May 2005 Newsletter from
"This Day in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2006)

Click Here To Return To The Previous Website


Start of Phil Konstantin’s May 2005 Newsletter – Part 1


Well, my retirement lasted 4 days. Last Friday, I started working as the
civilian traffic reporter on KUSI TV station in San Diego (channel
9/51). I have been there two days. There is a great group of people
there. It looks like I am going to have a great time. There is also the
four hour workday to look forward to. I am still unpacking all of the
junk I accquired over the years while at the CHP.

My retirement luncheon was very nice. It was very nice to see a lot of
the people I have worked with in the past. I even got to meet some of
the public which has been watching me on TV for the last eight years.

I received many very nice cards, phone calls and e-mails. Thank you all
for making it such a memorable day.

It will probably be a couple of weeks before I really get into my new
schedule. I'll be happy when I finally get more time in order to work on
the links section of my website. There are lots of other projects I have
planned, too.

A few weeks ago, I finished writing a 7,000 work chronology of American
Indians in North America. It will be appearing in a book to be published
by ABC-CLIO later this year. They are also publishing another big book
about American Indians for which I wrote an article about Indian
Commissioner Benjamin Hawkins.

I have to be careful with my typing due to my carpal tunnel syndrome. I
have tried using a voice-activated typing program a subscriber sent me.
It did not work as well as I had hoped it would.

Oh well, time to go out and mow the backyard. This will be the first
time in some time...



Featured Link of the Month for May 2005

The "Link of the Month" for May is The Inuit Heritage Trust. The Trust,
according to their website "is a designated Inuit organization
established by and for the Inuit of Nunavut. The Trust is dedicated to
the preservation, enrichment and protection of Inuit cultural heritage
and identity embodied in Nunavut's archaeological sites, ethnographic
resources and traditional place names. The Trust's activities are based
on the principle of respect for the traditional knowledge and wisdom of
our Elders." The website has some interesting material and links. It is
also deigned to be seen in three different languages: English, Inuktitut
and Inuinnaqtun.


Treaty of the Month:

TREATY WITH THE YAKIMA, 1855. - June 9, 1855. | 12 Stat., 951. |
Ratified Mar. 8, 1859. | Proclaimed Apr. 18, 1859.

The treaty deals with a wide variety of subjects including boundaries,
roads, who is chief.

You can find a transcript of the treaty here:


Here is a message from my daughter Sarah. She has arthritis.

It is that time of year again. I will be doing my walk for arthritis.
Please go to my web page to donate for a cure.


Two editorials from Indian Country Today

By: John Mohawk / Indian Country Today

It has been 40 years since Daniel Patrick Moynihan, former U.S. senator
from New York, issued a report on the African-American family in the
United States. In an alarming tone, he stated that about a quarter of
the children born in the African-American community were born into
households that had no father. Born out of wedlock, he thought, they
faced a wide range of social dysfunctions ranging from being at risk for
poor school performance, prison and perpetuating the cycle of
matriarchal families. It was, he thought, a prescription for disaster.

Fast-forward to 2005. Today, approximately the same percentage of white
American females give birth to children under the same circumstances. A
major difference is that no bells have gone off, no dire prophecies are
set forward, no racism about the inherent weaknesses of the white race
is discovered.

Indeed, by statistical measures children raised in homes with a female
head of household do quite well. Far better than expected 40 years ago,
far better than theorized by those who don't actually pay attention to
the fact patterns. Poverty is more of an indicator of how a child is
likely to fare in life than is living, or not living, in a traditional

There is, however, a loud drone of warning about the end of civilization
coming from the religious right. Adherents to this viewpoint see threats
to the traditional family everywhere, and have nominated themselves to
save civilization by reasserting ''family values.'' They represent just
one phenomenon in American life, but a powerful and potentially
destructive one. The changes brought by an accelerating industrial and
''post-industrial'' society have touched almost all people in the
developed world, and the contradictions it has produced are still being
played out.

American Indian societies are also impacted by the changes. Over the
past dozen or so years, the last Native elders in traditional societies
have passed away. There may be a few remaining, but for the most part
the people who grew up speaking the Native languages, participating in
Native communities, and who were not forced into schools or who went to
schools for only a short time are gone. They were socialized to a way of
being in the world which most of us can only imagine, and their passing
should serve to remind us of how things once were.

Since time immemorial, traditional societies have existed which were
dependent on elders. Indeed, true traditional societies develop leaders
who serve the communities over long periods of time. Sometimes
designated as chiefs, male or female, they sat in small groups of
councils and presided over the community's business.

A traditional society has a special place for its elders, but elders
aren't simply old people. They are the old people who are steeped in the
traditions, who have been paying attention to the community, who know
how that community solves its problems. In semi-technical jargon, they
are the keepers of the customs and customary law, the living
encyclopedias of the group.

In most Native societies, they were not elected but rather appointed
through some process of acclamation, and they often served a lifetime.
The ancient chiefs who were famous - Sitting Bull, Seattle, Crowfoot and
Chief Joseph - were such people.

Traditional societies are associations of families, although they define
family in diverse and distinctive ways. In some societies, families were
identified by the female line, some by the male line (i.e., matrilineal
or patrilineal), but the families generally served similar purposes.
Children were welcomed because they were insurance that when people grew
old there would be someone to take care of them, and elders were
treasured because they were the repositories of the knowledge of the
history of the group and the customs of the larger group, the tribe or

Multigenerational groups cooperated with one another to assist in the
group's survival for as long as human beings have existed on the earth,
and almost certainly since even before that.

Modernity is threatening to bring that to an end. It's not that there
are any people who get up in the morning with evil intentions who want
to dismantle traditional societies. The dismantling is entirely
incidental, but it is nevertheless real.

