 


That's it for now, 


End of July 2004 Newsletter from Phil Konstantin - Part 2 

July 2004 Newsletter from Phil Konstantin - Part 3 


Here is the final bit for this part of the month. 

On some e-mail systems, the text of my newsletters breaks up. 
In some cases, it deletes part of an e-mail address. I have 
tried several different methods to get it not to do this.



For this newsletter, I will review the 1999 movie, "Grey Owl."

Quoting from the Apollo Guide review: Based on a true 
story, Grey Owl introduces us to an earnest young guide 
and trapper in the wilderness of 1930s Canada. Grey Owl 
(Pierce Brosnan) is a circumspect fellow. He says little 
about anything – nicely fitting the stereotype of the 
strong, silent North American Indian. Although he generally 
lives in seclusion, Grey Owl does journey to where white 
folks congregate, to work as a guide or perform for 
tourists (he’s got to make a living, after all). One of 
these trips nets him a beautiful female admirer, Pony 
(Annie Galipeau). Pony is a young Mohawk woman whose 
family (Graham Green, as her father) has tried to wipe 
out their roots. She’s curious about her background and 
heritage, so is inspired by the pride the blue-eyed Grey 
Owl (he’s a half-breed, he reports) takes in his connection 
with the land and his own history. 

Grey Owl struggles, first to get Pony out of his life, 
and then to reconcile his work as a trapper with his 
growing concern for the fate of Canada’s dwindling beaver population. He 
writes articles on wilderness preservation 
and then a book. His career peaks with a trip overseas 
to Britain, where he makes a big impact. He’s on top of 
the world, but he remains a mysterious fellow." We learn 
that Grey Owl was adopted into an Ojibwa family when 
his parents died. His family is one of the things that 
he does not want to discuss.

The movie features some nice scenery and a fair amount 
of wildlife. Part of the focus of the movie is how Grey 
Owl transforms himself from a eat-what-you-hunt hunter 
to an environmentalist who wants to protect wildlife. 
The DVD version of this film features some short movies 
made of the real Grey Owl and his beaver friends.

The film spends some time on the trials of any culture 
to survive, and function, within another, larger culture. 
Graham Green's character says: "Pony has this 'Indian 
bug,' wants to live like her ancestors. You can't turn 
back the clock, that life's over." He wants her to go 
back to the big city and get an education. She wants 
to learn about the old ways from Grey Owl, even if he 
isn't Mohawk.

The movie is punctuated with lots of untranslated "native 
language," as the captioning calls it. It does have a 
somewhat authentic feel to it. Richard Attenborough 
(Gandhi) is the director. As a young boy, he actually 
attended one of Grey Owl's lectures in England. The film 
has more of the feel of his brother David's work. David 
is a naturalist, and his style has rubbed off on Richard.

You will recognize a few faces in the background. Floyd 
Red Crow Westerman and Saginaw Grant play old Sioux chiefs 
who thanks Grey Owl for his work to protect the wilderness. 
Floyd's character tells Grey Owl that men become what 
they dream, and he has dreamt well.

One of the delemas Grey Owl must face is playing a "dress-
up" Indian in order to support himself. This problem becomes 
more pronounced as the movie progresses. I have heard many 
modern day people discuss this dichotomy. Many non-Indians 
are curious about the "old ways." So am I, for that fact. Unfortunately, 
this interest can become a self-fulling wish 
for some. Many people expect Indians to wear feathers and 
live in teepees, even when their tribe's "old ways" never 
included such activities. Grey Owl's promoters/publishers 
want his to adopt a war bonnet and other trinckets of 
different cultures, because this is what the unknowing 
public expects. In more that one way, Grey Owl must decide 
if he is the ultimate "wannabe" or a man still looking for 
his true self.

The real Grey Owl wrote several books and articles the were 
far ahead of their time regarding the protection of the 
environment. However, some of his character flaws blinded 
many people to his message.

Both Brosnan and Attenborough could be working on bigger 
projects. The subject matter of this movie, and the man 
it is based on, obviously meant something to them personally.

A exploration with any good search engine ( "Grey Owl" Canada ) 
will reveal LOTS of websites on this interesting, and complex person. 
While the movie has some flaws, it is worthwhile if 
for only reminding modern people of Grey Owl's environmental concerns.


Speaking of movies, subsciber Roscoe Pond sent me a list of 
his favorite movies:

1. Grand Avenue 
2. I heard the Owl call my name 
3. Smoke Signals 
4. Dances with Wolves 
5. PowWow Highway 
6. Legends of the Fall 
7. I will fight no more forever 
8. The Emerald Forest 
9. The Doe Boy 
10. The Last of the Mohicans 
11. Running Brave 
12. The Dark Wind 
13. Windwalker 
14. Little Big Man 
15. Dreamkeeper 
16. Thunderheart 
17. Windtalkers
18. Skins 
19. Fish Hawk 
20. Black Robe 

You can read his reviews here: 


Comments from newsletter subscribers:

The post in your newsletter was most interesting and being 
an old Cherokee woman, I read it with great interest. There 
were many sayings from my family long ago and I would like 
to share some with you.

