. . ======================================= Start of Phil Konstantin’s June 2005 Newsletter ======================================= Greetings, My but the time sure has flown. It is already June. I am really enjoying being “semi-retired.” I only work four hours a day at my new job. I do on-air traffic reports on TV station KUSI in San Diego. We have a great group of people there. I am also getting to meet lots of “movers and shakers” who come by to do interviews. I have been a bit surprised by how many local people who recognize me from my previous job as the Public Affairs Officer for the CHP. I have noticed (this was also true back in my days in radio & TV in Houston in the 1970’s) how someone can be different in person from what you would expect them to be. Most people are nicer than you might expect. I am chubbier than most people expect. It must be all of the free food from the visiting chefs. I have been posting pictures of some of the people I have met at KUSI on the website below. Dan Aykroyd was quite a friendly guy, not that I expected anything different. Now, if I could just learn all of my co-worker’s names! http://americanindian.net/kusi.html In case you missed them last month, posted on the link below are the winners of this year’s essay contest for American Indian students. I think you will find them quite good. http://americanindian.net/contestwinner2005.html I have finally started checking the links on my links pages. I have updated the Tribal Home Pages & Reference Page. I’ll be working on more of the other links pages this month. Please feel free to forward this newsletter along to your friends. There are about 1,000 people currently subscribed, but there is always room for a few more. Phil ======================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ======================== The “Link of the Month” for June 2005 is “CodeTalk.“ According to their home page, “CodeTalk is a federal, interagency, Native American Web site designed specifically to deliver electronic information from government agencies and other organizations to Native American communities.” The website is produced by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. It has lots of interesting material. You can visit it at: http://www.hud.gov/offices/pih/ih/codetalk/ ======================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ======================== Treaty of the Month: TREATY WITH THE WINNEBAGO, 1816. June 3, 1816. | 7 Stat., 144. | Proclamation, Dec. 30, 1816. The treaty dealt with Injuries, etc., forgiven., Former cessions, treaties, etc., confirmed., Protection of United States acknowledged, Indians to remain distinct from the rest of their tribe, Prisoners to be delivered up. You can see a transcription of the treaty here: http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/win0130.htm ======================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ======================== Turner Network will be showing a new miniseries this month. It is titled “Into The West.” The basic story is a look at the people moving from the eastern United States into the plains states. It features a great deal of interaction between “pioneers” and the Indians of the area. While I have not seen an advance copy, it does look like they have made an effort to be accurate. The second link below is an article about of the people who was hired to make sure they were as accurate as practicable. The miniseries’ website has lots of information. It might be worth you time to check them out. http://www.tnt.tv/itwtc/0,,1101000,00.html Lakota author works to keep movie accurate http://www.kumeyaay.com/news/news_detail.html?id=2922 ======================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ======================== News: Cherokee Nation lead counsel dies at symposium http://www.indianz.com/News/2005/008545.asp Rare white bison born in western Canada http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20050525/od_afp/canadaanimalbison_050525164246&printer=1 A reminiscence from the Trail of Would-Be Tears, circa May 1830 http://fredericksburg.com/News/FLS/2005/062005/06052005/102874 Americas had seventy 'founding fathers' http://www.nature.com/news/2005/050523/full/050523-3.html Canada funds Sisters in Spirit campaign http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096411004 American Indians and Alaska Native veterans have higher mortality rate after surgery than Caucasians http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=25414&nfid=mnf AMERICAN INDIANS LEFT OUT OF $1 MILLION CNN MINORITY SCHOLARSHIP DONATION http://www.naja.com/minority_scholarship.html U.N. told of religious discrimination against indigenous prisoners http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096411009 New Bosque Redondo Memorial showcases history of Hwéeldi http://thenavajotimes.com/index.php?subaction=showfull&id=1117121000&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1& Judge rebuffs state's attempt to impose taxes on tribe http://www.indianz.com/News/2005/008530.asp NAACP supports federal recognition in Conn. http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096411022 Tribes to receive fish protection money http://www.montanaforum.com/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=2857&mode=thread&order=0&thold=0 As tribal speakers dwindle, a rush to teach their words; Native American languages at risk. http://www.kumeyaay.com/news/news_detail.html?id=2919 Belated Purple Heart ceremony honors code talker 60 years after Iwo Jima http://thenavajotimes.com/index.php?subaction=showfull&id=1117723048&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1& Fort Belknap tribe president resigns http://www.montanaforum.com/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=1959&mode=thread&order=0&thold=0 Treaty of 1855 remembered (last month’s “Treaty of the Month”) http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096411028 Native American stories describe who sun, moon were http://www.argusleader.