. . . . . . . ========================================= Anything above this line is not a part of my newsletter.... . . . . . . ========================================================= Start of Phil Konstantin's July 2003 Newsletter - Part 2 ========================================================= Greetings, It has taken me a few days to get around to adding part two to July's newsletter. Below, you will find several of the newsletter's regular features. I have reduced the size of the pictures I have posted from my vacation to the northern Rocky mountain and plains states. This will make it easier for people using dial-ups to be able to see them. I have also added links to each of the 25 pages at the bottom of each website. You can find them at: http://americanindian.net/2003.html . Next month, I will be reviewing the new book "The Seventh Generation - Native Students Speak About Finding the Good Path" by Amy Bergstrom, Linda Miller Cleary and Thomas D. Peacock. Phil ========================================= X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ========================================= Well, it happened again. I wrote a long and detailed movie review, and the computer decided to stop working. Oh well...here I go again. Today's review is of the 1998 movie Wind River. It is based on the real life story of pony express rider Nick Wilson (Blake Heron). Most of the movie is set long before Nick rode for the Pony Express, though. The movie features many familiar faces. It starts in the 1850s. To make a long story short (as I hate to try to rewrite a long review), Shoshone Chief Washakie's (Russell Means) mother Anuba (Patricia Van Ingen) has a dream. The dream is about a white boy saving the life of her child. She interprets this to mean that a white boy will save the life of one of the Shoshone. Washakie sends Morogonai (A Martinez) and two other men out to find the white boy in Anuba's dream. Nick is a young teenager in Grantsville, Utah. Nick is frustrated by working on his family's farm. His father is gone on an extended trip. Nick is a bit immature and continues to have problems with his mother (Karen Allen) and his slightly older brother Sylvester (Devon Gummersall). His only friend is a young Goshiute named Pantsuk (Brandon Baker). They are starting to learn each others language. Nick and Pantsuk play, work and learn together. One day in a fit of anger with his family, Nick tries to plow the field despite being told to do otherwise. The mule bolts, and Nick is dragged along in the reins. Pantsuk manages to save Nick, but Pantsuk is killed in the process. Nick is heartbroken. The next day, Nick is alone on the woods. He meets Morogonai and the two other Shoshone. Mick is afraid the warriors will kil him and he tries to run away. Nick trips and falls and he yells out. Morogonai tells Nick that they are not there to hurt him. One of the Shoshone's call Nick, "Yagachi" (Crier). Nick recognized the name and says he is not a crier. Morogonai asks if Nick speaks Shoshone. Nick says he speaks some Goshiute, which is similar. This will help Nick to learn to speak Shoshone in the future. Morogonai tells Nick that he will give him a good horse if he will go with them back to Shoshone territory. Nick is not happy at home, but he is not sure about leaving either. Morogonai tells Nick to the wind to see what he should do. They will wait unti the next day before they leave. Nick hears the wind and he decides to go with Morogonai to Shoshone land. The next morning, he leaves without telling his family. Eventually, the nearby settlers go looking for Nick without success. His brother will not give up searching for Nick for a long time. Nick moves in with Washakie and Anuba. They teach him the ways of the Shoshone. He learns how to hunt, and he begins to mature. Due to the constant migration of white settlers, more Indian tribes begin to move into Shoshone lands. Washakie wants to maintain good relations with the whites. Pocatello (Wes Studi) plays a Shoshone who does not like whites. He wants to fight them and to buy Nick. Morogonai and Washakie have several conflicts with Pocatello, and the Crow. I will not give away the ending of the story, except to say that Nick survives. In fact, Wilson, Wyoming is named after him. Several of his great grandchildren are in the movie. Fort Washakie is named after Chief Washakie. You can see pictures of the area, and of the Chief grave on my website at: http://americanindian.net/2003g.html . Pocatello, Idaho was named after the person played by Wes Studi. Wind River does have some violence, but