When we were preparing for ceremony we would soak the old 
Indian corn which had the red, yellow, black (deep purple), 
and white kernels on it. The next morning we would get 
busy and string them on heavy string, tie them in a circle 
similar to a medicine wheel and hang them around the 
ceremonial ground.....my grandfather would always spin 
the circles and say to us children, "watch as the colors 
all blend together, someday our people will be like this." 
This is very true today and we as people have our family 
histories that have been handed down by the elders. We 
should accept this with pride, knowing that our grandfathers 
and grandmothers knew what was best for us.

One of our prophecies have been fulfilled...as it was told 
to me and to many of my colleagues...A GREAT WHITE WAVE 
is happening everywhere.

Wear your colors proudly and enjoy being a Cherokee Woman/Man. 
We are the people so lets support each other with love and 
kind thoughts for each other. Let the healing begin within. 
Know who you are and be who you are, you are not alone.

Thank you and many blessings,



Article of interest:

Rebuilding the Cherokee Nation by Wilma Mankiller, a 1993 speech


From Ruth Garby Torres (a SCHAGHTICOKE). The SCHAGHTICOKE 
were finally recognized after many years in the application 
process. For what it is worth, their application for recognition 
came some time before gaming was even a possibility.

Compiled by Gale Courey Toensing [perhaps the only journalist 
to ever look at our petition], The Kent Tribune

(Source: Bureau of Indian Affairs Proposed Finding issued 
Dec. 5, 2002.)

18th Century

1600s -- The settlement at Schaghticoke begins to develop as 
an amalgamation predominantly of the Weantinock and Potatuck 
Indian tribes that existed at the time of first contact and 
lived in an area from north Derby to New Milford.

1716 -The name of Mauwee (variously Mawehew, Mauwehu, Mayhew, Maweho), 
the first recorded Schaghticoke sachem, appears for 
the first time as a witness on land sale document by Weramaug (variously 
Waramaug, Waraumaug), the chief of the Weantinocks.

1720 - 1722 -- Mauwee's name appears as witness with Weramaug's 
on a 1720 deed, and again in 1721 on deed to a large tract of 
land along the Housatonic River. Following Weramaug's death in 
1722, Mauwee's name appears on all the land deeds.

1729 - Mauwee is named as one of ``the owners and proprietors" 
on a deed to ``all the unsold lands with in the Grant of New Fairfield 
.bounded east on New Milford and the Ousetonack (Housatonic) Rover, west 
on land under the government of New 

1724-1725 - During these years Indians from Potatuck and New 
Milford formed the settlement at Schaghticoke ``and at the 
time the English first began their settlement, the Indians 
had become considerably numerous, according to the earliest historian of 
the Schaghticokes writing in 1812,. Although 
their settlement preceded that of the English but 12 or 14 
years, yet at that time the Indians could muster 100 fighting 

1729 - Mauwee's name appears on a deed selling ``all the 
unsold lands within the Grant of New Fairfield."

1735 -- The General Assembly sets aside reservation land in 
May 1735 for the Indians who ``some time dwelt at New Milford 
(and) are removed and settled on the west side of Ousatunnuck 
River, in a bow on the west side thereof, about three or four 
miles above New Fairfield." The government ruled that no land 
transactions of the reserved land could be made without its approval - 
Indians have to ask permission to sell their land 
from now on.

1737 - The General Assembly passes an ``Act for the Ordering 
and Directing the Sale of all of the Townships in the Western Lands." 
The act reserves lands for the Schaghticoke Indians.

1739 - The General Assembly passes a resolution authorizing 
and approving the creation of the Town of Kent and sets its boundaries. 
Land transactions between the Schaghticokes and 
English settlers occur within the next two years.

1741 - Mauwee's name is listed first of five ``Indians, all 
of Scaticook" on a deed selling ``200 acres of land on 
Stratford River" to John Read. 

1742 - Mauwee's name appears on a petition by the Indians 
of New Milford and ``at a place called Potatuck" (on the 
borders of Newtown and Woodbury) asking the General Assembly 
for a school and a preacher. A committee appointed by the 
General Assembly reports there are 40 Indians at Potatuck 
and 30 New Milford Indians. The General Assembly appropriates 
funds ``for the support of those who would attend school and 
worship services and that the clergymen of New Milford 
Woodbury and Newtown should provide care and instruction 
to these Indian families."

1743 - Missionaries from the Moravian Brethren establish a 
presence at Schaghticoke and begin converting members to Christianity. 
The Moravians were a Protestant evangelical denomination founded in 15th 
century Bohemia and driven out 
of Europe. They established an American settlement and 
mission to the Indians in 1735 in Georgia, and settlements 
and missions in the northeast by 1740. Like the Quakers, 
the Moravians were pacifists who avoided warfare with the 
Indians. They kept extensive records.

1743 -- The Moravians baptize Mauwee with the name of 
Gideon Mauwee. Moravian records refer to Gideon Mauwee 
as a ``captain" at the time of their first arrival at ``Pachgatgoch," 
the Moravian name for Schaghticoke.

1743 - The Moravian Brethren are expelled from Connecticut 
in the summer on suspicions of being ``Papists."

