June 2005 Newsletter from
"This Day in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2006)

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Start of Phil Konstantin’s June 2005 Newsletter


My but the time sure has flown. It is already June. I am really enjoying
being “semi-retired.” I only work four hours a day at
my new job. I do on-air traffic reports on TV station KUSI in
San Diego. We have a great group of people there. I am also
getting to meet lots of “movers and shakers” who come by to
do interviews. I have been a bit surprised by how many local
people who recognize me from my previous job as the Public
Affairs Officer for the CHP. I have noticed (this was also
true back in my days in radio & TV in Houston in the 1970’s)
how someone can be different in person from what you would
expect them to be. Most people are nicer than you might expect.
I am chubbier than most people expect. It must be all of the
free food from the visiting chefs. I have been posting pictures
of some of the people I have met at KUSI on the website below.
Dan Aykroyd was quite a friendly guy, not that I expected
anything different. Now, if I could just learn all of my
co-worker’s names!


In case you missed them last month, posted on the link below
are the winners of this year’s essay contest for American
Indian students. I think you will find them quite good.


I have finally started checking the links on my links pages.
I have updated the Tribal Home Pages & Reference Page. I’ll
be working on more of the other links pages this month.

Please feel free to forward this newsletter along to your
friends. There are about 1,000 people currently subscribed,
but there is always room for a few more.



The “Link of the Month” for June 2005 is “CodeTalk.“ According
to their home page, “CodeTalk is a federal, interagency, Native American
Web site designed specifically to deliver electronic information from
government agencies and other organizations to
Native American communities.” The website is produced by the
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. It has lots of
interesting material. You can visit it at:


Treaty of the Month:

TREATY WITH THE WINNEBAGO, 1816. June 3, 1816. | 7 Stat., 144. |
Proclamation, Dec. 30, 1816.

The treaty dealt with Injuries, etc., forgiven., Former cessions,
treaties, etc., confirmed., Protection of United States acknowledged,
Indians to remain distinct from the rest of their tribe, Prisoners to be
delivered up.

You can see a transcription of the treaty here:


Turner Network will be showing a new miniseries this month.
It is titled “Into The West.” The basic story is a look at
the people moving from the eastern United States into the
plains states. It features a great deal of interaction between
“pioneers” and the Indians of the area. While I have not seen
an advance copy, it does look like they have made an effort
to be accurate. The second link below is an article about of
the people who was hired to make sure they were as accurate
as practicable. The miniseries’ website has lots of
information. It might be worth you time to check them out.


Lakota author works to keep movie accurate



Cherokee Nation lead counsel dies at symposium
Rare white bison born in western Canada

A reminiscence from the Trail of Would-Be Tears, circa May 1830

Americas had seventy 'founding fathers'

Canada funds Sisters in Spirit campaign
American Indians and Alaska Native veterans have higher mortality rate
after surgery than Caucasians

U.N. told of religious discrimination against indigenous prisoners

New Bosque Redondo Memorial showcases history of Hwéeldi

Judge rebuffs state's attempt to impose taxes on tribe

NAACP supports federal recognition in Conn.

Tribes to receive fish protection money

As tribal speakers dwindle, a rush to teach their words; Native American
languages at risk.

Belated Purple Heart ceremony honors code talker 60 years after Iwo Jima

Fort Belknap tribe president resigns

Treaty of 1855 remembered (last month’s “Treaty of the Month”)
Native American stories describe who sun, moon were

American Indian Genocide Museum hosts first film festival

Taking saddle does not equal divorce

Tribe revokes business license

Kickapoo chairman calls himself 'Superman'

Indigenous grandmothers pray for the world

The Northern Cheyenne Indian tribe wants to contract law-enforcement
duties from the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Federal court rulings belie long struggle
UNM Press' Native American storytelling book honored

BIA starts talking about teen suicide prevention

Deer Island Indian concentration camp victims remembered

Navajos name first female police captain

Heard Museum in Phoenix now includes oral history and contemporary


A letter with information about the Indian Child Welfare Act

Attached is information regarding a California Senate hearing
Pertaining to ICWA. The message asks for Tribes to submit
resolutions in support of the legislation. All Indian
organizations with an interest in ICWA should submit a resolution
or letter to the appropriate Senate member in your district or
all Senators if you have a chance. Attached is the resolution
prepared for the Tribal Governments. Please use this as an
example of the resolution or letter that you send.