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050602/LIFE/506020339/1004 American Indian Genocide Museum hosts first film festival http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096411013 Taking saddle does not equal divorce http://thenavajotimes.com/index.php?subaction=showfull&id=1117118989&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1& Tribe revokes business license http://www.montanaforum.com/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=2672&mode=thread&order=0&thold=0 Kickapoo chairman calls himself 'Superman' http://www.indianz.com/News/2005/008506.asp Indigenous grandmothers pray for the world http://www.kumeyaay.com/news/news_detail.html?id=2917 The Northern Cheyenne Indian tribe wants to contract law-enforcement duties from the Bureau of Indian Affairs. http://www.montanaforum.com/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=2515&mode=thread&order=0&thold=0 Federal court rulings belie long struggle http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096411023 UNM Press' Native American storytelling book honored http://www.bizjournals.com/albuquerque/stories/2005/05/30/daily8.html BIA starts talking about teen suicide prevention http://www.montanaforum.com/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=2462&mode=thread&order=0&thold=0 Deer Island Indian concentration camp victims remembered http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096410998 Navajos name first female police captain http://www.nativetimes.com/index.asp?action=displayarticle&article_id=6527 Heard Museum in Phoenix now includes oral history and contemporary artworks http://www.canada.com/vancouver/vancouversun/news/travel/story.html?id=79c048cc-6c5d-4944-b0e3-3b055bc156d1 ======================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ======================== A letter with information about the Indian Child Welfare Act Friends: Attached is information regarding a California Senate hearing Pertaining to ICWA. The message asks for Tribes to submit resolutions in support of the legislation. All Indian organizations with an interest in ICWA should submit a resolution or letter to the appropriate Senate member in your district or all Senators if you have a chance. Attached is the resolution prepared for the Tribal Governments. Please use this as an example of the resolution or letter that you send. A Senate Judiciary Committee Hearing will be scheduled for June 21, 2005 at 1:30 p.m (Room 112 in the Capitol Building) to vote on SB 678, authored by Senator Ducheny. The bill, if passed, would improve compliance with ICWA. Please save the date and let Joanne know if you are available and interested in testifying. Although there will likely only be a handful of individuals who can be placed on the agenda, there is an opportunity for anyone to add their comments at the end and it would be good to have as many supporters in the room to at least second the testimony of others. Please distribute this freely to your ICWA networks. Joanne will be following up with those who express an interest in testifying to coordinate testimony. Also, additional ways you can help with the effort include: 1) contacting your local legislator to ask them to support the bill; and 2) encouraging tribal governments and tribal agencies to submit letters or resolutions in support of the bill to Senator Ducheny. The list of supporters to date includes: Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians, Cahto Tribe, Laytonville Rancheria, Cedarville Rancheria Consolidated Tribal Health Project, Greenville Rancheria, Inaja-Cosmit Band of Mission Indians, La Posta Band of Mission Indians, Middletown Rancheria, Pala Band of Mission Indians, Pauma Band of Mission Indians, Picayune Rancheria of the Chukchansi Indians, Redding Rancheria, San Pasqual Band of Mission Indians, Santa Ysabel Band of Diegueno Indians, Southern California Tribal Chairmen's Association, Susanville Indian Rancheria, Viejas Tribal Government SAMPLE TRIBAL RESOLUTION SUBJECT: Proposed Legislation to Improve Compliance with the Indian Child Welfare Act WHEREAS, The [Name of Tribe] is a federally recognized Indian Tribe exercising its powers of self-government through its [General Council/Tribal Council/other]; and WHEREAS, The Indian Child Welfare Act, 25 U.S.C. § 1901 et seq. (ICWA), was enacted in 1978 to address alarmingly high rates of Indian children being removed from their families and adopted into non-Indian homes without consideration of the prevailing social and cultural standards of the children’s Tribes or the Indian children’s interest in establishing and maintaining a connection to their extended families, their Indian culture and their tribal communities; WHEREAS, The ICWA was intended to protect the best interest of Indian children and to promote the stability and security of Indian Tribes and families by establishing minimum federal standards for the removal and placement of Indian children, including providing Tribe’s with the right to have a voice in such child custody proceedings and to have their prevailing social and cultural standards respected; WHEREAS, The State courts and county child welfare agencies continue To violate express provisions of the ICWA and its spirit and intent by refusing to give full faith and credit to tribally designated placement preferences and to comply with the Tribes’ prevailing and social and cultural standards; and NOW, THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED: That the [Name of Tribe] supports legislation that would amend state laws to improve compliance with the ICWA, including, but not limited to, amendments that would: . Amend the Probate Code and Family Code to affirm that guardianship And adoption proceedings under those statutes are subject to ICWA. • Amend the Probate Code and Family Code to affirm that, in Guardianship and adoption proceedings subject to the ICWA, Indian parents who cannot afford to hire an attorney are entitled to a court-appointed attorney. • Amend the Probate Code and Family Code to incorporate by reference Rule of Court Rule 1439, which reiterates all of the requirements of the ICWA but is only currently applicable to juvenile court proceedings. • Amend the Welfare and Institutions Code, the