1749 - The Moravians reestablish a resident missionary at Schaghticoke 
in 1749.

A deed records that ``I Chere Weawmague of Scatacook in 
Kent.[sell] to Edward Cogswall of New Milford.a parcel of 
land lying in Kent in a place known by the name of 
Wearamaques Reserve 400 acre more or less." Chere Weawmaque 
lived at Schaghticoke and was baptized by the Moravians 
with the name of Solomon.

1751 - A petition is submitted to the General Assembly for 
a grist mill on a tract of land that belonged partly to 
the Schaghticokes and partly to Chicken Warrupps, ``Indian 
Sachems, being in quantity about 200 acres."

1752 - The General Assembly sets aside a parcel of land of 
150-200 acres to supplement the Schaghticoke reservation 
lands after the Indians submitted a petition seeking land 
for planting.

1755 - Moravian records report that Gideon Mauwee returned 
from a trip to the Stockbridge Indians who ``had demanded 
that our Indian men-folk should come up to join them in 
order to be used as soldiers in the present circumstances 
(French and Indian War), which he (Gideon) could not agree 
to. There they lie in uncertainty and Indians as well a 
white men are on guard day and night. They say that the 
French Indians have already committed terrorist acts there 
and eve killed people."

1756 - A Moravian journal records a discussion in May ``that 
the white people have tried several times in vain to recruit 
at Schaghticoke; Phillipus (an Indian) has recruiting five 
of the local Indians." The men apparently had not been 
converted to Christianity; ``These are all people who have 
no right attachment to the Saviour."

1756 - A group of Schaghticokes ask the General Assembly to 
look into mistakes made in the sales of their reserved land 
since 1754. The General Assembly to appoints Samuel Adams 
and Roger Sherman to investigate the claims. The two men 
investigate and recommend that a ``half lot" owned by a Mr. 
Pratt is returned to the tribe as a remedy.

The petition includes a request for Jabez Swift be appointed 
as ``a father to us to whom we can address when any body will 
wrong us or dispute our privileges" and that Mauwee be 
declared captain for the all the Schaghticokes, ``whom others 
shall obey when he orders anything for the good and best of 
the place and its inhabitants." It also requested that any Schaghticoke 
who left the land would be deprived of any right 
or claim.

1757 - The General Assembly appoints Jabez Swift as the first overseer 
of the Schaghticoke tribe.

1760 - Gideon Mauwee, 73, dies at Schaghticoke. A census of 
the Town of Kent ordered by the General Assembly finds 1,298 
whites, 6 blacks, and 127 Indians.

1762 - Ezra Stiles records in one of his copious notebooks 
on the Schaghticoke settlement: ``Scatticook, 3 miles on River, about 30 
wigwams, about 150 Souls Indians, the remains of the 
New Milford tribe." Stiles (1727-1795) was reputed to be the 
most learned scholar in New England during the country's 
founding years. A renaissance man in every sense of the word, 
Stiles was a librarian, pastor, professor, writer, and the 
president of Yale University, among other things. He did 
extensive research on 
northeastern Indian tribes, including the Schaghticokes.

1763-John Read of Fairfield, petitions the General Assembly, 
to sell some part of the ``Warrups' farm at Scatacook" to 
compensate him for taking care of Chicken Warrups before he 
died. Read said that at Chicken Warrups request, he had 
``procured doctors and supplied him with provisions until 
his death &c., all to the amount of eleven pounds, 11 
shillings, five pence," an amount equaling the spending 
power of around $2,000 today. By comparison, a school teacher 
in Virginia at that time earned an annual
salary of 60p plus room and board. 
(See www.eh.net for currency comparisons.)

The General Assembly approves the land sale and appoints 
overseer Jabez Swift to overseer the transaction.

1765-Stiles records 102 Schaghticokes.

1767 - Overseer Jabez Swift dies. The General Assembly denies 
a petition from Job Mawehu on behalf of himself and the rest 
of the Indians at Schaghticoke to sell 150-200 acre s of land 
that had been reserved for them in 1752.

1770 - The Moravian mission at Schaghticoke ends.

1771 - The General Assembly approves a Schaghticoke petition 
to appoint Elisha Swift as overseer. Swift resigns a year 
later because he moves away.

1772 - The General Assembly approves a Schaghticoke petition 
to appoint Reuben Swift as overseer. Reuben Swift dies a 
year later.

1773 - The General Assembly denies a Schaghticoke petition 
to appoint Peter Pratt as overseer and appoints instead 
Abraham Fuller. From 1784 - 1803, Fuller regularly submits 
petitions to sell land reserved for the Schaghticokes to 
pay for expenses of the reservations.

1774 - Census of the Colony of Connecticut lists 62 Indians 
at Kent - 18 male sunder 20, 20 females under 20, 11 males 
over 20, and 13 females over 20.

1775 - Fuller petitions the General Assembly for direction 
on how to handle the Schaghticokes land -- consider it as 
a hole or as individual holdings? The assembly appoints 
Samuel Canfield and Sherman Boardman to investigate.

1776 - Canfield and Boardman report they have made a ``new 
allotment of the lands in Schattekook to and amongst the 
Indians proprietors of the same." They surveyed the land 
and filed records with the names of each proprietor in Kent.