it is not too graphic. While it is historical, it is mostly a "coming-of-age" story. I do not know exactly how correct the story or the frequent Indian langauges are. The basic story does seem to follow the local history as I know it. Washakie and most of the Shoshones are presented in a very positive light. You can read more about Nick on these websites: http://www.webpanda.com/white_pine_county/ethnic/shoshone.htm http://www.xphomestation.com/nwilson.html http://www.wyomingtalesandtrails.com/tetons.html http://www.xphomestation.com/windriver.html . Blake Heron .... Nick Wilson A Martinez .... Moragoni Russell Means .... Washakie Wes Studi .... Pocatello Devon Gummersall .... Sylvester Karen Allen .... Martha (Wilson) Patricia Van Ingen .... Anuba Alanzo Coby .... Opening Shoshone Indian #1 Tom Shell .... Pilgrim Payton Mackey .... Pony Express Rider Wayne Brennan .... Elliot Rick Lichtenhan .... Cowboy Brandon Baker (I) .... Pantsuk ========================================= X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ========================================= Links to some interesting sites and news stories: A review and comparison between the 1976 and 1999 Constitutions of the Cherokee Nation in preparation for the Ratification Vote on July 26, 2003 http://www.cherokee.org/TribalGovernment/CCCArchivePage.asp?ID=1999ContReviewAndComp While it is past July 4th, this is still a great website: http://home.rochester.rr.com/kuksoolwon/fireworks/Fireworks.html Bill Offers Tribe Money to Settle Old Land Dispute http://www.sltrib.com/2003/Jun/06192003/nation_w/67517.asp Edison Chiloquin given farewell http://www.heraldandnews.com/articles/2003/05/27/news/top_stories/chiloquin.tx ========================================= X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ========================================= A few notices and events: Searching for Native American Musicians to give some workshops and performances this summer and in the Fall as part of the World Music Program being offered at Montgomery College in Rockville, Maryland. We just received a grant to hire several musicians. Especially looking for Iroquois, Navajo, Lakota, Cherokee or Hopi, music, but open to other forms. Please call Dawn Avery at CELL: 240-476-2626, WORK: 301-279-5035 or email her at firstname.lastname@example.org Forms for payment and budget need to be handed-in soon! Thank You. Dawn Avery Associate Professor of Music ----------------------- Kendra sent this along: WANTED FOR ANTHOLOGY: original, unpublished short stories addressing biracial or multiracial experiences http://www.mixedstories.com/ Experienced editorial team is presently assembling an anthology of short stories (fiction only). The stories must speak either directly or indirectly about what it is to be biracial or multiracial in the United States. Once assembled, the anthology will be eligible for representation by a major U.S. literary agent and for review by nationally recognized publishing houses. Submissions from both established and talented emerging authors are welcome. We are looking for stories that are skillfully rendered, emotionally involving, and in keeping with our theme. This is a great opportunity to spotlight mixed-race people, a rapidly growing segment of the population, but one that is rarely given an opportunity to speak on its own terms. This is also a great opportunity to meaningfully explore the complications of identity that come with being a biracial or multiracial person in this country. **** DIRECT ALL REPLIES TO THE WEBSITE**** -------------------------------- Ruth Garby Torres sent this... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING ASSOCIATION LAUNCHES SPIRIT OF SOVEREIGNTY FOUNDATION WEB SITE SCHOLARSHIP FOUNDATION FUNDED 20 STUDENTS DURING THE 2002-2003 ACADEMIC YEAR WASHINGTON, D.C. --- Today the National Indian Gaming Association (NIGA) announced the launch of a new web-site for the organization's Spirit of Sovereignty Foundation, www.spiritfund.com. The Spirit of Sovereignty Foundation is a 501 (c)(3) non-profit scholarship organization committed to promoting higher education and providing scholarship opportunities for students of Native American descent. Letha Lamb, Chairperson of the Foundation, explained, "The web-site is designed as a resource for finding out more information about the foundation, allow students the ability to utilize as a resource for downloading the scholarship application and most importantly to promote fundraising efforts to create an endowment fund which will allow the Spirit of Sovereignty Foundation