With the advent of industrial society, the family was no longer the
primary social organization of production and social stability. Wherever
people enjoy the benefits of old-age pensions and adequate health care
for seniors, the birth rate goes down. People no longer feel the need to
have a large number of children as a hedge against poverty and
abandonment in old age. The multigenerational household begins to

Old people prefer to be independent and not burden their children, and
young people want to live beyond the watchful eye of their elders. They
move away from home: often far away. Their lives are often determined by
the marketplace where they can get the best wages, and they need an
education for that. The old rules about who one can marry, and the
necessity of producing children for the family, no longer apply.

The institutions and ideologues of traditional societies often adjust
poorly to these changes. Young men and women adopt behaviors appropriate
to their newfound ''freedoms,'' and the values of the old ways remain
popular but the behaviors of the new ways are often inconsistent with
those values. Arranged marriages, the bedrock of familial authority in
traditional societies, fall by the wayside.

Although both genders enthusiastically embrace the changes, young women
are especially seen as adopting behaviors inconsistent with the old ways
- they behave as though they have priorities other than marriage, child
bearing and raising, and staying at home to nurture young and old. This
is viewed as a moral failing, one that could destroy society at its
roots. Contemporary Muslim societies are sometimes intensely conflicted
on these issues, as are every other kind of traditionalist society.

Recently, the West turned out en masse to bury a popular pope, but his
positions on a wide range of issues including birth control,
contraceptives and women's roles in society were out of sync with
post-Industrial societies. His church in Europe has declined, as has the
birthrate among the flock. The ''morality'' of medieval times does not
meet the needs of people in today's affluent societies, although it is
strong in poorer, more family- and tradition-based societies. Third
World societies continue to embrace these ways, and the church is
thriving there.

The religious right opposes vaccines that could protect women from
cervical cancer. They see such cancers as a consequence of a
non-traditional lifestyle, and cancer as God's punishment for naughty
behaviors. They oppose a range of stem cell research and abortion and
even pain medication for terminal cancer patients for the same reason.
They celebrate the benefits of the Industrial Age, but they cannot or
will not adapt to the changes it has brought.

John C. Mohawk Ph.D., columnist for Indian Country Today, is associate
professor of American Studies and director of Indigenous Studies at the
State University of New York at Buffalo.


Walt Disney Pictures is premising its sequel to its film ''Pirates of
the Caribbean'' on the supposed cannibalism of Carib Indians. This is
disgusting. It is a bit beyond the time when the present-day children of
the Carib people of the Antilles need to be hit in the face, one more
time, with the wanton and highly-disputed idea that they descend from

Leaders from at least three communities of Caribs - Salybia in Dominica,
Santa Rosa in Trinidad and a community in St. Vincent - have registered
their strong objections to Disney executives, who have not responded in
any positive way to the critique. Scholars and others are adding their
voices to the challenge.

While the controversy over the Caribs' alleged cannibalism is as old as
the conquest of the Americas, most observers agree that the Disney
movie, slated for worldwide audiences, is beyond the pale as a vehicle
to inculcate the historical stereotype upon even more generations of
Carib and Caribbean children.

Filming of the sequel is scheduled to begin this month in Dominica. Its
predecessor, the first production in the ''Pirates of the Caribbean''
series, was a 2003 blockbuster that grossed $653 million worldwide. Some
3,000 Caribs live in the Carib territory on the island of Dominica,
which has a population of 70,000. Tens of thousands of Carib
descendants, now known as Garifuna, live on the coasts of Belize,
Honduras and Guatemala, as well as in the North American diaspora.

Chief Charles Williams of the Carib community in Dominica has denounced
the concept of his people being depicted as cannibals. This stereotype
has ''stigmatized'' Caribs for 500 years and is still used both as a
form of personal insult and as justification for mistreating his people,
Williams said; the movie will further ''popularize'' the historical
insult against his people.

Among other Native leaders, the chief of the Carib community at Arima in
Trinidad, Ricardo Bharath, also strongly condemned the planned movie. He
was joined by Adonis Christo, the community's shaman or medicine man.
The oral tradition among their people doesn't support cannibalism as a
historical fact, they asserted.

''Do you want to know who the real cannibals are?'' Bharath asked the
Inter Press Service. ''They are the ones in modern-day society who are
eating down our mountains, raping the environment, polluting the
waters,'' he said. Stated Christo: ''Our people defended their families
and friends. They defended their homes. They defended their lands.''

There are early references by Europeans to ritual cannibalism among the
first encounters with the Caribs. But Brinsley Samaroo, head of the
History department of the St. Augustine campus of the University of the
West Indies, is among those who believe the claim is largely a European
invention of ''manufactured history.''

In the historical record, one finds a letter from a Dr. Chanca, who
accompanied Christopher Columbus during his second voyage to the
Caribbean. Chanca speculated that some young men held prisoners by a
Carib group were being fattened to the slaughter for feasting.

Neither the wanton killing and rape by Spanish colonists of the first
group of Caribs encountered - recorded during the same trip by others on
the ship - nor the Caribs' fierce, valiant defense of their territories
and people are apparently proper subjects for a Disney movie.

The St. Vincent and the Grenadines Historical and Archaeological Society
has called for a boycott of the sequel by moviegoers if Disney does not
modify the script. Paul Lewis, the society secretary, charged that
perpetuating the image of Caribs as cannibals sets back a serious effort
in the region to provide a more ''honest share of [Caribbean] history''
to the indigenous people.

The governments of St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Dominica, who will
benefit somewhat from the production activities in their countries, have
not objected. In fact, the tourism minister of Dominica has defended the
proposed film, which would bring some economic benefits to people on the
island and which is, as he put it, only a ''work of fiction.''