A Senate Judiciary Committee Hearing will be scheduled for
June 21, 2005 at 1:30 p.m (Room 112 in the Capitol Building)
to vote on SB 678, authored by Senator Ducheny. The bill, if
passed, would improve compliance with ICWA. Please save the
date and let Joanne know if you are available and interested
in testifying. Although there will likely only be a handful
of individuals who can be placed on the agenda, there is an opportunity
for anyone to add their comments at the end and
it would be good to have as many supporters in the room to
at least second the testimony of others. Please distribute
this freely to your ICWA networks. Joanne will be following
up with those who express an interest in testifying to coordinate

Also, additional ways you can help with the effort include: 1)
contacting your local legislator to ask them to support the bill;
and 2) encouraging tribal governments and tribal agencies to
submit letters or resolutions in support of the bill to Senator Ducheny.
The list of supporters to date includes:

Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians, Cahto Tribe,
Laytonville Rancheria, Cedarville Rancheria Consolidated Tribal
Health Project, Greenville Rancheria, Inaja-Cosmit Band of
Mission Indians, La Posta Band of Mission Indians, Middletown Rancheria,
Pala Band of Mission Indians, Pauma Band of Mission Indians, Picayune
Rancheria of the Chukchansi Indians, Redding Rancheria, San Pasqual Band
of Mission Indians, Santa Ysabel
Band of Diegueno Indians, Southern California Tribal Chairmen's
Association, Susanville Indian Rancheria, Viejas Tribal


SUBJECT: Proposed Legislation to Improve Compliance with the
Child Welfare Act

WHEREAS,    The [Name of Tribe] is a federally recognized Indian
Tribe exercising its powers of self-government through its
[General Council/Tribal Council/other]; and

WHEREAS, The Indian Child Welfare Act, 25 U.S.C. § 1901 et seq.
(ICWA), was enacted in 1978 to address alarmingly high rates of
Indian children being removed from their families and adopted
into non-Indian homes without consideration of the prevailing
social and cultural standards of the children’s Tribes or the
Indian children’s interest in establishing and maintaining a connection
to their extended families, their Indian culture
and their tribal communities;

WHEREAS, The ICWA was intended to protect the best interest
of Indian children and to promote the stability and security
of Indian Tribes and families by establishing minimum federal standards
for the removal and placement of Indian children,
including providing Tribe’s with the right to have a voice in
such child custody proceedings and to have their prevailing
social and cultural standards respected;

WHEREAS, The State courts and county child welfare agencies
continue To violate express provisions of the ICWA and its
spirit and intent by refusing to give full faith and credit
to tribally designated placement preferences and to comply
with the Tribes’ prevailing and social and cultural standards;

NOW, THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED: That the [Name of Tribe]
supports legislation that would amend state laws to improve
compliance with the ICWA, including, but not limited to,
amendments that would:

. Amend the Probate Code and Family Code to affirm that
guardianship And adoption proceedings under those statutes
are subject to ICWA.

• Amend the Probate Code and Family Code to affirm that, in
Guardianship and adoption proceedings subject to the ICWA, Indian
parents who cannot afford to hire an attorney are entitled to a
court-appointed attorney.

• Amend the Probate Code and Family Code to incorporate by
reference Rule of Court Rule 1439, which reiterates all of
the requirements of the ICWA but is only currently applicable
to juvenile court proceedings.

• Amend the Welfare and Institutions Code, the Probate Code
and the Family Code to ensure that the notice requirements
are consistent with ICWA, federal regulations (25 C.F.R. § 23.11),
and Rule 1439.

• Amend the Welfare and Institutions Code, the Probate Code,
and the Family Code to permit courts to grant standing to an
Indian child’s Tribe even though the child doesn’t meet the
definition of “Indian Child” in ICWA because the child is not
eligible for membership in his/her tribe or is descended from
a non-federally recognized tribe.

• Amend the exceptions to adoption contained in the Welfare
and Institutions Code to protect the unique interest of
Indian children, Indian custodians, and relative caregivers.

• Amend the Family Code to permit tribes to be parties to
postadoption agreements in involuntary adoptions (they
currently have this opportunity in voluntary adoption cases).

• Amend the Family Code to require reconsideration of
proceedings prior To the finalization of an adoption when
prospective adoptive parents Refuse to negotiate postadoption agreements
in good faith and the adoption was ordered in
part because of their representations that they would enter
into such an agreement.

• Amend the Welfare and Institutions Code to clarify what ICWA requires
Of the juvenile court and county agencies in delinquency cases.

• Amend the Welfare and Institutions Code to prohibit a county
from calling its own social workers or other employees to serve
as its expert witness for the purpose of terminating parental

• Amend the Welfare and Institutions Code to affirm that active efforts
must be made to prevent the break-up of the Indian family, regardless of
state law exceptions to the contrary.

• Amend the Welfare and Institutions Code to affirm that state
public policy recognizes exceptions to adoption and therefore
tribal acts, records, or judicial proceedings establishing
alternative permanent plans for Indian children must be afforded
full faith and credit and considered when placing Indian
children and selecting permanent plans for them.

• Amend the Welfare and Institutions Code to require that
the serious Harm finding required under ICWA prior to
termination of parental rights be made at the same hearing
at which parental rights are to be terminated (rather than
some time before).

• Elevate the requirements found in Rule 1439 to the level
of state law By incorporating those requirements in appropriate related
provisions of the Welfare and Institutions Code.


