July 2002 Newsletter from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2002)



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Start of the July 2002 Newsletter
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You can find a copy of this online at:
http://americanindian.net/newsletter0702.html
or 
http://www.topica.com/lists/americanindian.net/read



Greetings,

I hope June has been a good month for you. I have had the last week off. I have been doing some long needed household chores. 

My daughter Heidi, and her fiancé Derrald, just flew in from Michigan. They are going to be married here in San Diego on July 3rd. The ceremony will be at Torrey Pines State Park. The park is a lovely spot on the ocean. It is the home of the nation’s rarest pine tree, the Torrey Pine. The ceremony is at the top a hill where you can see part of the city, a lagoon where a creek empties into the ocean, and the ocean. It should be very nice. It is great seeing Heidi again!

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I finally heard from my book’s editors this month. 

There is a new cover for the book. You can see the current version at this website:
http://americanindian.net/bookcover.html
I joked with my mother that I like the original cover better because my name was larger. She wants to know what the people on the cover are looking at.  :-)

You can see an example of some of the pages here (you must have the free Adobe Reader program to see this):
http://americanindian.net/book.pdf

They sent a list of about 250 questions regarding entries in the book. Most of these were questions about spelling. They do not like my spelling a tribe’s name the way it appeared in the historical documents (often treaties) of the time. I prefer this method, because it shows how things have changed, makes it easier for people to do research and look for the original documents, and prevents errors on my part. The potential for errors is that I may not be sure who the writers of an original document may have actually been referring to when they listed a certain name. In many treaties, a tribe was referred to by the wrong name. For example, a treaty may have listed the Shawnee, when it meant the Miami. Or who they meant when they said "Shawanoese."

I also listed many quotes from original sources. In some cases, this was to show the original spellings. In other cases, this was to show the writer’s original words, so we could get a better idea into what the author really meant. For example:

Later this week, the editor of the "Aberdeen Saturday Pioneer," writes a editorial about Sitting Bull. One of the passages is as follows: "The proud spirit of the original owners of these vast prairies inherited through centuries of fierce and bloody wars for their possession, lingered last in the bosom of Sitting Bull. With his fall the nobility of the Redskin is extinguished, and what few are left are a pack of whining curs who lick the hand that smites them. The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians." 

Many people would be surprised to know that this editorial was written by L. Frank Baum, best known as the author of "The Wizard of Oz."

I also had listed each tribe's name in bold type. They seem to have eliminated this feature.

They also decided the book was too long. In order to fit their size and length requirements, they eliminated about 15% of the text. To do this, they deleted every entry prior to 1492. So much for most of the Maya entries.

Verb tense has been a major issue. This has changed several times.

They also decided to add lots of pictures. This had not occurred to me originally, as I had no idea what kind of extra cost this would add to the book. Unfortunately, it appears they will not be using any of the pictures a few of you sent me for the book. Evidently, the quality (digital) was not good enough. This means my digital pictures will probably not make it, either.

There is a new cover for the book. You can see the current version at this website:
http://americanindian.net/bookcover.html
You can see an example of some of the pages here (you must have the free Adobe Reader program to see this):
http://americanindian.net/book.pdf

Don’t get me wrong, I understand the reasoning for their decisions. On a couple of items, I have agreed. On some others, I have disagreed. We are still discussing several issues. In any case, the book is slowly becoming less "my" book, and more "our" book.

It is still scheduled to come out in September. I’ll tell you more when I know more.

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Link of the Month:

This month’s site is "Mike Sack's Mi'kmaq Site." 

It can be found at:        http://www.accesswave.ca/~mtsack/  . 

Mike has a very nicely designed site. Some of the specialized sections on this site are:  Community Photos, Genealogy, Status FAQ, History, Arts & Crafts, Policies, Spirituality, NS Reserves, Stories, Mi'kmaq language, Links. The information is very interesting and well presented. I highly recommend visiting this website about this (mostly) Canadian tribal group.