Some Caribs, as can be expected, have applied for work as extras in the
movie, a fact that has made some crow that this somehow exonerates
Disney for its production. But that is all just public relations.
Reality is that a huge company like Disney should know better in 2005
than to besmirch a living people with its most negative historical

Clearly, Disney moviemakers need to consider the negative impacts of the
dramatic storylines they choose to project to such a huge audience. It
is not acceptable to create and recreate villains out of Native people
while exulting and romanticizing the lives of pirates who in real life
were murderers and thieves without regard for anyone. Call it what you
may, ''fiction'' or dramatic or poetic license, it smacks of racism to


Recognition of Schaghticoke Tribal Nation is Focus of U.S. Senate
Hearing on Wednesday

The controversial decision by the Department of Interior's Bureau of
Indian Affairs to recognize the Schaghticoke Tribal Nation will come
under review of the U.S. Senate this Wednesday.

Arizona Senator John McCain, who chairs the Senate Committee on Indian
Affairs, will hold a hearing on Wednesday morning to review the BIA
procedures to recognize the STN.

Connecticut Gov. Jodi Rell will testify, as will the state's two
senators. Also appearing will be BIA Officials, STN Chief Richard Velky,
and Ken Cooper, president of Town Action to Save Kent (TASK), a private
citizen's group who believes that the BIA is not taking into account the
views of local residents of the regions where Indians are receiving
federal recognition.

The Schaghticokes have a 450-acre tribal reservation in Kent. The STN is
also claiming another 2,200 acres of land west of the Housatonic River.

The STN was given federal recognition in January of 2004; however, since
that decision was announced, several internal BIA documents indicate
that the STN may not have met the seven criteria needed for recognition.

Underlying the debate on the STN recognition decision is the prospect of
the STN developing a casino in western Connecticut. Casino development
generates huge amounts of money and, critics say, the presence of a
casino in any region means fundamental changes to any locality's current
way of life.


Here are more familiar herbs from in Cherokee country. As always,
remember that these plants are very valuable as medicines because of the
great chemical powers they contain. At the same time, these chemicals
can be potentially dangerous if used in the wrong way. Cherokee
herbalists have great experience, and have gone through extensive
training and observation. Novice herbal practitioners are advised to
seek out and develop a close relationship with Cherokee herbalists or
their elders to learn how to use these medicines properly.

Qua lo ga (Sumac)
All parts of the common sumac have a medicinal use. Mild decoctions
from the bark can be used as a gargle for sore throats, and may be taken
for a remedy for diarrhea. A tea from the leaves and berries also
reduces fevers. Fresh bruised leaves and ripe berries are made into a
poultice which soothes poison ivy. A drink from the ripened or dried
berries makes a pleasant beverage which is a good source of vitamin C.

Big Stretch, or Nuyigala dinadanesgi utana (Wild Ginger)
The Cherokee commonly recommend a mild tea of this herb, made from the
rootstock which is a mild stimulant for the digestive system. It can
also help colic, intestinal gas, or the common upset stomach. A strong,
hot infusion of the roots can act as an expectorant in eliminating mucus
from the lungs. Fresh wild ginger may be substituted for the regular
store-bought ginger roots as a spice for cooking.

What Rabbits Eat, or Jisdu unigisdi (Wild Rose)
The ripe fruit of the Wild Rose is a rich source of Vitamin C, and is
a reliable preventative and cure for the common cold. The tea from the
hips is a mild diuretic, and stimulates the bladder and kidneys. When
the infusion of the petals is used, it is an ancient remedy for sore
throats. Cherokee healers recommend a decoction of the roots for

Squirrel Tail, or Saloli gatoga (Yarrow)
Yarrow has many uses. The best known use is to stop excess bleeding.
Freshly crushed leaves can be applied to open wounds or cuts, and the
properties of the herb will cause the blood to clot. A fresh juice of
yarrow, diluted with spring or distilled water, can held internal
bleeding such as stomach and intestinal disorders. The leaves, prepared
as a tea, is believed to stimulate intestinal functions and aid in
digestion. It also helps the flow of the kidneys, as well as the
gallbladder. A decoction made of the leaves and stems acts as an
astringent, and is a wonderful wash for all kinds of skin problems such
as acne, chapped hands, and other irritations.

Looks Like Coffee, or Kawi Iyusdi (Yellow Dock)
This plant is not only a medicinal herb, but also a food. It is much
like spinach, but believe it or not, contains MORE vitamins and
minerals. Because of the long taproot, it gathers nutrients from deep
underground. The leaves are a source of iron, and also have laxative
properties. Juices from the stems, prepared in a decoction, can be made
into an ointment with beeswax and olive oil, and used for itching, minor
sores, diaper rash, and other irritations. Cherokee herbalists
prescribe a warm wash made from the decoction of crushed roots for a
disinfectant. Juice from the root, not prepared in any certain way, is
said to be a cure for ringworm.


The Journal of San Diego History seeks reviewers of books, documentary
films, and museum exhibits that address the history of Southern
California, the Southwest, and the US/Mexico Borderlands. If you are
interested in reviewing for The Journal of San Diego History, please
send a CV and your area(s) of expertise to Colin Fisher
( or Dawn Riggs (


JRBONARDI sent me this:

Well, Google has put a whole new meaning to the phrase "I know where you
Click this link:
Then click the short link at the upper right that says "satellite." Then
type in your street address in the search box at the top -- like 522
westwood avenue, river vale, nj and then hit the search button. Then use
the slider at the upper left to zoom in and out. Also has the usual road
maps, etc . All of this is free.


This came from NAJA:

Stories and photos are needed from skilled writers
and photographers for a growing Lewis and Clark
project to tell the Indian perspective of national
Lewis and Clark events. The project is called Many
Nations: News from the Lewis and Clark Trail.

If you're interested in doing a story, or better
yet, if you have a couple of ideas to propose that
should be done contact the editor Lori Edmo-Suppah
at 1-888-297-1378 ext. 3888.

A number of stories are already posted at then click on the Many Nations link.
The pay for stories that are assigned, turned in and
accepted is $300 for a 20-inch story. There are a
limited number of stories that can be assigned so
not every idea will be accepted.