We, the undersigned officers of the [name of Tribe] do, hereby, certify
that the foregoing Resolution was adopted by the [General
Council/Tribal Council/other] by a vote of ___ in favor, ____ opposing,
and ____ abstaining, at a duly called meeting on ______________, 2005
and such resolution has not been rescinded or amended in any way.

_________________________________ ____________________________________

_________________________________ ____________________________________


E-mails from subscribers and visitors to my websites:


From Jim:

Hi Phil,

A friend of mine has a large amount of lightly used childrens
clothing that she wants to give to children that can use them.
She's hoping to donate to a reservation that is in need.

Any suggestions?

Thanks again,

~Jim (Wolf Song)
Sunnkmanitu Sapa Olo'wann
Cedars Song Flutes
Cedars Thunder Drums


Patti Wilson sent this:

Please read this petition and sign it...We need to protect all NA sacred
sites. Wolf


Patti K."Lone White Wolf" Watson


From Lars Perner:

I am an Assistant Professor of Marketing at the Imperial
Valley Campus Of SDSU. Recently, I have worked on what I call
the “California Win-Win Project”; that is designed to allow a
number of stakeholders to benefit from locating the new San
Diego Area Regional Airport in the Imperial Valley. The
proposal raises the idea of a multi-tribe run resort near
the airport. Any comments that any members who are around
during the summer may have would be greatly appreciated.
Since this is a new area to me, I would greatly appreciate
any comments on the use of respectful terms in the proposal.

Thank you!

Lars Perner, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Marketing
San Diego State University, Imperial Valley Campus
720 Heber Avenue, Calexico, CA 92231
(760) 768-5614


Pinecone Bascomb suggests a visit to this website:

Winds that Whisper

The website has poety, inspirational; stories, origin stories, and other


Curtis sent this:

Dear Friends:

Our office recently received a letter from Richard Riordan,
the Secretary for Education in Governor Schwarzenegger's
Office, in opposition to AB 13 which would prohibit the term "Redskins"
as a public school mascot, team name or nickname.

It reads, in part:

The Governor vetoed a substantially similar bill last year
(AB 858, Goldberg). The veto message stated, "Existing
statute already affords local school boards general control
over all aspects of their interscholastic athletic policies,
programs, and activities. Decisions regarding athletic team
names, nicknames or mascots should be retained at the local
level. At a time when we should all be working together to
increase the academic achievement of all California students,
adding another non-academic state administrative requirement
for schools to comply with takes more focus away from getting
kids to learn at the highest levels."

Since the bill is nearly identical, the veto message remains applicable.

Our stance is that this is a civil rights issue and such
legislation is never left up to local control. The beauty
of our democracy is that it is not a pure majoritarian system,
that even those with fewer numbers are entitled to the same
rights and liberties as those who are in the majority. I
don’t feel the need to go over the long history of
dehumanization and forced assimilation by the government
upon Native peoples, but at the same time it seems like
Native people remain as mere relics and greedy casino rich
tax evaders instead of a contemporary and thriving people.
Native mascots portraying American Indians as savage violent
people are nothing more than carry-overs from a sad period
in American history where the government's motto was "to
kill the Indian in him and save the man." Moreover, in
addition to the dehumanizing psychological effects upon
students [please see Dr. Witko's article in the Jan 2005
edition of the California Psychologist (email me if you
want a copy)], the term “Redskins” is defined by nearly
every English dictionary as an offensive term for a Native
American. It comes from the same sad period in American
history when the government offered bounties to kill
American Indians. When the bodies of Natives became too
burdensome for bounty-hunters, they instead took the
scalps of Native men, women and children as proof of a
kill to collect their bounty (also see Witko).

We need to show the Governor that this is not simply
political-correctness, that we are not some unsophisticated
people of time past, that we understand where the term
“Redskins” originates and we are not honored by such
mascots, especially “Redskins.”

Ray Reinhard, Assistant Secretary for Elementary and
Secondary Education in the Governor¹s Office, is the
staffer working on AB 13. Please contact him and explain
to him the history of trying to do this at the local level
and the problems that are engendered by the local process,
and also explain to him what “Redskins” means to many of
us. Please feel free to call more than once and have your
friends and family talk to the Governor¹s office also: Ray
Reinhard or Secretary Richard Riordan, (916) 323-0611.

AB 13 is set to be heard in the Senate Committee on Education
on Wednesday, June 8th at 9:30am here in the Capitol. If
you can attend please do as a strong showing in Senate
Education made all the difference last year.

Please distribute this email far and wide and post on
appropriate listserves, this is a very important time for
the life of this bill and the Governor’s office needs to
know that this is not some small issue and “Redskins” is
NOT acceptable, especially in public schools.

In Solidarity,

Curtis, a Jicarilla Apache

Curtis I. Notsinneh
Office of Assemblymember Jackie Goldberg
State Capitol Building
Sacramento, CA 95814
Ph: (916) 319-2045
Fx: (916) 319-2145


From Shonie De La Rosa:

RE: Sheephead Films begins production on full feature film

Production on Sheephead Films new full feature film titled
“Mile Post 398” is scheduled to begin May 22, 2005. The film
will include an all Navajo cast and crew and be filmed entirely
on the Navajo Nation. Starring in the film will be Beau
Benally and Victoria Yazzie (former Miss Navajo) both from
Kayenta, Arizona. Additional cast include: Cooter Crawley,
Jason Bradley, Matthew Hale, Billy Crawley II, Ruth Bradley,
and Audrey De La Rosa, all from Kayenta, Arizona.