1783 - The General Assembly approves Fuller petition to 
sell 30-40 acres of Schaghticoke land contiguous to New 
York, which he says is constantly poached by loggers. 
Fuller also complains that ``there s almost continual 
occasion for expenses by Reason of Sickness among those 

1784 - Fuller petitions the General Assembly to appoint a 
committee to settle and adjust the Schaghticoke accounts. 
A two man committee is appointed and files a report in May.

1786 - Another committee is appointed to investigate Fuller's conduct as 
an overseer. The committee files a report 
recommending a reallotment of 50 acres and renting the rest 
of the land. They dismiss the idea of an English school at Schaghticoke 
, ``however desirable the object, to civilize 
and inform the Youth of said Tribe," because there were too 
few children ``and those kept in such a will & savage manner 
that an attempt to keep and English school among them would 
be totally useless." The report is not accepted. 

Schaghticokes hold a meeting and agree to submit a petition 
to the General Assembly asking for the right to choose their 
own overseer once a year. The group's choice is Sherman 
Boardman of New Milford. They indicate there are 36 males 
and 35 females, 20 of whom are school children. The first 
signer of the petition is Joseph Mauwee (Joseph Chuse/Chuse 
Mauwee), who moved to Schaghticoke from Derby sometime 
between 1785 and 1792. Joseph is the son of Gideon Mauwee, 
the first Schaghticoke sachem, and the father of Eunice 
Mauwee, the 19th century link to today's Schaghticokes.

1787 - Stiles collects Indian vocabulary from Joseph Mauwee's 
wife Sarah, who is still living in Derby.

The General Assembly denies a request by Fuller and two Schaghticokes to 
sell a piece of the Schaghticoke's land.

1789-Sarah Mauwee and her son Elihu are on Stiles' enumeration 
list for the year, but her husband is not. The list includes 
Capt. Thomas Chicken Warrups (likely son of the Chicken Warrups 
who died in 1763) among 67 others on the reservation and 
several others elsewhere. Capt. Thomas Chicken Warrups served 
in the French and Indian War and the American Revolution. 
Eliza Chicken Warrups and her husband Peter Mauwee are listed 
as ``King" and ``Queen" of the Schaghticoke on the enumeration.

1790- The General Assembly denies Fuller's petition to sell Schaghticoke 
land to defray his expenses.

1792 - The General Assembly denies Fullers request for 101p9s 
1.5p, over and above the amount of interest available in the 
state-held Schaghticoke funds. The amount would equal the 
spending power of about $12,700 today. The General Assembly 
appoints Joseph Pratt as overseer of Joseph Mauwee and others 
to advise them in the sale of their lands in Derby.

1799 - The Schaghticokes petition the General Assembly asking 
that their land not be sold, but instead rented out to pay 
their debts. They ask again for the right to choose their ``Conservator" 
annual and for a committee to inspect the 
debts that they owed to doctors.

1799-The General Assembly appoints Sherman Boardman to review 
the Schaghticoke accounts and approves a request from Peter 
and Eliza Mauwee ``now residing in Cornwall in Litchfield 
County and belonging to Scatacook tribe of Indians" that 
Boardman oversee of the sale of land they ``possess in right 
of said Eliza as heir to her father Benjm Warrups Chickens 
late of Kent."

19th Century

1801 -Fuller again petitions to sell Schaghticoke land, saying 
the number of Indians had decreased to around 40 and they were 
all ``addicted to intoxication and idleness." The petition was endorsed 
by 15 non-Indians. The land was sold that summer, 
reducing the Schaghticoke Land to around 400 acres. Fuller 
submitted his resignation as Schaghticoke overseer.

1801-- Abel Beach is appointed overseer.

1811 - The legislature approves a petition from Beach to sell 
about 20 acres of Schaghticoke land.

1808 - The General Assembly re-enacts a 1796 law for ``well-
ordering and governing Indians in this State,and securing 
their interest."

1812 - A member of the General Assembly and local resident, 
who served as auditor of the Schaghticoke overseer's accounts, records 
that there are about 40 Indians at the reservation.

1819 -The state transfers the overseer's accounts to 
Litchfield County Court for oversight. The General Assembly 
appoints Beach as guardian of the Schaghticoke tribe's orphaned children 
.and appointed bondmen for him in this capacity.

1821 - The state rules that future overseers will be appointed 
to each tribe by the county court.

1836 - J. W. Barber, a local historian reports that only 
Eunice Mauwee, the granddaughter of sachem Gideon Mauwee 
and a few families are left on the reservation. Barber 
reports that the state sold ``the place where Mauwehu 
resided" for about $3,000, and the annual interest from 
that amount is used for the remaining Schaghticokes.

1847 - Beach records a deficit of $40 in his expenditures 
for the Schaghticokes.

1850 - The state passes a law that each county has jurisdiction 
for selling land belonging to tribal members who were lived 
out of the state or were about to move out of the state. 
Beach supplies inconsistent reports of reservation populations 
to the federal census - he names fewer members in the census 
and more in his private ledger. --The families of Truman 
Bradley, Alexander Value Kilson, Joseph D. Kilson, and John 
Mauwee are considered to represent the Schaghticokes residing 
on the reservation, but not included in the 1850 census. 
Members of the Coggswell family live in Cornwall, New Milford, 
and Goshen.