to continue to assisting Native students for generations to come." To date, the foundation has been responsible for awarding 31 scholarships to Native American graduate students. For the 2002-2003 academic year, 20 "Spirit Awards" were awarded. Each student received a total of $5,000 to be split up between the two semesters and upon proof of academic good standing. "The purpose of Indian gaming is to give Indian people opportunity - opportunity for better health care, better housing, better education, and a better future. The Spirit of Sovereignty Foundation embodies that concept and NIGA is proud to provide well deserving students with the resources necessary to make their dreams a reality," said Ernie Stevens, Jr., Chairman of the National Indian Gaming Association. The Spirit of Sovereignty is actively seeking contributions which are tax deductible. For more information on contributions or how to get involved, please visit our web-site at http://www.spiritfund.com. ========================================= X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ========================================= A few deep thoughts and humor: My good friend Alan sent this one along: This error page is a hoot. try it out! Go to this search engine: http://www.google.com/ type "Weapons of Mass Destruction" hit the "I feel lucky" button. READ THE ERROR PAGE! ---------------------------------------------- From Joe RedCloud: GEORGE CARLIN POST 9-11 (His wife recently died...) The paradox of our time in history is that we have taller buildings but shorter tempers, wider freeways, but narrower viewpoints. We spend more, but have less, we buy more, but enjoy less. We have bigger houses and smaller families, more conveniences, but less time. We have more degrees but less sense, more knowledge, but less judgment, more experts, yet more problems, more medicine, but less wellness. We drink too much, smoke too much, spend too recklessly, laugh too little, drive too fast, get too angry, stay up too late, get up too tired, read too little, watch TV too much, and pray too seldom. We have multiplied our possessions, but reduced our values. We talk too much, love too seldom, and hate too often. We've learned how to make a living, but not a life. We've added years to life not life to years. We've been all the way to the moon and back, but have trouble crossing the street to meet a new neighbor. We conquered outer space but not inner space. We've done larger things, but not better things. We've cleaned up the air, but polluted the soul. We've conquered the atom, but not our prejudice. We write more, but learn less. We plan more, but accomplish less. We've learned to rush, but not to wait. We build more computers to hold more information, to produce more copies than ever, but we communicate less and less. These are the times of fast foods and slow digestion, big men and small character, steep profits and shallow relationships. These are the days of two incomes but more divorce, fancier houses, but broken homes. These are days of quick trips, disposable diapers, throwaway morality, one night stands, overweight bodies, and pills that do everything from cheer, to quiet, to kill. It is a time when there is much in the showroom window and nothing in the stockroom. A time when technology can bring this letter to you, and a time when you can choose either to share this insight, or to just hit delete. Remember, spend some time with your loved ones, because they are not going to be around forever. Remember, say a kind word to someone who looks up to you in awe, because that little person soon will grow up and leave your side. Remember, to give a warm hug to the one next to you, because that is the only treasure you can give with your heart and it doesn't cost a cent. Remember, to say, "I love you" to your partner and your loved ones, but most of all mean it. A kiss and an embrace will mend hurt when it comes from deep inside of you. Remember to hold hands and cherish the moment for someday that person will not be there again. Give time to love, give time to speak, and give time to share the precious thoughts in your mind. Life is not measured by the number of breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away. HOW TO STAY YOUNG (George Carlin) 1. Throw out nonessential numbers. This includes age, weight and height. Let the doctor worry about them. That is why you pay him/her. 2. Keep only cheerful friends. The grouches pull you down. 3. Keep learning. Learn more about the computer, crafts, gardening, whatever. Never let the brain idle. " An idle mind is the devil's workshop." And the devil's name is Alzheimer's. 4. Enjoy the simple things. 