May 2011 Newsletter from
"This Day in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © © Phil Konstantin (1996-2013)

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Phil Konstantin's May 2011 Newsletter
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O'siyo (Cherokee for Hello),

Yes, it has been quite some time since I have sent out a
newsletter. No, I did not fall off the planet. ~~|:-)

I've been busy with my new job (KGTV in San Diego) where I am
the helicopter-based TV reporter/photographer. I am only
scheduled to work two hours in the early morning, and two
hours in the early evening. However, I am on-call for
breaking news. There is LOTS of breaking news in San Diego.
I have covered fires, floods, murders, collisions, mountain
and cliff rescues, runaway horses, large surf, bad weather,
parades, police pursuits, funerals, weddings and many more
subjects. I love to fly, and it is an interesting job. Last
year, one of my reports about major flooding in San Diego
was also used on ABC Nightly news and ESPN. The football
stadium was flooded. You can see the original report at
the link below. This was all ad-libbed.

http://www.10news.com/video/flv/2010/1222/26250124/index.html


My grand-daughter Jazlyn is now almost 15 months old. She
is so cute. I have really enjoyed watching her grow. Sarah
(my daughter), Jazlyn and Vincent (her dad) were finally
able to get their own apartment last month. I enjoy the
extra space, but I miss them, too. You can see lots of
photos of Jazlyn on the page below.

http://americanindian.net/jazlyn.html


My other daughter Heidi still lives with me. She just got
back from a extended trip to the Boston area. She is
thinking of moving there because of the concentration of
spiritual vibes in the area.

My son Ron is still in Abilene, Texas. Ron cannot work
because of several medical issues. Ron is a bit of a
crusader. He has taken on the "good old boy" (GOB) network
there. It is a story to rival the old TV show "Dallas."
Ron helped to get a shady character (good old boy #1)
off the city council. The GOBs retaliated by drumming up
a bunch of bogus legal charges against him. Bogus Charge #1:
They claim he used the wrong address on a legal form.
This is a misdemeanor. Ron says he filled out the form
only after contacting the state agency in charge of the
matter. Bogus Charge #2: When Ron asked some long time
friends (the good old boys got their son a job with the
city) why they provided false information about him on
this case, he was charged with "tampering with a witness."
This is a felony. Ron says local attorneys do not want
to take his case because it would be against the GOB
establishment. Bringing in an outside lawyer will be VERY
expensive (a local one isn't cheap). Anybody know a good
lawyer who will work for a discount?

I'm still working with the local Cherokee group in San Diego
( http://sandiegocherokeecommunity ). We meet every month
or so. We have our spring picnic later this month. We will
be playing Cherokee marbles and having a blowgun demonstration.
It should be fun.

So, these are some of the reasons (ummmm, excuses) I have
not put out a newsletter recently (that and being lazy).
I'll try to keep up on it in the future.

Phil

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"Links Of The Month": Here are some interesting links to
American Indian matters:

The Native Races by Hubert Howe Bancroft - published in 1883:
http://www.friendsofsabbath.org/Further_Research/e-books/Hubert%20Howe%20Bancroft/HHBindex.htm



Sacred Texts: Native American Religions:
http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/


Bibliografia Mesoamericana: excellent search engine for Central American
historical info
http://research.famsi.org/mesobib.html


Rezkast: "A Native video & music sharing site"
http://www.rezkast.com/


James Adair (c.1709-1783)
History of the Indians - London: Edward & Charles Dilly, 1775
http://olivercowdery.com/texts/1775Adr1.htm


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Links to news stories and articles online:
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Indian Country Responds to Geronimo, bin Laden Connection
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/05/indian-country-responds-to-geronimo-bin-laden-connection/


Apologists try to spin codename
http://newspaperrock.bluecorncomics.com/2011/05/apologists-try-to-spin-codename.html


The Life of Geronimo In Pictures
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/photogallery/the-life-of-geronimo-in-pictures/


Geronimo and the Myth of the Bloodthirsty Savage
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/ict_sbc/geronimo-and-the-myth-of-the-bloodthirsty-savage/


A League Of Nations?
http://tahlequahdailypress.com/archive/x519324194/print

Two New Mexico Youth Honored for Volunteerism at National Award Ceremony
in Washington, D.C.
http://www.centredaily.com/2011/05/02/2684746/two-new-mexico-youth-honored-for.html#ixzz1LmNJxU3G


http://www.centredaily.com/2011/05/02/2684746/two-new-mexico-youth-honored-for.html


Cheyenne-Arapaho governor battles to maintain leadership
http://64.38.12.138/News/2011/001385.asp

Record Set For Number of Aboriginal Members of Canadian Parliament In
Recent Election
http://turtletalk.wordpress.com/2011/05/04/record-set-for-number-of-aboriginal-members-of-canadian-parliament-in-recent-election/


Native Groups Urge Education Parity
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/05/native-groups-urge-education-parity/


The voice of generations - Efforts to revive Salish language thrive on
several fronts
http://www.reznetnews.org/article/voice-generations-0

Barresi tells tribal educators she wants American Indian culture taught
in Oklahoma classrooms
http://www.therepublic.com/view/story/2e9c9b68c4914eb9a5a43efdf71a472a/OK--Indian-Education/


Family is foundation of documentary on NYC’s Mohawk ironworker community
http://www.americanindiannews.org/2011/01/mohawk-ironworker-community/

Ron Wakegijig, First Nation Healer and Leader
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/05/ron-wakegijig-first-nation-healer-and-leader/


Hualapai tribe in legal battle over Grand Canyon skywalk
http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/24/us/24grand.html

UAF student captures title of 2011 Miss Indian World
http://www.newsminer.com/view/full_story/13078887/article-UAF-student-captures-title-of-2011-Miss-Indian-World?instance=home_lead_story


Martha Redbone charts her own distinctive course, marches to her own
beat
http://www.americanindiannews.org/2010/12/martha-redbone/

U.S. Considers “Native Canadian Groups” As Possible Terror Threats
http://aptn.ca/pages/news/2011/04/30/u-s-considers-native-canadian-groups-as-possible-terror-threats-embassy-cables/


Mashpee Wampanoag Member Files Suit to Fish
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/05/mashpee-wampanoag-member-files-suit-to-fish/


Bridging American Indian students' scientific achievement gap
http://www.hcn.org/issues/43.7/bridging-american-indian-students-scientific-achievement-gap


Native American Activist, Author Winona LaDuke on "The Militarization of
Indian Country" and Obama Admin’s "Lip Service" to Indigenous Rights
http://www.democracynow.org/2011/5/6/native_american_activist_author_winona_laduke


Eastern Shawnee Tribe a victim of Supreme Court decision
http://64.38.12.138/News/2011/001368.asp

Minn. program uses American Indian culture to target prison recidivism
http://minnesota.publicradio.org/display/web/2011/04/25/red-road-home/

Bordeau Santore (Estate) v. Bordeau: This Land Is Your Land, This Land
Is My Land. From Kahnawake Reserve, To The New York Island
http://turtletalk.wordpress.com/2011/05/04/bordeau-santore-estate-v-bordeau-this-land-is-your-land-this-land-is-my-land/


Native American Contractors Association (NACA) Seeks New Executive
Director:
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/05/naca-seeks-new-executive-director/


Lobbyist finds himself shoved off a bar stool
http://www.buffalonews.com/city/politics/article414076.ece

More guilty pleas in major Indian artifact theft case in Utah
http://64.38.12.138/News/2011/001374.asp

Photos chronicle 36 years of reservation life among Arapaho in Wyoming
http://trib.com/news/state-and-regional/article_63784c2d-8e87-50d9-9431-aee729203e1d.html


Spokane Tribe Unveils STEP program
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/05/spokane-tribe-unveils-step-program/


Really, who has the gall to steal a totem pole?
http://www.pnwlocalnews.com/south_king/ren/lifestyle/121342594.html

State reluctant to cross bands on treaty rights
http://www.startribune.com/sports/outdoors/120929954.html

Wisconsin's first people open their doors
http://www.chicagotribune.com/travel/ct-trav-0508-wisconsin-indians-20110506,0,6788147.story


Powwow Summer Guide:
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/tag/summer-guide/

Longtime tribal worker wins chairman post in Spirit Lake Nation election
http://www.therepublic.com/view/story/150baca2d5874044bb1ed162ea4f91c9/ND--Tribal-Election/


Members of Maine Wabanaki tribes to walk to Wisconsin to promote clean
water
http://new.bangordailynews.com/2011/04/28/news/downeast/members-of-maine-wabanaki-tribes-to-walk-to-wisconsin-to-promote-clean-water/?ref=latest


Census: As casinos prosper, many go home to reservations
http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2014986590_tribalcensus07m.html


Appeals Court Victory for Tohono O’odham Nation in Battle for Glendale,
Arizona Casino
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/05/appeals-court-victory-for-tohono-o%e2%80%99odham-nation-in-battle-for-glendale-arizona-casino/


Editorial: Effort to repeal anti-Indian mascot bill in Wisconsin
http://64.38.12.138/News/2011/001458.asp

Native Sun News: Yankton men seek justice after 17 years
http://64.38.12.138/News/2011/001329.asp

Tribes Going Green and the Buy Indian Act
http://thecirclenews.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=468&Itemid=62


Winners named in Oneida Tribe's first primary election
http://www.greenbaypressgazette.com/article/20110507/GPG0101/110507066/Winners-named-Oneida-Tribe-s-first-primary-election


Future Resources Are Key to Planning for Ute Tribes
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/05/future-resources-are-key-to-planning-for-ute-tribes/


Sheldon delivers State of the Tribes address
http://www.pnwlocalnews.com/north_sound/mar/news/121276494.html

Legacy - Kawagley leaves good one
http://www.adn.com/2011/04/27/1832289/our-view-legacy.html

Language at Risk of Dying Out – the Last Two Speakers Aren’t Talking
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/05/language-at-risk-of-dying-out-%e2%80%93-the-last-two-speakers-arent-talking/


Quechan Nation celebrates grand opening of Yuma's latest park
http://www.yumasun.com/news/park-69705-collins-see.html

Colvilles ban hunting, fishing enforcement
http://www.wenatcheeworld.com/news/2011/apr/27/colvilles-ban-hunting-fishing-enforcement-state/


Spreading the love of the Creator's Game
http://thecirclenews.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=398&Itemid=81


Red Cloud Students Lead Nation in Bill and Melinda Gates Millennium
Scholarship Recipients
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/05/red-cloud-students-lead-nation-in-bill-and-melinda-gates-millenium-scholarship-recipients/


Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe Newsletter (PDF file)
http://www.plpt.nsn.us/newspaper/April_2011/April_2011.pdf

'Idaho's Forgotten War' documents Kootenai Tribe's battle
http://www.charkoosta.com/2011/2011_04_28/Idaho_Forgotten_War-presentation.html


Learning Channel to air 'Off The Rez' documentary May 14
http://64.38.12.138/News/2011/001336.asp

Editorial: Communities need Native journalists
http://www.argusleader.com/article/20110421/VOICES01/104210301/-1/voices01/Editorial-Communities-need-Native-journalists


Iroquois lacrosse team gives up chance at championship over passports
http://thecirclenews.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=407&Itemid=81


University of South Dakota to Honor Native American Graduates
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/05/university-of-south-dakota-to-honor-native-american-graduates/


Paiutes close area of Pyramid Lake over graffiti
http://www.rgj.com/article/20110503/NEWS/110503035/

Maidu Tsi Akim center to open
http://www.theunion.com/article/20110427/NEWS/110429751/1001

David Barton on Thomas Jefferson - Did Jefferson send missionaries to
evangelize the Kaskaskia Indians?
http://blogs.christianpost.com/opinion/2011/04/david-barton-on-thomas-jefferson-did-jefferson-send-missionaries-to-evangelize-the-kaskaskia-indians-25/


Sioux Security officer reports UFO encounter and missing time
http://thecirclenews.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=480&Itemid=81


South Bend Student First in Tribe to Attend Service Academy
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/05/south-bend-student-first-in-tribe-to-attend-service-academy/


War And Consequences: The American Indian Movement Vs. The National Park
Service At Fort Laramie
http://www.nationalparkstraveler.com/2011/04/war-and-consequences-american-indian-movement-vs-national-park-service-fort-laramie8003


Lance Morgan: Commodity cheese and world diplomacy
http://64.38.12.138/News/2011/001302.asp

Civil War a time for tribal conflict in Nebraska
http://journalstar.com/special-section/civil-war/article_5838dd98-51ae-5244-a004-9bdca47f31a4.html


Roseau River First Nation evacuates most due to flooding
http://64.38.12.138/News/2011/001288.asp

A Northern California Tribal Court group makes strides in improving
access to tribal courts.
http://www.tworiverstribune.com/2011/01/nctcc-promoting-effectiveness-of-regional-tribal-courts/


Anti-abortion amendment attached to Indian Health Care Improvement Act
http://thecirclenews.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=48&Itemid=81


What is a Chickasaw?
http://www.dallasnews.com/news/local-news/20110507-what-is-a-chickasaw.ece


Tribal leaders anxious about legacy of descendants; Tsimpshian Solomon
Atkinson, first Native American SEAL, to be honored
http://www.publicbroadcasting.net/kbc/news.newsmain/article/0/0/1799123/KNBA.News.730..AM..and..830.AM/5611.Newscast.-.Tribal.leaders.anxious.about.legacy.of.descendants.Tsimpshian.Solomon.Atkinson..first.Native.American.SEAL..to.be.honored.


Watch the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs Hearing Archived Webcast
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/05/senate-committee-on-indian-affairs-hearing-webcast-today/


Turtle Talk: Supreme Court goes out of its way in Indian law
http://64.38.12.138/News/2011/001389.asp

Archaeologists and Native Americans team up to interpret the past, shape
the future
http://www.kumeyaay.com/kumeyaay-news/2361-archaeologists-and-native-americans-team-up-to-interpret-the-past-shape-the-future.html


Doug George-Kanentiio: Planet in midst of climatic revolt
http://64.38.12.138/News/2011/001289.asp

Crow Tribe makes travel easier with new transit system
http://billingsgazette.com/news/state-and-regional/montana/article_57674532-bf34-5e05-9d98-307727710c72.html


Journeys with First Nations puts Native businesses on tourism path
http://thecirclenews.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50&Itemid=81


More Puerto Ricans Identify Themselves as Indian, According to Latest
Census
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/more-puerto-ricans-identify-themselves-as-indian-according-to-latest-census/


Tribes requested thousands of leftover FEMA mobile homes
http://64.38.12.138/News/2011/001378.asp

Aaron Huey: Life on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation
http://www.popphoto.com/news/2011/05/american-photo-invisible-wounds

Broken Treaties: Aaron Huey’s Pine Ridge Billboard Project
http://lightbox.time.com/2011/04/25/broken-treaties-aaron-hueys-pine-ridge-billboard-project/#ixzz1LmMwsH9f


http://lightbox.time.com/2011/04/25/broken-treaties-aaron-hueys-pine-ridge-billboard-project/


U.S. Tribe Cites Tsunami, 'Twilight' In Bid To Expand
http://www.npr.org/2011/04/26/135446505/u-s-tribe-cites-tsunami-twilight-in-bid-to-expand


Northwest Jesuits to Pay $166.1 Million to Native Abuse Victims
http://thecirclenews.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=481&Itemid=81


Beginnings of Native Hawaiian government agreed on
http://washingtonexaminer.com/news/2011/04/beginnings-native-hawaiian-government-agreed


Cornell American Indian Program Opposes Genetic Ancestry Project
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/03/cornell-american-indian-program-opposes-genetic-ancestry-project/


Oklahoma-born American Indian activist will receive honorary degree
http://newsok.com/oklahoma-born-american-indian-activist-will-receive-honorary-degree/article/3561919


A conversation with Dennis Banks
http://nativetimes.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5276:a-conversation-with-dennis-banks-&catid=46&Itemid=22


Mark Trahant: Rising gas prices hit Indian Country hardest
http://64.38.12.138/News/2011/001277.asp

Native Farmers Gather to Protect Seeds
http://thecirclenews.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=488&Itemid=81


Fletcher & Vicaire: “Indian Wars: Old and New”
http://turtletalk.wordpress.com/2011/05/05/fletcher-vicaire-indian-wars-old-and-new/?