1852 - Beach is replaced by Rufus Fuller as overseer.

1852 - Eunice Mauwee, the granddaughter of Gideon Mauwee, 
tells an interviewer she traces her ancestry to ``the once 
powerful Pequods, and speaks of a battle by which they were 
driven westward (1637)."

1860 - Eunice Mauwee dies and is memorialized in a published obituary in 
which she is described as ``the last full blooded 
Indian of the Pishgachligoh (variant of Schaghticoke) tribe. 
Eunice had been twice married and had nine children, none of 
whom are now living." The words on her gravestone -- ``Eunice Mauwee, A 
Christian Indian Princess, 1756-1860" are not 
engraved until 1905. Overseers report do not list everyone 
living on the reservation, but did list some Schaghticokes 
were living off the reservation, working as day laborers, 
basket makers, servants, and a washer woman in Kent, New 
Milford, Milford, Goshen or Cornwall. They were identified 
as either Indians or mulattoes on the census. Oliver W. Root 
is appointed overseer.

1861 - William Coggswell enlisted as a private in the army 
during the Civil War and died of wounds on 1864.

1865-Root dies. His final report says ``as far as can be ascertained" 
there are 54 tribal members, six dwellings, 
five ``stores (barns or sheds), and about 300 acres of land. 
Austen St. John is appointed as overseer.

1870 - St. John is replaced by Lewis Spooner as overseer. A 
census reports lists 24 Indians living on the reservation. 
The tribal members' occupations are colliers, basket makers 
and housekeepers. Three of the children attended school in 
the past year, and 13 of the adults and older children cold 
read and write. The census finds members of three core 
families -- Coggswell, Kilson and Harris - residing on the reservation. 
It notes for the first time hat Henry Harris, 
49-year-old basket maker, his wife Abigail Mauwee, and their 
son James live on the reservation. Harris (Henry Pan Harris, 
Tin Pan). Harris is reported to be a full blood Indian, but 
his tribal origins are not clear. Abigail is thought to be 
one of Eunice Mauwee's granddaughter. About 47 percent of 
the current tribal members trace their ancestry to Henry 
Harris through James and to Gideon Mauwee through Abigail.

1871- The overseer reports about 50 tribal members, naming 
14; two deaths over the past year;

1876 - The Schaghticokes petition the Litchfield County 
Court to have Henry Roberts appointed as overseer. Roberts 
is appointed. The petition was the first to include the 
name of Henry Harris.

1879 - The overseer's report states 42 members, ``none having 
died last year."

1880 - The overseer reports about 44 members.

1882 - Roberts reports there are 42 tribal members, ``but 
they are become so scattered, it is almost impossible to get 
the exact numbers."

1883 -- The Litchfield Superior Court becomes the Litchfield 
County Court of Common Pleas after 1883.

1884 - Roberts resigns. The Litchfield Court of Common Pleas approves a 
Schaghticoke a petition with 24 signatures, some belonging to non-Indian 
spouses, to appoint Martin B Lane as overseer. All of the 317 membership 
names on the petition for federal recognition are descendants of the 

1888 - - Lane reports there are 40 members.

1890 - Lane reports ``as far as I can learn there are about 60 
belonging to tribe, some half bloods and quarter bloods, only a small 
portion full bloods."

1895. Henry Harris dies.

1897 - A local historian devotes a chapter of a book to the 
Schaghticokes, describing the reservation as ``too rough and 
woody indeed to be cultivated, but well adapted for supplying 
them with firewood." The Indians live in `little houses..In 
dress, language and manners, they are like white people."

20th Century

1900 - Abigail Mauwee Harris dies. The census reports seven 
families with 23 individuals in six household, including 
three non-Indian spouses on the reservation. They were 
identified as ``Pequots." The families were Kilson, Harris-
Mauwee, and Coggswell - the three core family lines whose descendants 
make up the tribe today. The Coggswells trace 
to Jabez Coggswell, born 1808 in Cornwall. Jabez and his 
non-Indian wife had six children, but current descendants 
trace to one son, George H. Gogswell. The Kilsons trace 
to Alexander Kilson and Pamela Mauwee, who married in 1820. 
They had six children. The Harrises trace to Henry Harris 
and Abigail Mauwee, married in 1864. They had one son, James 
Henry Harris.

Early 1900s - New Milford Power Company (now Connecticut 
Light & Power) builds a dam on the Housatonic River, 
flooding tribal burial grounds.

1903 --Ethnographer Frank G. Speck visits the reservation 
and records on Aug 15 that there are 16 reservation residents 
and 125 claimants to ``tribal funds & rights" in the state. 
He says Jim Mauwee Harris is the only ``full blood" 
Schaghticoke on the reservation.

1904. Litchfield County Court of Common Please appoints a 
new overseer, Fred. R. Lane, for the Schaghticokes.

1904-1926. Newspaper articles provide descriptions of the reservation 
its residents and the Schaghticoke Rattlesnake 
Club, which held annual rattlesnake hunts for visiting 
journalists form Hartford and New York.