Probate Code and the Family Code to ensure that the notice requirements are consistent with ICWA, federal regulations (25 C.F.R. § 23.11), and Rule 1439. • Amend the Welfare and Institutions Code, the Probate Code, and the Family Code to permit courts to grant standing to an Indian child’s Tribe even though the child doesn’t meet the definition of “Indian Child” in ICWA because the child is not eligible for membership in his/her tribe or is descended from a non-federally recognized tribe. • Amend the exceptions to adoption contained in the Welfare and Institutions Code to protect the unique interest of Indian children, Indian custodians, and relative caregivers. • Amend the Family Code to permit tribes to be parties to postadoption agreements in involuntary adoptions (they currently have this opportunity in voluntary adoption cases). • Amend the Family Code to require reconsideration of proceedings prior To the finalization of an adoption when prospective adoptive parents Refuse to negotiate postadoption agreements in good faith and the adoption was ordered in part because of their representations that they would enter into such an agreement. • Amend the Welfare and Institutions Code to clarify what ICWA requires Of the juvenile court and county agencies in delinquency cases. • Amend the Welfare and Institutions Code to prohibit a county from calling its own social workers or other employees to serve as its expert witness for the purpose of terminating parental rights. • Amend the Welfare and Institutions Code to affirm that active efforts must be made to prevent the break-up of the Indian family, regardless of state law exceptions to the contrary. • Amend the Welfare and Institutions Code to affirm that state public policy recognizes exceptions to adoption and therefore tribal acts, records, or judicial proceedings establishing alternative permanent plans for Indian children must be afforded full faith and credit and considered when placing Indian children and selecting permanent plans for them. • Amend the Welfare and Institutions Code to require that the serious Harm finding required under ICWA prior to termination of parental rights be made at the same hearing at which parental rights are to be terminated (rather than some time before). • Elevate the requirements found in Rule 1439 to the level of state law By incorporating those requirements in appropriate related provisions of the Welfare and Institutions Code. CERTIFICATION We, the undersigned officers of the [name of Tribe] do, hereby, certify that the foregoing Resolution was adopted by the [General Council/Tribal Council/other] by a vote of ___ in favor, ____ opposing, and ____ abstaining, at a duly called meeting on ______________, 2005 and such resolution has not been rescinded or amended in any way. _________________________________ ____________________________________ _________________________________ ____________________________________ ======================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ======================== E-mails from subscribers and visitors to my websites: ------------------- From Jim: Hi Phil, A friend of mine has a large amount of lightly used childrens clothing that she wants to give to children that can use them. She's hoping to donate to a reservation that is in need. Any suggestions? Thanks again, ~Jim (Wolf Song) PTArtfirstname.lastname@example.org Sunnkmanitu Sapa Olo'wann PROUD TRADITION ART WORKS Cedars Song Flutes Cedars Thunder Drums http://www.cedarsongflutes.com/ -------------------- Patti Wilson sent this: Please read this petition and sign it...We need to protect all NA sacred sites. Wolf http://www.petitiononline.com/JW5004/petition.html Patti K."Lone White Wolf" Watson ------------------ From Lars Perner: I am an Assistant Professor of Marketing at the Imperial Valley Campus Of SDSU. Recently, I have worked on what I call the “California Win-Win Project”; that is designed to allow a number of stakeholders to benefit from locating the new San Diego Area Regional Airport in the Imperial Valley. The proposal raises the idea of a multi-tribe run resort near the airport. Any comments that any members who are around during the summer may have would be greatly appreciated. Since this is a new area to me, I would greatly appreciate any comments on the use of respectful terms in the proposal. Thank you! Lars Perner, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Marketing San Diego State University, Imperial Valley Campus 720 Heber Avenue, Calexico, CA 92231 (760) 768-5614 email@example.com -------------------- Pinecone Bascomb suggests a visit to this website: Winds that Whisper www.windsthatwhisper.com The website has poety, inspirational; stories, origin stories, and other things. --------------------- Curtis sent this: Dear Friends: Our office recently received a letter from Richard Riordan, the Secretary for Education in Governor Schwarzenegger's Office, in opposition to AB 13 which would prohibit the term "Redskins" as a public school mascot, team name or nickname. It reads, in part: The Governor vetoed a substantially similar bill last year (AB 858, Goldberg). The veto message stated, "Existing statute already affords local school boards general control over all aspects of their interscholastic athletic policies, programs, and activities. Decisions regarding athletic team names, nicknames or mascots should be retained at the local level. At a time when we should all be working together to increase the academic achievement of all California students, adding another non-academic state administrative requirement for schools to comply with takes more focus away from getting kids to learn at the highest levels." Since the bill is nearly identical, the veto message remains applicable. Our stance is that this is a civil rights issue and such legislation is never left up to local control. The beauty of our democracy is that it is not a pure majoritarian system, that even those with fewer numbers are entitled to the same rights and liberties as those who are in the majority. I don’t feel the need to go over the long history of dehumanization and