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Speaking of the Mi'kmaq, I have created a new links page dedicated to this tribe. It is located at:

http://americanindian.net/links12mi'kmaq.html

There are (at the time I wrote this) links to 78 sites about the Mi’kmaq. Yes, I realize there are several ways to spell Mi'kmaq: Micmac, Mikmak, Micmak, Mikmaq, L'nu'k, Nikmaq. Mi’kmaq seems to be the most commonly accepted "official" spelling.

This tribe joins the Anasazi, Apache, Aztec, Caddo, Cherokee, Comanche, Creek, Hopi, Iroquois, Lakota, Maya, Navajo, and Pueblo in having their own dedicated links page. 

All of these pages are part of the "Info on Specific Tribes" section of my links pages.
http://americanindian.net/links12.html

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I talked about the movie "Windtalkers" in last month’s newsletter. It is a story about the Navajo codetalkers during World War II. I saw it a couple of days ago. OK, I did not spend all of this week doing household chores! :-) 

As I mentioned in last month’s newsletter, John Woo, the director, is know for his "graphic" movies. Windtalkers is no exception. This movie is much like many of the traditional (John Wayne, Aldo Rey, etc.) WWII movies. It has lots of battle scenes, lots of blood & guts, the typical group of widely diversified, stereotypical soldiers (Brooklyn, Texas, California, etc.), and the "good guys" always seem to be able to kill dozens of Japanese each time they shoot. It is not quite as violently graphic as "Saving Private Ryan," but people do get shot, blown up, and set on fire. This movie is not for the squeamish. War is hell!

I have visited a couple of American Indian internet bulletin boards which discuss the movie. There were mixed reactions. Some seemed to be upset that Adam Beach (playing the main Navajo soldier) was not really Navajo. He is a Saulteaux from Manitoba, Canada. Some Navajos (Dineh) said his pronunciation was not very good. Others said he did a great job for a non-native Navajo speaker. John Woo had looked for a Navajo speaker to play the role, but he did not find anyone he felt could carry the part. Beach also appeared in "Squanto", "Dance Me Outside" and "Smoke Signals". Most of the comments I have seen from the actual codetalkers (or people talking for them) were about how the movie reminded them of the war. They seemed to have a favorable opinion of the movie. Responding to a scene in the movie, at least one former codetalker mentioned that was mistaken for a Japanese soldier in disguise. Most everyone felt that too much time was spent on Nicolas Cage’s character. That is debatable, but Cage is the star of the movie, and it IS mostly about him. 

Cage’s character is a "hard-biten" soldier who is not happy about his job of "protecting the code," but he plans on "following orders." After the initial scenes where the Navajos are being trained in the code, the two main Indian actors (Beach and Roger Willie, who is Navajo)  are about the only Indians shown during the rest of the movie. There are several "cultural scenes" in the movie, but this is largely a war movie, rather than a look at Navajo culture. 

It was good to see some American Indian culture in a movie, but I would not recommend this movie for "entertainment purposes" unless you like war movies.

You can find some interesting links about the movie on this site (About Windtalkers):
http://thenavajotimes.com/nation.html

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This month’s "Treaty of the Month" is the "TREATY WITH THE NAVAHO, 1868. June 1, 1868. | 15 Stats., p. 667." It was signed at the Fort Sumner, Bosque Redondo reservation in New Mexico. The treaty, among a long list of other things, allows the Navajo to return to their former lands in Arizona. Lieutenant-General W. T. Sherman and Colonel Samuel F. Tappan sign for the United States. Barboncito, Armijo, Delgado and Manuelito, among a long list of others, sign for the Navajo. You can see a copy of the treaty here:

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/nav1015.htm

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As most of you know, all of the information on my website is provided for free. To help cover some of my operational costs (computer stuff, website charges, etc…), I have links to some business sites. These folks give me a small "finder’s fee" if you buy anything on their site, if you reach them through a link on my site. No purchases are required, but, if you are looking for something which you plan on buying through the net, I would appreciate your using these links. The prices would be exactly the same if you went to these companies’ websites directly.