AFA’s Bryan Fischer: Native Americans Have Never Had Morals
http://wonkette.com/437399/bryan-fischer-native-americans

Pillaging the Past
http://www.hcn.org/issues/369/17663#1303689632008041

Man who Volunteered to Monitor Archaeological Sites Sentenced to Six
Month Jail Term for Stealing Petroglyph
http://www.kmvt.com/news/regional/Nevada-man-gets-6-months-in-ancient-rock-art-theft-119943129.html


Jornada Mogollon Archaeology Conference Scheduled - Word file
http://www.cdarc.org/sat/jornada_mogollon_conference_2011.doc

Volunteer Finds Small Vessel from Fremont Era Site
http://www.kcsg.com/view/full_story/12849009/article-Small-Artifact–Big-Find-for-Color-Country-BLM


Geocacher finds ancient Yavapai jar
http://www.dcourier.com/main.asp?SectionID=1&SubSectionID=1&ArticleID=92839


Contested Lands and Multiple Histories at Wupatki National Monument
http://azdailysun.com/news/local/article_5b39e558-d963-5f6e-b495-9d679dbcfa0b.html


Chronology of Wupatki
http://www.azdailysun.com/news/local/351f3c24-34ce-5b1f-9d11-12e5f9274ead.html


Prehistoric Americans Traded Chocolate for Turquoise?
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/03/110329-chocolate-turquoise-trade-prehistoric-peoples-archaeology/


Hunting For Traces Of America's First Inhabitants (TEXT & AUDIO)
http://www.npr.org/2011/03/25/134855884/Hunting-For-Traces-Of-Americas-First-Inhabitants?ft=1&f=1007


Did Ancient Tewa Peoples Seek a More Balanced Way of Life After Mesa
Verde?
http://www.santafenewmexican.com/local%20news/Tewa-sought-life-of-equality-in-N-M-


Human remains found during construction of La Plaza must be respected
http://articles.latimes.com/2011/apr/09/opinion/la-ed-laplaza-20110409


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Video Links:
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5 Part Series: Floyd Red Crow Westerman Shares Prophecy?
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/05/floyd-red-crow-westerman-shares-prophecy/


Colorlines: 'Smiling Indians' is a highly moving meditation
http://64.38.12.138/News/2011/001296.asp

Wes Studi Talks to Maria Hinojosa
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/05/wes-studi-talks-to-maria-hinojosa/


Demand Fair Access: Native Education Rally In Canada?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HIk27RIgAC0&feature=channel_video_title

Project 60: Take Back Your Voice and Vote, Aboriginal Youths Urge Peers
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/project-60-take-back-your-voice-and-vote-aboriginal-youths-urge-peers/


"Reserved Wealth" Documentary ?
http://www.kumeyaay.com/kumeyaay-videos/1751.html

Cherokee, North Carolina Is for the Birds
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/birding-in-cherokee-on-the-qualla-boundary/


Emotional ceremony recognizes 2 bands of Abenaki
http://www.wcax.com/story/14499533/an-emotional-ceremony-recognizes-2-bands-of-abenaki


While Battling Breast Cancer, an Alaska Native is Determined to Save the
Sugpiaq People’s Language
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/while-battling-breast-cancer-an-alaska-native-is-determined-to-save-the-sugpiaq-peoples-language/


Top 10: Kick-Ass Native Americans
http://www.askmen.com/top_10/celebrity/top-10-legendary-native-americans_1p.html


High Kicking at the 41st Annual NYO Games in Anchorage
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/native-youth-olympics-kicks-off-in-anchorage/


Tribes: Solar projects tread on sacred Indian grounds
http://www.mydesert.com/article/20110424/NEWS07/104240322/Tribes-Solar-projects-tread-sacred-Indian-grounds?odyssey=mod|newswell|text|Frontpage|s


Ancient Aboriginal Masks, Returned to their Owners’ Descendants
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/ancient-aboriginal-masks-returned-to-their-owners-descendents/


Alaska Students Create Powerful Videos for Suicide Prevention
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/alaska-students-create-powerful-videos-for-suicide-prevention/


Live Barroom Blues from Jimmy Wolf
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/live-barroom-blues-from-jimmy-wolf/


Games of the North Explores Inuit Sports
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/games-of-the-north-explores-inuit-sports/


PBS Art:21 Episode “Spirituality” Featuring Navajo Artist John Feodorov
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/pbs-art21-episode-spirituality-featuring-navajo-artist-john-feodorov/


Huu-ay-aht First Nation—Abalone Project
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/huuayaht-first-nation%e2%80%94the-abalone-project/


Cherokee Skeet Shooter Wins Gold Medal
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/cherokee-skeet-shooter-hits-gold-again/


Native American Music Group Reacts As Grammys Discontinue Category
http://www.koat.com/r/27494708/detail.html

Navajo Distance Runners Star in ‘Run to the East’ Documentary
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/navajo-distance-runners-star-in-run-to-the-east-documentary/


Standing Bear's Footsteps
http://www.nativetelecom.org/standing_bears_footsteps

Oglala Lakota Man Reclaims His Health in Documentary ‘Good Meat’
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/oglala-lakota-man-reclaims-his-health-in-documentary-good-meat/


Up Heartbreak Hill
http://www.nativetelecom.org/up_heartbreak_hill

Yukon First Nations Closely Guarding Peel Watershed
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/yukon-first-nations-closely-guarding-peel-watershed/


Grab
http://www.nativetelecom.org/grab

Setting the Record Straight: Trailblazer Shone a Light on Aboriginals’
Role in Canada
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/setting-the-record-straight-trailblazer-shone-a-light-on-aboriginals%e2%80%99-role-in-canada/


Smokin' Fish
http://www.nativetelecom.org/smokin_fish

Award-winning Dancer Emily Johnson
http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/04/award-winning-dancer-emily-johnson/


National Guard gets new Lakota helicopters
http://www.rapidcityjournal.com/news/article_20378c4a-510d-11e0-878d-001cc4c002e0.html



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Article from a reader:


Native America Project
Dear Friend of Native America,

I am writing again after the holidays, because many of you
were on break and may have missed the announcement. Several
years ago I began the massive "Native America Project" -- an
unrestrained attempt to document the dispossession of the
original peoples of the North American continent between
1492 and 1900 in the form of Google Maps and Google Earth "placemarks".
These placemarks include Native American towns
and villages, tribal areas, archaeological sites, battles,
trails, colonial and Indian-war forts, missions and schools,
settler explorations, and many other aspects of the 400-year
history.

At present, this project includes over 15,000 placemarks
filled with historical texts, images, maps, paintings,
biographies, video clips and other web objects. The
collection has grown by nearly 50% in the past month alone!

Of special note are the many hundreds of online history texts
located to the relevant area (e.g., St Augustine FL for
Spanish military and mission towns, eastern Massachusetts
for King Philip's War, etc.) -- documenting in free full-text
online books the many tribes, settlements, missions, wars, biographies,
and the like from hard-to-locate references
from the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The collection
currently includes about 2,000 online texts resources.

The reason I am contacting you is to enlist your support from
the establishment of academia to make as accurate and complete
as possible this project and to further develop the information
into many spin-off educational tools for Native American
communities and the mainstream educational system and tourism /
publications industry. Sample projects include state-by-state
guides, GPS navigation points of interest, interactive history
timelines, and much more! The Project requires some basic
funding and about 2-3 more years of development.

You can help by examining the current state of the Project
and imagining the possibilities of helping the Native American heritage.
Perhaps your students and colleauges may find the concentration of
information valuable or at least interesting. Attached are the live
links to the many Google Maps. Because
the "Maps" come in separate pages, they are not a good solution,
as the placemarks need to be displayed all at once as with
Google Earth to fully appreciate the breadth of the subject.

HOW TO: Viewing each Google Map separately is not much fun.
Google Earth is great! In order to open all the maps in Google
Earth for simultaneous viewing, it is necessary to first download,
install and launch the Google Earth viewer (free here
 ), then
download the "KML" files for the 33 maps as a batch (free here
 ) and then open the kml
batch all at once in Google Earth using the GE menu File>Open
and selecting all the kml files. If you will follow these two
simple steps, I think you will see the good that can come of
this with a little support from you and others.

I have also created a Facebook page for the Native America
Project to post information about updates and changes in the
project and to facilitate communication about assistance and
using the resource. The Facebook page is here: Native America
Project
 .
There is also a free poster for placement
on your office or department announcement board or for
sending out to friends as an email attachment so others can
learn about the resourece (Native America Project free poster
in pdf format  ).

Here are the Google Maps:

Geoff Mangum's Guide to Native American History -- main website


Federal Indian Tribes
(approx. 420)



Alaska Native Communities
(approx. 250)



Canadian First Nations, Inuits and Metis
(approx. 850)



Indian Towns and Villages 1500-1900 (1)
(approx. 650, includes State, Federal, and non-recognized modern tribes)



Indian Towns and Villages 1500-1900 (2)
(approx. 550)



Indian Towns and Villages 1500-1900 (3)
(approx. 1050)



Indian Towns and Villages 1500-1900 (4)
(approx. 500)



Indian Archaeology Museums and Sites
(approx. 400)



Indian History Museums and Tourism
(approx. 800)



Indian Schools
(approx. 650 marks)



Indian Missions
(approx. 500)



European Exploration and Settlement
(approx. 350)



Early Indian Paths and Settler Roads (1)
(approx. 550)



Early Indian Paths and Settler Roads (2)
(approx. 175)



Early Maps with Indian Sites
(approx. 1000)



Indian Fur Trade & Trading Posts
(approx. 500)



American and Canadian Forts (1)
(approx. 1,450)



American and Canadian Forts (2)
(approx. 75)



American and Canadian Forts (3)
(approx. 200)



American and Canadian Forts (4)
(approx. 250)



North American Indian Wars (1)
(approx. 400)

North American Indian Wars (2)
(approx. 350)
=100&num=100&msa=0&msid=206350843187803166258.00046de5568f8f689ebfd&z=4>


The Online Bibliography, about 2,000 items, is here:

Indian Online Bibliography (1)
(approx. 1000)



Indian Online Bibliography (2)
(approx. 550)



Indian Online Bibliography (3)
(approx. 375)



Modern era maps:

Indian Powwows, Festivals and Conferences
(approx. 75)



Indian Casinos and Gaming
(approx. 600)



I hope to hear back from you soon!

Cheers!
Geoff Mangum

Geoff Mangum's Guide to Native American History


518 Woodlawn Ave
Greensboro NC USA 27401   


====================================
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Humor and other matter:
-----------------------

“Without Reservations” Comics:
http://www.reznetnews.org/comics

---------

From "Peter Dakota Crowheart/Kangi"

To write with a broken pencil is pointless.

When fish are in schools they sometimes take debate.

A thief who stole a calendar got twelve months.

When the smog lifts in Los Angeles , U.C.L.A.

The professor discovered that her theory of earthquakes was
on shaky ground.

The batteries were given out free of charge.

A dentist and a manicurist married. They fought tooth and nail.

A will is a dead giveaway..

If you don't pay your exorcist you can get repossessed.

With her marriage, she got a new name and a dress.

Show me a piano falling down a mineshaft and I'll show you
A-flat miner.

You are stuck with your debt if you can't budge it.

Local Area Network in Australia : The LAN down under.

A boiled egg is hard to beat.

When you've seen one shopping center you've seen the mall.

Police were called to a day care where a three-year-old was
resisting a rest.

Did you hear about the fellow whose whole left side was cut
off? He's all right now.

If you take a laptop computer for a run you could jog your
memory.

A bicycle can't stand alone; it is two tired.

In a democracy it's your vote that counts; in feudalism, it's
your Count that votes.

When a clock is hungry it goes back four seconds

A guy fell into an upholstery machine. He is now fully recovered.

He had a photographic memory which was never developed.

Those who get too big for their britches will be exposed in the end.

When she saw her first strands of gray hair, she thought she'd dye.

Acupuncture: a jab well done.

------------

More from Peter:

The Philosophy of Ambiguity

FOR THOSE WHO LOVE THE PHILOSOPHY OF AMBIGUITY,
AS WELL AS THE IDIOSYNCRASIES OF ENGLISH:

1. DON'T SWEAT THE PETTY THINGS AND DON'T PET THE SWEATY THINGS.

2. ONE TEQUILA, TWO TEQUILA, THREE TEQUILA, FLOOR...

3. ATHEISM IS A NON-PROPHET ORGANIZATION.

4.. IF MAN EVOLVED FROM MONKEYS AND APES, WHY DO WE STILL
HAVE MONKEYS AND APES?

5. THE MAIN REASON THAT SANTA IS SO JOLLY IS BECAUSE HE KNOWS
WHERE ALL THE BAD GIRLS LIVE.

6.. I WENT TO A BOOKSTORE AND ASKED THE SALESWOMAN, "WHERE'S
THE SELF-HELP SECTION?" SHE SAID IF SHE TOLD ME, IT WOULD
DEFEAT THE PURPOSE.

7. WHAT IF THERE WERE NO HYPOTHETICAL QUESTIONS?

8. IF A DEAF CHILD SIGNS SWEAR WORDS, DOES HIS MOTHER WASH
HIS HANDS WITH SOAP?

9. IF SOMEONE WITH MULTIPLE PERSONALITIES THREATENS TO KILL
HIMSELF, IS IT CONSIDERED A HOSTAGE SITUATION?

10. IS THERE ANOTHER WORD FOR SYNONYM?

11. WHERE DO FOREST RANGERS GO TO "GET AWAY FROM IT ALL?"

12. WHAT DO YOU DO WHEN YOU SEE AN ENDANGERED ANIMAL EATING
AN ENDANGERED PLANT?

13. IF A PARSLEY FARMER IS SUED, CAN THEY GARNISH HIS WAGES?

14. WOULD A FLY WITHOUT WINGS BE CALLED A WALK?

15. WHY DO THEY LOCK GAS STATION BATHROOMS? ARE THEY AFRAID
SOMEONE WILL CLEAN THEM?

16. IF A TURTLE DOESN'T HAVE A SHELL, IS HE HOMELESS OR NAKED?

17. CAN VEGETARIANS EAT ANIMAL CRACKERS?

18. IF THE POLICE ARREST A MIME, DO THEY TELL HIM HE HAS THE
RIGHT TO REMAIN SILENT?

19.. WHY DO THEY PUT BRAILLE ON THE DRIVE-THROUGH BANK MACHINES?

20. HOW DO THEY GET DEER TO CROSS THE ROAD ONLY AT THOSE
YELLOW ROAD SIGNS?

21. WHAT WAS THE BEST THING BEFORE SLICED BREAD?

22.. ONE NICE THING ABOUT EGOTISTS: THEY DON'T TALK ABOUT
OTHER PEOPLE.

23.. DOES THE LITTLE MERMAID WEAR AN ALGEBRA?

24. DO INFANTS ENJOY INFANCY AS MUCH AS ADULTS ENJOY ADULTERY?

25.. HOW IS IT POSSIBLE TO HAVE A CIVIL WAR?

26. IF ONE SYNCHRONIZED SWIMMER DROWNS, DO THE REST DROWN TOO?

27. IF YOU ATE BOTH PASTA AND ANTIPASTO, WOULD YOU STILL BE
HUNGRY?

28. IF YOU TRY TO FAIL, AND SUCCEED, WHICH HAVE YOU DONE?

29. WHOSE CRUEL IDEA WAS IT FOR THE WORD 'LISP' TO HAVE 'S'
IN IT?

30. WHY ARE HEMORRHOIDS CALLED "HEMORRHOIDS" INSTEAD OF
"ASSTEROIDS"?

31. WHY IS IT CALLED TOURIST SEASON IF WE CAN'T SHOOT AT THEM?

32. WHY IS THERE AN EXPIRATION DATE ON SOUR CREAM?

33.. IF YOU SPIN AN ORIENTAL PERSON IN A CIRCLE THREE TIMES,
DO THEY BECOME DISORIENTED?

34. CAN AN ATHEIST GET INSURANCE AGAINST ACTS OF GOD

----------

From Ed Clark:

1. How Do Crazy People Go Through The Forest ?
They Take The Psychopath

2. How Do You Get Holy Water?
You Boil The Hell Out Of It

3. What Do Fish Say When They Hit a Concrete Wall?
Dam!

4. What Do Eskimos Get From Sitting On The Ice too Long?
Polaroids

5. What Do You Call a Boomerang That Doesn't Come Back?
A Stick

6. What Do You Call Santa's Helpers?
Subordinate Clauses.

7. What Do You Call Four Bullfighters In Quicksand?
Quatro Cinco.

8. What Do You Get From a Pampered Cow?
Spoiled Milk.

9. What Do You Get When You Cross a Snowman With a Vampire?
Frostbite.

10. What Lies At The Bottom Of The Ocean and Twitches?
A Nervous Wreck.

11. What's the Difference Between Roast Beef and Pea Soup?
Anyone Can Roast Beef.

12. Where Do You Find a Dog With No Legs?
Right Where You Left Him.

13. Why Do Gorillas Have Big Nostrils?
Because They Have Big Fingers.

14. Why Don't Blind People Like To Sky Dive?
Because It Scares The Dog.

15. What Kind Of Coffee Was Served On The Titanic?
Sanka.

16. What Is The Difference Between a Harley and a Hoover ?
The Location Of The Dirt Bag.

17. Why Did Pilgrims' Pants Always Fall Down?
Because They Wore Their Belt Buckles On Their Hats.

18. What's the Difference Between a Bad Golfer and a Bad Skydiver?
A Bad Golfer Goes, Whack, Dang!
A Bad Skydiver Goes Dang! Whack.

19. How are a Texas Tornado and a Tennessee Divorce the Same?
Somebody's Gonna Lose A Trailer.

Support bacteria. They're the only culture some people have.

-----------

Ed sent this, too:

Comments made in the year 1955!
That's only 55 years ago!

After reading these think of what they might be saying 50
years from now!

'I'll tell you one thing, if things keep going the way they are,
it's going to be impossible to buy a week's groceries for $20.00.

'Have you seen the new cars coming out next year? It won't be
long before $2,000.00 will only buy a used one.

'If cigarettes keep going up in price, I'm going to quit. A
quarter a pack is ridiculous.

'Did you hear the post office is thinking about charging a
dime just to mail a letter

'If they raise the minimum wage to $1.00, nobody will be able
to hire outside help at the store.

'When I first started driving, who would have thought gas would someday
cost 29 cents a gallon. Guess we'd be better off leaving
the car in the garage.

'I'm afraid to send my kids to the movies any more. Ever since
they let Clark Gable get by with saying DAMN in GONE WITH THE
WIND, it seems every new movie has either HELL or DAMN in it.

'I read the other day where some scientist thinks it's possible
to put a man on the moon by the end of the century. They even
have some fellows they call astronauts preparing for it down in Texas
..

'Did you see where some baseball player just signed a contract
for $75,000 a year just to play ball? It wouldn't surprise me
if someday they'll be making more than the President.

'I never thought I'd see the day all our kitchen appliances
would be electric . They are even making electric typewriters
now.

'It's too bad things are so tough nowadays.. I see where a few married
women are having to work to make ends meet.