A big powwow in San Diego this weekend:


Jay Crosby sent me this:

Maybe this will boggle your mind, I know it did mine! The year is 1904
... one hundred years ago. What a difference a century makes! Here are
some of the US statistics for 1904:

The average life expectancy in the US was 47 years.

Only 14% of the homes in the US had a bathtub.

Only 8% of the homes had a telephone.

A three-minute call from Denver to New York City cost $11.00

There were only 8,000 cars in the US, and only 144 miles of paved roads.

The maximum speed limit in most cities was 10 mph.

Alabama, Mississippi, Iowa, and Tennessee were each more heavily
populated than California. With a mere 1.4 million residents,
California was only the 21st most populous state in the Union.

The tallest structure in the world was the Eiffel Tower.

The average wage in the US was 22 cents an hour.

The average US worker made between $200 and $400 per year.

A competent accountant could expect to earn $2000 per year, a dentist
$2,500 per year.

A veterinarian between $1,500 and $4,000 per year.

A mechanical engineer about $5,000 per year.

More than 95 percent of all births in the US took place at home.

90% of all US physicians had no college education. Instead, they
attended medical schools, many of which were condemned in the press and
by the government as "substandard."

Sugar cost four cents a pound. Eggs were fourteen cents a dozen.

Coffee was fifteen cents a pound.

Most women only washed their hair once a month, and used borax or egg
yolks for shampoo.

Canada passed a law prohibiting poor people from entering the country
for any reason.

The five leading causes of death in the US were:

1. Pneumonia and influenza
2. Tuberculosis
3. Diarrhea
4. Heart disease
5. Stroke

The American flag had 45 stars. Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Hawaii,
and Alaska hadn't been admitted to the Union yet.

The population of Las Vegas, Nevada, was 30!

Crossword puzzles, canned beer, and iced tea hadn't been invented.

There was no Mother's Day or Father's Day.

Two of 10 US adults couldn't read or write. Only 6% of all Americans had
graduated high school.

Marijuana, heroin, and morphine were all available over the counter at
corner drugstores. According to one pharmacist, "Heroin clears the
complexion, gives buoyancy to the mind, regulates the stomach and
bowels, and is, in fact, a perfect guardian of health." (Shocking!)

Eighteen percent of households in the US had at least one full-time
servant or domestic.

There were only about 230 reported murders in the entire US

And I forwarded this from someone else without typing it myself, and
sent it to you in a matter of seconds! Try to imagine what it may be
like in another 100 years ... it staggers the mind


A bit of humor:

New Definitions
Arbitrator \ar'-bi-tray-ter\: A cook that leaves Arby's to work at
Avoidable \uh-voy'-duh-buhl\: What a bullfighter tries to do.
Baloney \buh-lo'-nee\: Where some hemlines fall
Bernadette \burn'-a-det\: The act of torching a mortgage
Burglarize \bur'-gler-ize\: What a crook sees with
Control \kon-trol'\: A short, ugly inmate
Counterfeiters \kown-ter-fit-ers \: Workers who put together kitchen
Eclipse \i-klips'\: what a Cockney barber does for a living
Eyedropper \i'-drop-ur\: a clumsy ophthalmologist
Heroes \hee'-rhos\: what a guy in a boat does
Left Bank \left' bangk'\: what the robber did when his bag was full of
Misty \mis'-tee\: How golfers create divots
Paradox \par'-u-doks\: two physicians
Parasites \par'-uh-sites\: what you see from the top of the Eiffel Tower
Pharmacist \farm'-uh-sist\: a helper on the farm
Polarize \po'-lur-ize\: what penguins see with
Primate \pri'-mat\: removing your spouse from in front of the TV
Relief \ree-leef'\: what trees do in the spring
Rubberneck \rub'-er-nek\: what you do to relax your wife
Seamstress \seem'-stres\: describes the effect of 250 pounds in a size
Selfish \sel'-fish\: what the owner of a seafood store does
Subdued \sub-dood'\: like, a guy, like, works on one of those, like,
submarines, man
Sudafed \sood'-a-fed\: bringing litigation against a government official


George Carlin's Views on Aging

Do you realize that the only time in our lives when we like to get old
is when we're kids? If you're less than 10 years old, you're so excited
about aging that you think in fractions.

"How old are you?" "I'm four and a half!" You're never thirty-six and a
half You're four and a half, going on five!

That's the key.

You get into your teens, now they can't hold you back. You jump to the
next number, or even a few ahead.!

"How old are you?" "I'm gonna be 16!" You could be 13, but hey, you're
gonna be 16! And then the greatest day of your life . . . you become 21.
Even the words sound like a ceremony . . YOU BECOME 21. YESSSS!!!

But then you turn 30. Oooohh, what happened there? Makes you sound like
bad milk! . He TURNED; we had to throw him out There's no fun now,
you're Just a sour-dumpling. What's wrong? What's changed?

You BECOME 21, you TURN 30, then you're PUSHING 40.

Whoa! Put on the brakes, it's all slipping away. Before you know it, you
REACH 50 and your dreams are gone.

But wait!!! You MAKE it to 60. You didn't think you would!

So you BECOME 21, TURN 30, PUSH 40, REACH 50 and MAKE it to 60.

You've built up so much speed that you HIT 70! After that it's a
day-by-day thing; you HIT Wednesday!

You get into your 80s and every day is a complete cycle; you HIT lunch;
you TURN 4:30; you REACH bedtime.

And it doesn't end there.! Into the 90s, you start going backwards; "I
Was JUST 92."

Then a strange thing happens. If you make it over 100, you become a
little kid again. "I'm 100 and a half!"

May you all make it to a healthy 100 and a half!!


1. Throw out nonessential numbers. This includes age, weight and height.
Let the
doctors worry about them. That is why you pay " them " .