forced assimilation by the government upon Native peoples, but at the same time it seems like Native people remain as mere relics and greedy casino rich tax evaders instead of a contemporary and thriving people. Native mascots portraying American Indians as savage violent people are nothing more than carry-overs from a sad period in American history where the government's motto was "to kill the Indian in him and save the man." Moreover, in addition to the dehumanizing psychological effects upon students [please see Dr. Witko's article in the Jan 2005 edition of the California Psychologist (email me if you want a copy)], the term “Redskins” is defined by nearly every English dictionary as an offensive term for a Native American. It comes from the same sad period in American history when the government offered bounties to kill American Indians. When the bodies of Natives became too burdensome for bounty-hunters, they instead took the scalps of Native men, women and children as proof of a kill to collect their bounty (also see Witko). We need to show the Governor that this is not simply political-correctness, that we are not some unsophisticated people of time past, that we understand where the term “Redskins” originates and we are not honored by such mascots, especially “Redskins.” Ray Reinhard, Assistant Secretary for Elementary and Secondary Education in the Governor¹s Office, is the staffer working on AB 13. Please contact him and explain to him the history of trying to do this at the local level and the problems that are engendered by the local process, and also explain to him what “Redskins” means to many of us. Please feel free to call more than once and have your friends and family talk to the Governor¹s office also: Ray Reinhard or Secretary Richard Riordan, (916) 323-0611. AB 13 is set to be heard in the Senate Committee on Education on Wednesday, June 8th at 9:30am here in the Capitol. If you can attend please do as a strong showing in Senate Education made all the difference last year. Please distribute this email far and wide and post on appropriate listserves, this is a very important time for the life of this bill and the Governor’s office needs to know that this is not some small issue and “Redskins” is NOT acceptable, especially in public schools. In Solidarity, Curtis, a Jicarilla Apache Curtis I. Notsinneh Office of Assemblymember Jackie Goldberg State Capitol Building Sacramento, CA 95814 Ph: (916) 319-2045 Fx: (916) 319-2145 firstname.lastname@example.org -------------- From Shonie De La Rosa: FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE RE: Sheephead Films begins production on full feature film Production on Sheephead Films new full feature film titled “Mile Post 398” is scheduled to begin May 22, 2005. The film will include an all Navajo cast and crew and be filmed entirely on the Navajo Nation. Starring in the film will be Beau Benally and Victoria Yazzie (former Miss Navajo) both from Kayenta, Arizona. Additional cast include: Cooter Crawley, Jason Bradley, Matthew Hale, Billy Crawley II, Ruth Bradley, and Audrey De La Rosa, all from Kayenta, Arizona. “Mile Post 398” takes place on the present day Navajo Nation in Kayenta, Arizona. The story is about a young man named Cloyd (Beau Benally) in his mid-twenties who after spending most of his life involved with drugs and alcohol decides to try and lead a sober lifestyle. Cloyd tries to make mends with his wife, son, and family while at the same time he is dealing with the unrelenting peer pressures of friends and the economic hardship of finding employment on the Navajo Nation. “We want to show people what life is “really like” living on the Navajo Nation for a lot of people. Much of this story is taken from my own experiences in life. When my wife Andee and I sat down to write this story, we did a lot of reflecting back on our past life together. We used our past experiences as a foundation for the story and built off of that.” said Director Shonie De La Rosa. The film will utilize an all Navajo cast and crew from the Navajo Nation and a sound track featuring the talents of Coalition from Tuba City, Arizona and Ethnic De Generation from Kayenta, Arizona. Most of the film will be shot in Kayenta, Arizona and will feature various areas from around the Navajo Nation. Sheephead Films has the full support and cooperation from the Kayenta Township, Kayenta Chapter, and the Kayenta Police Department. The Kayenta Police Department will play a vital role in many of the scenes in the film. “We are going to create a film depicting the real side of life on the Navajo Nation, not what you would normally see in any other native film. There will be no flute music, eagle screams, or drums in the film. I believe all that has been over used and is too cliché, we want to break away from that stereotype.” said Shonie. Sheephead Films has created a number of short films that include: Yellow Dust, Al’keme 1345, Hesitation, Our Future, Forsaken, and the award winning documentary film “G Methamphetamine on the Navajo Nation”, all of which have shown all over the world. Sheephead Films is looking for sponsorship for the production of the film in the form of food, water, fuel, and of course money. If interested in sponsoring the production of “Mile Post 398” or for general information about the film, please contact Shonie or Andee De La Rosa of Sheephead Films at: (928) 697-3033 or e-mail email@example.com Shonie De La Rosa Sheephead Films http://www.sheepheadfilms.com firstname.lastname@example.org ---------------------- From Ruth Garby Torres: KENT -- The Schaghticoke Tribal Nation is reaching out for support. At the tribe's semi-annual meeting Sunday at its 400-acre reservation on Schaghticoke Mountain, Chief Richard Velky announced a new initiative in the public opinion battle over the Schaghticokes' status as a federally acknowledged American Indian tribe -- a statewide petition seeking support from individual state residents. The petition's preamble says the Schaghticokes have been documented in the state since the early 1700s, submitted their letter of intent to seek federal recognition in 