5. Laugh often, long and loud. Laugh until you gasp for breath. 6. The tears happen. Endure, grieve, and move on. The only person who is with us our entire life, is ourselves. Be ALIVE while you are alive. 7. Surround yourself with what you love, whether it's family, pets, keepsakes, music, plants, hobbies, whatever. Your home is your refuge. 8. Cherish your health: If it is good, preserve it. If it is unstable, improve it. If it is beyond what you can improve, get help. 9. Don't take guilt trips. Take a trip to the mall, to the next county, to a foreign country, but NOT to where the guilt is. 10. Tell the people you love that you love them, at every opportunity. AND ALWAYS REMEMBER: Life is not measured by the number of breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away. If you don't send this to at least 8 people.... who cares ! -------------------------- Norma sent this one along (yes, I know, we did not have any chiefs called Two Eagles) The old Cherokee chief sat in his reservation hut, smoking the ceremonial pipe, eyeing the two US government officials sent to interview him. "Chief Two Eagles," one official began, "you have observed the white man for many generations, you have seen his wars and his products, you have seen all his progress, and all his problems." The chief nodded. The official continued, "Considering recent events, in Your opinion, where has the white man gone wrong?" The chief stared at the government officials for over a minute, and then calmly replied. "When white man found the land, Indians were running it. * No taxes. * No debt. * Plenty buffalo * Plenty beaver * Women did the work * Medicine man free * Indian men hunted and fished all the time." The chief smiled, and added quietly, "White man dumb enough to think he could improve system like that." --------------------------------- My son Ron's girlfriend Christi sent me this story... Recently, I was diagnosed with AAADD: Age Activated Attention Deficit Disorder. This is how it manifests itself: I decided to wash my car. As I start toward the garage, I spotted the mail on the hall table. I should go through the mail before I wash the car. I lay the car keys on the table, put the junk mail in the trash can under the table, and notice that the trash can is full. So, I put the bills back on the table and take out the trash first. Since I'm going to be near the mailbox when I take out the trash anyway, I might as well pay the bills first. I see my checkbook on the table, but there is only one check left. My extra checks are in my desk in the study, so I go to my desk, where I find the bottle of juice that I had been drinking. I'm going to look for my checks, but first I need to push the juice aside so that I don't accidentally knock it over. But the juice is getting warm, and should be put in the refrigerator to keep it cold. Heading toward the kitchen with the juice, a vase of flowers on the counter catches my eye. They need to be watered. I set the juice down on the counter, and find my reading glasses, for which I have been searching all morning. I had better put them back on my desk, but first I'm going to water the flowers. I set the glasses back down on the counter, fill a container with water, and suddenly spot the TV remote. Someone left it on the kitchen table. Tonight, when we sit down to watch TV, we will be looking for the remote but nobody will remember that it's on the kitchen table. I should put it back in the den where it belongs, but first I'll water the flowers. I splash some water on the flowers, but most of it spills on the floor. So, I put the remote back down on the table and get some towels to wipe up the spill. Then I head back down the hall, trying to remember what I was planning to do. At the end of the day the car isn't washed, the bills aren't paid, there is a warm bottle of juice sitting on the counter, the flowers aren't watered, there is still only one check in my checkbook, I can't find the remote, I can't find my glasses, and I don't remember what I did with the car keys. I'm trying to remember why nothing got done today; it's quite baffling because I was busy all day long, and I'm really tired. I know this is a serious problem, and I'll try and get some help for it, but first I'll check my e-mail. Do me a favor, will you? Forward this message to whomever you think might enjoy it, because I don't remember who I've already sent it to. ------------------------------- My mother sent this to me: On a Septic Tank Truck sign: "We're #1 in