1909. James Henry Harris dies. He leaves 13 children.

1910 - The Schaghticoke Reservation is enumerated on a 
separate schedule for Indian populations on the federal 
census. The census lists 22 people in six households; 
members of the core Kilson, Harris, Coggswell families. 
Among the Harris family members is Elsie W. (Harris) Russell. 
None of her descendants are included in the current STN 
petition membership lists. However, some of her descendants 
become the rival Schaghticoke Indian Tribe led by Alan 
Russell and his sister Gail Harrison. Almost two-thirds 
of the 317 members on the current STN petition descend 
from seven of the Schaghticokes on the reservation in 1910. 
The remainder descend from two branches of the Kilson 
family who lived elsewhere.

1914 -- Litchfield County Court of Common Pleas appoints 
Charles T. Chase as
Lane's successor after his resignation.

1915 -- Chase files overseer's reports identifying the 
Schaghticoke as an American Indian entity.

1923 -- George H. Coggswell dies. Newspaper accounts describe 
him as the president of the Rattlesnake Club who ``knows 
every ledge on the wild mountains." The hunt stops during prohibition. 
Catherine Harris, daughter of Howard Nelson 
Harris and granddaughter of James Harris, is born.

1925 -- State Park and Forest Commission is made overseer 
of all state Indian tribes. Julia Coggswell Batie writes to 
the federal Indian Bureau wanting to know ``by whose 
authority should the small bit of land which I and a few 
others call home be turned over to the Public when the state .already 
has thousand of acres, even thousands of 
acres that formerly belongs to the Indians of that reservation."

1926 - One last rattlesnake hunt is held as a reunion of the 
club. Newspaper articles report that ``Howard Harris, son of 
Chief Jim Pan (Harris) led the hunt." The Park and Forest Commission 
reports the five reservation houses are all in 
``great need of repairs to keep them in livable condition, 
but states that it would be best to limit the repairs to 
keeping out the wind and water. The report states there 
are only three people living on the reservation, but around 
50 who could claim right of residence.

1927 -- The overseer reports only three families living on 
the reservation. A Park and Forest Commission report states 
that Howard Harris, who had been born on the reservation, 
visited there frequently throughout his life.

1932 -- The State Park and Forest Commission appoints John W. 
Chase to replace Charles T. Chase as overseer following 
Charles' death. John Chase continues as ``agent" under the 
Welfare office until ``at least " 1956."

1934 -- The numbers of residents increases to about a dozen 
people. The tribe appears on the Tantaquideon report on New England's 
Indian tribes.

1936 - A Parks Commission report on the states' tribes notes 
there is no leader of the Schaghticokes. The report stats 
there are residents on the reservation. Gladys Tantaquidgeon, 
a Mohegan anthropologist working for the Indian Service, 
includes the Schaghticoke in her report on New England tribes.

1939 -- State Park and Forest Commission asks that the responsibility of 
overseer be transferred ``to a more 
appropriate state agency."

1939 - A powwow is held on the reservation organized in 
part by the Federated Eastern Indians League and Franklin 
Bearce, aka Swimming Eel, a non-Schaghticoke who became 
intricately involved with the tribe. The powwow lasts 
three days with over 250 Indians from 14 states expected.

1941 - A news report says the powwow held this year is 
sponsored by the Town of Kent under the direction of the Schaghticoke 
Reservation Council, Chief Grey Fox (Mohegan) 
Chairman. The report says 6000 non-Indians and 100 Indians 
attend. The powwow was held on the farm of Mrs. Eleanor 
Bonos who was writing a book on the history of the 
Schaghticoke. The governor attended and issued a 
proclamation for a day honoring the Indians. State transfers 
jurisdiction for Indian reservations to the welfare 

1949 - Bearce organizes a meeting of Schaghticokes on 
the reservation. The purpose was ``to discuss and transact 
legal tribal business." Seventeen people attended. They 
voted to file land claims with the Indian Claims Commission concerning 
reservation and nearby land, as well as the sale 
of Manhattan.

1951 - The tribe files the claim before the Indian Claims 

1954 - Bearce variously claims to be tribal chairman,, 
``Duke of Chartires," Past President and National High 
Chief, the League of Nations, and ``American Indian 
Aristocrat." His claim to be a Schaghticoke and the 
chairman of the Kent tribe is denied by a state official 
in the state welfare department. A meeting is held at 
the reservation which may mark the beginning of current 
hostilities between the factions. Earl Kilson, a 
reservation resident, resigns from the committee without explanation. 
Howard Nelson Harris, the grandfather of the 
current chief Richard Velky, is voted in to replace him. 
The meeting was held at the home of William Russell, the 
father of Alan Russell, chief of the rival Schaghticoke 
Indian Tribe.

1954 - Indian Claims Commission hearing declines to rule 
on the federal governments motion to dismiss the claim.