“Mile Post 398” takes place on the present day Navajo Nation
in Kayenta, Arizona. The story is about a young man named
Cloyd (Beau Benally) in his mid-twenties who after spending
most of his life involved with drugs and alcohol decides to
try and lead a sober lifestyle. Cloyd tries to make mends
with his wife, son, and family while at the same time he is
dealing with the unrelenting peer pressures of friends and
the economic hardship of finding employment on the Navajo

“We want to show people what life is “really like” living
on the Navajo Nation for a lot of people. Much of this story
is taken from my own experiences in life. When my wife Andee
and I sat down to write this story, we did a lot of
reflecting back on our past life together. We used our
past experiences as a foundation for the story and built
off of that.” said Director Shonie De La Rosa.

The film will utilize an all Navajo cast and crew from the
Navajo Nation and a sound track featuring the talents of
Coalition from Tuba City, Arizona and Ethnic De Generation
from Kayenta, Arizona. Most of the film will be shot in
Kayenta, Arizona and will feature various areas from around
the Navajo Nation. Sheephead Films has the full support and cooperation
from the Kayenta Township, Kayenta Chapter, and
the Kayenta Police Department. The Kayenta Police Department
will play a vital role in many of the scenes in the film.

“We are going to create a film depicting the real side of
life on the Navajo Nation, not what you would normally see
in any other native film. There will be no flute music,
eagle screams, or drums in the film. I believe all that
has been over used and is too cliché, we want to break away
from that stereotype.” said Shonie.

Sheephead Films has created a number of short films that
include: Yellow Dust, Al’keme 1345, Hesitation, Our Future,
Forsaken, and the award winning documentary film “G
Methamphetamine on the Navajo Nation”, all of which have
shown all over the world.

Sheephead Films is looking for sponsorship for the production
of the film in the form of food, water, fuel, and of course
money. If interested in sponsoring the production of “Mile
Post 398” or for general information about the film, please
contact Shonie or Andee De La Rosa of Sheephead Films at:
(928) 697-3033 or e-mail sheephe-@yahoo.com

Shonie De La Rosa
Sheephead Films


From Ruth Garby Torres:

KENT -- The Schaghticoke Tribal Nation is reaching out for

At the tribe's semi-annual meeting Sunday at its 400-acre
reservation on Schaghticoke Mountain, Chief Richard Velky
announced a new initiative in the public opinion battle over
the Schaghticokes' status as a federally acknowledged
American Indian tribe -- a statewide petition seeking support
from individual state residents.

The petition's preamble says the Schaghticokes have been
documented in the state since the early 1700s, submitted
their letter of intent to seek federal recognition in 1981,
and their petition for federal recognition in 1994.

"Since that time, the Schaghticoke Tribal Nation has been
feverishly, continuously and improperly attacked by some
Connecticut political opponents." The resolution states,
"We, the undersigned citizens and taxpayers of the State
of Connecticut, fully support and recognize the Schaghticoke
Tribal Nation and call upon Connecticut Gov. M. Jodi Rell,
the Connecticut legislature and the Connecticut congressional delegation
to support and recognize this long standing tribal community."

Although there's no telling how Connecticut residents will
respond, it's not likely that the state's politicians will
support the tribe. The Bureau of Indian Affairs granted the
300-member tribe federal recognition in January 2004. Soon
after, local, state, and congressional officials vowed to
fight the decision. And they've kept their promise.

The town and state filed appeals last year with the Department
of the Interior's Board of Indian Appeals. In additional, U.S.
Rep. Nancy Johnson, R-5th District, has submitted a bill to
Congress to repeal the government's decision.

On May 11, Rell, Sens. Christopher Dodd and Joe Lieberman and
three of state's congressional delegates testified at a Senate
Indian Affairs Committee, urging Congress to repeal the
Schaghticokes' federal status and stop the expansion of Indian
casinos in the state. Two days later, the Board of Appeals
voided the BIA decision and sent it back the assistant
secretary of Indian affairs for reconsideration.

"One of the things the politicians did at the Senate Indian
Affairs Committee is they talked about how the people of
Connecticut don't want us to be recognized and don't want
us to move forward. Last year, Nancy Johnson sent out a survey
with our taxpayer's money and to our knowledge had 5,000
signatures mailed back to her on Schaghticoke recognition
and the chance of a gaming facility," Velky said.

Now the tribe is seeking the opinion of the state's residents,
Velky said. Copies of the tribe's petition were distributed
among the approximately 150 members in attendance. Those
members will circulate the copies among residents. Velky
wants them returned by Sept. 1 so that the tribe can present
the signatures to the BIA.