the #2 business." ************************** Sign over a Gynecologist's Office: "Dr. Jones, at your cervix." ************************** At a Proctologist's door "To expedite your visit please back in." ************************** On a Plumber's truck: "We repair what your husband fixed." ************************** On a Plumber's truck: "Don't sleep with a drip. Call your plumber." ************************** Pizza Shop Slogan: "7 days without pizza makes one weak." ************************** At a Tire Shop in Milwaukee: "Invite us to your next blowout." ************************** On a Plastic Surgeon's Office door: "Hello. Can we pick your nose?" ************************** At a Towing company: "We don't charge an arm and a leg. We want tows." ************************** On an Electrician's truck: "Let us remove your shorts." ************************** In a Nonsmoking Area: "If we see smoke, we will assume you are on fire and take appropriate action." ************************** On a Maternity Room door: "Push. Push. Push." ************************** At an Optometrist's Office "If you don't see what you're looking for, you've come to the right place." ************************** On a Taxidermist's window: "We really know our stuff." ************************** In a Podiatrist's office: "Time wounds all heels." ************************** On a Fence: "Salesmen welcome! Dog food is expensive." ************************** At a Car Dealership: "The best way to get back on your feet - miss a car payment." ************************** Outside a Muffler Shop: "No appointment necessary. We hear you coming." ************************** In a Veterinarian's waiting room: "Be back in 5 minutes. Sit! Stay!" ************************** At the Electric Company: "We would be delighted if you send in your payment. However, if you don't, you will be." ************************** In a Restaurant window: "Don't stand there and be hungry, Come on in and get fed up." ************************** In the front yard of a Funeral Home: "Drive carefully. We'll wait." ************************** At a Propane Filling Station, "Tank heaven for little grills." ************************** ========================================= X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ========================================= Here is the website for the public version of the July history dates: http://americanindian.net/July.html Here are some randomly picked historical events for July July 1, 1833: According to an army report, by this date, the army estimates they have captured all of the "hostile" Creek Indians, except for the warriors from Hitchiti, and Yuchi, led by Jim Henry. July 2, 1791: The treaty (7 stat.39) with the Cherokee Nation is concluded on the Holston River at White's Fort, modern Knoxville Tennessee. The Cherokee acknowledge the sovereignty of the United States. Prisoners are restored on both sides. Boundary lines are officially established. American citizens are allowed to use a road from the Washington District, to the Mero District on the Tennessee River without molestation. The United States will have the sole right to regulate trade with the Cherokee. No whites can live, or hunt on Cherokee lands, without Cherokee approval. Annual payments increase from $1000, to $1500 on February 17, 1792. The treaty is signed by thirty-nine Chiefs, 1200 other Cherokees attend the meeting. This is known as the "Holston River Treaty." The Americans are represented by Governor William Blount. July 3, 1754: Surrounded by 500 French and 400 Indian forces under Sieur Coulon de Villiers, George Washington has only 400 soldiers at his Fort Necessity, near modern Farmington, in southwestern Pennsylvania. After his artillery is put out of action, and with half of his men as casualties, Washington accepts de Villiers offer of surrender. Washington leads his troops back to Virginia. De Villiers is the brother of Jumonville de Villiers, Washington's counterpart in the battle not far from here on May 28th. Jumonville is killed in that battle. July 4, 1874: Captain A.E. Bates, and Troop B, Second Cavalry, and 160 "friendly" Shoshones, are en route from Camp Brown, in west central Wyoming, looking for a reported gathering of hostile Northern Cheyenne and Arapahos, when they discover a large group of "hostiles" on the Bad Water Branch of the Wind River, in Wyoming. During the battle, twenty-six "hostiles," and four soldiers are killed. Twenty Indians, and six soldiers, including Lieutenant R.H. Young, are wounded. 