'It won't be long before young couples are going to have to
hire someone to watch their kids so they can both work.

'I'm afraid the Volkswagen car is going to open the door to a
whole lot of foreign business.

'Thank goodness I won't live to see the day when the Government takes
half our income in taxes. I sometimes wonder if we are
electing the best people to congress.

'The drive-in restaurant is convenient in nice weather, but I seriously
doubt they will ever catch on.

'There is no sense going to Lincoln or Omaha anymore for a
weekend, it costs nearly $15.00 a night to stay in a hotel.

'No one can afford to be sick anymore, at $35.00 a day in the hospital
it's too rich for my blood.'

'If they think I'll pay 50 cents for a hair cut, forget it.'

-------------

Pamela Murphy, widow of WWII hero and actor, Audie Murphy,
died peacefully at her home on April 8, 2010. She was the widow
of the most decorated WWII hero and actor, Audie Murphy, and established
her own distinctive 35 year career working as a
patient liaison at the Sepulveda Veterans Administration
hospital, treating every veteran who visited the facility as
if they were a VIP.

Any soldier or Marine who came into the hospital got the same
special treatment from her. She would walk the hallways with
her clipboard in hand making sure her boys got to see the
specialist they needed.

If they didn't, watch out. Her boys weren't Medal of Honor
recipients or movie stars like Audie, but that didn't matter
to Pam. They had served their country. That was good enough
for her. She never called a veteran by his first name. It
was always "Mister." Respect came with the job.

"Nobody could cut through VA red tape faster than Mrs. Murphy,"
said veteran Stephen Sherman, speaking for thousands of
veterans she befriended over the years. "Many times I watched
her march a veteran who had been waiting more than an hour
right into the doctor's office. She was even reprimanded a
few times, but it didn't matter to Mrs. Murphy. "Only her boys mattered.
She was our angel."

     Audie Murphy died broke in a plane crash in 1971,
squandering millions of dollars on gambling, bad investments,
and yes, other women. "Even with the adultery and desertion
at the end, he always remained my hero," Pam told me.

She went from a comfortable ranch-style home in Van Nuys where
she raised two sons to a small apartment - taking a clerk's
job at the nearby VA to support herself and start paying off
her faded movie star husband's debts. At first, no one knew
who she was. Soon, though, word spread through the VA that
the nice woman with the clipboard was Audie Murphy's widow.
It was like saying General Patton had just walked in the front
door. Men with tears in their eyes walked up to her and gave
her a hug.

"Thank you," they said, over and over.

The first couple of years, I think the hugs were more for
Audie's memory as a war hero. The last 30 years, they were
for Pam.

One year I asked her to be the focus of a Veteran's Day
column for all the work she had done. Pam just shook her
head no.

"Honor them, not me," she said, pointing to a group of
veterans down the hallway. "They're the ones who deserve it."

The vets disagreed. Mrs. Murphy deserved the accolades, they
said. Incredibly, in 2002, Pam's job was going to be
eliminated in budget cuts. She was considered "excess staff."
"I don't think helping cut down on veterans' complaints and
showing them the respect they deserve, should be considered
excess staff," she told me. Neither did the veterans. They
went ballistic, holding a rally for her outside the VA gates.
Pretty soon, word came down from the top of the VA. Pam
Murphy was no longer considered "excess staff."

She remained working full time at the VA until 2007 when
she was 87.

"The last time she was here was a couple of years ago for the conference
we had for homeless veterans," said Becky James, coordinator of the VA's
Veterans History Project. Pam wanted
to see if there was anything she could do to help some more
of her boys. Pam Murphy was 90 when she died last week. What
a lady.

Dennis McCarthy, Los Angeles Times on April 15, 2010 ~

-----------



MY mother sent this to me:

And then it is Winter.



You know, time has a way of moving quickly and catching you
unaware of the passing years.

It seems just yesterday that I was young, just married and
embarking on my new life with my mate. And yet in a way, it
seems like eons ago, and I wonder where all the years went.

I know that I lived them all...

And I have glimpses of how it was back then and of all my hopes
and dreams... But, here it is..the winter of my life and it
catches me by surprise... How did I get here so fast? Where did
the years go and where did my youth go?

I remember well...seeing older people through the years and
thinking that those older people were years away from me and
that winter was so far off that I could not fathom it or
imagine fully what it would be like... But, here it is...my
friends are retired and getting gray...they move slower and
I see an older person now. Lots are in better shape than me...
but, I see the great change... Not like the ones that I
remember who were young and vibrant... but, like me, their
age is beginning to show and we are now those older folks
that we used to see and never thought we'd be.

Each day now, I find that just getting a shower is a real
target for the day! And taking a nap is not a treat anymore...
it's mandatory! Cause if I don't on my own free will..I just
fall asleep where I sit!

And so, now I enter into this new season of my life unprepared
for all the aches and pains and the loss of strength and
ability to go and do things that I wish I had done but never
did!!

But, at least I know, that though the winter has come, and
I'm not sure how long it will last...this I know, that when
it's over...its over....Yes , I have regrets. There are things
I wish I hadn't done....things I should have done, but indeed,
there are many things I'm happy to have done. It's all in a
lifetime....

So, if you're not in your winter yet...let me remind you, that
it will be here faster than you think. So, whatever you would
like to accomplish in your life please do it quickly! Don't
put things off too long!!

Life goes by quickly. So, do what you can today, as you can
never be sure whether this is your winter or not!

You have no promise that you will see all the seasons of
your life...so, live for good today and say all the things
that you want your loved ones to remember...and hope that
they appreciate and love you for all the things that you
have done for them in all the years past!!

'Life is a gift to you. The way you live your life is your
gift to those who come after. Make it a fantastic one.'

LIVE IT WELL!!----ENJOY TODAY!!!!-----DO SOMETHING FUN!!!----
BE HAPPY!!!----BE THANKFUL!!!!!

--------

Mom sent this too:



Subject: Dallas

Don't care if you're a fan or not, these are funny.

The Texas Highway Patrol are cracking down on speeders heading
into Dallas . For the first offense, they give you 2 Dallas
Cowboy tickets. If you get stopped a second time, they make
you use them.

Q. What do you call 47 millionaires around a TV watching the
Super Bowl?
A. The Dallas Cowboys.

Q. What do the Dallas Cowboys and Billy Graham have in common?
A. They both can make 70,000 people stand up and yell "Jesus
Christ".

Q. How do you keep a Dallas Cowboy out of your yard?
A. Put up a goal post.

Q. What do you call a Dallas Cowboy with a Super Bowl ring?
A. Old.

Q. What's the difference between the Dallas Cowboys and a dollar
bill?
A. You can still get four quarters out of a dollar bill.

Q. How many Dallas Cowboys does it take to win a Super Bowl?
A. Nobody remembers.

Q. What do the Cowboys and a possums have in common?
A. Both play dead at home and get killed on the road!

-------------

And speaking of Mother's Day, Mom sent this to me:



25 REASONS I OWE MY MOTHER


1. My mother taught me TO APPRECIATE A JOB WELL DONE.
'If you're going to kill each other, do it outside. I just
finished cleaning.'

2. My mother taught me RELIGION.
'You better pray that will come out of the carpet.'

3. My mother taught me about TIME TRAVEL.
'If you don't straighten up, I'm going to knock you into the
middle of next week!'

4. My mother taught me LOGIC.
'Because I said so, that's why.'

5. My mother taught me MORE LOGIC.
'If you fall out of that swing and break your neck,
you're not going to the store with me.'

6. My mother taught me FORESIGHT.
'Make sure you wear clean underwear, in case you're in an
accident.'

7. My mother taught me IRONY
'Keep crying, and I'll give you something to cry about.'

8. My mother taught me about the science of OSMOSIS.
'Shut your mouth and eat your supper.'

9. My mother taught me about CONTORTIONISM.
'Will you look at that dirt on the back of your neck!'

10. My mother taught me about STAMINA.
'You'll sit there until all that spinach is gone.'

11. My mother taught me about WEATHER.
'This room of yours looks as if a tornado went through it.'

12. My mother taught me about HYPOCRISY.
'If I told you once, I've told you a million times. Don't
exaggerate!'

13 My mother taught me the CIRCLE OF LIFE.
'I brought you into this world, and I can take you out.'

14. My mother taught me about BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION.
'Stop acting like your father!'

15. My mother taught me about ENVY.
'There are millions of less fortunate children in this world
who don't have wonderful parents like you do.'

16. My mother taught me about ANTICIPATION.
'Just wait until we get home.'

17. My mother taught me about RECEIVING.
'You are going to get it when you get home!'

18. My mother taught me MEDICAL SCIENCE.
'If you don't stop crossing your eyes, they are going to
stick that way.'

19. My mother taught me ESP.
'Put your sweater on; don't you think I know when you are
cold?'

20. My mother taught me HUMOR.
'When that lawn mower cuts off your toes, don't come running
to me.'

21. My mother taught me HOW TO BECOME AN ADULT.
'If you don't eat your vegetables, you'll never grow up.'

22. My mother taught me GENETICS.
'You're just like your father.'

23. My mother taught me about my ROOTS.
'Shut that door behind you. Do you think you were born in
a barn?'

24. My mother taught me WISDOM.
'When you get to be my age, you'll understand.'

25 My mother taught me about JUSTICE
'One day you'll have kids, and I hope they turn out just
like you!'


------------

From my cousin Sally Gill:

Stress

A lecturer, when explaining stress management to an audience,
Raised a glass of water and asked;
'How heavy is this glass of water?'

Answers called out ranged from 20g to 500g.

The lecturer replied, 'The absolute weight doesn't matter.
It depends on how long you try to hold it.
If I hold it for a minute, that's not a problem.
If I hold it for an hour, I'll have an ache in my right arm.
If I hold it for a day, you'll have to call an ambulance.
In each case, it's the same weight, but the longer I hold it,
the heavier it becomes.'

He continued,
'And that's the way it is with stress management..
If we carry our burdens all the time, sooner or later,
As the burden becomes increasingly heavy,
We won't be able to carry on. '

'As with the glass of water,
You have to put it down for a while and rest before holding
it again. When we're refreshed, we can carry on with the burden.'
'So, before you return home tonight, put the burden of work
down. Don't carry it home. You can pick it up tomorrow.

Whatever burdens you're carrying now,
Let them down for a moment if you can.'
So, my friend, Put down anything that may be a burden to you
right now. Don't pick it up again until after you've rested a
while.

Here are some great ways of dealing with the burdens of life:

* Accept that some days you're the pigeon,
And some days you're the statue.

* Always keep your words soft and sweet,
Just in case you have to eat them.

* Always wear stuff that will make you look good
If you die in the middle of it.

* Drive carefully. It's not only cars that can be
"Recalled" by their maker.

* If you can't be kind, at least have the decency to be vague.

* If you lend someone $20 and never see that person again,
It was probably worth it.

* It may be that your sole purpose in life is simply to be
kind to others.

* Never put both feet in your mouth at the same time,
Because then you won't have a leg to stand on.

* Nobody cares if you can't dance well.
Just get up and dance.

* When everything's coming your way,
You're in the wrong lane.

* Birthdays are good for you.
The more you have, the longer you live.

* You may be only one person in the world,
But you may also be the world to one person.

* Some mistakes are too much fun to only make once.

* We could learn a lot from crayons... Some are sharp, some are pretty
and some are dull. Some have weird names, and all are different colours,
but they all have to live in the same box.

*A truly happy person is one who can enjoy the scenery
on a detour.
-------------


Deb Hill sent this:

Grand Child's Logic



1. She was in the bathroom, putting on her makeup, under the
watchful eyes of her young granddaughter, as she'd done many
times before. After she applied her lipstick and started to
leave, the little one said, "But Gramma, you forgot to kiss
the toilet paper good-bye!" I will probably never put lipstick
on again without thinking about kissing the toilet paper
good-bye....

2. My young grandson called the other day to wish me Happy
Birthday. He asked me how old I was, and I told him, 62.
My grandson was quiet for a moment, and then he asked,
"Did you start at 1?"

3. After putting her grandchildren to bed, a grandmother
changed into old slacks and a droopy blouse and proceeded
to wash her hair.. As she heard the children getting more
and more rambunctious, her patience grew thin. Finally, she
threw a towel around her head and stormed into their room,
putting them back to bed with stern warnings. As she left
the room, she heard the three-year-old say with a trembling
voice,   "Who was THAT?"
         
4. A grandmother was telling her little granddaughter what
her own childhood was like: "We used to skate outside on a
pond I had a swing made from a tire; it hung from a tree in
our front yard. We rode our pony. We picked wild raspberries
in the woods." The little girl was wide-eyed, taking this
all in. At last she said, "I sure wish I'd gotten to know
you sooner!"

5.. My grandson was visiting one day when he asked,"Grandma,
do you know how you and God are alike?" I mentally polished
my halo and I said, "No, how are we alike?'' "You're both
old," he replied.
         
6. A little girl was diligently pounding away on her
grandfather's word processor.. She told him she was writing
a story. "What's it about?" he asked."I don't know," she
replied. "I can't read."
       
7. I didn't know if my granddaughter had learned her colors
yet, so I decided to test her. I would point out something
and ask what color it was. She would tell me and was always
correct. It was fun for me, so I continued. At last, she
headed for the door, saying, "Grandma, I think you should
try to figure out some of these, yourself!"

8. When my grandson Billy and I entered our vacation cabin,
we kept the lights off until we were inside to keep from
attracting pesky insects. Still, a few fireflies followed
us in. Noticing them before I did, Billy whispered, "It's
no use Grandpa.. Now the mosquitoes are coming after us
with flashlights."

9. When my grandson asked me how old I was, I teasingly
replied, "I'm not sure." "Look in your underwear, Grandpa,"
he advised, "mine says I'm 4 to 6."

10. A second grader came home from school and said to her grandmother,
"Grandma, guess what? We learned how to make
babies today." The grandmother, more than a little surprised,
tried to keep her cool. "That's interesting," she said, "how
do you make babies?" "It's simple," replied the girl. "You
just change 'y' to 'i' and add 'es'.."

11. Children's Logic: "Give me a sentence about a public
servant," said a teacher.. The small boy wrote: "The fireman
came down the ladder pregnant." The teacher took the lad
aside to correct him. "Don't you know what pregnant means?"
she asked. "Sure," said the young boy confidently. 'It
means carrying a child."

12. A grandfather was delivering his grandchildren to their
home one day when a fire truck zoomed past. Sitting in the
front seat of the fire truck was a Dalmatian dog. The children started
discussing the dog's duties. "They use him to keep
crowds back," said one child.   "No," said another. "He's
just for good luck." A third child brought the argument to
a close."They use the dogs," she said firmly, "to find the
fire hydrants."

         
13. A 6-year-old was asked where his grandma lived."Oh," he
said, "she lives at the airport, and when we want her, we
just go get her. Then, when we're done having her visit, we
take her back to the airport."

14. Grandpa is the smartest man on earth! He teaches me good
good things, but I don't get to see him enough to get as
smart as him!

15... My Grandparents are funny, when they bend over; you
hear gas leaks, and they blame their dog.

------------

My cousin Sally Gill sent these along:

KIDS IN CHURCH ?..

3-year-old Reese :
'Our Father, Who does art in heaven, Harold is His name.
Amen.'


A little boy was overheard praying: 'Lord, if you can't make
me a better boy, don't worry about it. I'm having a real good
time like I am.'

After the christening of his baby brother in church, Jason
sobbed all the way home in the back seat of the car. His
father asked him three times what was wrong. Finally, the
boy replied, 'That preacher said he wanted us brought up
in a Christian home, And I wanted to stay with you guys.'

One particular four-year-old prayed, 'And forgive us our trash baskets
as we forgive those who put trash in our baskets.'

A Sunday school teacher asked her children as they were on the
way to church service, 'And why is it necessary to be quiet in church?'
One bright little girl replied, 'Because people are sleeping.'

A mother was preparing pancakes for her sons, Kevin 5, and
Ryan 3. The boys began to argue over who would get the first
pancake. Their mother saw the opportunity for a moral lesson.
'If Jesus were sitting here, He would say, 'Let my brother
have the first pancake, I can wait.' Kevin turned to his
younger brother and said, 'Ryan, you be Jesus!'

A father was at the beach with his children when the
four-year-old son ran up to him, grabbed his hand, and
led him to the shore where a seagull lay dead in the sand.
'Daddy, what happened to him?' the son asked. 'He died
and went to Heaven,' the Dad replied. The boy thought a
moment and then said, 'Did God throw him back down?

A wife invited some people to dinner. At the table, she
turned to their six-year-old daughter and said, 'Would you
like to say the blessing?' 'I wouldn't know what to say,'
the girl replied.. 'Just say what you hear Mommy say,'
the wife answered The daughter bowed her head and said,
'Lord, why on earth did I invite all these people to dinner?'


====================================
X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+
====================================

Here is a large chunk of my historical material for
what remains of May:



May 8
1541: Hernando de Soto’s expedition came upon the Mississippi
River near the Indian village of Quizquiz in north-western Mississippi.

1716: The French had learned that the Natchez Indians had killed
five Frenchmen. The French commander Bienville had established a
makeshift fort on an island on the Mississippi River near a Tonica
village. Bienville had the Tonica summoned the Natchez for a conference.
Believing that the Natchez were planning a surprise attack, Bienville
planned his own surprise. Thirty-two Natchez rowed up to Bienville’s
camp. After a brief period of ceremonies, Bienville had the Natchez
surrounded and manacled. Bienville informed the Natchez chiefs that they
must bring him the heads of those who killed the five Frenchman and
those chiefs who ordered it done. Bienville threatened the Natchez with
destruction if they did not comply with his demands. The next morning, a
group of Natchez and a dozen French soldiers set out for the Natchez
village. (See May 14).