1956 -There are 13 residents including three non-Indian 
spouses on the reservation. They are Kilsons, with the 
exception of Nellie Zeneri Russell, the non-Indian widow 
of William Russell, the son of Elsie Harris (who died in 
1955). Nellie Russell's children Alan and Gail lived with 
her. The two siblings lead the rival Schaghticoke Indian 
Tribe faction. Alan Russell and Gail Russell Harrison's 
children currently live on the reservation.

1958 - The land claim was dismissed in 1958 and an appeal 
was dismissed in 1959.

1958-1963 - Letters between Bearce and Theodore Coggswell 
highlight a conflict with Howard Harris in which Bearce 
says Harris's wife and son are trying to undermine his, 
Bearce's, work.. Bearce falls out of favor with the 
Harrises and Kilsons.

1960-61 Welfare department refuses to provide funds to repair 
reservation homes, and instead burns all but two of the 
houses on the reservation.

1966 - The only full time reservation residents are Earl 
Kilson and his non-Indian wife, Nellie Zeneri Russell and 
her family are reported to live there part of the year.

1967 - Howard Harris dies. His son, Irving Harris, begins 
to organize the modern Schaghticoke tribe. Harris is an 
activist who advocates for Indian rights, more housing on 
the reservation, permission to clear land, and changing the 
state's relationship with the tribe.

1968 - Minutes of an August meeting indicate Irving Harris 
was elected chief. A council made up of Harrises was also 
elected. Letter to a newspaper indicate the conflicts that 
would show up later were already in existence.

1971 - Earl Kilson dies, leaving the reservation briefly 

1972 - The council broadens to include Trudie Lamb and 
Claudette Grinage Bradley, two Coggswell/Kilson descendants. 
Members vote to adopt a constitution.

1973- The state establishes the Connecticut Indian Affairs Commission 
(CIAC) as a result of Irving Harris's advocacy. 
The tribe establishes a nonprofit corporation to promote and preserve 
their culture and define their ancient property and 
lands rights.

1974-79 -- Relative stability on the council led by Irving 
Harris and including Trudie Lamb. A 1975 membership list has 
175 names. The council deals with the issue of reservation residence - 
members want home sites. The CIAC recommends a moratorium on all 
residence until occupancy qualifications 
are set up. The council votes down a request by Alan Russell 
to move onto the reservation, but agrees he could initially 
move there part time as a caretaker. Russell Kilson also 
moves onto the reservation, but there is no
record of a vote.

1975 - Council elections result in a diversified membership 
with Harrises and Coggswells, but no Kilsons who did not 
also have Coggswell ancestry.

1976-87 -- Alliances along family lines occur over issues 
such as whether or not to develop the reservation. The Irving 
Harris faction rejects the pro-development faction's desire 
to use state and federal grants. Other conflicts arose over reservation 
and non-reservation members. Members claim other families are not 
authentic Indian. Issues of racism arise. 
This is a period of political conflict and power struggle 
starring Irving Harris, Trudie Lamb and Alan Russell. Harris 
is replaced as chief in 1979 by Maurice Lydem, a Harris 
descendant. The election was appealed to the CIAC, which 
ruled in favor of the new council, which included Trudie Lamb, 
Alan Russell and his sister Gail Russell. Lydem resigns as 
chairman in 1982 citing backbiting and racism as his reasons, 
among others. Lamb is elected chairman for a brief period 
and Russell becomes chairman in 1984. The council now excludes members 
of the Harris family. At one point there are two 
councils. Gail Russell is on both. Russell's council passes resolutions 
excluding tribal members who live more than 50 
miles away, requiring the council to include at least two 
reservation residents, and giving him permission to log on 
the reservation. The latter leads to a contentious lawsuit. 
In 1981 the Schaghticoke Indian Tribe files a letter of intent 
to seek federal recognition with the Bureau of Indians Affairs.

In 1985, the Russell council is replaced by a council of 

1985 - The US government files a lawsuit claiming 47 acres of 
reservation land for the Appalachian Trail.

1987 - Richard Velky replaces Irving Harris as acting chief 
and later in the year is elected ``chief for life," succeeding Irving 
Harris' title. The conflicts subside for a while. 
Harris subsequently denies he resigned.

1989 - State legislation in regard to Connecticut's tribes recognizes 
the Schaghticoke, the Paucatuck Eastern Pequot 
the Mashantucket Pequot, the Mohegan and the Golden Hill 
Paugusetts as ``self governing entities possessing powers 
and duties over tribal members and reservations."

1991 - Tribe changes its name to Schaghticoke Tribal Nation 
at a membership meeting.

1993 - STN forms a nonprofit corporation. A group of Velky opponents, 
including Alan Russell, Fail Russell, Trudie Lam, 
and his uncle Irving Harris petition for a recall of his 
council, saying they want more representation of the 
different families on the council.

1994 - STN finds a financial backer and files its first 
documented petition.

1995 - Gov. John G. Rowland designates November 1996 as 
Native American Month in Connecticut.

1996 - The STN revises its membership requirements in 
response to technical assistance from the BIA. Everyone 
has to resubmit new documentation including photos. Velky's opponents, 
including Alan and Gail Russell, refuse to do so.