230 horses are captured. After this fight, many "hostile" Northern Cheyenne and Arapahos are convinced to return to their agencies to avoid further battles. July 5, 1873: A tract of land is set aside as a reserve for "Gross Ventre, Piegan, Blood, Blackfeet, River Crow and other Indians" in Montana by Executive Order. July 6, 465: Palenque Maya Lord Chaacal I is born according to the museum at Palenque. July 7, 1666: Robert Sanford has been exploring the coast of South Carolina for a colony site. He has found some friendly Indians at Port Royal. Today he sets sail for Barbados with the nephew of the local Chief. The Chief wants his nephew to learn the white man's ways and language. Dr. Henry Woodward stays with the Indians and learn their ways, thus making him the first European settler in South Carolina. Woodward eventually becomes the preeminent Indian agent in South Carolina. July 8, 1724: French peace envoy Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont has come from Fort Orleans to visit the Indians of modern Kansas. At the mouth of the Missouri River, he encounters the "Canza." Many of them accompany de Bourgmont on his trip to the "Padoucas." July 9, 1969: Members of the Passamaquoddy Nation block road that goes through their reservation in Maine. July 10, 1843: In 1842, the Wyandot signed a treaty (11 Stat., 581.) giving up their lands in Ohio for land west of the Mississippi River. Today, 674 men, women and children start their trip from Ohio to Kansas. July 11, 1598: Juan de Oñate’s expedition reaches the San Juan Pueblo in modern New Mexico. July 12, 1784: Even though he has signed a peace treaty with the Spanish, Tonkawa Chief El Mocho is planning to join the Texas Indians together under his leadership and then attack the Spanish. The Spanish hear of El Mocho's plans. In the Presidio of la Bahia, El Mocho is shot down in the plaza by Spanish soldiers. July 13, 1973: New Mexico is told no State Income Taxes can be levied against reservation Indians. July 14, 1684: Naumkeag Indian, and son of fomrer Sachem Wenepoykin, James Quannapowit petitions the English of Marblehead Massachusetts. He complains they are givng out lands which rightfully belong to him. On September 16, 1684, a deed is finally signed by all parties in order for the English to hold "rightful title" to the land. July 15, 1877: In the Weippe Prairie, east of Weippe, Idaho, the Nez Perce hold a council to decide their movements. The army is still trying to force them to move to a reservation. They wish to stay free. Looking Glass says they should go east into Montana and join the crow. Chief Joseph (Hein-mot Too-ya-la kekt) suggests they wait for the army here and fight it out in their own lands. Toohoolhoolzote joins Looking Glass in suggesting they move east into Montana. The tribe decides to move. July 16, 1862: Yesterday, as a small group of mounted soldiers attempt to leave the Apache Pass watering hole, Mangas, and some warriors, attack. During the fight, Mangas is shot in the chest. The Indians abandon the fight, with the loss of their leader. Eventually, Cochise takes his father-in-law to Mexico, where he holds a town hostage until a Mexican doctor heals Mangas. This battle leads to the construction of Fort Bowie on July 28, 1862 according to the official National Park Service brochure. This is in modern New Mexico. July 17, 1853: A dispute between a settler ad some Paiutes near Springville, Utah leads to the death of one of the Paiutes. This will lead to what is sometimes called the "Walker War." July 18, 1694: Abenaki Chief Abomazine, almost 300 Penobscot warriors, and few French attack the settlement along the south side of the Oyster River, at modern Durham, New Hampshire. The Indians are trying to sneak into the village when their presence in discovered. Some settlers escape, others retreat to fortified homes. 104 settlers are killed, and twenty-seven are taken hostage before the Indians withdraw. Four months later, Abomazine approaches the fort at Pemaquid, under a white flag. He is seized by the garrison for his part in the attack. July 19, 1856: By this date, all of the remaining Rogue River Indians are en route to the Grande Ronde Reservation in Oregon. They number 1225. July 20, 1863: General James Carleton, called "Star Chief" by the Navajos, has ordered the Navajos to leave their homeland and to report to the Bosque Redondo Reservation in New Mexico. All Navajos found off the reservation, after this date, are considered "hostiles," and will be treated accordingly. No Navajos turn themselves in, leading to the Canyon de Chelly Campaign, and the "Long Walk." July 21, 1855: John W. Quinney, Stockbridge