1725: In one of the last battles of Lovewell’s (or Father Rasle’s) War,
Pigwacket Indians defeated a British army under Captain John Lovewell at
Fryeburg, Maine.

1765: According to some reports, a peace agreement was reached by
representatives of the British and the Delaware.

1785: Congress passed the Land Ordinance of 1785.

1792: The Draft Act was issued against the Indians.

1820: The Mi’kmaq Acadia First Nation Reserve of Gold River was
established in Nova Scotia. The Shubenacadie First Nation Reserve of
Indian Brook No. 14 was also set up.

1827: Cherokee Chief Richard Fields and many of his Cherokee followers
in Texas decided to join the Fredonian Revolution against Mexico. After
a few efforts of rebellion were thwarted, Fields reconsidered his
participation in the revolt. Today, several antirevolution Cherokees
killed Fields for his part in the revolt.

1827: Cantonment Leavenworth was established as a military base to
protect travelers on the Santa Fe Trail from hostile Indians. Eventually
renamed Fort Leavenworth, the base housed many army expeditions against
the Indians of the Central Plains. The fort was the oldest permanent
U.S. Army military base west of the Missouri River.

1834: Lieutenant Joseph Harris and his contingent of Cherokees who left
the Tennessee Cherokee Agency on March 14 arrived in their new lands in
Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). They moved on to the Dwight
Mission.

1865: The Mi’kmaq Acadia First Nation Reserve of Medway was established
in Nova Scotia.

1950: Assistant Secretary of the Interior William Warne authorized an
election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the United Keetoowah
Band of Cherokee Indians of Oklahoma. The election would be held on
October 3, 1950.

1961: An election to approve a resolution to adopt a constitution and
bylaws for the Wichita Indian Tribe of Oklahoma was held. It would be
passed by a vote of 32-0.

1975: Amendments to the constitution and bylaws of the Covelo Indian
Community were approved.






May 9

1735: The first debate on the Walking Purchase took place in Pennsbury.
Thomas Penn and James Logan met with Delaware chiefs, including Nutimus
and Tedyuscung.

1813: A battle took place at Fort Meigs (modern Perrysburg), Ohio.

1832: The Seminoles were told that they must move to the Indian
Territory (present-day Oklahoma). If they did not agree to a removal
treaty, their annuities from their treaty of September 18, 1823, would
be paid to the Creeks. The U.S. government still considered the
Seminoles to be Creeks. At Payne’s Landing, Florida, they signed the
Removal Treaty (7 Stat. 368). The treaty contained the provision that
some Seminoles would be sent to Indian Territory first and report back
to tribal leaders. If the leaders decided the lands were adequate, they
would agree to move to the Indian Territory. They were promised a shirt
and a blanket when they arrived there. The Americans were represented by
Colonel James Gadsden. In many minds, the Second Seminole War was
fermented by disagreements over this treaty and its implementation.

1869: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians in the Val de Chino Valley in Arizona. Two
Indians were killed in fighting that started on May 2.

1885: Today through May 12, events in the Second Riel Rebellion took
place in Canada. Major General Frederick Middleton and a force of 800
soldiers attacked the Metis and Cree Indians holding the village of
Batoche. The fighting continued until the soldiers finally overran
Batoche.

1907: Lemhi Chief Tendoy died when he fell off a horse while crossing a
cold mountain stream in Idaho. He was believed to be seventy-three years
old. (Also recorded as happening on May 10.)

(see my photos of the area: http://americanindian.net/2003d.html )


1941: A modification to the constitution of the Indians of the Tulalip
Tribes in Washington was approved by the U.S. government.

1960: The assistant secretary of the interior ratified an election for
amendments to the constitution of the Papago (Tohono O’odham). The
election was held on April 9, 1960.

1981: Commissioner of Indian Affairs William Hallett had authorized an
election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the Jamul Indian
Village in San Diego County, California. It was approved by a vote of
16-0.

1983: An amendment to the constitution and bylaws of the Suquamish
Indian Tribe of the Port Madison Reservation in the state of Washington
was passed.






May 10

1534: Jacques Cartier spotted Newfoundland.

1637: Approximately ninety Boston troops under John Mason and sixty
Mohegans under Uncas marched toward the Pequot fort at Sassacus, on
Pequot Harbor.

1676: Captain Turner and 100 men from Boston approach Deerfield in
central Massachusetts. The Wampanoag had moved into the deserted city
and planted crops in the fields. Turner’s attack was a complete
surprise, and he routed the Indians. One soldier was killed in the
fighting; Turner reported he dispatched 300 Indians. Later, on May 18,
Turner met another group of Indians. In the fighting, Turner and a third
of his men were killed.

1765: Shawnees delivered white captives to Fort Pitt.

1816: Fort Howard was founded on Green Bay in Wisconsin.

1832: Settlers start construction of what was called Fort Blue Mounds
(near modern Madison, Wisconsin); the fort was built to protect settlers
from attacks by the Winnebago.

1834: Lieutenant Joseph Harris left his first contingent of Eastern
Cherokees, who left the Tennessee Cherokee Mission on March 14, at the
Dwight Mission in the Cherokee lands of the Indian Territory
(present-day Oklahoma). During this trip, eighty-one Cherokees died;
almost half were children under ten. Fifty of the Cherokees died of
cholera. Before the end of 1834, almost half of Harris’s group of
500–600 Cherokees died of disease, illness, starvation, extreme weather
conditions, or natural disasters.

1838: General Winfield Scott had been ordered to force any Cherokees
remaining east of the Mississippi River to emigrate to the Indian
Territory (present-day Oklahoma). He set up his headquarters at the
Cherokee capital of New Echota in northwestern Georgia. Today, he warned
the Cherokees that if they had not started moving west by the deadline
of May 28 he and his troops would use whatever means necessary to make
them leave.

1839: Asa Smith was a missionary. He moved to an area in Idaho (near
modern Kamiah) in order to learn the Nez Perce language. There he met
Nez leader Lawyer, who helped him.

(see my photos of the area: http://americanindian.net/2003a.html)


1842: The U.S. government authorized Colonel William Worth to contact
the remaining Seminoles in Florida about establishing reservations.
Worth offered the Seminoles two choices: move to lands west of the
Mississippi, or live on reservations in Florida. Most of the Seminoles
chose reservation life in Florida over moving.

1864: Cherokee Stand Watie was promoted to the rank of brigadier general
in the Confederate Army. He was the first Indian to reach that rank. He
would also be the last Confederate general to surrender at the end of
the Civil War.

1869: One of the most devastating events in the lives of the Plains
Indians was the crossing of their lands by the railroads. The railroads
brought settlers and hunters and separated the buffalo herds. The “iron
horses” of the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific met at Promontory
Point, Utah, completing the first cross continent railroad in the United
States.

1869: Indian prisoners at Fort Hays in central Kansas attempted to
escape. They attacked their guards with a knife. The sergeant of the
guards was mortally wounded. The superior forces of the army overcame
the Indians, and their escape attempt was foiled, according to army
reports.

1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the First Cavalry, the Fourth
Artillery, and some Indian scouts near Lake Soras, California, according
to army documents. Two soldiers and one Indian were killed. Seven
soldiers and two Indians were wounded.

1883: Sitting Bull arrived at Fort Yates.

1907: Lemhi Chief Tendoy died when he fell off a horse while crossing a
cold mountain stream in Idaho. He was believed to be seventy-three years
old. (Also recorded as happening on May 9.)

1926: The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho acquired additional trust lands (44
Stat. 202).






May 11

1704: As a part of Queen Anne’s War, Indians attacked settlers near the
New Hampshire border in Wells, Maine. Two settlers were killed, and one
was captured, before the Indians withdrew.

1792: Robert Gray and the ship Columbia crossed the treacherous sandbar
at the mouth of the Columbia River and explored the waterway. He
“discovered” the Columbia River.

1832: Elisha W. Chester was appointed by President Jackson to go to the
Eastern Cherokees. He was charged with determining whether the Cherokees
would accept the government’s plans for their removal.

1854: In an effort to end the fighting in the Walker War in southern
Utah, Paiute Chief Walkara and Utah Governor Brigham Young met in Juab
County, Utah. The meeting would end the ongoing fighting; however,
fighting would flare up again later.

1858: Colonel Albert Sidney, Second Cavalry, Colonel John S. “Rip” Ford
with 100 Texas Rangers, Chief Placido, and 111 Tonkawa fought Buffalo
Hump’s Comanche in the Antelope Hills on the Canadian River in Indian
Territory (present-day Oklahoma). The Rangers reported seventy-five
Comanche warriors and two Rangers killed in the fighting. (Also reported
on May 12.)

1864: The third group of Navajos to make the Long Walk from the Canyon
de Chelly to the Bosque Redondo Reservation finally arrived at their
destination. Of the 946 who started the trip, 110 died en route due to
severe winter weather conditions and inadequate provisions.

((see my photos of the area:
http://americanindian.net/scan/New%20Mexico/NewMexico/index.html )


1871: Major William Price and members of the Eighth Cavalry chased a
band of raiding Navajos. According to official army records, they
captured two “prominent” chiefs and lots of stolen livestock.

1889: Tenth Cavalry and Twenty-Fourth Infantry soldiers were escorting a
payroll when they were attacked by a group of Indians near Cedar
Springs, Arizona. According to army documents, nine soldiers were
wounded.

1968: The constitution of the Indians of the Tulalip Tribes in
Washington was modified.

1974: The acting deputy commissioner of Indian affairs had authorized an
election for amendments to the constitution and bylaws of the Lac Courte
Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin. The
amendments were voted in.






May 12

1676: Narragansett under Pumham attacked the New England village of
Hatfield. They made off with six dozen head of cattle.

1838: S. T. Cross and 177 Choctaws arrived in eastern Indian Territory
(present-day Oklahoma) at Choctaw Landing, near Fort Coffee. Many of the
Choctaws were sick, lame, or old.

1854: The Menominee signed a treaty (10 Stat. 1064) at the Falls of the
Wolf River. It involved the ceding of land.

1858: Comanche Chief Iron Jacket (Po-hebitsquash) was killed in a fight
with Texas Rangers on the Canadian River.

1859: Captain Earl Van Dorn and members of the Second Cavalry attacked
Comanche forces at Crooked Creek, Kansas Territory. Robert E. Lee was
wounded during this fight.

1860: A battle in the Paiute War took place in Nevada at Big Bend in the
valley of the Truckee River. Major William Ormsby’s Nevada militia were
attacked by Paiute under War Chief Numaga.

1865: Indians had attacked the stockade at Gilman’s Ranch, Nebraska. For
his actions in defending the government installation, Private Francis
Lohnes, Company H, First Nebraska Veteran Cavalry, would be awarded the
Congressional Medal of Honor.

1871: After a raid of livestock near Red River, Texas, troops from Fort
Sill, Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), found the Indians and
attacked. Three Indians were killed and four were wounded in the
fighting.

1872: Captain J. A. Wilcox and troopers from the Fourth Cavalry attacked
a group of Kiowa Indians between the Big and Little Wichita Rivers in
Texas. Two Indians were killed and one soldier was wounded.






May 13

1540: Hernando de Soto left Cofitachequi. He took the “Lady of
Cofitachequi” with him against her will.

1614: The Viceroy of Mexico found Spanish Explorer Juan de Oñate guilty
of atrocities against the Indians of New Mexico. As a part of his
punishment, he was banned from entering New Mexico again.

1675: According to some sources, a peace agreement was reached between
representatives of the Delaware Indians and the New Jersey Colony.

1704: Seventy-two Indian warriors and French soldiers attacked
Pascommuck (modern Easthampton), Massachusetts. The village was taken by
surprise, and twenty settlers died during the fighting. The remaining
thirty settlers were captured. Nineteen of the captives were killed
while the Indians were fleeing the area. Eight captives were rescued.

1800: Congress passed “An Act to appropriate a certain sum of money to
defray the expense of holding a treaty or treaties with the Indians,”
and “An Act to Make Provision Relative to Rations for Indians, and to
Their Visited to the Seat of Government.”

1816: William Clark, Auguste Chouteau, and Ninian Edwards signed a
treaty (7 Stat. 141) with the Rock River Sac and Fox Indians at St.
Louis. This treaty ratified the Treaty of 1804 and dealt with property
concerns of white settlers. Black Hawk signed the treaty, but later he
said he was misled as to what he was signing.

1833: After moving to the Caddo lands along the Red River, the Quapaw
were miserable and so returned to their former territory. After strong
complaints from the settlers, they signed a treaty (7 Stat. 424) giving
them lands in southern Kansas and northern Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma).

1833: A census of the Lower Creek towns showed 8,552 Creeks, including
457 black slaves.

1851: Treaties were signed in California at Camp Belt and Camp Keyes
regarding guaranteed reserved lands for Indians in California.

1859: Captain Earl Van Dorn’s forces attacked a band of Comanche.
Forty-nine Comanche warriors were killed and the remaining five were
wounded in the fight at Crooked Creek in southwestern Kansas. The army
had two soldiers killed in the fighting. Thirty-two Comanche women were
taken prisoner.

1861: Union representatives signed a peace treaty with the Comanche at
Alamogordo, New Mexico. Neither side kept the peace for long.

1868: According to army records, two settlers were killed in a fight
with a band of Indians near Fort Buford, Dakota Territory.

(see my photos of the area: http://americanindian.net/2003u.html )


1869: General Eugene Carr and seven Troops of the Fifth Cavalry were
scouting the area of Beaver Creek looking for hostile bands of Indians.
Eight miles from Elephant Rock, a scouting party under the command of
Lieutenant Edward Ward spotted the smoke of a large Indian village. A
hunting party from the village saw Ward’s troops. Ward charged through
the hunting party and galloped back to the main army force. The main
body of the army proceeded rapidly to the village and attacked. Although
the women and children attempted to escape, the Indian warriors fought
the soldiers. According to General Sheridan’s official report, the army
made a “brilliant charge” against the Indians. Three soldiers and
twenty-five Indians were killed. Four soldiers and fifty Indians were
reported to have been wounded.

1880: Settlers fight a group of Indians near Bass Canyon, Texas.
According to army documents, two citizens were killed and two were
wounded.

1904: The president of the United States issued a proclamation regarding
Indian lands in South Dakota.

1916: The Society of American Indians established Indian Day to
recognize, honor, and improve Indians’ conditions.

1936: Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes ratified an election for
the approval of a constitution and bylaws for the Muckleshoot Indian
Tribe of the Muckleshoot Reservation, which was held on April 4, 1936.

1974: An election for amendments to the constitution and bylaws of the
Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians of North Dakota was held. They
were approved by a vote of 752-640, 829-565, and 965-600.

Every: St. Anthony Feast Day for some Pueblos.





May 14

1716: The delegation under Bienville sent to the Natchez village on May
9, 1716, returned to the French camp. They were bearing the heads of
three Natchez men. Bienville was upset because one of the heads did not
belong to any of the murderers of five Frenchmen. The Natchez explained
the third head was the brother of one of the murderers who escaped.
Bienville demanded the head of the chief, Oyelape, who ordered the
killings.

1741: According to some sources, a land-cession agreement was reached by
representatives of the British in New York and the Seneca.

1833: After meeting with federal officials in Washington, D.C., in
January about their removal to the Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma), the Cherokee delegates met with the Cherokee council.
Feelings were split on President Jackson’s offer of $3 million for all
of the Eastern Cherokee lands excepting North Carolina. A meeting of the
Cherokee Nation in October would ask the delegates to return to
Washington to continue talks with the federal government, including
their friends in Congress.

1832: Near the Kyte River, Major Isaiah Stillman and 275 soldiers were
patrolling the area on the lookout for Black Hawk. Weary of fighting,
Black Hawk sent a few representatives to Stillman’s camp to negotiate
the surrender of his four dozen warriors. When the soldiers fired on
Black Hawk’s representatives, a few managed to escape. With the soldiers
in pursuit, Black Hawk set up an ambush. Becoming confused by the sudden
attack, Stillman’s troop panicked and fled the area. Eleven soldiers and
three Indians were killed in the fighting. However, the soldiers report
a massacre of troops. The “battle” was called Stillman’s Run.

1841: Cherokee warrior James Foreman was believed to have been one of
the men who killed Major Ridge on June 22, 1839, for signing the Treaty
of New Echota that gave up the Cherokee lands east of the Mississippi
River. Major Ridge’s nephew, Chief Stand Watie, killed Foreman. Stand
Watie was found not guilty based on self-defense.

1869: Most of the Indians who were left in the village on Beaver Creek
escaped during the night. The village and all the property left behind
by the Indians were destroyed by the troops. The troops then prepared to
pursue the Indians who escaped.

1880: Sergeant George Jordan, Company K, Ninth Cavalry, was in charge of
a detachment of twenty-five men at Old Fort Tularosa, New Mexico. The
fort was attacked by over 100 hostile Indians. For his efforts in
repulsing the Indians, Jordan would be awarded the Congressional Medal
of Honor.

1880: Lemhi Chief Tendoy and several others signed an agreement to leave
the Lemhi Reservation in Idaho. The agreed to go to Fort Hall. It would
be nine years before Congress approved the agreement. The Lemhi would
not actually move until 1909.

1900: Government regulations regarding the Hualpai (Walapai) Reserve in
Arizona were modified.

1936: A constitution for the Gila River Pima–Maricopa Indian Community
was approved by the U.S. government.

1971: San Carlos Reservation community radio station SCCR was dedicated.
It was advertised as the first radio station on an American Indian
reservation.





May 15


1637: Mason and Uncas’s forces arrived at Saybrook. Almost immediately,
Uncas led many of his Mohegan warriors against the Pequot and Niantic.
Uncas claimed to have killed around a half-dozen men while having only
one of his warriors wounded.