I have a page called the AmericanIndian.Net Store. I have links to all of these companies on this page. You can also find links to specific books on this page.

http://americanindian.net/store.html
---
I used to be affiliated with Barnes & Nobel bookstores. They changed their website in such a way that I could not link directly to their "Native American" section. This, and a few other things, has led me to change over to Amazon.com. Here are some links to certain types of American Indian books. Each is a complete one-line address if your e-mail prints them on two lines. You have to copy them exactly for me to get credit.
American Indian History Books
American Indian Biography Books
American Indian Studies Books
American Indian Literature Books
Native Peoples of Canada Books
American Indian Cookbooks
"Native Healing" Books
American Indian Music
--- This link will take you to Half.com & ebay . They offer all kinds of goodies at good prices. I just bought a CR-RW at a great price through them.
http://www.qksrv.net/click-414737-940542
--- You can get very good airline & hotel prices here:
http://partner.onetravel.com/go/go.cfm?GoID=17157
Thanks for your help!

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Recently, the public, especially the Canadian public, has become aware of a period of abuse in the "Provincial Residential School" for aboriginal people. News stories have been written, TV program have aired, and conferences have been held, and more are scheduled.

Here are some websites which discuss the matter.
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Indian Residential School SURVIVORS Society (Formerly the Provincial Residential School Project)
http://www.prsp.bc.ca/index1.htm
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Hidden from History: The Canadian Holocaust - The Untold Story of the Genocide of Aboriginal Peoples by Church and State in Canada
http://canadiangenocide.nativeweb.org/
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Survival and Beyond Historic Healing and Reconciliation Gathering in Vancouver
http://www.okit.com/news/2002/june/boardingschool.html

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With all of the recent interest in the American Pledge of Allegiance, here is an interesting post I saw:

The Indian Pledge of Allegiance

I pledge allegiance to my Tribe, to the democratic principles of the Republic and to the individual freedoms  borrowed from the Iroquois and Choctaw Confederacies, as incorporated in the United States Constitution,  so that my forefathers shall not have died in vain.

(first presented on 2 December '93 during the opening address of the National Congress of American Indian Tribal-States Relations Panel in Reno, NV. )

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Here are some interesting websites I have come across, or were sent to me by readers of the newsletter. This should keep you busy for a while…

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Native American claims part of Cherokee forest
Family camping on land, hoping to get federal government back in court
http://www.accessatlanta.com/ajc/metro/0602/05forest.html
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Illinois legislation for an "American Indian Day."
http://www.legis.state.il.us/legisnet/legisnet92/hrgroups/hr/920HR0196LV.html
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Indian Country Today- Fact sheet: Protection of Native American sacred places
http://www.indiancountry.com/?1024667682
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I am sorry I missed this, but June 21st was "National Aboriginal Day in Canada:
http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/nad/
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Fort Peck Assiniboine Sioux first to support protection of ceremonies (to keep non-natives from selling ceremonies)
http://thenavajotimes.com/National/peck/peck.html
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Along the same lines….
Deaths raise questions about spiritual quests
http://www.sacbee.com/content/news/story/3351027p-4378848c.html
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Newly recognized Pequots must next form government
http://indiancountry.com/?1025292141
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Wildfires decimate Apache lands
http://indiancountry.com/?1025273290
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Big Dreams Do Come True
http://indiancountry.com/?1023805243
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Upcoming Dates & Events from Indianz.com
http://www.indianz.com/News/show.asp?ID=events/06282002
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4H program removes Indian themes (some interesting related articles, too)
http://www.indianz.com/News/show.asp?ID=2002/06/28/4h
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Traditional Seeds Threatened by Gene Altering Companies
http://www.okit.com/news/2002/june/traditionalseeds.html
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Tribal leader wants government investment to aid development on reservations 
http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/news/archive/2002/06/17/national0529EDT0472.DTL
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They dig history: Archaeological project maps Fetterman Fight
http://www.billingsgazette.com/index.php?id=1&display=rednews/2002/06/17/build/local/75-clues1.inc
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AOL Time Warner Honors Sue Bad Moccasin with Community Service Award
http://www.okit.com/news/2002/june/timewarner.html
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Cattle Seizure from BLM considered illegal
http://www.okit.com/news/2002/june/seizure.html
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The Western Shoshone fight on
http://www.indiancountry.com/?1022946834
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Linguists act to save Lakota
http://www.rapidcityjournal.com/archives/index.inn?loc=detail&doc=/2002/June/01-1548-state01.txt
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Western Shoshone to vote on land settlement
http://www.rgj.com//news/stories/html/2002/06/01/15777.php
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A matter of trust, and a decades-old 'folly' 
http://www.indianz.com/News/show.asp?ID=2002/06/04/trust