1981, and their petition for federal recognition in 1994. "Since that time, the Schaghticoke Tribal Nation has been feverishly, continuously and improperly attacked by some Connecticut political opponents." The resolution states, "We, the undersigned citizens and taxpayers of the State of Connecticut, fully support and recognize the Schaghticoke Tribal Nation and call upon Connecticut Gov. M. Jodi Rell, the Connecticut legislature and the Connecticut congressional delegation to support and recognize this long standing tribal community." Although there's no telling how Connecticut residents will respond, it's not likely that the state's politicians will support the tribe. The Bureau of Indian Affairs granted the 300-member tribe federal recognition in January 2004. Soon after, local, state, and congressional officials vowed to fight the decision. And they've kept their promise. The town and state filed appeals last year with the Department of the Interior's Board of Indian Appeals. In additional, U.S. Rep. Nancy Johnson, R-5th District, has submitted a bill to Congress to repeal the government's decision. On May 11, Rell, Sens. Christopher Dodd and Joe Lieberman and three of state's congressional delegates testified at a Senate Indian Affairs Committee, urging Congress to repeal the Schaghticokes' federal status and stop the expansion of Indian casinos in the state. Two days later, the Board of Appeals voided the BIA decision and sent it back the assistant secretary of Indian affairs for reconsideration. "One of the things the politicians did at the Senate Indian Affairs Committee is they talked about how the people of Connecticut don't want us to be recognized and don't want us to move forward. Last year, Nancy Johnson sent out a survey with our taxpayer's money and to our knowledge had 5,000 signatures mailed back to her on Schaghticoke recognition and the chance of a gaming facility," Velky said. Now the tribe is seeking the opinion of the state's residents, Velky said. Copies of the tribe's petition were distributed among the approximately 150 members in attendance. Those members will circulate the copies among residents. Velky wants them returned by Sept. 1 so that the tribe can present the signatures to the BIA. "Let's start circulating our own petition going across the state of Connecticut and getting as many signatures as we can. Let's find out who wants to see the Schaghticoke Tribal Nation recognized and show these officials that they're sadly mistaken," Velky said. Residents who want to weigh in on the issue can write to the Schaghticoke Tribal Nation, 33 Elizabeth Street, 4th Floor, Derby 06418. ---------------------- From Brandie Taylor: 7th Annual Santa Ysabel Traditional Gathering Saturday, August 6th Santa Ysabel Ball field From Hwy. 76, go South on Hwy. 79 From Hwy. 78, go North on Hwy. 79 12:00 noon: Welcome 3:00 - 5:00 p.m.: Kids games/Food Eating Contests 4:30 p.m.: Horseshoe Tournament 6:00 p.m.: Storytelling 7:30 p.m. Peon Tournaments All day: Birdsinging, food booths, arts and crafts, 50/50 Raffle, and much more! Dinner sponsored by the Santa Ysabel Tribe and served by the Santa Ysabel Social Service Department For more information and vendor reservations, call Devon at 760-765-1093, ext. 102 or 619-920-3154 This is a drug and alcohol free event --------------- From Wanda Torres: In the 1980s, there were claims of the possibility of having located the tomb of Chief Waramaug, in Lover's Leap State Park. Could you please let me know where I can find information about this? I work for the State's DEP, and am writing new narratives to promote our parks and forests. I have copies of newspaper articles covering the possible find, but there is nothing after the mid 1980s. They show the center stone you are talking about. In fact, he believed the "Hurd Castle" on property could have been built with stones taken from the burial site in early 1900s. This could have moved the members of any tribe to stop further action. I just want to find out where it all ended up, as even our state archeological resources don't mention anything. Was the place ever excavated? If not, what made them change their minds about the burial site of Chief Waramaug? Wanda Torres email@example.com I told her: I could not find anything about this other than many mentions of the legend of Chief Waramaug's daughter and the suggestion that the Chief was buried near Lover's Leap. I have noted that a cairn (pile of rocks) was placed where the chief was thought to have been buried. However, nothing I found said that an actual grave or body had been found. ======================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ======================== Editorial from Indian Country Today Being conscious of origins in Indian affairs In Indian affairs, consciousness of identity origins and tribal histories is essential. Without clear tribal definitions or their memberships, lands, histories and cultures, the concreteness of American Indian rights dissipates easily. It is easiest to define Native status in the United States when the tribe is recognized, historically and legally, within the federal system. This is a complicated and historically paternalistic system, steeped in colonialist doctrine. Yet, for tribal nations to survive as distinct political entities as the American union enveloped them, sovereign definition over membership has always been a crucial issue. The principal goal of a sovereignty model is tribal control over membership, tribal title (ownership) to lands, both in aboriginal title and as ''trust land.'' For each Native nation, large or small, the preferred nation-to-nation relationship with the United States is governmental. For the tribes, this is the relationship that is most reflective of their reality as the first self-governing societies and peoples of this land. The defense and sustenance of the Indian tribal membership in this context has substantial history. Most always, the documented record of any tribe is rich with cases of real property dispossession and outright battles against extermination, characterized by the always strong (if not always