1649: Fleeing before advancing Iroquois, the Huron and then the Jesuits
abandoned the mission at Sainte-Marie, Canada. The Jesuits burned the
mission before leaving.

1658: According to some sources, a land-cession treaty was reached
between representatives of the Plymouth Indians and the Plymouth
Plantations.

1716: French commander Bienville sent three Natchez Indians to their
village to bring back the head of a chief, Oyelape, who had ordered the
killings of five Frenchmen. Bienville held several other Natchez as
hostages. From friendly Tonica Indians, Bienville learned that the
Natchez were planning an attack on his makeshift fort on an island in
the Mississippi River.

1762: Cherokee Chiefs Ostenaco, Pouting Pigeon, and Stalking Turkey
depart Hampton, Virginia, en route to England to visit King George III.
They arrived on June 5.

1832: Secretary of War Lewis Cass issued orders reducing the amount of
money the U.S. government spent in resettling Indians forcibly moved to
lands west of the Mississippi River.

1836: Creek warrior Jim Henry and 200–300 followers attacked the Georgia
town of Roanoke. A little over a dozen of the townspeople were killed in
the fighting.

1846: A treaty was signed by Texas Governor Pierce Butler and Colonel M.
G. Lewis (Meriwether Lewis’s brother) and sixty-three Indians of the
Aionai, Anadarko, Caddo, Comanche, Kichai (Keehy), Lepan (Apache),
Longwha, Tahuacarro (Tahwacarro), Tonkawa, Waco, and Wichita Tribes. It
was ratified on February 15, 1847, and signed by President Polk on March
8, 1847.

1868: According to army records, two settlers were killed in a fight
with a band of Indians between Fort Stevenson and Fort Totten, Dakota
territory.

1869: According to army records, members of the First Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Fort Lowell, Arizona. One soldier was
wounded.

1870: For their actions in today’s fight, Sergeant Patrick Leonard,
Company C, and Privates Michael Himmelsback, Thomas Hubbard, and George
Thompson would be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

1876: The following reservations were established by President Grant, by
executive order, in San Bernardino County, California, for the Mission
Indians of Southern California: Portrero, Mission, Agua Caliente,
Torros, Village, and Cabezon.

1880: Settlers fought a group of Indians near Kelly’s Ranch, New Mexico.
According to army documents, three citizens were killed.

1883: George Crook’s forces attacked Chato. Indian scouts under Captain
Emmet Crawford fought a group of Indians near the Bapispe River in the
Sierra Madre Mountains of Mexico. According to army documents, nine
Indians were killed and five were captured.

1884: An order restored to the public domain certain lands set aside for
the Jicarilla Apaches by the executive order of September 21, 1880.

1885: Louis Riel surrendered to Major General Frederick Middleton.

1885: Under the Treaty of Fort Laramie, much of the lands allocated to
the Santee Sioux were required to be divided into individual plots. By
executive order the deadline for that requirement was April 15, 1885.
All unclaimed plots became available for public sale today.

1886: American troops had chased hostile Apaches into Mexico. In a fight
in the Pinto or Santa Cruz Mountains, Sergeant Samuel H. Craig, Company
D, Fourth Cavalry, earned the Congressional Medal of Honor for
“conspicuous gallantry during an attack on a hostile Apache Indian
camp.” According to army documents, two soldiers were killed and two
were wounded.

1890: Rowdy received the Medal of Honor.

1937: An election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the
Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma was held. It was approved by a vote of
186-0.

1940: Assistant Secretary of the Interior Oscar Chapman ratified
amendments to the constitution and bylaws of the Confederated Tribes of
the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon approved in an election held on
February 21, 1940.

1951: An election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the Kaibab
Band of Paiute Indians of Arizona was held. It was approved by a vote of
26-5.

1965: The secretary of the interior had authorized an election to
approve a constitution and bylaws for the Squaxin Island Tribe of the
Squaxin Island Indian Reservation in Washington State. The election took
place. It was approved by a vote of 29-8.

1979: The area director of the Phoenix area office of the Bureau of
Indian Affairs authorized an election for an amendment to the
constitution and bylaws of the Walker River Paiute Tribe of Nevada. The
election was held on August 7, 1979.

1987: A criteria manual for the Seminole Water Rights Compact was
published.





May 16

1661: A second treaty was signed between the Susquehannock and the
British in Maryland.

1677: Mugg, an Arosaguntacook Indian chief, died in Black Point, Maine.
At the outset of King Philip’s War, Mugg attempted to arrange a peace
treaty with the British. Instead, they jailed him for a short time and
gained a bitter enemy. He destroyed much of Black Point, Maine in a raid
on October 12, 1676. Later he captured a few ships and staged a brief
naval war before his death.

1704: After the Pennsylvania assembly passed a law prohibiting the sale
of rum to local Indians, the rum traders ignored the law. In
Philadelphia, Susquehanna Chief Oretyagh addressed the Pennsylvanians
about the depredations that alcohol had caused his people. His speech
was moving, but the traders still sold their wares.

1760: Creek warrior Chief Hobbythacco (Handsome Fellow) had often
supported the English, but at the outbreak of the Cherokee War he
decided to support the Cherokees. He led an attack on a group of English
traders in Georgia. Thirteen of the traders were killed during the
fighting. Creek Chief The Mortar also participated in the fighting.

1763: A group of Ottawa and Wyandot Indians gained entry to Fort
Sandusky on Lake Erie in Ohio. They killed the small garrison of sixteen
men, with the exception of its commander, Ensign Christopher Pauli, whom
they took captive. Pauli was taken to Detroit to Pontiac’s camp.

1836: On the road to Tuskegee, a party of approximately fifty Creek
Indians attacked a stagecoach carrying mail west of Columbus. Some of
the passengers were killed.

1838: In a meeting held in Pennsylvania Hall, thousands of
Philadelphians protested the forced removal of Cherokees from their
lands east of the Mississippi River.

1858: Colonel Steptoe and his expedition met with the Spokane, Palouse,
Coeur D'Alene, Yakama, and various other tribes at the place known as
Te-hots-Ne-Mah.

(see my photos of the area: http://americanindian.net/2003.html )


1864: After the Treaty of Fort Wise (12 Stat. 1163), the Cheyenne
thought they would be able to hunt in their old hunting grounds if they
lived in an area bounded by the Arkansas River and Sand Creek. The
actual terms were considerably different. Although on a routine hunting
trip near Ask Creek, Black Kettle, Lean Bear, and others heard of a
group of soldiers approaching their camp. Lean Bear and a small party
rode out to see the soldiers. Lean Bear visited Washington the year
before, and he was presented medals and certificates stating he was a
“good Indian.” Carrying his credentials, Lean Bear rode his horse toward
the army. When he was about 100 feet from the soldiers, they opened
fire. Lean Bear was killed. The soldiers then directed their fire on
Lean Bear’s party. The Indians fought back. As more Indians rode in from
the camp, the army opened fire with grapeshot from their cannons. Black
Kettle responded to the scene and exhorted the Indians to stop fighting.
Eventually the Indians stopped shooting, and the soldiers retreated. The
army unit was headed by Lieutenant George Eayre, who was in Colonel
Chivington’s command (Sand Creek Massacre). The army was composed of
Colorado volunteers. The battle was in Kansas, out of their
jurisdiction.

1869: Lieutenant William Volkmar, Fifth Cavalry, was leading General E.
A. Carr’s advance troops, seeking the survivors of the fight at Beaver
Creek on May 13, 1869. On Spring Creek in Nebraska, Volkmar finally
caught up to the Indians. Volkmar’s patrol was attacked by approximately
400 warriors, according to the army report. Fighting from behind the
bodies of their dead horses, the troops were able to hold off the
Indians until General Carr’s main body arrived. The main body chased the
Indians for almost fifteen miles to the Republic River, where the
Indians split up into small groups. General Carr believed the warriors
to be Cheyenne Dog Soldiers. The army would issue a Congressional Medal
of Honor to First Lieutenant John B. Babcock.

1869: A dozen cowboys engaged in a day-long skirmished with Comanche
(near modern Jean, Texas).

1870: Ten citizens were killed during a raid by Indians along a
thirty-mile stretch of the Kansas Pacific railroad line. Cavalry chased
the Indians to the Republican River, but they did not catch them. The
Indians ran off 300 mounts.

1870: According to some sources, an army post was set up near the town
of Whitewater in modern Arizona. It was eventually called Fort Apache.

1936: Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes ratified a constitution and
bylaws of the Makah Indian Tribe of the Makah Indian Reservation
Washington that had been adopted by them in an election held on April
18, 1936.

1936: An election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the Lower
Sioux Indian Community of Minnesota was held. It was passed by a vote of
54-6.

1947: According to Federal Register No. 12FR03239, Public Land Order No.
9854 transferred part of the Phoenix Indian school reserve to the
control and jurisdiction of the Veterans Administration.

1955: Prior to this date, Indians could not sell their allotted lands if
the sale would “destroy or jeopardize a timber unit or grazing area.” If
they sold the land along a river, the nearby, unirrigated grazing land
and farmland would become useless after a few seasons. This protective
restriction was canceled by an order of Commissioner of Indian Affairs
Glenn L. Emmons.





May 17

1629: According to a deed, Sagamore Indians, including Passaconaway,
sold a piece of land in what became Middlesex County, Massachusetts.

1673: Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Joilet begin their expedition
from the Straights of Michilimackinac. Eventually, they explored much of
the Mississippi River.

1790: Colonel Marinus Willett invited Alexander McGillivray and other
Creek chiefs to come to New York City to conduct a council.

1836: The Senate ratified the illegal Cherokee Removal Treaty.

1838: Pending the forced removal of the Cherokees from their lands east
of the Mississippi River, General Winfield Scott issued orders to his
troops on how to handle the Cherokees. Scott ordered the troops to show
“every possible kindness … to by far the most interesting tribe of
Indians in the territorial limits of the United States.”

1842: The last soldier to die in the Seminole War was shot by a Seminole
warrior. His name was Private Jesse Van Tassel. He died of his wounds on
May 27.

1849: A Canadian court heard a charge against four Metis men who were
accused of selling furs despite the Hudson Bay Company’s monopoly. The
Metis believed they had the right to sell furs as part of the rights as
“First People.” Only one of the men was found guilty, and he was not
punished. From this day forward, the Hudson Bay Company no longer
operated under the assumption they had a monopoly on fur trading.

1853: The army base that eventually became Fort Riley was established in
Kansas. The fort was home to many different cavalry units during the
Indian Wars.

1854: The Iowa signed a treaty (10 Stat.1069) in Washington, D.C., with
George Manypenny.

1858: The battle against E. J. Steptoe and his troops began and ended
disastrously for Steptoe. The battlefield became known afterward as
Steptoe Butte. Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Steptoe had organized an
expedition from Fort Walla Walla in southeastern Washington into the
Coleville country to seek out hostiles. With 158 soldiers and thirty
civilian volunteers, Steptoe encountered hundreds of Spokane and Coeur
d’Alene Indians. Steptoe retreated and fought a running battle. Many
lives were lost on both sides. The battle was fought about thirty miles
south of present-day Spokane.

1870: Along Little Blue or Spring Creek in Nebraska, approximately fifty
Indians attacked Sergeant Patrick Leonard and four men of Troop C,
Second Cavalry. The soldiers escaped uninjured while inflicting one
fatality and wounding seven of their attackers.

1871: The Kiowa and the Comanche were becoming very concerned about the
number of settlers in their native Texas. Upon the urging of Mamanti
(Sky Walker), a medicine man, they left their reservation in Indian
Territory (present-day Oklahoma) and entered Texas. On this date they
reached the Butterfield stagecoach road between Forts Richardson and
Belknap in north-central Texas. They settled in to wait for something to
pass by worth fighting. They hoped to find some weapons.

1871: Chief Satauk was killed in a fight with some soldiers from Fort
Sill in Indian Territory. Chiefs Satanta and Big Tree were arrested,
according to official army records. One soldier was wounded.

1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the First Cavalry, the Fourth
Artillery, and some Indian scouts near Butte Creek, Oregon, according to
army documents. Two Indians were killed.

1873: Colonel R. S. Mackenzie and Troops A, B, C, E, I, and M, Fourth
Cavalry, and Lieutenant John Bullis, commanding Seminole Indian scouts,
started a quick march at 1:00 p.m. to surprise a Kickapoo and Lipan
Indian village seventy-five miles away near Remolina, Mexico. Mackenzie
was called “Three Fingers” by the Indians. (Also recorded as happening
on May 18.)

1876: General Alfred Terry and approximately 900 men, including Colonel
Custer and Major Reno, left Fort Abraham Lincoln in central North Dakota
for the mouth of the Powder River looking for hostile Indians.

1882: An act of Congress [22 Stat. 88, as amended; 25 U.S.C. 63),
allowed the president to consolidate two or more Indian agencies into
one, to consolidate one or more Indian tribes, and to abolish such
agencies thereby rendered unnecessary.

1885: At the San Carlos Reservation, Geronimo was following the rules
set up by General George Crook. However, angry citizens, and
particularly local newspapers, vilified Crook for his “lenient” rule
over the Apaches. Geronimo was also accused of many atrocious and
untruthful acts while on the reservation. One local paper suggested
Geronimo be hanged by the citizens if the government did not do it.
These threats, plus the routine nature of reservation life, agitated
Geronimo. On this date, Geronimo, Nana, Mangas, and others were drinking
bootleg tiswin, or Apache corn liquor. They decided to go to Mexico and
try to convince others to go with them. Chato decided to stay, and he
and Geronimo almost came to blows over the decision. Geronimo and his
conspirators, about 130 in all, fled the reservation, cutting the
telegraph wires as they did so. This “escape” sent a shock wave through
the local settler communities.

1893: Pressured by the government to sell the Cherokee Strip section of
Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma), the Cherokee Nation ratified
the sale of the land. They received approximately $1.31 an acre for over
6.5 million acres of land. The run for this land happened on September
16, 1893.

1948: The assistant secretary of the interior authorized an election to
approve a constitution and bylaws for the Organized Village of
Holikachuk, Alaska. The election was held on September 10, 1948.

1957: On May 29, 1908, lands on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in
South Dakota were set aside to create the townsite of Timber Lake.
According to Federal Register No. 22FR03693, several lots that were
undisposed of were returned to tribal ownership of the Cheyenne River
Sioux Tribe.

(see my photos of the area: http://americanindian.net/2003t.html )


1974: An election for a proposed amendment to the constitution of the
Standing Rock Sioux Tribe was held. The first proposal was approved by a
vote of 164-89, the second by 151-102, the third by 170-84, the fourth
by 168-85, the fifth by 182-69, and the sixth by 180-65.

1979: An election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the Choctaw
Nation of Oklahoma as authorized by the acting deputy commissioner of
Indian affairs was held. It was approved by a vote of 1,528-1,226.





May 18

1644: A battle in the Powhatan Wars took place.

1661: Captain John Odber was ordered by the Maryland general assembly to
take fifty men and go to Susquesahannough Fort. According to a treaty
signed on May 16, Maryland was required to help protect the
Susquehannock from raids by the Seneca. Odber’s force was to fulfill
that part of the treaty.

1676: After the fight at Deerfield, Captain William Turner set out to
attack a large gathering of Indians near the falls of the Connecticut
River. Leading a force of 160 settlers, Turner attacked a sleeping camp.
Many of the few Indians who escaped the fighting make their way to the
river. Once on the river, many of the Indians died when they plunged
over the falls. At least 100 Indians were killed or drowned. Later in
the day, as survivors contacted other Indians along the river, a large
band of warriors gathered and attacked Turner. During Turner’s retreat
to Deerfield, he and forty men were killed. (Also recorded as happening
on May 19.)

1778: Settlers living in the Path Valley of Cumberland County asked the
Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania for arms because the British
had been trying to get the Indians around Kittanning to attack the
American settlers.

1839: General Alexander Macomb announced peace terms with the Seminoles.
The Seminoles were able to stay in Florida if they remained near Lake
Okechobee.

1854: Two treaties were signed regarding the Sac and Fox of Missouri
Reserve (10 Stat. 1074). Most of their lands there were ceded back to
the United States, except for fifty sections of 640 acres each.

1854: The Kickapoo signed a treaty (10 Stat. 1078) that ceded a large
section of their reservation to the United States.

1859: According to his journals, Reverend Pierre De Smet would
participate in a conference between the army (General William S. Harney)
and local Indians at Fort Vancouver. Indian participants would include
chiefs from the “Pend d’ Oreilles, Kalispels, Flatheads, Schuyelpi,
Coeur d’Alenes, Yacomans and the Spokans” Tribes.

1868: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Rio Salinas, Arizona. Six Indians were
reported killed.

1869: After Indians stole livestock from near Fort Bayard in
southwestern New Mexico, troops pursued them. Upon arriving at the
Indian’s village, the troops destroyed it.

1869: From a marker in the Fort Buford (North Dakota) cemetery:
“BlueHorn—Indian Scout—May 18,1869—Killed by hostile Indians war party
of Tetons, Santees, and Yanktonnais numbering from sixty to seventy-five
attacked the guard over the cattle herd this AM about one mile east of
the fort. The attacking party was discovered before they made their
charge and were repulsed and driven back across the Missouri River with
a loss of one killed and several wounded. We lost one scout killed, an
Assiniboine named Blue Horn.”

(see my photos of the cemetery: http://americanindian.net/2003u.html )


1869: According to army records, members of the Third Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians in the Black Range of New Mexico. No casualties
were reported. The fighting lasted until May 26.

1870: Lake Station, Colorado, was attacked by Indians. A cavalry unit
ran off the Indians but could not capture them.