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Here is part of an e-mail I received from the Orbisons:

"I wanted to send you something that Emerged form my heart on day. Do you believe in past lives? I am not sure if I do or not, but I know what my heart tells me. The following is an excert from one of my stories. I have rested in the arms of darkness that transcended my search for humanity. I have sat by a fire in the midst of agave and sage and listened to the song of the spirit of the great ones who have gone on before. The wind carries their song and my spirit flies with the newborn sun on its path of travail. And there is none to listen except for the hungry souls of the tormented forever set adrift in the echoes of the canyons, that we called home. Our tears fall in mist to the desert floor and are swept up by the tide of evil whose color is that of the moon when she is at birth. And yet we live. In the crimson of the sunset on the rim of tomorrow, I hunt with my ancestors, those that! I have loved, with a love born only to the truly innocent. And there I stand and weep, for what I gave you in love, you took in Hatred, What I offered in Charity, you took, as it had never been mine. The wind speaks of injustice and you do not listen, for you have never listened. My heart I gave you as a child, whose wonders exceeds the thoughts of man, and you threw it aside. But know, oh man, that I stand beside you tonight and share the wind on your face. For I have ridden with the thunder of shame down the trail to your destiny. As you have done, so shall it be done unto you. I will return, and no longer will you desecrate the cry of my ancestors. Our blood will not lie in vain, for you have decreed it with your vengeance and I will return! 

To the truly brave men and women who gave their lives to defend our country, I lift my glass and weep! GERONAMO, CRAZY HORSE, THE CHEROKEE NATION, IROQUIS, And so many others, I will stand in shame before you for I am white."

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History section:

Here is the website for the public version of the July history dates:
http://americanindian.net/July.html

Here are some randomly picked historical events for July

July 1, 1833: According to an army report, by this date, the army estimates they have captured all of the "hostile" Creek Indians, except for the warriors from Hitchiti, and Yuchi, led by Jim Henry.

July 2, 1791: The treaty (7 stat.39) with the Cherokee Nation is concluded on the Holston River at White's Fort, modern Knoxville Tennessee. The Cherokee acknowledge the sovereignty of the United States. Prisoners are restored on both sides. Boundary lines are officially established. American citizens are allowed to use a road from the Washington District, to the Mero District on the Tennessee River without molestation. The United States will have the sole right to regulate trade with the Cherokee. No whites can live, or hunt on Cherokee lands, without Cherokee approval. Annual payments increase from $1000, to $1500 on February 17, 1792. The treaty is signed by thirty-nine Chiefs, 1200 other Cherokees attend the meeting. This is known as the "Holston River Treaty." The Americans are represented by Governor William Blount.

July 3, 1754: Surrounded by 500 French and 400 Indian forces under Sieur Coulon de Villiers, George Washington has only 400 soldiers at his Fort Necessity, near modern Farmington, in southwestern Pennsylvania. After his artillery is put out of action, and with half of his men as casualties, Washington accepts de Villiers offer of surrender. Washington leads his troops back to Virginia. De Villiers is the brother of Jumonville de Villiers, Washington's counterpart in the battle not far from here on May 28th. Jumonville is killed in that battle.

July 4, 1874: Captain A.E. Bates, and Troop B, Second Cavalry, and 160 "friendly" Shoshones, are en route from Camp Brown, in west central Wyoming, looking for a reported gathering of hostile Northern Cheyenne and Arapahos, when they discover a large group of "hostiles" on the Bad Water Branch of the Wind River, in Wyoming. During the battle, twenty-six "hostiles," and four soldiers are killed. Twenty Indians, and six soldiers, including Lieutenant R.H. Young, are wounded. 230 horses are captured. After this fight, many "hostile" Northern Cheyenne and Arapahos are convinced to return to their agencies to avoid further battles.