"Let's start circulating our own petition going across the
state of Connecticut and getting as many signatures as we
can. Let's find out who wants to see the Schaghticoke Tribal
Nation recognized and show these officials that they're
sadly mistaken," Velky said.

Residents who want to weigh in on the issue can write to the
Schaghticoke Tribal Nation, 33 Elizabeth Street, 4th Floor,
Derby 06418.


From Brandie Taylor:

7th Annual Santa Ysabel Traditional Gathering
Saturday, August 6th

Santa Ysabel Ball field
From Hwy. 76, go South on Hwy. 79
From Hwy. 78, go North on Hwy. 79

12:00 noon: Welcome
3:00 - 5:00 p.m.: Kids games/Food Eating Contests
4:30 p.m.: Horseshoe Tournament
6:00 p.m.: Storytelling
7:30 p.m. Peon Tournaments

All day: Birdsinging, food booths, arts and crafts, 50/50
Raffle, and much more! Dinner sponsored by the Santa Ysabel
Tribe and served by the Santa Ysabel Social Service Department

For more information and vendor reservations, call Devon at
760-765-1093, ext. 102 or 619-920-3154

This is a drug and alcohol free event


From Wanda Torres:

In the 1980s, there were claims of the possibility of having
located the tomb of Chief Waramaug, in Lover's Leap State Park.
Could you please let me know where I can find information
about this?

I work for the State's DEP, and am writing new narratives to
promote our parks and forests. I have copies of newspaper
articles covering the possible find, but there is nothing
after the mid 1980s. They show the center stone you are
talking about.

In fact, he believed the "Hurd Castle" on property could
have been built with stones taken from the burial site in
early 1900s. This could have moved the members of any tribe
to stop further action.

I just want to find out where it all ended up, as even our
state archeological resources don't mention anything. Was
the place ever excavated? If not, what made them change
their minds about the burial site of Chief Waramaug?

Wanda Torres

I told her:
I could not find anything about this other than many mentions
of the legend of Chief Waramaug's daughter and the suggestion
that the Chief was buried near Lover's Leap. I have noted that
a cairn (pile of rocks) was placed where the chief was thought
to have been buried. However, nothing I found said that an
actual grave or body had been found.


Editorial from Indian Country Today

Being conscious of origins in Indian affairs

In Indian affairs, consciousness of identity origins and
tribal histories is essential. Without clear tribal definitions
or their memberships, lands, histories and cultures, the
concreteness of American Indian rights dissipates easily.

It is easiest to define Native status in the United States
when the tribe is recognized, historically and legally,
within the federal system. This is a complicated and
historically paternalistic system, steeped in colonialist
doctrine. Yet, for tribal nations to survive as distinct
political entities as the American union enveloped them,
sovereign definition over membership has always been a
crucial issue.

The principal goal of a sovereignty model is tribal control
over membership, tribal title (ownership) to lands, both
in aboriginal title and as ''trust land.'' For each Native
nation, large or small, the preferred nation-to-nation
relationship with the United States is governmental. For
the tribes, this is the relationship that is most reflective
of their reality as the first self-governing societies and
peoples of this land.

The defense and sustenance of the Indian tribal membership
in this context has substantial history. Most always, the
documented record of any tribe is rich with cases of real
property dispossession and outright battles against
extermination, characterized by the always strong (if not
always successful) struggle to hold on to lands and territories
rightfully owned by the tribe.

Beyond the status within recognized tribes fall various
ranges of indigenous and tribal identities. Some of these
concern disenfranchised folks from recognized tribes who
are actual relations but whose circumstances fall outside
legal definitions of membership. Many genuine stories of
relations in this context give evidence of cultural
exchanges of the most varied and interesting connections.
Families long urbanized often have the most intimate, as
well as distant, relations in reservation origins.

There are also the many tribes that are not federally
recognized but maintain membership records that have been
sustained and substantiated over time. Some of these are
recognized by states and by local and regional tradition,
but were separated from the historical record or from a
federal-Indian relationship. Some were completely relocated;
others completely Christianized, their distinct spiritual
cultures dissipated. Others were splintered by a large
percentage of intense inter-marriage into non-Native
cultures from which emerge people of great talent who
occasionally become important Indian leaders.

Then there are Indian people in the United States, quite a
few, who originate from Central and South America and the
Caribbean. The Mayan nations of Central America estimate
about one million of their people now reside in the United
States. There are now large permanent Maya communities in
Florida (Indiantown, Immokalee), as well as in Texas,
Arizona, New Mexico and California.

Add to that the many Zapotecas and Mixtecas from southern
Mexico, and the large range of still-related and close-knit
groups from Ecuador and other Andean regions.

In New York, Florida and Puerto Rico, people of Caribbean
indigenous ancestry have re-organized related families of
the Taino Nation of the Antilles, giving way to a growing
cultural revitalization movement that counts many prominent
representatives. Whereas in times past, immigrants to the
United States were only too happy to leave behind the
''old country,'' to Americanize themselves into the new
''melting pot,'' the new immigrants from Latin America are
not only sustaining their ties to their country of origin,
but the indigenous among them are keen to maintain and
consciously revitalize their ancestral identities.