Chief, dies in Stockbridge, New York. Through his efforts, his tribe creates a constitutional system for the election of its here-to-fore hereditary leaders. He is instrumental in the cessation of the sell of tribal lands to Europeans. He leads the efforts to have 460 acres of their former lands returned by the State of New York. He is elected Chief of the tribe in 1852. July 22, 1863: As a followup to the "Owens Valley War" in California, over 900 Paiutes are led to the San Sebastian Reservation at Fort Tejon (north of Los Angeles). July 23, 1733: José de Urrutia is appointed Captain of San Antonio de Béxar Presidio. The Spanish acknowledged him as one of their experts on Indians. July 24, 1863: The Santee Sioux have engaged in an uprising in Minnesota. Some have fled the area and made their way into the Dakotas. General Henry Sibley and troops from Fort Ridgley in Minnesota have pursued them. According to reports Sibley has received, the Santee have joined up with the Teton Sioux. Today the soldiers find an Indian village in what is now North Dakota. According to the army’s report, while some scouts are talking with a couple of hundred Indians who come out to meet then, someone shoots and kills Surgeon Josiah Weiser. The scouts shoot at the Indian who shot the doctor, but he gets away. More Indians arrive and start shooting. Then more soldiers arrive and open fire. A full scale fight takes place and some fighting lasts through early tomorrow. It is called the "Battle of Big Mound." July 25, 1863: As part of the Canyon de Chelly Campaign, Kit Carson decides to force the Navajos to surrender by destroying their food supply. He orders Major Joseph Cummings to proceed along the Bonito River, and to seize all livestock and crops. Anything he cannot haul way, is burned. July 26, 1865: Following the massacre at Sand Creek, many Indians begin attacking military outposts, and people crossing their territory. A group of Cheyenne, led by Roman Nose, want revenge for lost relatives. They approached a bridge across the North Platte in what is now Casper, Wyoming. The bridge is also the site of a telegraph station and a military outpost. After trying for two days to get the soldiers out of the fort, a column of troops cross the bridge. The Indians attack and kill many soldiers, including Lieutenant Casper Collins. Another column of troops comes to the rescue, and cannonfire from the fort helps them escape. The soldiers left the fort to provide an escort for an approaching wagon train. Another band of Indians attacks the wagon train. During the fighting, Roman Nose's brother is killed. Roman Nose lead a charge against the wagon train and all of the soldiers guarding it are killed. Their anger quickly dissipates, and the Indians quit the fight, and leave the area. July 27, 1777: Jane McCrea is killed. A painting is made showing her about to be scalped. It becomes a famous piece of American art. July 28, 1756: Delaware Chief Teedyuscung, and fourteen other chiefs, meet with Pennsylvania Governor Robert Morris, and other Pennsylvania leaders at Easton, Pennsylvania to discuss the Delaware uprising. Teedyuscung agrees to visit the warring members of the tribe, and to try to end the fighting. July 29, 1868: After years of conflict over the Bozeman Trail along the Powder River, the War Department finally gives in to Indian's, and particularly Red Cloud's, demands and starts abandoning its forts. Fort C.F. Smith’s garrison packs-up and leaves. The fort is located near present day Yellowtail and Big Horn Lake, in southern Montana. July 30, 1829: In internal documents, the United States War Department formalizes a new Indian policy. Secretary of War John Eaton believes Indians will not be able to survive if the live in lands surrounded by white settlers. July 31, 1684: According to some sources, a six day conference starts between representatives of the New York colonies and the Mohawks, Oniedas, Onondagas and Cayugas. Some lands are ceded and allegiances are pledged. ========================================= X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ========================================= That's it for now...please feel free to send me suggestion, corrections or anything else that comes to mind... Best wishes, Phil ========================================== End of the July 2003 Newsletter - Part Two ========================================== . . . . . . . . Anything below this line is not part of my newsleter.... ========================================================= . . . . . .
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