1871: After waiting overnight on a hill on the Salt Creek Prairie
between Fort Richardson and Fort Belknap in north-central Texas, Mamanti
and his Kiowa and Comanche followers sighted a small army patrol.
Mamanti decided to wait for better pickings. Unknown to Mamanti, General
William “Great Warrior” Sherman was one of the members of the patrol.
Later in the day, Henry Warren and ten wagons loaded with corn came down
the Butterfield Trail. Suspecting a great prize, Mamanti signaled the
attack. The Indians killed most of the drivers and then ransacked the
wagons. They were disappointed that the wagons contained no weapons.
Mamanti and his followers, frustrated, rode back north of the Red River.

1873: This morning at 6:00 a.m. Colonel R. S. Mackenzie and his Fourth
Cavalry and Indian scouts reached a Kickapoo and Lipan Indian village of
approximately fifty-five lodges near Remolina, Mexico. During the
fighting nineteen Indians were killed and forty were captured. A little
over fifty horses were seized. The Lipan Principal Chief Costilietos was
one of those captured in the fight.

1895: The “surplus lands” of the Kickapoo Indians in Indian Territory
(present-day Oklahoma) were opened to the public in another land rush.
These prime lands were secured from the Kickapoo by forgeries and deceit
in an agreement forced on the Kickapoo on September 9, 1891.

1905: The Supreme Court decided in favor of the Eastern Cherokees and
instructed the secretary of the interior to ascertain and identify the
persons entitled to participate in the distribution of more than $1
million appropriated by Congress on June 30, 1906, for use in payment of
the claims.

1931: The trust period on allotments made to Kickapoo Indians on the
Kickapoo Reservation in Kansas was extended again.

1961: The Mi’kmaq Pictou Landing First Nation Reserve of Boat Harbour
No. 37 was established in Nova Scotia.

1987: The Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians
modified their local codes regarding timber trespassing.






May 19

1700: Accompanied by missionaries de Montigny and Antoine Davion, a
Natchez chief, with twelve followers and two Tunica chiefs and two other
Tunica, visited the French outpost at Biloxi on the Mississippi River.

1712: According to some sources, a friendship agreement was reached
between representatives of Pennsylvania and the Delaware Indians.

1749: The English gave land grants in the Ohio Valley.

1795: A treaty was signed between the Chippewa and the Canadian
government. Second Lieutenant J. Givins represented the crown, and
several Chippewa chiefs were present. It was signed at “York in the
Province of Upper Canada” (Penetanguishene, Ontario).

1796: Congress passed “An Act Making Appropriations for Defraying the
Expenses Which May Arise in Carrying into Effect a Treaty Made Between
the United States and Certain Indian Tribes, Northwest of the River
Ohio.”

1800: As a part of his war with Spain, William Bowles, self-proclaimed
“Director-General” of “Muscogee” along the Gulf Coast, attacked the fort
at St. Marks, Florida, for a second time. He took over the fort after a
siege on January 16, 1792. Today, he and his Creek and Cherokee
followers accepted the surrender of the fort. Spanish forces recaptured
it a few months later. (Also recorded as happening on May 10.)

1830: Congressman Davey Crockett, frontiersman and later “hero” at the
Battle of the Alamo, and Vermont Representative Horace Everett spoke out
in Congress against President Jackson’s bill to remove the Indians to
west of the Mississippi River.

1835: White citizens in Macon County, Alabama, sent a resolution to
President Jackson renouncing the persons who had defrauded the Creeks
out of most of their lands. They asked the president to withhold
certification of all land sales until an investigation could be held.

1836: Several hundred Comanche warriors, under a flag of truce,
approached the fort built by the Parker brothers on the Navasota River
(near modern Navasota, Texas). They demanded a cow. The settlers
refused, and the Comanche stormed the fort. Seven settlers were killed.
Two children, Cynthia Ann and John Parker, were kidnapped. John would,
one day, leave the tribe as an adult. Cynthia would marry a Comanche
chief, Peta Nacona, and had two sons, Pecos, and Quanah and one
daughter, Prairie Flower. Cynthia would eventually be rescued against
her will on December 18, 1860. Quanah Parker would become a Comanche war
chief.

1836: According to some sources, General Thomas Jesup took over command
of western forces in the Creek War.

1837: In Florida, Creek warriors and Florida militia fought along Battle
Bay on the Choctawhatchee River. The fighting lasted for several days.
Most of the Creeks were eventually killed or captured.

1838: Seminole Chiefs Mikanopy, King Philip, Coahadjo, and Little Cloud
and 453 other Seminoles left New Orleans on the steamboat Renown, bound
for the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).

1840: A group of Seminole warriors were waiting in ambush near Micanopy,
Florida. Thirteen soldiers entered the trap. Ten of the soldiers were
killed in the fighting.

1868: According to army records, members of the Thirteenth Infantry
fought with a band of Indians near the mouth of the Musselshell River in
Dakota Territory. Ten Indians were wounded.

1870: According to official army records, Indians skirmished with a
group of soldiers from the Ninth Cavalry near Kickapoo Springs, Texas.
Four Indians were wounded. The fighting lasted until the next day.

1872: A group of Kiowa Indians attacked a party citizens, twenty-five
miles from Fort Belknap in north-central Texas. One white and two
Indians were killed. Two Indians were wounded.

1882: Fort Stanton Reserve (Mescalero Apache) boundary lines in New
Mexico were modified.

1936: Jicarilla Apache Reservation lines in New Mexico were modified.

1939: Pope Pius XII approved the beatification of Kateritekawitha, a
Mohawk from Ossernenon, New York.

1940: An election to approve amendments to the constitution and bylaws
for the Kashia Band of Pomo Indians of the Stewarts Point Rancheria was
held. Two were approved by a majority of the twenty-two people voting.

1971: The associate commissioner of Indian affairs authorized an
election to approve an amendment to the constitution of the Grindstone
Indian Rancheria in Glenn County, California. The election was held on
June 27, 1971.

1974: Rod Curl (Wintu) won a golf tournament.






May 20

1493: A civil war battle among the Cakchiquel (Kaqchikel) Maya took
place today in what is present-day Guatemala.

1636: British trader John Gallop spotted John Oldham’s ship near Block
Island. The decks were covered with Indians. Oldham was not in sight.
Gallop attacked the ship and the Indians. Most got away. Gallop found
Oldham’s body on the boat. This was one of the first fights of the
Pequot War.

1702: Franciscans had established the Santa Fe de Toluca Mission at one
of the largest Timucua villages in northern Florida. Apalachicola
Indians fought a battle with Spanish and mission Indians. Both side lost
a considerable number of fighters before the Apalachicola finally gained
the upper hand.

1777: When Dragging Canoe and his followers left the area, older chiefs
arrange a peace treaty that was signed by the Cherokees and
representatives of the American colonies in the South. The Americans
forced the Cherokees to cede all of their lands (more than 5 million
acres) in South Carolina. This created a great rift in the tribe. Many
Cherokees joined the offshoot Chickamauga tribe. General Andrew
Williamson was one of the American representatives. This was called the
Treaty of De Witt’s Corner.

1777: In 1775, Benjamin Logan established an outpost at what became
present-day Stanford, Kentucky. Logan’s Station would eventually attract
other settlers. Shawnees mounted an attack on the station. One settler,
William Hudson, was killed; Logan rescued another. The Shawnees
established a siege that lasted until a column of frontiersmen arrived
in late June.

1832: Forces under Black Hawk were reported to have attacked a
settlement on Indian Creek. Fifteen settlers were killed. This was also
reported to have happened on May 20.

1858: Reverend Pierre De Smet left St. Louis to go west. He would visit
many different tribes during this trip while serving as chaplain for an
army expedition.

1862: Congress passed the Homestead Act. This act allowed settlers to
buy 160 acres of western, formerly Indian, land for $1.25 an acre. This
brought in a new wave of settlers to the west.

1863: A new Northwest Reservation Conference starts. It lasted through
June 9.

1870: Although scouting for Indians at Kickapoo Springs, Texas, Sergeant
Emanuel Stance encountered a group of hostile Indians. For his actions
during the ensuing fight, he would be awarded the Congressional Medal of
Honor. Four Indians were wounded in the encounter. The fighting started
the day before, according to army records.

1871: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Fourth
Cavalry in the divide between the Brazos and Big Wishita Rivers in
Texas, according to official army records. One Indian was killed and one
soldier was wounded.

1872: Lieutenant Gustavus Valois, troops from the Ninth Cavalry, and
eight Indian scouts attacked a small group of Kickapoo Indians at La
Pendencia, Texas. Official army records did not report the outcome of
the battle.

1878: Seventh Infantry soldiers fought a group of Indians near the head
of White’s Gulch, Montana. According to army documents, one Indian was
killed and two were wounded.

1948: Assistant Secretary of the Interior William Warne ratified a
constitution and bylaws approved by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm
Springs Reservation of Oregon in an election held on April 24, 1948.

1966: The assistant secretary of the interior ratified an amendment to
the constitution and bylaws for the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck
Valley Reservation in Nevada.

1968: An election by the Havasupai Nation for an amendment to their
constitution was held. The result was approval for three new amendments
by a majority of the twenty-five tribal members voting.

1972: Mt. Adams reverted back to the Yakama.







May 21

1542: Hernando de Soto died with a high fever in the village of
Guachoyo, along the Mississippi River. Before his death, he appointed
Luis de Moscoso to be his replacement. Fearing that the Indians might
exhume his body, Moscoso had de Soto’s body weighted down and deposited
in the Mississippi River.

1733: According to some sources, an agreement covering amity,
land-cession, and trade was reached by representatives of the British in
Georgia and the Lower Creek, Yamacraw, and Yuchi Indians.

1751: The French suggested that Indians should abandon the British.

1803: Chiefs of the four Southern tribes met at Hickory Grounds (near
modern Wetumpka, Alabama). They talked with American representatives
Stephen Folch, John Forbes, and Benjamin Hawkins about land, money, and
William Bowles’s efforts to unite the Indians into a new country, with
him as its leader and with British support.

1832: As a part of Black Hawk’s War, a group of approximately fifty
Potawatomis attacked a settlement on Indian Creek (near modern Ottawa,
Illinois). Fifteen settlers were killed in the fighting. This was often
called the Indian Creek Massacre. This was also reported to have
happened on May 20.

1869: According to army records, members of the Fourth Infantry fought
with a band of Indians near Fort Fred Steele, Wyoming. No casualties
were reported.

1871: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Twenty-Fifth
Infantry near Camp Melvin Station, Texas, according to official army
records. Two soldiers were wounded.

1877: In retaliation for the Custer defeat, the Sioux and Ponca were
ordered to go to a new reservation in Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma). The Ponca had nothing to did with the war, and they continued
their complaints about the bureaucratic error that placed them on a
reservation with the Sioux in the first place. The government did not
bend, and the Ponca began their march to Indian Territory.

1879: In the Standing Bear case, the courts decided that Indians were
people in the eyes of the law and no Indian could be held on a
particular reservation against his will. Big Snake, Standing Bear’s
brother, decided to test the law. He asked his agent for permission to
visit Standing Bear. His request was denied. He decided to leave the
Ponca Reservation in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) to visit
the Cheyenne Reservation, also in Indian Territory. Big Snake asked for
permission to leave from his agent, William Whiteman. Whiteman again
refused the request. Big Snake and thirty other Ponca left anyway. On
this date, Agent Whiteman telegraphed the commissioner of Indian affairs
of Big Snake’s exit, with the request that Big Snake be arrested at Fort
Reno in central Indian Territory.

1928: An act of Congress (45 Stat. 618) acquired twenty acres for the
Winnemucca Shoshone Indian Colony in Nevada.

1979: An election that approved a constitution and bylaws for the
Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma was ratified by Acting Deputy Commissioner of
Indian Affairs Martin E. Seneca Jr. The election was held on May 17,
1979.

1980: The secretary of the interior authorized an election for an
amendment to the constitution and bylaws of the Lac Courte Oreilles Band
of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin. The election was held on
August 16, 1980.

1983: The bylaws of Kootznoowoo Incorporated were amended.

1990: Amendments to the Menominee constitution and bylaws were
introduced and approved by a vote of the Menominee people starting today
through May 24, 1990.




May 22

1836: The town of Irwinton (modern Eufaula), Alabama, was attacked by
Creek warriors. They were beaten back by the settlers.

1838: A total of 674 Seminoles boarded the steamer South Alabama in New
Orleans. They were bound for the Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma).

1851: As one of the last conflicts in the Mariposa Indian Wars in
California, a large group of Yosemite Indians was captured at Lake
Tenaija.

1854: The House of Representatives passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

1863: As a part of the Owens Valley War in California, Paiute Chief
Captain George arrived at Camp Independence. He told the soldiers the
Paiute want peace. This effectively ended the war.

1869: According to army records, members of the First Cavalry,
Thirty-Second Infantry, and Indian scouts fought with a band of Indians
near Mineral Springs, Arizona. Four Indians were killed and four were
captured. The fighting lasted until May 28.

1872: Members of Troop E, Sixth Cavalry, acting as couriers between Fort
Dodge in southwestern Kansas and Fort Supply in northwestern Indian
Territory (present-day Oklahoma), were attacked by Indians. One soldier
was killed and one was wounded.

1872: Indians skirmished with a group of settlers near Sonoita Valley,
Arizona, according to official army records. One settler was killed.

1873: One hundred fifty Modoc Indians surrendered to Colonel J. C. Davis
near Fairchild’s Ranch in California, according to army documents.

1879: General Sherman ordered General Sheridan to transport Big Snake
from Fort Reno in central Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) back
to the Ponca Reservation. Sherman decided that the court decision
applied only to Standing Bear and to no one else.

1885: Fourth Cavalry soldiers and Indian scouts fought a group of
Indians near Devil’s Creek in the Mogollon Mountains of New Mexico.
According to army documents, four soldiers were wounded.

1945: The constitution and bylaws of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw
Indians were approved.

1959: An election approved Amendment 5 to the constitution and bylaws of
the Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin.

1971: An election was held to establish a constitution and bylaws for
the Shoalwater Bay Indian Organization in Washington State. It was
approved by a vote of 5-0.

1974: An election for an amendment to the constitution of the Red Lake
Band of Chippewa Indians of Minnesota was held. With 2,745 eligible
voters, it passed by a vote of 826-273.

1976: An election for an amendment to the constitution and bylaws for
the Lower Elwha Tribal Community of the Lower Elwha Reservation in
Washington State was authorized. The results were 49-25 in favor.

1976: The area director, Portland area office, Bureau of Indian Affairs,
had authorized an election to amend the constitution and bylaws of the
Kalispel Indian Community of the Kalispel Reservation. The amendment was
approved by a vote of 17-5.

1980: An election that approved an amendment to the constitution and
bylaws for the Shakopee Mdewankanton Sioux Community was ratified by the
acting area director, Bureau of Indian Affairs.






May 23

1774: Lower Creek warrior Ogulki murdered another Creek and left false
clues implicating white settlers. Angry Creeks attacked the settlers in
retaliation. When Ogulki saw that he had accomplished his goal, he began
a series of unprovoked attacks on the settlers. These attacks led to
expeditions against the Creeks by the local militia. Realizing that
Ogulki had started the entire affair, Upper Creek chiefs demanded that
the Lower Creeks put Ogulki to death to end the matter. Today, Ogulki
was killed by Cussita Creek warriors.

1775: The Cherokees gave up some land.

1802: Ceremonies for a treaty conference began at Fort Wilkinson,
Georgia, with the United States and the Creeks. The real meetings began
the next day.

1836: The New Echota Treaty (7 Stat. 478) had been ratified by the
Senate by one vote. President Andrew Jackson publicly proclaimed the
treaty. The treaty was signed by members of the Treaty Party, less than
500 Cherokees. Some 16,000 Cherokees opposed the treaty, but the
government ignored their rejection of the document.

1837: A group of American militia captured a Creek warrior and eleven
women and children in Walton County, Florida, along Alaqua Creek. All
the Indians were eventually shot and killed. Their bodies were also
mutilated.

1838: Under the provisions of the New Echota Treaty of December 29,
1835, this was the deadline for Cherokees to emigrate to the Indian
Territory (present-day Oklahoma). Any Cherokees still east of the
Mississippi River after this day were forced to leave. Only an estimated
2,000 Cherokees had emigrated to the Indian Territory by this date,
according to government estimates. General Winfield Scott was charged
with removing the recalcitrant Cherokees. Many were forced from their
homes at bayonet point. The illegal treaty was publicly proclaimed by
President Jackson two years earlier to this day.

1859: A group of Texans led by John Baylor attacked the Caddo living on
the Brazos River Reservation. The pretense for the attack was a series
on murders committed by nonreservation Plains Indians. After one Indian
was killed, Indian Agent Robert Neighbors interceded. He arranged for
the Caddo to be moved to a new reservation in Oklahoma, far from the
Indian-hating Texans. Neighbors was murdered himself in September for
being an “Indian-lover.”

1867: According to army records, members of a stage escort fought with a
band of Indians near Big Timbers, Kansas. One soldier was wounded.

1867: According to army records, members of the Second Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Bridger’s Ferry, Dakota Territory. Two
soldiers were killed.

1868: Kit Carson died in Colorado.

1872: Because of his “conspicuous gallantry in a charge upon the Tonto
Apaches” in Sycamore Canyon, Arizona, First Sergeant Richard Barrett,
Company A, First Cavalry, would be awarded the Congressional Medal of
Honor.

1872: Captain E. M. Heyl and troopers from the Fourth Cavalry were
attacked by Comanche on the Lost River in Texas. One soldier and one
horse were killed.