Terrific kinship recognitions, friendships and alliances
are possible in the healthy interaction of the three
above-listed circles. This was in evidence this week at
the United Nations, as Indian peoples from north and south
met and discussed the many issues facing their communities
throughout the hemisphere and the world.

The problem of holding on to tribal lands and resources,
and the retention of intellectual properties, are important
ongoing testimonies. As always, Native nations and their
delegates found resistance from nation states and great
sympathy from peoples and organizations at large, nationally
and internationally. In the hallways and over coffee,
friendships and alliances connected and developed that will
last generations. Many of these small meetings were
facilitated by urban Indian groups that networked Native
delegations with foundations and human rights organizations.

The Indian context is complex and while alliances depend on
shared identities, the respect of specificity within the
context of peoples and place is equally crucial. In the
United States, the recognition of American Indian nations
has its own legal strictures that follow significant, if
not always welcome, definitions. Of singular importance are
the tribal rolls and tribal membership offices, as well as
the ancient clan counts of longhouses and kivas. All have tried-and-true
ways of determining their own membership and recognizing the identity of
community participants.

These principles of time immemorial have their rationale,
even when placed into federal stricture. This is most
important because these days those most intent on destroying
tribal rights claim to be Indian.

For example: One Nation, Inc., a national alliance wholly
dedicated to the eradication of Indian tribal rights, issued
this statement a year ago at the National Press Club: ''Do
we wish to destroy our cherished American dream - a
harmonious melting pot of all cultures, colors, and creeds?
The current drive to revere tribalism among American Natives
suggests the answer to be 'yes' to resurrecting the divisive
apartheid we once deplored. With 562 federally recognized
tribes, 291 tribal recognition applications pending, and
400 monopolistic Indian casinos supplying outrageous funding
to political parties, elected officials, and lobbyists, a
new domestic crisis is exploding across America.''

One Nation Inc., United Property Owners and Citizens Equal
Rights Alliance - three national coalitions of community groups,
trade associations and local governments - are a growing
advocacy base that is politically targeted to destroy the
original peoples of America. But here is how One Nation
defines its base: ''[Our] ... concerns lie not with American
Indians, as many of our members claim this proud heritage.''
Their enemy is not Indian ''heritage'' per se; in fact,
they already claim the identity, as they pretend to like
''Indians'' (i.e. themselves) while detesting ''federal
Indian policy and out-of-control government bureaucracies
assigned to serve the tribes - and some tribal leaders who
don't serve the interests of their own people.''

Considering that these days even those who avow to destroy
tribal sovereignty pretend to speak for American Indian
identities, a clear scrutiny of brazen claims is crucial.
It is a good thing that the tribes know who they are and
who their actual members are. It is equally important that
Indian nations establish and formally publish their policies
on all such matters so that the manipulative and deceptive
practices of anti-Indian hate groups can be laid bare.

Definition is crucial in this day and age. People who support
a free-for-all with respect to Indian identity might consider
how they usher in the Trojan horse that seeks the destruction
of all American Indian freedoms.


Here are some random historical events....

June 1, 1934: A legal definition of "Indian" is made by the
United States government.

June 2, 1752: Diego Ortiz Parrilla, Lieutenant Colonel of
the RoyalArmies, Proprietary Captain of the Dragoons of
Veracruz, Governor and Captain-General of the Provinces of
Sinaloa and Sonora in the Kingdom of New Andalucia declares
the estalishment of a permanent Spanish community at what
would become modern Tubac, Arizona. This would be the first significant
Spanish settlement in Arizona.

June 3, 1823: Yesterday a trapper is killed in a Arikara
village. The Arikara warriors attack Jedediah Smith and his
forty men who are camped on the nearby river. There are also
ninety men stationed on boats in the river. Fearing for their
lives, the men in the boats refuse to come help Smith’s men.
Fifteen men are killed and almost as many are wounded in the
fighting before they can swim out to the boats and flee.

June 4, 1696: A second Pueblo revolt takes place in modern New
Mexico. Participating tribes were the Cochiti, Picuris, Santa
Fe, Santo Domingo, Tano, Taos and Tewa. Twenty-one settlers and
soldiers, and five missionaries are killed in the fighting.
The revolt would not be long lived.

June 5, 1836: Of the 407 "friendly" Seminoles who left Tampa
Bay on April 11, 1836, only 320 arrive in their new lands
in the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Eighty-seven
of the Seminoles die during the rigorous trip.

June 6, 1962: The Fort Apache Scout is first published.

June 7, 1494: The "new world" is divided between Spain and
Portugal by the Catholic church.