2. Keep only cheerful friends. The grouches pull you down.

3. Keep learning. Learn more about the computer, crafts, gardening,
whatever. Never let the brain idle. " An idle mind is the devil's
workshop." And the devil's name is Alzheimer's.

4. Enjoy the simple things.

5. Laugh often, long and loud. Laugh until you gasp for breath.

6. The tears happen. Endure, grieve, and move on. The only person who is
with us our entire life, is ourselves. Be ALIVE while you are alive.

7. Surround yourself with what you love, Whether it's family, pets,
keepsakes, music, plants, hobbies, whatever. Your home is your refuge.

8. Cherish your health: If it is good, preserve it. If it is unstable,
improve it. If it is beyond what you can improve, get help.

9 Don! 't take guilt trips. Take a trip to the mall, even to the next
county; to a foreign country but NOT to where the guilt is.

10. Tell the people you love that you love them, at every opportunity.

Life is not measured by the number of breaths we take, but by the
moments that take our breath away.


Subject: Math Teacher Arrested
From: "The Good, Clean Funnies List" ;

AT NEW YORK's Kennedy airport today, an individual - later
discovered to be a public school teacher - was arrested trying to board
a flight while in possession of a ruler, a protractor, a slide rule, and
a calculator. At a morning press conference, the U. S. Attorney General
disclosed that he believes the man to be a member of the notorious
al-gebra movement. He is being charged by the FBI with carrying weapons
of math instruction.

"Al-gebra is a fearsome cult," he declared. "They seek average
solutions by means and extremes, and sometimes go off on tangents in
search of absolute value. They use secret code names like 'x' and 'y'
and refer to themselves as 'unknowns,' but we have determined they
belong to a common denominator of the axis of medieval with coordinates
in every country. As the Greek philanderer Isosceles used to argue,
there are three sides to every triangle."

When asked to comment on the arrest, the President stated, "If God
had wanted us to have better weapons of math instruction, He would have
given us more fingers and toes. I am gratified that our government has
shown us a sine that it is intent on protracting us from these
math-dogs, who are willing to disintegrate us with calculus disregard.
Murky statisticians love to inflict plane on every sphere of influence.
Under the circumferences, we must differentiate their root, make our
point, and draw the line."

The President warned, "These weapons of math instruction have the
potential to decimal everything in their math on a scalene never before
seen, unless we become exponents of a Higher Power and begin to factor
in random facts of vertex."

The Attorney General concluded, "As our Great Leader would say, read
my ellipse. Here is one principle he is uncertain of: though they
continue to multiply, their days are numbered as the hypotenuse


Photos of “oops moments:”


I received the following e-mail from a subscriber. Please feel free to
contact him directly if you are interested in his proposal.

Dear Phil, as you know I am an academician in a university in Turkey
studying on architecture, urban and regional planning, history of
civilization, architecture and settlements. I am looking that you have
large relations with the universities open particularly for native
american students. I want to give academic and lecture supports if they
need. I can realize lectures on architectural and civilization history
and similar issues. I am reading your newsletters with many thanks. They
are very useful and interesting for me.

Thank you very much your efforts.
Best regards
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Levin Özgen
Süleyman Demirel University
Engineering Architecture Faculty,
Architecture Department
Isparta - Turkey


Here are some random historical events for May:

May 1, 1637: After numerous incidents, and incursions on both sides,
English settlers in Connecticut declare war on the Pequot Indians. Most
of the fighting take places in Connecticut and Massachusetts.

May 2, 1670: King Charles of England gives all trade rights to "all the
Landes Countreyes and Territoryes upon the Coastes and Confynes of the
Seas" lying within the Hudson Strait to the Hudson’s Bay Company. This
monopoly remains in effect until 1859.

May 3, 490: Maya Lord Kan - Xul I (King K'an Joy Chitam I) is born,
according to some sources. Eventually, he rules over Palenque, Mexico.

May 4, 1805: The Pascagoula, and the Biloxi, Indians sell their lands
along the Gulf Coast to "Miller and Fulton." Miller and Fulton are
among the first settlers in the Rapides Parish area. The documents,
signed by six Indians, are confirmed. The Pascagoulas move to the Red
River area.

May 5, 1800: William Augusta Bowles is an adventurer in the
southeastern part of the United States. With Creek and Cherokee
supporters, he proclaims a new nation, Muscogee, out of lands claimed
by Spain along the Gulf coast, with himself as "Director-General".
Bowles declares war on Spain, and begins a campaign against their
outposts in his "nation." Some sources list this as happening on April
5, 1800.

May 6, 1626: The Purchase of Manhattan takes place. The Shinnecock or
Canarsee Indians, according to which source you believe, sell it to
Peter Minuit.

May 7, 1877: Colonel Nelson Miles, and his force of four Cavalry
Troops, and six Infantry Companies, finds Lame Deer, and his followers
on the Muddy Creek, near the Rosebud. Nelson surprises the village with
a charge. Lame Dear, and Iron Star, parley with Miles about a peaceful
settlement, but after they return, fight erupts, again. The battle
continues, and proceeds toward the Rosebud River. Lame Deer, Iron Star,
and twelve other Indians are killed. Four soldiers are killed. Lt.
Alfred M. Fuller, and six soldiers are wounded. Almost 450 mounts are
seized. The camp supplies, and many lodges are also captured. Corporal
Harry Garland and Private William Leonard, Company L, and Private Samuel
Phillips, Company H, Second Cavalry, will win the Congressional Medal of
Honor for "gallantry in action" as a part of today's battle. Company L
First Sergeant Henry Wilkens, and Farrier William H. Jones, will also be
awarded the Medal of Honor for their gallantry in today's battle, and
for actions against the Nez Perce on August 20, 1877.

May 8, 1725: In one of the last battles of Lovewell’s or Father Rasle’s
War, Pigwacket Indians defeat a British army under Captain John Lovewell
at Fryeburg, Maine.