July 5, 1873: A tract of land is set aside as a reserve for "Gross Ventre, Piegan, Blood, Blackfeet, River Crow and other Indians" in Montana by Executive Order.

July 6, 465: Palenque Maya Lord Chaacal I is born according to the museum at Palenque.

July 7, 1666: Robert Sanford has been exploring the coast of South Carolina for a colony site. He has found some friendly Indians at Port Royal. Today he sets sail for Barbados with the nephew of the local Chief. The Chief wants his nephew to learn the white man's ways and language. Dr. Henry Woodward stays with the Indians and learn their ways, thus making him the first European settler in South Carolina. Woodward eventually becomes the preeminent Indian agent in South Carolina.

July 8, 1724: French peace envoy Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont has come from Fort Orleans to visit the Indians of modern Kansas. At the mouth of the Missouri River, he encounters the "Canza." Many of them accompany de Bourgmont on his trip to the "Padoucas."

July 9, 1969: Members of the Passamaquoddy Nation block road that goes through their reservation in Maine.

July 10, 1843: In 1842, the Wyandot signed a treaty (11 Stat., 581.) giving up their lands in Ohio for land west of the Mississippi River. Today, 674 men, women and children start their trip from Ohio to Kansas.

July 11, 1598: Juan de Oñate’s expedition reaches the San Juan Pueblo in modern New Mexico.

July 12, 1784: Even though he has signed a peace treaty with the Spanish, Tonkawa Chief El Mocho is planning to join the Texas Indians together under his leadership and then attack the Spanish. The Spanish hear of El Mocho's plans. In the Presidio of la Bahia, El Mocho is shot down in the plaza by Spanish soldiers.

July 13, 1973: New Mexico is told no State Income Taxes can be levied against reservation Indians.

July 14, 1684: Naumkeag Indian, and son of fomrer Sachem Wenepoykin, James Quannapowit petitions the English of Marblehead Massachusetts. He complains they are givng out lands which rightfully belong to him. On September 16, 1684, a deed is finally signed by all parties in order for the English to hold "rightful title" to the land.

July 15, 1877: In the Weippe Prairie, east of Weippe, Idaho, the Nez Perce hold a council to decide their movements. The army is still trying to force them to move to a reservation. They wish to stay free. Looking Glass says they should go east into Montana and join the crow. Chief Joseph (Hein-mot Too-ya-la kekt) suggests they wait for the army here and fight it out in their own lands. Toohoolhoolzote joins Looking Glass in suggesting they move east into Montana. The tribe decides to move.

July 16, 1862: Yesterday, as a small group of mounted soldiers attempt to leave the Apache Pass watering hole, Mangas, and some warriors, attack. During the fight, Mangas is shot in the chest. The Indians abandon the fight, with the loss of their leader. Eventually, Cochise takes his father-in-law to Mexico, where he holds a town hostage until a Mexican doctor heals Mangas. This battle leads to the construction of Fort Bowie on July 28, 1862 according to the official National Park Service brochure. This is in modern New Mexico.

July 17, 1853: A dispute between a settler ad some Paiutes near Springville, Utah leads to the death of one of the Paiutes. This will lead to what is sometimes called the "Walker War."

July 18, 1694: Abenaki Chief Abomazine, almost 300 Penobscot warriors, and few French attack the settlement along the south side of the Oyster River, at modern Durham, New Hampshire. The Indians are trying to sneak into the village when their presence in discovered. Some settlers escape, others retreat to fortified homes. 104 settlers are killed, and twenty-seven are taken hostage before the Indians withdraw. Four months later, Abomazine approaches the fort at Pemaquid, under a white flag. He is seized by the garrison for his part in the attack.

July 19, 1856: By this date, all of the remaining Rogue River Indians are en route to the Grande Ronde Reservation in Oregon. They number 1225.