successful) struggle to hold on to lands and territories rightfully owned by the tribe. Beyond the status within recognized tribes fall various ranges of indigenous and tribal identities. Some of these concern disenfranchised folks from recognized tribes who are actual relations but whose circumstances fall outside legal definitions of membership. Many genuine stories of relations in this context give evidence of cultural exchanges of the most varied and interesting connections. Families long urbanized often have the most intimate, as well as distant, relations in reservation origins. There are also the many tribes that are not federally recognized but maintain membership records that have been sustained and substantiated over time. Some of these are recognized by states and by local and regional tradition, but were separated from the historical record or from a federal-Indian relationship. Some were completely relocated; others completely Christianized, their distinct spiritual cultures dissipated. Others were splintered by a large percentage of intense inter-marriage into non-Native cultures from which emerge people of great talent who occasionally become important Indian leaders. Then there are Indian people in the United States, quite a few, who originate from Central and South America and the Caribbean. The Mayan nations of Central America estimate about one million of their people now reside in the United States. There are now large permanent Maya communities in Florida (Indiantown, Immokalee), as well as in Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and California. Add to that the many Zapotecas and Mixtecas from southern Mexico, and the large range of still-related and close-knit groups from Ecuador and other Andean regions. In New York, Florida and Puerto Rico, people of Caribbean indigenous ancestry have re-organized related families of the Taino Nation of the Antilles, giving way to a growing cultural revitalization movement that counts many prominent representatives. Whereas in times past, immigrants to the United States were only too happy to leave behind the ''old country,'' to Americanize themselves into the new ''melting pot,'' the new immigrants from Latin America are not only sustaining their ties to their country of origin, but the indigenous among them are keen to maintain and consciously revitalize their ancestral identities. Terrific kinship recognitions, friendships and alliances are possible in the healthy interaction of the three above-listed circles. This was in evidence this week at the United Nations, as Indian peoples from north and south met and discussed the many issues facing their communities throughout the hemisphere and the world. The problem of holding on to tribal lands and resources, and the retention of intellectual properties, are important ongoing testimonies. As always, Native nations and their delegates found resistance from nation states and great sympathy from peoples and organizations at large, nationally and internationally. In the hallways and over coffee, friendships and alliances connected and developed that will last generations. Many of these small meetings were facilitated by urban Indian groups that networked Native delegations with foundations and human rights organizations. The Indian context is complex and while alliances depend on shared identities, the respect of specificity within the context of peoples and place is equally crucial. In the United States, the recognition of American Indian nations has its own legal strictures that follow significant, if not always welcome, definitions. Of singular importance are the tribal rolls and tribal membership offices, as well as the ancient clan counts of longhouses and kivas. All have tried-and-true ways of determining their own membership and recognizing the identity of community participants. These principles of time immemorial have their rationale, even when placed into federal stricture. This is most important because these days those most intent on destroying tribal rights claim to be Indian. For example: One Nation, Inc., a national alliance wholly dedicated to the eradication of Indian tribal rights, issued this statement a year ago at the National Press Club: ''Do we wish to destroy our cherished American dream - a harmonious melting pot of all cultures, colors, and creeds? The current drive to revere tribalism among American Natives suggests the answer to be 'yes' to resurrecting the divisive apartheid we once deplored. With 562 federally recognized tribes, 291 tribal recognition applications pending, and 400 monopolistic Indian casinos supplying outrageous funding to political parties, elected officials, and lobbyists, a new domestic crisis is exploding across America.'' One Nation Inc., United Property Owners and Citizens Equal Rights Alliance - three national coalitions of community groups, trade associations and local governments - are a growing advocacy base that is politically targeted to destroy the original peoples of America. But here is how One Nation defines its base: ''[Our] ... concerns lie not with American Indians, as many of our members claim this proud heritage.'' Their enemy is not Indian ''heritage'' per se; in fact, they already claim the identity, as they pretend to like ''Indians'' (i.e. themselves) while detesting ''federal Indian policy and out-of-control government bureaucracies assigned to serve the tribes - and some tribal leaders who don't serve the interests of their own people.'' Considering that these days even those who avow to destroy tribal sovereignty pretend to speak for American Indian identities, a clear scrutiny of brazen claims is crucial. It is a good thing that the tribes know who they are and who their actual members are. It is equally important that Indian nations establish and formally publish their policies on all such matters so that the manipulative and deceptive practices of anti-Indian hate groups can be laid bare. Definition is crucial in this day and age. People who support a free-for-all with respect to Indian identity might consider how they usher in the Trojan horse that seeks the destruction