May 9, 1885: Today through the 12th, events in the Second Riel
Rebellion take place in Canada. Major General Frederick Middleton and a
force of 800 soldiers attack the Metis and Cree holding the village of
Batoche. The fighting continues through the 12th until the soldiers
finally overrun Batoche.

May 10, 1869: One of the most devastating events in the lives of the
plains Indians is the crossing of their lands by the railroads. The
railroads bring settlers, hunters, and separate the buffalo herds.The
"iron horses" of the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific meet at
Promontory Point, Utah, completing the first cross continental railroad
in the United States.

May 11, 1968: The Constitution of the Indians of the Tulalip Tribes in
Washington is modified.

May 12, 1860: A battle in the Paiute War takes place in Nevada at Big
Bend in the valley of the Truckee River. Major William Ormsby’s Nevada
militia are attacked by Paiutes under war Chief Numaga.

May 13, 1614: The Viceroy of Mexico finds Spanish Explorer Juan de
Oñate guilty of atrocities against the Indians of New Mexico. As a part
of his punishment, he is banned from entering New Mexico again.

May 14, 1832: Near the Kyte River, Major Isaiah Stillman, and 275
soldiers are patrolling the area, on the lookout for Black Hawk. Weary
of fighting, Black Hawk sends a few representatives to Stillman's camp
to negotiate the surrender of his four dozen warriors. When the
soldiers fire on Black Hawk's representatives, a few manage to escape.
With the soldiers in pursuit, Black Hawk sets up an ambush. Becoming
confused by the sudden attack, Stillman's troop panick and flee the
area. Eleven soldiers, and three Indians are killed in the fighting.
However, the soldiers report a massacre of troops. The "battle" is
called "Stillman's Run."

May 15, 1846: A treaty is signed by Texas Governor Pierce Butler, and
Colonel M.G. Lewis (Meriwether Lewis' brother), and sixty-three Indians
of the Aionai, Anadarko, Caddo, Comanche, Kichai (Keehy), Lepan
(Apache), Longwha, Tahuacarro (Tahwacarro), Tonkawa, Waco, Wichita and
tribes. It is ratified on February 15, 1847, and signed by President
Polk on March 8, 1847.

May 16, 1760: Creek warrior Chief Hobbythacco (Handsome Fellow) has
often supported the English, but, at the outbreak of the Cherokee war,
he decides to support the Cherokees. He leads an attack on a group of
English traders in Georgia. Thirteen of the traders are killed during
the fighting. Creek Chief "The Mortar" also participates in the

May 17, 1629: According to a deed, Sagamore Indians, including
Passaconaway, sell a piece of land in what becomes Middlesex County,

May 18, 1661: Captain John Odber is order by the Maryland General
Assembly to take fifty men and go to the "Susquesahannough Forte."
According to a treaty signed on May 16th, Maryland is required to help
protect the Susquehannocks from raids by the Seneca. Odber’s force is
to fulfill that part of the treaty.

May 19, 1796: Congress passes "An Act Making Appropriations for
Defraying the Expenses Which May Arise in Carrying into Effect a Treaty
Made Between the United States and Certain Indian Tribes, Northwest of
the River Ohio."

May 20, 698: As part of a series of attacks on neighboring cities in
Guatemala, Maya warriors from Naranjo attack Kinichil Kab'

May 21, 1877: In retaliation for the Custer defeat, the Sioux and Ponca
are ordered to go to a new reservation in Indian Territory (present day
Oklahoma). The Poncas have nothing to do with the war, and they continue
their complaints about the bureaucratic error which places them on a
reservation with the Sioux in the first place. The government does not
bend, and the Ponca begin their march to Indian Territory.

May 22, 1851: As one of the last conflicts in the "Mariposa Indian
Wars" in California, a large group of Yosemite Indians are captured at
Lake Tenaija.

May 23, 1873: The Northwest Mounted Police is founded. One of the main
reasons for its creation is the problems being fomented by Americans
selling alcohol to Canadian Indians. This organization eventually
becomes the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

May 24, 1539: Mexican Viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza has decided to
send an expedition to search for wealthy cities north of Mexico. On
March 7, 1539, Friar Marcos de Niza started the expedition from
Culiacan. Accordiong to Niza’s journal, he finally sees Cibola,
although he never sets foot in the pueblo. His report will lead to
future expeditions looking for the "Seven Cities of Gold."

May 25, 1673: At the site of modern Niles, Michigan, the British
erected Fort St. Joseph. Its garrison of sixteen men, led by Ensign
Francis Schlosser, is attacked by a large Potawatomi war party. Only
Schlosser and three other men survive the attack. The British are later
traded for Potawatomi prisoners in Detroit.

May 26, 1540: The "Lady of Cofitachequi" has been taken with the de
Soto expedition, against her will. With a large quantity of the pearls
that de Soto's men took from her village, she escapes.

May 27, 1763: Fort Miami is located at the site of modern Fort Wayne,
Indiana. It is garrisoned by twelve British soldiers, led by Ensign
Robert Holmes. Pontiac's rebellion has started, and the Ensign is
convinced to leave the Fort by his Miami Indian girlfriend. Miami
warriors kill the Ensign, and a Sergeant who leaves to Fort to look for
the Ensign. The Miamis demand the surrender of the remaining soldiers.
To drive home their point, they throw the head of Ensign Holmes into the
fort. The soldiers surrender, and all but one are eventually killed.

May 28, 1830: Andrew Jackson, called "Sharp Knife" by the Indians, has
long fought the Indians of the southeast. He believes that the Indians
and white settlers will not be able to peacefully live together. His
solution to this is to renege on all of the previous treaties, which
granted the Indians their lands forever, and to move all Indians west
of the Mississippi River. Jackson makes this proposal to Congress
during his First Congressional speech on December 8, 1829. Congress
makes the proposal into a law on this date.