1873: The Northwest Mounted Police was founded. One of the main reasons
for its creation was the problems being fomented by Americans selling
alcohol to Canadian Indians. This organization eventually became the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

1880: One Bull goes to Fort Buford for Sitting Bull.

1936: Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes had authorized an election
to approve a constitution and bylaws for the members of the Minnesota
Mdewakanton Sioux of the Prairie Island Indian Community in Minnesota.
It was approved by a vote of 35-4.

1939: The assistant secretary of the interior authorized an election to
approve a constitution and bylaws for the Native Village of Gambell. The
election was held on December 31, 1939.

1939: The assistant secretary of the interior authorized an election to
approve a constitution and bylaws for the Eskimos of the Native Village
of Elim, Alaska. The election was held on November 24, 1939.

1944: Van Barfoot, a Choctaw, was a second lieutenant in the Forty-Fifth
Infantry. For his actions against enemy troops near Anzio, Italy, he
would be awarded the Medal of Honor. Among his achievements: destroying
two machine-gun nests, capturing seventeen German soldiers, stopping a
German tank assault, and carrying two wounded commanders to safety.

1975: The area director, Sacramento area office, Bureau of Indian
Affairs, authorized an election for an amendment to the constitution and
bylaws of the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester
Rancheria.

Every: The San Juan Buffalo Dance and Feast.




May 24

1513: While exploring the Gulf Coast of Florida, Ponce de Leon
encountered Calusa Indians near Charlotte Harbor. In a fight with the
Calusa, de Leon captured four warriors.

1539: Mexican Viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza had decided to send an
expedition to search for wealthy cities north of Mexico. On March 7,

1539, Friar Marcos de Niza started the expedition from Culiacan.
According to Niza’s journal, he finally saw Cibola, although he never
set foot in the pueblo. His report would lead to future expeditions
looking for the Seven Cities of Gold.

1607: Jamestown was founded (May 14, old-style).

1721: In a letter addressed to Bienville (governor of Louisiana), de
Boisbriant (governor of the Illinois District) warned of a plan by the
Spanish. He had been notified that an expedition of 300 Spanish soldiers
from Santa Fe was headed toward Louisiana to take over the territory
from the French. According to de Boisbriant, they were attacked by
“Osage and Panis” Indians. The Spanish retreated back to Santa Fe. Some
of the facts were considered to be wrong, but this report established
concern among the French.

1746: Indians had surrounded Fort Number Four (at modern Charlestown,
New Hampshire). The fort had twenty-one defenders. Phineas Stevens
arrived and led an attack on the Indians. Five men were killed on both
sides of the skirmish. Stevens, known as an excellent “Indian fighter,”
learned Indians ways while he was a prisoner of the Waranoke.

1802: Representatives of the Creek Nation and the U.S. government began
negotiations of debts and land. A treaty was reached and signed on June
16, 1802, at Fort Wilkinson, near Milledgeville, Georgia.

1834: The Chickasaw signed a treaty (7 Stat. 450). A provision of the
treaty granted protection from hostile Indians. A commission was
established among the Chickasaws that had to approve the competency of
any tribal member before he could sell land.

1841: Numerous Indian tribes had settled on Village Creek (near modern
Arlington, Texas, between Dallas and Fort Worth). In retaliation for
attacks on local settlements, seventy Texas Rangers, led by General
Edward Tarrant, attacked the villages. Although outnumbered, the Texans
managed to kill a dozen warriors before they were forced to retreat.
Many of the Indians left the area.

1868: Sitting Bull captured riders and gave the army a warning.
According to army records, members of the Thirteenth Infantry fought
with a band of Indians near the mouth of the Musselshell River in Dakota
Territory. Two soldiers were killed.

1868: According to army records, members of the Thirteenth Infantry
fought with a band of Indians near the Yellowstone River in Montana. No
injuries were reported on either side.

1871: Lieutenant E. M. Hayes and Fifth Cavalry troops captured six
hostile Indians near Birdwood Creek, Nebraska.

1872: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Fourth
Cavalry near Lost Creek, Texas, according to official army records. One
soldier was wounded.

1880: Colonel Edward Hatch and a large contingent of cavalry had been
searching for Victorio and his followers for some time. Chief Scout H.
K. Parker and his Indian scouts fought a group of Indians near the
headwaters of the Polomas River in New Mexico. The army reported that
fifty-five Indians were killed in this battle.

1881: Captain O. B. Reed, the commanding officer at Camp Poplar in
northeastern Montana, reported the surrender of eight lodges, equaling
fifty hostiles, including twelve men.

1911: In New Mexico, Executive Order No. 1359 modified a previous order
concerning lands in New Mexico.

1940: An election was held to approve amendments to the constitution and
bylaws of the Tule River Indian Tribe. The results were 15-1 for both
Amendments 1 and 2.

1952: An amended adoption ordinance for the Coeur d’Alene Tribe had been
passed by the Tribal Council. It was approved by the acting commissioner
of Indian affairs.

1969: The acting assistant commissioner of Indian affairs had authorized
an election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the Hoh Indian
Tribe. It was approved by a vote of 21-0.

1972: The articles of association adopted by the Twenty-nine Palms Band
of Mission Indians on March 1, 1972, were approved by Acting Deputy
Commissioner of Indian Affairs Alexander MacNabb.

1976: The commissioner of Indian affairs authorized an election for an
amendment to the constitution and bylaws of the Manzanita Band of
Mission Indians. The election was held on August 21, 1976.

1978: An election for an amendment to the constitution of the Red Lake
Band of Chippewa Indians of Minnesota was held. Of the 1,490 people
eligible to vote, the result was 1,028-62 in favor.

1996: Executive Order No. 13007, “Indian Sacred Sites,” was issued. Its
purpose was designed to “protect and preserve Indian religious
practices.”

Every: St. John Feast Day celebrated by many Pueblos.







May 25

1539: Hernando de Soto’s Spanish expedition arrived off the shore of
western Florida. Their mission was to explore Florida and the
surrounding countryside.

1540: Hernando de Soto’s army entered Cherokee lands. They spent the
night near what is modern Highlands, North Carolina.

1637: The Battle of Mystic was fought. As a part of the Pequot War,
Mohegan Chief Uncas was leading approximately 100 Indian allies, but he
was doubtful of the ability of seventy-seven Europeans under Captains
John Underhill and John Mason to defeat the Pequot. Regardless, they
attacked a fortified Pequot village (near modern Mystic, Connecticut)
before dawn. Few of the Pequot warriors were in the village, and the
allies set fire to the dwellings. According to some accounts, as many as
700 old men, women, and children were burned or shot to death. Only
about a dozen Pequot in the village survived. (Also recorded as
happening on May 26 and June 5.)

1673: At the site of modern Niles, Michigan, the British erected Fort
St. Joseph. Its garrison of sixteen men, led by Ensign Francis
Schlosser, was attacked by a large Potawatomi war party. Only Schlosser
and three other men survived the attack. The British were later traded
for Potawatomi prisoners in Detroit.

1716: French commander Bienville had demanded the head of the Natchez
Chief, Oyelape, who had ordered the killing of five Frenchmen. Today,
Natchez Indians he sent with his demand to the main Natchez village
returned. They said that the chief had gone into hiding and could not be
found. They did return the dead Frenchmens’ slaves and some of their
property.

1736: As part of the French attacks on Chickasaw Indians along the
Mississippi River, Major Pierre d’Artaguette, French soldiers, and
Iroquois, Kaskaskia, and Miami warriors attacked the village of
Hashuk-humma. The village’s fortifications were formidable, and they
were able to hold off the attackers. When Chickasaw reinforcements
arrived, d’Artaguette’s Indian allies retreated. D’Artaguette eventually
surrendered after most of his remaining force was incapacitated. Most of
the French prisoners, including d’Artaguette, were executed.

1776: The U.S. Congress resolved that it would be “highly expedient” if
the United States could engage Indians to fight on its side of the
Revolutionary War.

1782: Led by Colonel William Crawford, 480 Virginia volunteers were
looking for survivors of the Gnadenhutten Massacre. As they were about
to leave the abandoned village, they were attacked by a large group of
Indians. The fighting continued until the next day. Crawford retreated
when more Indians arrived on the scene.

1854: The U.S. Senate passed Kansas-Nebraska Act.

1868: Thirty-nine Oglala Sioux, including Sitting Bull, signed the Fort
Laramie Treaty (15 Stat. 635).

(see my photos of the area: http://americanindian.net/2003o.html )


1869: Indians attacked settlements in Jewell County, Kansas. According
to army reports, six citizens were killed and three women assaulted.

1870: According to official army records, Indians skirmished with a
group of soldiers from the First and Third Cavalry in the Tonto Valley
in Arizona. Twenty-one Indians were killed and twelve were captured.

1881: Sitting Bull sat in council with Dewdney at Fort Qu’appelle
through May 26.

1931: Trust Patent No. 1046692 was issued, containing 440 acres for the
Pechanga Indian Reservation–Temecula Band of Luiseno Mission Indians.

1933: President Franklin Roosevelt, by executive order, abolished the
Board of Indian Commissioners, created on June 3, 1869. The board had
been designed to oversee Indian appropriations.

1940: Amendments to the constitution of the Tuolumne Band of Me-Wok
Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria were approved by a vote of 21-1.

1961: The U.S. government set aside lands on the Blackfeet Indian
Reservation in Montana on April 9, 1954, for administrative purposes.
Some of these lands were returned to Blackfeet tribal ownership.

(see my photos of the area: http://americanindian.net/2003x.html )







May 26

1540: The “Lady of Cofitachequi” had been taken with the de Soto
expedition against her will. With a large quantity of the pearls that de
Soto’s men took from her village, she escaped.

1540: According to Coronado’s journal, he reached the “valley of the
people: Called Caracones.”

1637: The Battle of Mystic took place. As a part of the Pequot War,
Mohegan Chief Uncas was leading approximately 100 Indian allies, but he
was doubtful of the ability of seventy-seven Europeans under Captains
John Underhill and John Mason to defeat the Pequot. Regardless, they
attacked a fortified Pequot village (near modern Mystic, Connecticut)
before dawn. Few of the Pequot warriors were in the village, and the
allies set fire to the dwellings. According to some accounts, as many as
700 old men, women, and children were burned or shot to death. Only
about a dozen Pequot in the village survived. (Also recorded as
happening on May 25 and June 5.)

1728: According to some sources, a peace and friendship conference was
held for two days between the representatives of the British in
Pennsylvania and the Conestoga, Delaware, Potomac, and Shawnee Indians.

1736: A band of 500 French and another force of Choctaw warriors
attacked the Chickasaw village of Ackia in northern Mississippi. The
attacking force was lead by Jean Baptiste le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville,
and Chevalier de Noyan. Despite repeated assaults on the Chickasaw
battlements over a three-hour period, the French and, eventually, the
Choctaws were repulsed. The French sustained twenty-four fatalities.

1798: During the Creek National Council meeting, Creek speaker Eau Haujo
joked about cattle. He said that they “do not understand stipulations
relative to boundaries.” They go where the grass is.
1826: Elias Boudinot gave a speech at the First Presbyterian Church of
Philadelphia about his tribe, the Cherokees. The publisher of the
Cherokee Phoenix, Boudinot, described the tribe and their recent
changes.

1839: Captain John Bird and thirty-four Texas Rangers encountered a
force of more than 200 Caddo, Comanche, and Kickapoo Indians (near
modern Temple, Texas). Several people were killed on both sides. This
was eventually called the Bird’s Creek Indian Fight.

1856: Colonel Wright left troops at the Cascades while he marched to the
Columbia River. On this date, Kamiakin led Yakima Indians against the
Cascade garrison. The settlement was attacked, and the blockhouse where
the troops were located was surrounded. This was called the Cascade
Massacre by the whites.

1865: A grand council was held of the Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma) tribes who held land in the so-called leased district.
Representatives from the Kansas area and the Plains Indians were invited
as well. They made a pledge not to spill any additional Indian blood.

1865: As a part of the Black Hawk War in Utah, a group of Ute Indians
killed several members of a settler family named Given.

1868: Yesterday and today, fifteen Minneconjou Sioux signed the Fort
Laramie Treaty (15 Stat. 635). Twenty-four “Yanctonais Sioux” and
twenty-five Arapaho also signed.

1869: Indians attacked a wagon train near Sheridan (near modern Winona),
Kansas. Two drivers were wounded and 300 mules were stolen.

1869: According to army records, members of the Third Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians in the Black Range of New Mexico. No casualties
were reported. The fighting started on May 18.

1870: Commissioner of Indian Affairs Ely Parker (Donehogawa), concerned
about war fever among the Plains Indians, let it be known that Sioux
Chief Red Cloud would be a welcome guest in Washington for talks. Red
Cloud decided to visit the Great Father and to see the Indian
commissioner for himself. On this date, he boarded a train at Fort
Laramie in southeastern Wyoming for the trip to Washington.

1874: Apache Cochinay was killed.

1877: Abbot Marty visited Sitting Bull’s camp in Canada.

1881: 1881: Major D. H. Brotherton accepted the surrender of a group of
hostile Indians at Fort Buford, Dakota Territory. According to army
documents, thirty-two Sioux surrendered.

1885: Poundmaker, a leader in Riel’s Rebellion, surrendered to Canadian
forces at Fort Battleford.







May 27

1598: Oñate’s expedition reached the Piro village of Qualacu in modern
New Mexico. (Also recorded as happening on June 12.)

1607: Virginia had its first significant battle between Indians and
European settlers.

1761: Cherokee Chief Attakullaculla (Little Carpenter) met with English
Colonel Games Grant to pursue peace between the two groups. The British
refused the overture. They still wanted revenge for the attack on Fort
Loudoun.

1763: Fort Miami was located at a site near what is modern Fort Wayne,
Indiana. It was garrisoned by twelve British soldiers led by Ensign
Robert Holmes. Pontiac’s Rebellion had started, and the ensign was
convinced to leave the Fort by his Miami Indian girlfriend. Miami
warriors killed the ensign and a sergeant who left the fort to look for
the ensign. The Miami demanded the surrender of the remaining soldiers.
To drive home their point, they threw the head of Ensign Holmes into the
fort. The soldiers surrendered, and all but one were eventually killed.

1803: After meeting for several days, leaders of the four Southern
Tribes agreed that William Bowles’s scheme to unite the tribes with him
as its “King of the Four Nations” was ludicrous. He was placed in chains
and delivered to the Spanish governor in New Orleans. Bowles was
eventually taken to Morro Castle in Havana, where in two years he would
die.

1831: Explorer Jed Smith was believed to be killed by Comanche.

1842: The last soldier to die in the Seminole War succumbed to his
wounds. His name was Private Jesse Van Tassel. He was shot on May 17.

1847: The Oregon Country publication The Spectator carried an article by
its editor, George L. Curry. He blamed much of the problems with the
local Indians on their use of alcohol. He asked for better enforcement
of the laws prohibiting the sale of “intoxicants” to Indians.

1856: General John Wool, soldiers, and volunteers defeated the Rogue
River Indians at the Battle of Big Meadows, Oregon. Tecumton (Elk Killer
John) and his Rouge River Indian followers surrounded Captain Smith’s
camp on the Rogue River. Tecumton maintained an active assault on the
troops for thirty-six hours until a relief column arrived the next day.
When the relief column arrived, on May 28, Captain Augur charged the
Indians. The Indians scattered. Ten whites were killed during the
thirty-six-hour siege.

1862: Latta brought money to the Sioux. A party was then held.

1866: Elements of the Fourteenth Infantry fought some Indians on the
Owyhee River in Idaho. One soldier was killed, seven Indians were
killed, and twelve Indians were wounded, according to Fourteenth
Infantry records.

1867: According to army records, members of the Seventh Cavalry under
Captain M. W. Keogh fought with a band of Indians near Pond Creek
Station, Kansas. Five Indians were killed and five were wounded.

1873: At the San Carlos Reservation, Chan-deisi killed Lieutenant Jacob
Almy and then tried unsuccessfully to kill Agent Larrabee.

1878: An attack by a group of Bannock warriors on a camp of animal
herders in the Camas Valley eventually led to what was called the
Bannock War.

1910: An act of Congress was passed that allowed the government to
classify and dispose of surplus lands on the Pine Ridge Reservation in
South Dakota.

1949: The assistant commissioner of Indian affairs authorized an
election to approve a constitution and bylaws for the Confederated
Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation. The election was held on November 4,
1949.

1970: The U.S. Office of the Solicitor offered an opinion for the
Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of the Fort Hall Reservation that under their
constitution a convicted felon could serve upon the Fort Hall Business
Council.

1978: The area director, Sacramento area office, Bureau of Indian
Affairs, had authorized an election for an amendment for the
constitution for the Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute Tribe of the Benton Paiute
Reservation in California. It was approved by a vote of 15-0, according
to a government document.







May 28

1539: Hernando de Soto landed in America (also reported as May 25).

1754: Twenty-one-year-old Lieutenant Colonel George Washington led a
force of Virginia militia of almost eighty men, including a band of
Delaware Indians (under the Half-King Jeskakake), to aid in the building
of a new fort at the forks of the Ohio (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). The
French beat them to the area and had already started Fort Duquesne.
Today, Washington’s men surprised a French detachment under Villiers de
Jumonville on Chestnut Ridge in Fayette County, Pennsylvania.
Washington’s troops killed ten and captured the rest of the French
forces. This fight in southwestern Pennsylvania was the first battle of
the French and Indian War. Within a few days, Washington’s forces build
Fort Necessity not far from here. Among Washington’s allies was Iroquois
Chief Tanacharison, Half-King of the Delaware.