1997 - STN's petition is put on ready for active consideration status. 
The 1997 tribal council includes representatives from 
the three core families. But at a special tribal meeting there 
are objections to the revised constitution, although the 
meeting minutes are not clear what the objections were. The 
constitution, which was adopted and is still in use, expanded membership 
criteria from descendants of Gideon Mauwee to 
include descendents of reservation residents in 1910 and 
allow out of state residents to vote.

Opposition continued by a minority.

1998 - The STN files land claim lawsuits against the Town 
of Kent, Connecticut Light & Power Company, the Kent School 
and two private landowners for about 2,200 acres of mostly undeveloped 
land around the reservation. The BIA denies STN's request to consider 
its petition ahead of others.

1995-1999 - Former Chief Irving Harris submits comments 
objecting to the STN petition while the tribe is under 
Velky's leadership. Several members of the Coggswell family 
and others resign from the STN.

21st Century

2000 - A federal judge orders the BIA to review the STN's 

2001 - The STN and opposing parties negotiate an agreement 
about process and timelines for the BIA review. The 
Schaghticoke Indian Tribe, led by Alan Russell and his 
sister Gail Harrison, file a letter of intent to petition 
for federal acknowledgement, claiming the STN petition is 
actually theirs.

2002- SIT submits a documented petition, which is essentially 
a photocopy of the STN petition, which SIT accessed as a 
party to the STN proceedings. The BIA denies SIT's request 
to review its petition simultaneously with STN's.

2002- - The BIA issues a proposed negative finding, because 
the tribe fails to meet the criteria for community and 
political authority for certain periods. All of the tribe's 
intense political conflict from 1967 to the present provides evidence of 
community, but also a break up of community, 
prompting about 60 members to resign from the tribe from 
1995 to 2001. The proposed finding concludes that a single 
political system exists which includes these individuals 
even though they no longer are enrolled in the STN. Also, 
BIA disqualifies about 110 members descending from Joseph D. 
Kilson (b. 1829) became they joined the tribe 1996.

2003 -- The STN and parties have this time to file additional materials. 
Nine Coggswell-Russell members sign up with STN 
a day before the tribe's final submission deadline and then 
resign a day later in a letter to Attorney General Richard Blumenthal, 
but not to the tribe. Blumenthal accuses the 
tribe of submitting a ``fraudulent" final membership list 
and asks the BIA and the court to extend the decision 
deadline. The crises is solved when the Department of the 
Interior petitions the court to allow both Blumenthal and 
the tribe to submit their evidence to the BIA. The final 
decision will not be delayed.

2004 - The BIA issues a final determination on the tribe's 
status on Jan. 29.


Next month I will try to reconstruct my work of charities 
that pretent to help Indian people, but are really just 
used to raise money for their organizers.

That's it for now, 


End of July 2004 Newsletter from Phil Konstantin - Part 3 


I just read part 3 of the newsletter. 

Sorry for the typos and mispellings. 

I shouldn't try to type that late at night.....


This is just a short note to let you know about something 
on TV that you might want to see. I received this from Sharon 
Reidy, a subscriber.
Sun Staff Reporter

Like most teenagers, Nakotah LaRance likes to hang out 
with his friends at the mall.

But unlike his friends, he will head to Los Angeles 
Friday to perform on the "Tonight Show with Jay Leno."

"I was nervous right away and excited," LaRance said 
about finding out he was selected to perform.

LaRance found out Monday he was performing the Hopi 
hoop dance in Los Angeles.

"He doesn't seem to be fazed by what it means," his 
father, Steve LaRance, said.

Nakotah, 14, was selected from the 25 people who 
auditioned at The Galaxy Diner last Thursday as part 
of Tom Green's Most Interesting Talent Search, which 
is traveling to the 50 states in alphabetical order 
to discover local talent.

Nakotah is the reigning teen hoop dancing world 
champion for a second year in a row. He also was 
the youth hoop dancing world champion two consecutive 
years before he moved into the teen division.

In hoop dancing, the dancer must pick up hoops with his 
or her feet before being allowed to touch a hoop with 
his or her hands.

The hoops can be juggled, jumped through and used as 
part of the intricate footwork of the dance to represent 
animals and plants.

Nakotah learned to dance 10 years ago.

Auditioning was different than competing, where he 
advances based on his skill.

"It was scary," Nakotah said. "It was my first time 
auditioning for hoop dance."

But it will not be his first time on television. He 
has performed on television before, such as a morning 
talk show before the last hoop dancing competition 
at the Herd Museum earlier this year.

But unlike other television appearances, he'll get 
to talk to Jay Leno, Nakotah said.

The Museum of Northern Arizona recommended Nakotah 
to NBC, Steve LaRance said.

Right up to t he day of the audition, NBC was calling 
to remind them to go, he said.

"It is really a great opportunity to share a cultural 
performance and give Nakotah national exposure," Steve 
LaRance said.

Nakotah has traveled and danced often because of hoop 
dancing. He has performed in New York, New Jersey, 
Dallas, Atlanta, Los Angeles and other places. He 
has performed for Coca-Cola, on television and at 

Steve LaRance said he and Nakotah will probably fly 
out Thursday to Los Angeles. The show will be taped 
Friday afternoon for that night's show.


That's it for now, have a great month.




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