of all American Indian freedoms. ======================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ======================== Here are some random historical events.... June 1, 1934: A legal definition of "Indian" is made by the United States government. June 2, 1752: Diego Ortiz Parrilla, Lieutenant Colonel of the RoyalArmies, Proprietary Captain of the Dragoons of Veracruz, Governor and Captain-General of the Provinces of Sinaloa and Sonora in the Kingdom of New Andalucia declares the estalishment of a permanent Spanish community at what would become modern Tubac, Arizona. This would be the first significant Spanish settlement in Arizona. June 3, 1823: Yesterday a trapper is killed in a Arikara village. The Arikara warriors attack Jedediah Smith and his forty men who are camped on the nearby river. There are also ninety men stationed on boats in the river. Fearing for their lives, the men in the boats refuse to come help Smith’s men. Fifteen men are killed and almost as many are wounded in the fighting before they can swim out to the boats and flee. June 4, 1696: A second Pueblo revolt takes place in modern New Mexico. Participating tribes were the Cochiti, Picuris, Santa Fe, Santo Domingo, Tano, Taos and Tewa. Twenty-one settlers and soldiers, and five missionaries are killed in the fighting. The revolt would not be long lived. June 5, 1836: Of the 407 "friendly" Seminoles who left Tampa Bay on April 11, 1836, only 320 arrive in their new lands in the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Eighty-seven of the Seminoles die during the rigorous trip. June 6, 1962: The Fort Apache Scout is first published. June 7, 1494: The "new world" is divided between Spain and Portugal by the Catholic church. June 8, 1758: General Jeffrey Amherst is leading a force of more than 10,000 soldiers on a fleet of almost fifty British ships. They land and attack the French fort at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia. The French forces are led by Chevier de Drucour. He has 3,100 soldiers, 1,000 Canadians and 500 Indians at his disposal. The French also have a fleet in port. The fighting continues until July 26th. The British are victorious. Fearing they will be executed, many of the Indians will flee because the British offer terms of surrender only to the French troops. June 9, 1870: Ely Parker (Donehogawa) commissioner of Indian Affairs invites Red Cloud, and several other Sioux to visit him, and the Great Father, in Washington. Red Cloud meets President Ulysses Grant. Red Cloud tells Grant the Sioux do not want a reservation on the Missouri River. Red Cloud also talks about some of the promises made in the treaty which were not actually included. They have a cordial meeting, but Grant knows the difference between the items promised, and the items actually in the treaty are grounds for contention in the future. He suggests the Indians be read the treaty in its entirety soon. June 10, 1909: The U.S. Supreme Court confirms and approves Guion Miller's new tribal rolls of the Eastern Cherokees who are entitled to share in the distribution of a $1,000,000 fund the Court established in 1906. June 11, 1848: Alexander Barclay establishes a trading post and fort and the juncture of the Sapello and Mora Rivers in northern New Mexico. The Santa Fe Trail runs past the post. It will eventually become a part of the later constructed Fort Union, one of the largest military outposts in the American Southwest. June 12, 1755: Massachusetts posts its "Scalp bounty." June 13, 1660: Wamsetta, a Wampanoag, and his younger brother, Metacomet (various spellings), have requested "English" names from the Plymouth court. Their names are officially changed to Alexander and Philip Pokanoket. Philip is eventually called "King Philip." June 14, 1867: According to the Constitution of the Coeur d’Alene Tribe of Idaho, The Coeur d’Alene Reservation is established by Executive Order. June 15, 742: According to Maya engravings, King Itzamnaaj B'alam II (Shield Jaguar) of Yaxchilan, Mexico dies. (see my photos of Yaxchilan at: http://americanindian.net/mexico17.html ) June 16, 1802: A treaty (7 stat. 68) with the Creeks is concluded near Fort Wilkinson, on the Oconee River, near present day, Milledgeville, Georgia. New tribal boundary lines are established, which cede lands along the Oconee and Ocmulgee creeks, and the "Altamaha" tract. The tribe receives $3000 annually, and some Chiefs get $1000 a year for ten years. The tribe gets $10,000 now, and $10,000 is set aside to pay tribal debts to local white traders. The Creeks also receive $5000 for lands that have been seized. They also get two sets of blacksmith tools, and trained blacksmiths to use them for three years. The United States gets the right to establish a garrison on Creek lands. The treaty is signed by thirty-nine Indians. The Americans are represented by General James Wilkinson, Benjamin Hawkins and Andrew Pickens. June 17, 1579: Sir Francis Drake lands north of San Francisco, probably at what is today called Drake's Bay, in California. He reports the Indians to be "people of a tractable, free and loving nature, without guile or treachery." June 18, 1934: The Indian Reorganization Act (48 Stat. 984-985) takes place. Among other things, it is to "permit any Indian to transfer by will restricted lands of such Indian to his or her heirs or lineal descendants, and for other purposes. To authorize the sale of individual Indian lands acquired under the Act of June 18, 1934 and under the Act of June 26, 1936." June 19, 1541: Hernando de Soto's expedition meets the Casqui Indians near modern Helena, Arkansas. There has been a drought in the area, and the padres offer to help. A large cross is erected and the Spaniards join in prayer. Soon it starts to rain. The Casquis become allies of the Spanish. June 20, 1763: As part of Pontiac's rebellion, a force of Senecas, Ottawas, Wyandots, and Chippewas attack Fort Presque Isle, at present day Erie, in northwestern Pennsylvania. They have had the fort under siege since June 15th. The soldiers numbering less than three dozen, surrender when the fort goes up in flames. All