1763: Lieutenant Abraham Cuyler was en route to Fort Detroit with
supplies and almost 100 men when he landed at Point Pelee in southern
Ontario, on Lake Erie. Unaware of Pontiac’s Uprising, the men were
attacked by Indians after Cuyler set up camp. Only Cuyler and a few men
escaped the attack.

1765: According to some reports, a meeting was held regarding questions
over boundary lines between the British and the Creeks.

1830: Andrew Jackson, called “Sharp Knife” by the Indians, had long
fought the Indians of the Southeast. He believed that the Indians and
white settlers would not be able to peacefully live together. His
solution was to renege on all of the previous treaties that granted the
Indians their lands forever and to move all Indians west of the
Mississippi River. Jackson made this proposal to Congress during his
first congressional speech on December 8, 1829. Congress made the
proposal into a law on this date.

1851: One in a series of treaties was signed with California Indians at
Dent’s and Ventine’s Crossings. The purpose of the treaty was to reserve
lands for the Indians and to protect them from angry Europeans.

1868: Fort Downer, west of Hays, Kansas, was abandoned.

1869: According to army records, members of the First Cavalry,
Thirty-Second Infantry, and Indian scouts fought with a band of Indians
near Mineral Springs, Arizona. Four Indians were killed and four were
captured. The fighting started on May 22.

1870: In the panhandle area of Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma),
near Camp Supply, Indians attacked a wagon train. They killed one of the
drivers and ran off all of the mules. Near the camp later that day, they
ran off another herd and killed another man.

1871: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Eighth
Cavalry Infantry in the Canadian Mountains in Texas, according to
official army records. Twelve Indians were captured.

1873: Camp Shafter was established twenty-six miles southeast of Fort
Duncan and Eagle Pass, Texas. It was often used as a base for operations
against the Kickapoo.

1875: Indian scouts were awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

1885: The Frenchmens Butte Fight took place, part of Riel’s Rebellion.

1888: Jim Thorpe was born.

1904: Kicking Bear, a Miniconjou Sioux, died, according to some sources.

1909: Pursuant to a Supreme Court decision on April 29, 1907, that
required a new tribal roll for the Eastern Cherokee, Guion Miller
reported that 45,847 separate applications had been filed, representing
a total of some 90,000 individual claimants, of which 30,254 were
enrolled as entitled to share in the $1 million fund set aside by the
court. Some 3,203 Cherokees were residing in east and 27,051 were
residing west of the Mississippi River.

1930: By Executive Order No. 5356, the trust period on allotments made
to members of the Prairie Band of Potawatomi Indians in Kansas was
extended.

1968: According to Federal Register No. 33FR08275, certain lands in
Dakota were restored to the tribal ownership of the Cheyenne River Sioux
Tribe of Indians.

1974: The area director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, had authorized an
election for an amendment to the constitution and bylaws of the Lower
Brule Sioux Tribe of the Lower Brule Reservation. It was approved by a
vote of 56-13.

1987: The constitution of the Miami of Oklahoma was amended.







May 29

1643: The New England Confederation talked about Indians.

1677: Pamunkey, Roanoke, Nottaway, and Nansemond Tribes of the Powhatan
Confederacy signed a treaty with the English in Virginia.

1792: William Blount held a conference with 2000 Cherokee, and
Chickamauga chiefs and warriors at the village of Coyatee. He denounced
the Chickamauga for murder, looting, and horse-stealing. The Chickamauga
chiefs promised to stop any such incursions. But they continued.

1838: The Republic of Texas signed a treaty with the Comanche (near
modern Houston).

1855: The Walla Walla conference started.

1868: According to army records, members of the First Cavalry and some
Indian scouts fought with a band of Indians near the Owyhee River in
Idaho. Thirty-four Indians were killed in the fighting.

1869: Indians attacked Fossil Station, Kansas, killing two and wounding
four whites. That night, the Indians derailed a Kansas Pacific railroad
train.

1870: According to official army records, Indians skirmished with a
group of soldiers from the Ninth Cavalry near Bass Canyon, Texas. One
soldier was killed.

1870: According to official army records, Indians skirmished with a
group of soldiers from the Third Cavalry near Camp Apache, Arizona. One
Indian was wounded and six were captured. The fighting continued through
June 26.

1871: Indians skirmished with a group of soldiers from the Eighth
Cavalry near Kiowa Springs, New Mexico, according to official army
records. Twenty-two Indians were captured.

1876: General George Crook, this time taking personal command and Troops
A, B, D, E, and I, Second Cavalry, Troops A, B, C, D, E, F, H, I, L, and
M, Third Cavalry, Companies D and F, Fourth Infantry, and Companies C,
G, and H, Ninth Infantry, left Fort Fetterman in southeastern Wyoming en
route to Goose Creek.

(see my photos of the area: http://americanindian.net/2003n.html )


1876: The Interior Department was told to cooperate with the War
Department so the military could round up the hostile Indians whenever
they might appear at a reservation or agency.

1877: Sixth Cavalry soldiers fought a group of Indians near Camp Bowie,
Arizona. According to army documents, no casualties were reported.

1879: Captain Charles Beyer, with parts of Troops C and I, Ninth
Cavalry, fought with Victorio’s Warm Springs Apaches in the Black Range
of the Miembres Mountains at Cuchillo Negro River, near Ojo Caliente,
New Mexico. One soldier and two Indians were killed. Two soldiers and
two Indians were wounded in the fighting. The army captured the Indians’
animals during the battle. Victorio fled into Mexico. Sergeant Thomas
Boyne, Company C, would be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for
“bravery in action.”

1880: Settlers fought a group of Indians near Cook’s Canyon, New Mexico.
According to army documents, five citizens were killed.

1908: Congress approved an act (35 Stat. 460-463) that created the
townsite of Timber Lake in the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation from
lands belonging to the Cheyenne River Sioux.

1912: By Executive Order No. 1540, President Woodrow Wilson set aside
lands in Arizona for the use of Walapai Indians.

1928: An act of Congress (45 Stat. 899) acquired twenty acres for the
Winnemucca Shoshone Indian Colony in Nevada.

1936: The secretary of the interior authorized an election to approve a
constitution and bylaws for the Hannahville Indian Community in
Michigan. The election was held on June 27, 1936.

1945: The Shoshone-Arapahoe tribes of Indians in Wyoming ceded to the
United States a large area if their reservation in the state of Wyoming.
According to Federal Register No. 10FR07542, they received part of that
land back into the Wind River Reservation.

1946: The assistant secretary of the interior authorized an election for
approval of a constitution and bylaws for the Nisqually Indian Community
of the Nisqually Reservation Washington. The election was held on July
27, 1946.

1954: An election for amendments to the constitution for the Omaha Tribe
of Nebraska was held. It was approved by a vote of 159-2.

1958: Assistant Secretary of the Interior Roger Ernst authorized an
election for the adoption of a constitution and bylaws for the White
Mountain Apache Tribe. The election was held on June 27, 1958.

1958: An election for the adoption of a constitution and bylaws for the
Pueblos of Laguna in New Mexico was authorized by Assistant Secretary of
the Interior Roger Ernst. The election was held on October 8, 1958.

1958: Assistant Secretary of the Interior Roger Ernst authorized an
election for the adoption of a constitution and bylaws for the White
Mountain Apache of the Fort Apache Indian Reservation in Arizona. The
election was held on June 27, 1958.

1965: Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall ratified an election for
an amendment to the constitution and bylaws of the Kaibab Band of Paiute
Indians of Arizona.

1966: Ordinance No. 1 was passed by the Twenty-Nine Palms Band of
Mission Indians.

1976: An amendment to the constitution of the Comanche Indian Tribe was
enacted.

1980: Department of the Interior Field Solicitor Elmer Nitzschke stated
that the Mille Lacs Reservation Business Committee had the right to
control the Sandy Lakes Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The Sandy Lakes
Band of Ojibwe, which lived on the reservation, felt they should have
control of the reservation.

Every: San Pedro’s Day celebrated by many Pueblos.






May 30

1540: Hernando de Soto’s army arrived in the Cherokee village of Guasili
(near modern Murphy in western North Carolina). This was the first
recorded meeting between Cherokees and Europeans. The Cherokees gave de
Soto 300 dogs to be used as food. De Soto’s chroniclers described the
village as having 300 homes and wide streets.

1548: Juan Diego (Cuauhtlatoatzin) was the Nahua who saw the apparition
of the Virgin Mary on a hill called Tepeyacac in Mexico. The encounters
took place between December 9 and 12, 1531. He died on this day at the
age of seventy-four.

1650: An ordinance was passed against the making of counterfeit, or
“fake,” wampum by the directors of the Council of the New Netherlands.
European manufacturers were producing the fakes, which were being used
to pay Indians.

1778: Joseph Brant and 300–400 Indian and British loyalists attacked
Cobleskill, New York, killing twenty-two American soldiers.

1779: Colonel John Bowman and 300 Kentucky militia and armed settlers
attacked the Shawnee village of Little Chillicothe. The attack was in
retaliation for Shawnee attacks on frontier settlements. The Americans
had surrounded the village before dawn, but before they were ready to
attack they gave themselves away. Chief Black Fish and approximately 100
warriors defended the village while the women and children escaped into
the surrounding countryside. By the end of the fighting, the Shawnees
lost five warriors, the Americans nine.

1811: In what is now modern Oregon, John Clarke and a party of men
stopped to work on canoes they had left with Indians at the merging of
the Lewis and Pavion Rivers. A silver cup was stolen, and Clarke
threatened to hang the chief.

1842: Fort Scott, named after Winfield Scott, was established in
southeastern Kansas. Its original purpose was to separate Indian lands
from American settlers.

1854: The president signed the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

1854: A treaty (10 Stat. 1082) was signed by the Kaskaskia, Wea, and
other Indians in Kansas. For the most part, their lands were divided up
into individual plots.

1860: The Delaware signed a treaty (12 Stat. 1129) regarding land in
Kansas.

1867: Indians attacked the small settlement of Downer’s Station, west of
Hays, Kansas. Eventually, Fort Downer would be built there.
1867: According to army records, members of the Twenty-Seventh Infantry
were herding some livestock when they fought with a band of Indians near
Fort Reno, Dakota Territory. One soldier was killed.

1867: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Beale Station, Arizona. Fifteen Indians were
killed.

1868: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians in the Tonto Basin, Arizona. One civilian was
reported killed and one soldier was wounded.

1869: Indians killed a settler in Salt Creek in Kansas. The Seventh
Cavalry couriers were then attacked and chased for ten miles. Near Fort
Hays in central Kansas, Indians attacked three government teamsters and
chased them until they reached safety at the fort.

1869: According to army records, members of the Eighth Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians near Camp Toll Gate in Arizona. Four Indians were
killed. The fighting lasted until June 3.

1870: According to official army records, Indians skirmished with a
group of soldiers from the Sixth Cavalry near Holliday Creek, Texas. One
soldier and two civilians were killed.

1873: Soldiers from the First Cavalry, the Fourth Artillery, and some
Indian scouts captured thirty-three Modoc Indians in Langell’s Valley,
California. This included Scar-face Charley, Chonchin, and Boston
Charley, according to army documents.

1877: A man named Bescento Acosta was killed by Apaches approximately
four miles from Fort Davis in western Texas, according to an army
report.

1877: Settlers fought a group of Indians near Fort Davis in western
Texas. According to army documents, one settler was killed.

1878: Several white men were driving livestock across the Big Camas
Prairie in south-central Idaho. They encountered some Indians who
pretended to be friendly. But the Indians shoot two of the men. They
escaped, and Captain Reuben F. Bernard in Boise, Idaho, was notified.

(see my photos of the area: http://americanindian.net/2003e.html )


1883: After the raids near Tombstone by Chato and others, General George
Crook entered Mexico to find Geronimo. When they eventually met, Crook
convinced Geronimo and his people to return to the San Carlos
Reservation. Crook and most of the Chiricahua left for San Carlos on
this date.

1936: An election to establish a constitution for the Fort McDermitt
Paiute and Shoshone Tribe in Nevada was held. It passed by a vote of
54-11.







May 31

1785: A group of inexperienced chiefs met with people from the state of
“Franklin” to discuss land at Dumplin Creek on the French Broad River.
Led by Chief Ancoo of Chota, who was representing Old Tassel, they
signed a treaty without fully understanding its meaning. Ancoo knew they
were discussing land, but he did not realize he had signed a document
allowing settlers who had illegally homesteaded Cherokee lands to remain
there. The treaty ceded a great deal of land east of the ridge that
divided the Little Tennessee River. This treaty was repudiated by the
Cherokees almost immediately, as Ancoo had no authority to sign it. The
state of “Franklin” was represented by its “governor,” John Sevier.

1796: The Treaty of the Seven Tribes of Canada was signed by three
chiefs at New York City. The tribes gave up all claims to lands in New
York except for six square miles in Saint Regis. They were paid £1,233,
six shillings, and eight pence now and £21, six shillings, and eight
pence annually, if five more chiefs showed up and signed the treaty.

1811: The day before in what is now in modern Oregon, John Clarke and a
party of men were camped with some Indians at the Lewis and Pavion
Rivers. A silver cup was stolen, and Clarke threatened to hang the
chief. Today, another Indian was caught stealing. Clarke held an
impromptu trial and hanged the thief. This act led to considerable ill
will among the Oregon Indians.

1834: This day marked the last edition of the Cherokee Phoenix. Started
eight years earlier, the financially troubled publication ceased to be
published.

1865: Cherokee soldiers who served as Union soldiers during the U.S.
Civil War were mustered out of the army.

1867: According to army records, members of the Thirty-Seventh Infantry
fought with a band of Indians near Bluff Ranch, Kansas. They were part
of an escort from Fort Dodge. Two soldiers were killed.

1868: According to army records, members of the First Cavalry fought
with a band of Indians at Castle Rock near the North Fork of the Malheur
River in Oregon. One soldier was wounded and five Indians were captured.

1869: On Rose Creek in Kansas, Indians attacked a government wagon
train. Two soldiers and five Indians were reported to be wounded in the
fight.

1870: A skirmish at Carlyle Station, Kansas, netted the army two wounded
and the Indians three wounded.

1870: According to official army records, Indians skirmished with a
group of soldiers from the Third Infantry guarding the mail near Bear
Creek, Kansas. Two soldiers and five Indians were killed. One soldier
was wounded and ten Indians were captured.

1876: According to the San Diego Union newspaper, there were disputes
over land with the Campo Indians. “One Indian took refuge in the rocks …
and continued firing. They soon discovered his whereabouts and silenced
him, shooting him through the head, killing him instantly.”

1966: The U.S. government ratified the addition of Amendment 9 to the
constitution and bylaws of the Swinomish Indians of the Swinomish
Reservation in Washington.





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End of Phil Konstantin's May 2011 Newsletter
========================================================

That's all for now. Stay safe,

Phil

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Four of the five books I have worked on. I either wrote, co-wrote, or contributed to each of these beeks

This is the cover to my first book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy. Click on the cover to order a copy or to get more info.
This Day in North American Indian History
This Day in North American Indian History is a one-of-a-kind, vastly entertaining and informative book covering over 5000 years of North American Indian history, culture, and lore. Wide-ranging, it covers over 4,000 important events involving the native peoples of North America in a unique day-by-day format.

The thousands of entries in This Day in North American Indian History weave a compelling and comprehensive mosaic of North American Indian history spanning more than five millennia-every entry an exciting opening into the fascinating but little- known history of American Indians.

Over 100 photographs and illustrations - This book has 480 pages, weighs 2.2 pounds and is 8" by 9.5" in size. The Dates, Names and "Moons" section of these pages are based on the book.

This is the cover to my 4th book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info.
This is the cover to my 4th book. Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info."


Native American History For Dummies

I wrote six of the twenty-four chapters in this book. I am credited with being the technical editor. Book Description:
Native American History For Dummies introduces readers to the thousand-year-plus history of the first inhabitants of North America and explains their influence on the European settlement of the continent. Covering the history and customs of the scores of tribes that once populated the land, this friendly guide features vivid studies of the lives of such icons as Pocahontas, Sitting Bull, and Sacagawea; discusses warfare and famous battles, offering new perspectives from both battle lines; and includes new archaeological and forensic evidence, as well as oral histories that show events from the perspective of these indigenous peoples. The authors worked in concert with Native American authorities, institutions, and historical experts to provide a wide range of insight and information.
This is the cover to my 3rd book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info.
This is the cover to my 3rd book. Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info
Treaties With American Indians I wrote an article and several appendix items for this book.
Clips from a review on Amazon.com: *Starred Review* In the 93 years from 1778 until 1871, there were more than 400 treaties negotiated by Indian agents and government officials. Editor Fixico and more than 150 contributors have crafted a three volume comprehensive tool that will soon become essential for anyone interested in the topic. A resource section with lists of ?Alternate Tribal Names and Spellings,? ?Tribal Name Meanings,? (<---- I wrote this part) Treaties by Tribe,? and ?Common Treaty Names? and a bibliography and comprehensive index are repeated in each volume. This impressive set has a place in any academic library that supports a Native American studies or American history curriculum. It is the most comprehensive source of information on Canadian-Indian treaties and U.S.-Indian treaties. Also available as an e-book.

"The Wacky World of Laws"
It was just released in May 2009.
The Wacky World of Laws. Click on the cover to order a copy or to get more info.

The Wacky World of Laws is a compilation of U.S. and International Laws that are out of the ordinary. With the U.S. churning out 500,000 new laws every year and 2 million regulations annually, this book is the ideal go-to book fro everyone who wants a good laugh at the expense of our legal system. Law so often can be boring! Now with The Wacky World of Laws, you can be the hit of any water cooler conversation, and amaze your friends with precious legal nuggets.

I wrote most of this book. It is my fifth book.


(copyright, © Phil Konstantin, 1996-2013)






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