June 8, 1758: General Jeffrey Amherst is leading a force of
more than 10,000 soldiers on a fleet of almost fifty British
ships. They land and attack the French fort at Louisbourg,
Nova Scotia. The French forces are led by Chevier de Drucour.
He has 3,100 soldiers, 1,000 Canadians and 500 Indians at
his disposal. The French also have a fleet in port. The
fighting continues until July 26th. The British are victorious. Fearing
they will be executed, many of the Indians will
flee because the British offer terms of surrender only to
the French troops.

June 9, 1870: Ely Parker (Donehogawa) commissioner of Indian
Affairs invites Red Cloud, and several other Sioux to visit
him, and the Great Father, in Washington. Red Cloud meets
President Ulysses Grant. Red Cloud tells Grant the Sioux do
not want a reservation on the Missouri River. Red Cloud also
talks about some of the promises made in the treaty which were
not actually included. They have a cordial meeting, but Grant
knows the difference between the items promised, and the items actually
in the treaty are grounds for contention in the future.
He suggests the Indians be read the treaty in its entirety soon.

June 10, 1909: The U.S. Supreme Court confirms and approves
Guion Miller's new tribal rolls of the Eastern Cherokees who
are entitled to share in the distribution of a $1,000,000 fund
the Court established in 1906.

June 11, 1848: Alexander Barclay establishes a trading post
and fort and the juncture of the Sapello and Mora Rivers in
northern New Mexico. The Santa Fe Trail runs past the post.
It will eventually become a part of the later constructed Fort
Union, one of the largest military outposts in the American

June 12, 1755: Massachusetts posts its "Scalp bounty."

June 13, 1660: Wamsetta, a Wampanoag, and his younger brother, Metacomet
(various spellings), have requested "English" names
from the Plymouth court. Their names are officially changed to Alexander
and Philip Pokanoket. Philip is eventually called
"King Philip."

June 14, 1867: According to the Constitution of the Coeur
d’Alene Tribe of Idaho, The Coeur d’Alene Reservation is
established by Executive Order.

June 15, 742: According to Maya engravings, King Itzamnaaj
B'alam II (Shield Jaguar) of Yaxchilan, Mexico dies.

(see my photos of Yaxchilan at:
http://americanindian.net/mexico17.html )

June 16, 1802: A treaty (7 stat. 68) with the Creeks is
concluded near Fort Wilkinson, on the Oconee River, near
present day, Milledgeville, Georgia. New tribal boundary
lines are established, which cede lands along the Oconee
and Ocmulgee creeks, and the "Altamaha" tract. The tribe
receives $3000 annually, and some Chiefs get $1000 a year
for ten years. The tribe gets $10,000 now, and $10,000 is
set aside to pay tribal debts to local white traders. The
Creeks also receive $5000 for lands that have been seized.
They also get two sets of blacksmith tools, and trained
blacksmiths to use them for three years. The United States
gets the right to establish a garrison on Creek lands.
The treaty is signed by thirty-nine Indians. The Americans
are represented by General James Wilkinson, Benjamin
Hawkins and Andrew Pickens.

June 17, 1579: Sir Francis Drake lands north of San Francisco, probably
at what is today called Drake's Bay, in California.
He reports the Indians to be "people of a tractable, free and
loving nature, without guile or treachery."

June 18, 1934: The Indian Reorganization Act (48 Stat. 984-985)
takes place. Among other things, it is to "permit any Indian
to transfer by will restricted lands of such Indian to his or
her heirs or lineal descendants, and for other purposes. To
authorize the sale of individual Indian lands acquired under
the Act of June 18, 1934 and under the Act of June 26, 1936."

June 19, 1541: Hernando de Soto's expedition meets the Casqui
Indians near modern Helena, Arkansas. There has been a drought
in the area, and the padres offer to help. A large cross is
erected and the Spaniards join in prayer. Soon it starts to
rain. The Casquis become allies of the Spanish.

June 20, 1763: As part of Pontiac's rebellion, a force of
Senecas, Ottawas, Wyandots, and Chippewas attack Fort Presque
Isle, at present day Erie, in northwestern Pennsylvania. They
have had the fort under siege since June 15th. The soldiers
numbering less than three dozen, surrender when the fort goes
up in flames. All but Ensign John Christie and two others
escape. The rest are killed.

June 21, 1856: Non-hostile Indians along the lower Rogue River,
and at Fort Orford, in southwestern Oregon, are put on a boat
to be moved to a new reservation between the Pacific Ocean,
and the Wallamet River. It is called the Grande Ronde Reservation.

June 22, 1839: Elias Boudinot, first editor of the Cherokee
Phoenix, Chief Major Ridge (Kahnungdaclageh) and his son,
John Ridge (Skahtlelohskee) are members of the Cherokee
"Treaty Party." They have generated many enemies by their
stand agreeing to the removal of the Cherokees from their
lands east of the Mississippi River. They signed the peace
treaty which gave away Cherokee lands east of the Mississippi
River. They moved to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma)
with the rest of the Cherokee Nation. Early this morning,
John Ridge is dragged from his bed, and stabbed to death.
Chief Major Ridge is shot and killed at 10:00 am in another
part of the reservation. Later that day, Elias Boudinot is
stabbed and hacked to death. These murders are committed by
Cherokees for what they feel is their treasonous betrayal of
the nation. A Cherokee law, which Chief Ridge helped to make,
gives the death penalty to any Cherokee who sells or gives
away Cherokee lands without the majority of the tribe's
permission. These deaths are considered the execution of
that law. Chief Stand Watie, brother to Elias, and nephew
to Major Ridge, manages to avoid the warriors who planned
to kill him.