May 29, 1980: Department of the Interior Field Solicitor Elmer
Nitzschke, states the Mille Lacs Reservation Business Committee has the
right to control the Sandy Lakes Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The
Sandy Lakes Band of Ojibwe, which lives on the reservation, feels they
should have control of the reservation.

May 30, 1851: A treaty is signed by Kko-ya-te and Wo-a-si, in

May 31, 1796: The Treaty of the Seven Tribes of Canada is signed by
three Chiefs at New York City. The tribes give up all claims to lands
in New York, except six square miles in Saint Regis. They are paid 1233
pounds, six shillings, and eight pence now, and 213 pounds, six
shillings, eight pence annually, if five more Chiefs show up and sign
the treaty.


That’s it for now.

Stay safe,


End of Phil Konstantin’s May 2005 Newsletter – Part 1
Start of Phil Konstantin’s May 2005 Newsletter – Part 2


I hope you are having a great month. I spent part of
yesterday helping my youngest daughter Sarah move. She,
and a roommate, found a small house to rent here in San
Diego. There seems to be a lot of moving going on as
many colleges and schools are entering their graduation
season. Best wishes to all of those students embarking
on their new lives.

I was disappointed by the number of entries for this
year's essay contest. Only three students submitted
entries. This was surprising based on the number of
inquiries I received, and the number of places where
the contest was mentioned. I'll have to consider whether
I will continue the contest next year. I waited some
time to conclude the contest in hopes that more entries
would arrive by mail. Alas, no more came in.

On a positive note, the three entries were very good.
I have posted them below. I have decided to declare a
tie in the elementary/junior high school class. So,
all three entries are winners.



What Everyone Needs to Know About My Tribe
by India Robinson

The rivers and valleys of Southeastern Connecticut were
home to the proud nation of the Pequot. Long before
Columbus arrived in North America, the rivers and valleys
were our home. The Pequots hunted, fished, traded, and
prospered on 250 miles of land between the Thames and
Pawcatuck rivers along Long Island Sound. Now we have
a reservation in Ledyard, Connecticut.

A long time ago the Pequots had war with the English
and Naragansett. Our leader was Woopigwooit. He died
in the war. Then Sassacus was our leader after his
father, Woopigwooit died. Uncas was jealous of Sassacus
and tried to have him killed so he could be the leader

Today my tribe has a community center where I can
play pool. I go to the tutoring room in the community
center to help with my schoolwork. Our traditional
outfits are called Regalia. We learn the Pequot
language in culture classes. For instance, “wampum”
means money. We also learn to make bracelets and
necklaces with beads. We learn to do Pequot dances
in the Little Fox Dance Troupe. Many Pequot people
today are also African-American. This makes it hard
to be Pequot because we were only known as African-American
for so long. Now we have to work hard to remember
our Pequot roots and history.

India Robinson
Mashantucket Pequot
Grade 4
Groton, CT


What Everyone Needs to Know About My Tribe
by Aaliyah L. Peagler

My tribe is the Mashantucket Pequots, in Connecticut.
In the past a lot of bad things happened to our tribe.
We were hunted and sold as slaves, and now we are
trying to become a great nation again.

In Hartford, on May 1, 1637, General Corte declared
war against the Pequots. James Mason was appointed
commander of 90 men. Word was sent to the Massachusetts
Bay Colony asking for help. Uncas and 70 Mohegan’s
joined forces with the English. On May 20, 1637, the
English and the Mohegans left to fight the Pequots.
The English left by boat and the Mohegans went by land,
down the Connecticut River to Saybrook. The English
and Uncas then sailed east on Long Island Sound. The
Pequots watched as the English sailed by and thought
that they were afraid. The Pequots celebrated, and
did not worry about attacks anymore.

Meanwhile, Mason landed at Narragansett Bay and
consulted with Miantonmoh, the Narragansett sachem.
Miantonmoh said to wait for the reinforcements. Mason
said they would not wait, and got permission to march
through the Narragansett land to attack the Pequots
from the rear. Some Narragansett went along as guides,
and out of curiosity. They marched for 2 days. They
stopped near Stonington, Connecticut. The Narragansett
guides said they were near the first of two Pequot
forts and that the second one, which was several hours
away, was the home of Sassacus.

The English divided into two groups and scaled the
hill to the Pequot fort. The Pequot’s, having been
celebrating the passing of the English, were sleeping.
Mason ordered the men to burn the wigwams. In one
hour 500 Pequot men, women, and children were killed.
Seven were taken prisoner, and seven escaped. Two
English were killed and 20 were wounded.

The English retreated and went to meet their ship.
Pequots from the other camp arrived and attacked the
English. 100 more Pequot’s were killed. Pequots held
a council. They knew that the English would attack
them again and they were hard to fight. Sassacus and
the Pequot tribe decided to burn down their wigwams
and crops and move west to the Hudson River. A group
of Pequots stayed behind. One of the English men from
Massachusetts met up with them. Men were killed and
women and children were sent to Massachusetts as slaves.
Some English, with Uncas, went to find the rest of
the Pequots. They found them in Guilford, Connecticut.
They surrounded the Pequots and Uncas cut off the
head of a minor sachem and hung it in a tree so now
that place is called Sachem’s Head.

I think my tribe, the English, and the Mohegans learned
their lesson never to fight like that again or else
they will get in big trouble like they did in the past.
We can all live together nicely. Now our tribe has a
big casino and we have a lot of money. Today in our
tribe we learn the Pequot language and we also learn
how to do Pequot dances.

Aaliyah L. Peagler
Mashantucket Pequot
Grade 4
Mashantucket, CT


“How does my Tribal History Guide my life?”
By Stefani E. Walelu Ries

My ancestors have forged a path across the pages of
history. Today, I walk along my own section of their
path, yet I remain within the trail that they first
fashioned so long ago.

My life is guided by a history that was written through
the lives of people who lived before me. Dragging
Canoe made a path of freedom for me through his courage.   
Though his life was far distant on this path, his
journey continues through our people who have survived
because of his bravery and strength.