but Ensign John Christie and two others escape. The rest are killed. June 21, 1856: Non-hostile Indians along the lower Rogue River, and at Fort Orford, in southwestern Oregon, are put on a boat to be moved to a new reservation between the Pacific Ocean, and the Wallamet River. It is called the Grande Ronde Reservation. June 22, 1839: Elias Boudinot, first editor of the Cherokee Phoenix, Chief Major Ridge (Kahnungdaclageh) and his son, John Ridge (Skahtlelohskee) are members of the Cherokee "Treaty Party." They have generated many enemies by their stand agreeing to the removal of the Cherokees from their lands east of the Mississippi River. They signed the peace treaty which gave away Cherokee lands east of the Mississippi River. They moved to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) with the rest of the Cherokee Nation. Early this morning, John Ridge is dragged from his bed, and stabbed to death. Chief Major Ridge is shot and killed at 10:00 am in another part of the reservation. Later that day, Elias Boudinot is stabbed and hacked to death. These murders are committed by Cherokees for what they feel is their treasonous betrayal of the nation. A Cherokee law, which Chief Ridge helped to make, gives the death penalty to any Cherokee who sells or gives away Cherokee lands without the majority of the tribe's permission. These deaths are considered the execution of that law. Chief Stand Watie, brother to Elias, and nephew to Major Ridge, manages to avoid the warriors who planned to kill him. June 23, 1865: General Stand Watie, and his Cherokee Confederate sympathizers, surrender. Stand Watie is the last Confederate General to officially surrender. June 24, 1763: As part of Pontiac's rebellion, a group of Delaware surround Fort Pitt, in present day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The commander, Captain Simeon Ecuyer, has 338 soldiers in the fort, and he will not surrender. Not having enough warriors to attack the fort, the Delaware leave the fort with a few blankets as a present. Unknown to the Indians, the blankets came from a infirmary treating smallpox. The Delaware are the first to be affected by this form of biological warfare during the rebellion. Some sources says this happens on July 24th. June 25, 1876: At the Battle of the Little Big Horn, Colonel George Custer is commanding Troops C,E,F,I, and L; Major Marcus Reno has troops A,G, and M. Captain Frederick Benteen leads Troops H,D, and K. Captain Thomas McDougall guards the supply wagons with Troop B. It is a significant defeat for the U. S. Army. Army reports list thirteen officers, 189 enlisted men, and four civilians are killed in Custer’s command. Reno’s troops split from Custer’s. According to army documents, Lt. Donald McIntosh, Lt. B.H. Hodgson, forty-six soldiers, and one civilian are killed. Captain Benteen, Lt. C.A. Varnum and forty-four soldiers are wounded in the fighting which lasts through tomorrow. Army reports do not list how many Indians were killed or wounded in this defeat for the army. The following soldiers receive Medals of Honor for actions during this battle today and tomorrow: Private Neil Bancroft, Company A; Private Abram B. Brant, Co. D; Private Thomas J. Callen, Co. B; Sergeant Benjamin C. Criswell, Co. B; Corporal Charles Cunningham, Co. B; Private Frederick Deetline, Co. D; Sergeant George Geiger, Co. H; Private Theodore Goldin, Troop G; Private David W. Harris, Co. A; Private William M. Harris, Co. D; Private Henry Holden, Co. D; Sergeant Rufus D. Hutchinson, Co. B; Blacksmith Henry Mechlin, Co. H; Sergeant Thomas Murray, Co. B; Private James Pym, Co. B; Sergeant Stanislaus Roy, Co. A; Private George Scott, Co. D; Private Thomas Stivers, Co. D; Private Peter Thompson, Co. C; Private Frank Tolan, Co. D; Saddler Otto Voit, Co. H; Sergeant Charles Welch, Co. D; Private Charles Windolph, Co. H. (see my photos of the "Greasy Grass" or "Little Big Horn" battlegrounds at: http://americanindian.net/2003k.html June 26, 1874: The Comanches under Quanah Parker decide to punish the white hunters for killing their buffalo herds and taking their grazing lands. Joined by Kiowa, Cheyenne and Arapahos, they set out for the trading post called Adobe Walls in the panhandle of Texas. Medicine man Isatai of the Comanche promises the bullets of the white men will not harm them. A buffalo hunter named William "Billy" Dixon sees the Indians approaching, and he is able to fire a warning shot before the attack. The Indians charge the trading post. There are twenty-eight men, and one woman, in Adobe Walls, and the buffalo hunters there have very accurate, long-range rifles with telescopic sights. Dixon is reported to have knocked an Indian off his horse from 1538 yards away with one of these rifles. The adobe walls provide very good cover for them. Slightly more than a dozen Indians are killed in the fight, and Isatai is humiliated. The Indians give up the fight as hopeless, and they leave. Some sources report this fight happening on June 27, 1874 and lasting until July 1st. (I have been to Adobe Walls. There are very few "artifacts" left. The distance of Dixon's shot seem even more amazing when you are standing there. Phil) June 27, 1542: Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo leaves Mexico to go up the Pacific coast in exploration. Cabrillo is the first European to land in San Diego Bay, California. He goes as far north as the Rogue River, in California. June 28, 1878: Tambiago, the killer of Alex Rhoden on November 23, 1877, which led to the Bannock War, is hanged at the Idaho Territorial prison. June 29, 1906: The Anazasi ruins at Mesa Verde are declared a National Park June 30, 1520: According to some sources, Montezuma dies. Some say he is killed by other Aztecs. Others say he is stabbed to death by Spaniards under Hernán Cortés. ======================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ======================== That’s all for now. Stay safe, Phil ====================================== End of Phil Konstantin’s June 2005 Newsletter ====================================== . . . .
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