June 23, 1865: General Stand Watie, and his Cherokee
Confederate sympathizers, surrender. Stand Watie is the
last Confederate General to officially surrender.

June 24, 1763: As part of Pontiac's rebellion, a group of
Delaware surround Fort Pitt, in present day Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania. The commander, Captain Simeon Ecuyer, has 338
soldiers in the fort, and he will not surrender. Not having
enough warriors to attack the fort, the Delaware leave the
fort with a few blankets as a present. Unknown to the Indians,
the blankets came from a infirmary treating smallpox. The
Delaware are the first to be affected by this form of
biological warfare during the rebellion. Some sources says
this happens on July 24th.

June 25, 1876: At the Battle of the Little Big Horn, Colonel
George Custer is commanding Troops C,E,F,I, and L; Major
Marcus Reno has troops A,G, and M. Captain Frederick Benteen
leads Troops H,D, and K. Captain Thomas McDougall guards the
supply wagons with Troop B. It is a significant defeat for
the U. S. Army. Army reports list thirteen officers, 189
enlisted men, and four civilians are killed in Custer’s
command. Reno’s troops split from Custer’s. According to
army documents, Lt. Donald McIntosh, Lt. B.H. Hodgson,
forty-six soldiers, and one civilian are killed. Captain
Benteen, Lt. C.A. Varnum and forty-four soldiers are wounded
in the fighting which lasts through tomorrow. Army reports
do not list how many Indians were killed or wounded in this
defeat for the army. The following soldiers receive Medals
of Honor for actions during this battle today and tomorrow:
Private Neil Bancroft, Company A; Private Abram B. Brant,
Co. D; Private Thomas J. Callen, Co. B; Sergeant Benjamin
C. Criswell, Co. B; Corporal Charles Cunningham, Co. B;
Private Frederick Deetline, Co. D; Sergeant George Geiger,
Co. H; Private Theodore Goldin, Troop G; Private David W.
Harris, Co. A; Private William M. Harris, Co. D; Private
Henry Holden, Co. D; Sergeant Rufus D. Hutchinson, Co. B;
Blacksmith Henry Mechlin, Co. H; Sergeant Thomas Murray,
Co. B; Private James Pym, Co. B; Sergeant Stanislaus Roy,
Co. A; Private George Scott, Co. D; Private Thomas Stivers,
Co. D; Private Peter Thompson, Co. C; Private Frank Tolan,
Co. D; Saddler Otto Voit, Co. H; Sergeant Charles Welch,
Co. D; Private Charles Windolph, Co. H.

(see my photos of the "Greasy Grass" or "Little Big Horn"
battlegrounds at: http://americanindian.net/2003k.html

June 26, 1874: The Comanches under Quanah Parker decide to
punish the white hunters for killing their buffalo herds
and taking their grazing lands. Joined by Kiowa, Cheyenne
and Arapahos, they set out for the trading post called Adobe
Walls in the panhandle of Texas. Medicine man Isatai of the
Comanche promises the bullets of the white men will not harm
them. A buffalo hunter named William "Billy" Dixon sees the
Indians approaching, and he is able to fire a warning shot
before the attack. The Indians charge the trading post.
There are twenty-eight men, and one woman, in Adobe Walls,
and the buffalo hunters there have very accurate, long-range
rifles with telescopic sights. Dixon is reported to have
knocked an Indian off his horse from 1538 yards away with
one of these rifles. The adobe walls provide very good cover
for them. Slightly more than a dozen Indians are killed in
the fight, and Isatai is humiliated. The Indians give up the
fight as hopeless, and they leave. Some sources report this
fight happening on June 27, 1874 and lasting until July 1st.

(I have been to Adobe Walls. There are very few "artifacts"
left. The distance of Dixon's shot seem even more amazing
when you are standing there. Phil)

June 27, 1542: Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo leaves Mexico to go
up the Pacific coast in exploration. Cabrillo is the first
European to land in San Diego Bay, California. He goes as
far north as the Rogue River, in California.

June 28, 1878: Tambiago, the killer of Alex Rhoden on
November 23, 1877, which led to the Bannock War, is hanged
at the Idaho Territorial prison.

June 29, 1906: The Anazasi ruins at Mesa Verde are declared
a National Park

June 30, 1520: According to some sources, Montezuma dies.
Some say he is killed by other Aztecs. Others say he is stabbed
to death by Spaniards under Hernán Cortés.


That’s all for now.

Stay safe,


End of Phil Konstantin’s June 2005 Newsletter


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