July 20, 1863: General James Carleton, called "Star Chief" by the Navajos, has ordered the Navajos to leave their homeland and to report to the Bosque Redondo Reservation in New Mexico. All Navajos found off the reservation, after this date, are considered "hostiles," and will be treated accordingly. No Navajos turn themselves in, leading to the Canyon de Chelly Campaign, and the "Long Walk."

July 21, 1855: John W. Quinney, Stockbridge Chief, dies in Stockbridge, New York. Through his efforts, his tribe creates a constitutional system for the election of its here-to-fore hereditary leaders. He is instrumental in the cessation of the sell of tribal lands to Europeans. He leads the efforts to have 460 acres of their former lands returned by the State of New York. He is elected Chief of the tribe in 1852.

July 22, 1863: As a followup to the "Owens Valley War" in California, over 900 Paiutes are led to the San Sebastian Reservation at Fort Tejon (north of Los Angeles).

July 23, 1733: José de Urrutia is appointed Captain of San Antonio de Béxar Presidio. The Spanish acknowledged him as one of their experts on Indians.

July 24, 1863: The Santee Sioux have engaged in an uprising in Minnesota. Some have fled the area and made their way into the Dakotas. General Henry Sibley and troops from Fort Ridgley in Minnesota have pursued them. According to reports Sibley has received, the Santee have joined up with the Teton Sioux. Today the soldiers find an Indian village in what is now North Dakota. According to the army’s report, while some scouts are talking with a couple of hundred Indians who come out to meet then, someone shoots and kills Surgeon Josiah Weiser. The scouts shoot at the Indian who shot the doctor, but he gets away. More Indians arrive and start shooting. Then more soldiers arrive and open fire. A full scale fight takes place and some fighting lasts through early tomorrow. It is called the "Battle of Big Mound."

July 25, 1863: As part of the Canyon de Chelly Campaign, Kit Carson decides to force the Navajos to surrender by destroying their food supply. He orders Major Joseph Cummings to proceed along the Bonito River, and to seize all livestock and crops. Anything he cannot haul way, is burned.

July 26, 1865: Following the massacre at Sand Creek, many Indians begin attacking military outposts, and people crossing their territory. A group of Cheyenne, led by Roman Nose, want revenge for lost relatives. They approached a bridge across the North Platte in what is now Casper, Wyoming. The bridge is also the site of a telegraph station and a military outpost. After trying for two days to get the soldiers out of the fort, a column of troops cross the bridge. The Indians attack and kill many soldiers, including Lieutenant Casper Collins. Another column of troops comes to the rescue, and cannonfire from the fort helps them escape. The soldiers left the fort to provide an escort for an approaching wagon train. Another band of Indians attacks the wagon train. During the fighting, Roman Nose's brother is killed. Roman Nose lead a charge against the wagon train and all of the soldiers guarding it are killed. Their anger quickly dissipates, and the Indians quit the fight, and leave the area.

July 27, 1777: Jane McCrea is killed. A painting is made showing her about to be scalped. It becomes a famous piece of American art.

July 28, 1756: Delaware Chief Teedyuscung, and fourteen other chiefs, meet with Pennsylvania Governor Robert Morris, and other Pennsylvania leaders at Easton, Pennsylvania to discuss the Delaware uprising. Teedyuscung agrees to visit the warring members of the tribe, and to try to end the fighting.

July 29, 1868: After years of conflict over the Bozeman Trail along the Powder River, the War Department finally gives in to Indian's, and particularly Red Cloud's, demands and starts abandoning its forts. Fort C.F. Smith’s garrison packs-up and leaves. The fort is located near present day Yellowtail and Big Horn Lake, in southern Montana.

July 30, 1829: In internal documents, the United States War Department formalizes a new Indian policy. Secretary of War John Eaton believes Indians will not be able to survive if the live in lands surrounded by white settlers.

July 31, 1684: According to some sources, a six day conference starts between representatives of the New York colonies and the Mohawks, Oniedas, Onondagas and Cayugas. Some lands are ceded and allegiances are pledged.

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That's it for this newsletter. Have a great month. You can find a copy of this online at:

http://americanindian.net/newsletter0702.html

or

http://www.topica.com/lists/americanindian.net/read
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End of the July 2002 Newsletter
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