Closer to my time on this trail is the story of how
my path was chosen. My mom’s maternal grandmother
tried to hide her heritage, leaving Oklahoma forever.
They never shared information about their past, even
with their children. Had that been the only choice
made, I might never have known my place on this path.
Fortunately for me, my mom’s paternal family boldly
shared their history; making certain that we know from
where we have come.

When my mother was born, she became ill. Because her
clan was not yet revealed by her maternal grandmother,
her paternal grandmother presented her to the clan
mothers and asked them to allow her adopt my mom into
her own clan. She did this because she loved my mother
but also because she wanted to have special prayer
ceremonies for my mother that could not otherwise be
done. Because she was chosen and not born into my
grandmother’s clan, my mom was called “Tsasuyed” which
means “You are chosen.”

The decision to raise my mother as a member of the
Bird Clan meant that many years later, when I finally
arrived, I was born into this clan. I was given the
name “Walelu” which means “hummingbird”. The elders
in this clan tell me that I will forever be known by
this clan as one of them because of a decision made
before I was even born. They ask me to tell my children
who we are so that our clan will not be forgotten.
They remind me to tell this story because we have all
been chosen by our Creator to walk the path of life.
He has given us our place upon it.

I will continue their tradition of sharing our story.
I am known by those who have gone before me through
what they have done and how they have lived. I will
be known as a person who kept our culture alive. I will
continue our songs and dances to our Creator, praising
Sgiyanehlanv (translation: “our Creator”) for our place
on the path that he has given to us.

I will share my tribe’s culture with future generations,
whose births will join them to me on our path. I walk
the course that my ancestors set me upon; each step
guided by the memory of them and by a dream of my
children to come. The places where I choose to set
my feet will shape the path of my people forever, so
I must walk carefully, truthfully, and with honor.

Stefani Erin “Walelu” Ries
Chikamaka Band of The Southeast Cumberland
Plateau Region, Inc.,
(official website:
school grade: 9th
Franklin, NC 28734


Here are a couple of websites which you might find interesting.

World Peace And Prayer Day 2005 will take place in Paha Sapa
(The Black Hills) on June 21st. This event appears to be
sponsored by Chief Arvol Looking Horse and the Wolakota

Senate Hearing on the Federal Recognition of Indian Tribes

Robert Whitebird, the last Full Blood citizen of the
Quapaw Nation died a few days ago. He was 92 years old,
and officially the last of the Quapaw Nation's 3200
citizens to carry the 4/4 blood quantum. He was born
Jan. 17, 1913. He was the first president of the
Inter-Tribal Council. He also founded the Oklahoma
Indian Rights Association, and he was a member of
the National Congress of American Indians. The first
two links discuss his life. The third link has some photos.

And, finally, the local newspaper had a story about
my retirement.


That is it for now.

Stay safe,


End of Phil Konstantin’s May 2005 Newsletter – Part 2
Start of Phil Konstantin’s May 2005 Newsletter – Part 3

As usual, I left something out of this newsletter.

There were four entries in the essay contest. The remaining entry was
from Karenia Melynda Simpson of Keller, Washington. She is the co-winner
for the high school group.

Here is here essay:


“How my Tribe’s History guides my life”

As I sit in my living room and look around, I see
reminders of my culture all around me. I see the
baby board I was carried in hanging on the wall.
It is sometimes called a papoose carrier. On the
wall directly across from me hang a painted hand
drum and a flute in its colorful pouch. On the floor
beneath it sits a powwow drum hand carved from the
trunk of a pine tree. Also on the wall is Indian
pottery and beside it a miniature birch bark canoe.
There are various beaded medallions, chokers, and

On the wall directly behind me is a traditional dance
bustle of eagle feathers that my father made. A war
lance, painted and decorated with eagle feathers,
hangs above a coup stick, adorned with otter fur and
finished with an eagle talon. Sitting atop the TV is
a beaded crown I wore when I was chosen, ‘Little Miss
San Poil’, at our local powwow.

On the wall to my left hang pictures of my family;
myself, my nieces, nephews, my five brothers, my
parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents. I am
struck by the fact that all the family members in the
photographs are brown skinned. I think how different
this must be from other households.

On the wall of pictures are some photographs of special
interest. There are three pictures of my great-
grandfather, Billy Simpson, whose real name is Xa’xat
(Haw’ hawt), which means Grizzly Bear. He was the son
of Cayuse chief She-un-em-kin, who was the son of
We-ik-pum. Next to him is a picture of my great-
grandmother, Amy Nanamkin Simpson. Her Indian name
was Chami’shapen, and she was the granddaughter of
Chief Owhi of the Yakama Tribes. Chief Owhi was one
of the sons of Chief We-ow-wickt, who was the father
of the six chiefs of the Yakama Nation.

The descendants of We-ik-pum were of a warrior society,
while the descendants of We-ow- wickt were diplomatic
and seekers of peace. They were both strong defenders
of their people. The safety and well being of their
bands were always foremost in their minds and a determining
factor in their course of action; whether it be going
to war or negotiating a treaty.

I always endeavor to incorporate my tribal teachings
and ethics in my life. I believe this helps me serve
as a role model and an example to others. This portrays
a positive image to those who are unfamiliar with Native

Although I now study non-traditional courses in order
to prepare myself for success in modern society, I will
always have my rich cultural background to guide me in
my future. My tribal history will forever be a guiding
force in my life, and I will continue in the ways of
my ancestors by passing on the oral history of our people.
These are the ways of my tribe, as it has been since
the beginning of time.

Karenia Melynda Simpson
Keller, Washington
Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation
Republic High School, 11th grade


I am sorry I did not include this essay in the previous message.

You can see all of the entries on my website at:

Stay safe,


End of Phil Konstantin’s May 2005 Newsletter – Part 3


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