May 2003 Newsletter Part 2 from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2002)

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  Start of the May 2003 Newsletter – Part Two

  Greetings, again. Here is part two of the newsletter.

  I would like to thank those of you who contributed to my daughters 
  fundraising efforts for the Arthritis Foundation. There is still time to 
  add a few dollars to the fund, if you are so inclined. I have repeated 
  below what I had in part one of the newsletter…

  My youngest daughter, Sarah, turned 21 last November. She is a 
  beautiful, young woman. Fortunately for her, she only gets some of her 
  looks from me ?. Sarah inherited her bad knees from me. 
  Unfortunately, she also has rheumatoid arthritis. It is a mild case, and 
  she gets along quite well. This month Sarah will be participating in the 
  annual San Diego Walk for Arthritis to raise money for the Arthritis 
  Foundation. If you would like to help her out, you can find out more at 
  this website:

  I thought I would include the note below from the Arthritis Foundation's 

  Arthritis Foundation Makes Worth's "100 Best Charities" List. According 
  to Worth magazine the Arthritis Foundation is one of the top 100 
  charities in the nation. After six months investigating hundreds of 
  charities (the IRS recognizes more than 819,000 charities, with 45,000 
  new ones added in the past year) and talking to philanthropy experts to 
  find charities that are successful in meeting their mission, Worth 
  Magazine has published its list of "America's Best 100 Charities."

  The Arthritis Foundation was praised for having low fundraising and 
  administrative costs and for the many ways it touches the lives of 
  people with arthritis, specifically through research, publications and 
  advocacy efforts. Nearly 80 percent of a donation to the Arthritis 
  Foundation goes directly to helping people with arthritis through these 
  efforts as well as through substantial programs, services and events.

  We need your help to better serve the 70 million people with 
  arthritis. Be assured that your donation will be used wisely to best 
  serve you and others with arthritis.


  A couple of people have asked me exactly where I will be going on my 
  trip in a few weeks, so I will try to list an itinerary here. Again, a 
  lot depends on the weather. A late snow fall, or heavy rains will cause 
  me to make some major changes. 

  I’ll land in Spokane (as close as Southwest Airlines gets to Missoula) 
  and drive over to see both the Spokane Plains and Steptoe battlegrounds. 
  I will then cut across into Idaho through Lewiston. Then, it is a quick 
  trip through the Nez Perce Reservation and the White Bird and Clearwater 

  A quick note…why so many battlegrounds you may ask? I have read (and in 
  some cases written) about the places so often that I would like to see 
  them. I also plan on taking photos for the website.

  I’ll then take Hwy 12 through the Lolo pass to just south of Missoula. 
  Then it is south on Hwy 93 down to the Big Hole battleground cutoff. 
  Then back to 93 into Idaho down to Salmon. I hope to be able to follow 
  the road along the state line & visit the Sacajawea monument out of 
  Tendoy (the place where the Lemhi-Shoshone used to have their 
  reservation before they were moved to Fort Hall). There are lots of dirt 
  roads and mountain passes through here, so I might have to detour quite 
  a bit. I’ll be back on Hwy 28 down the state line to Hwy 22 and across 
  to Kilgore to see the Camas Meadows battleground. This path is along the 
  Nez Perce Trail. 

  Next, it will be a quick trip through Yellowstone Park. This is the only 
  place I wil have visited before. I was there during the fires in the 
  1980s. In Wyoming, things get a bit complicated because I want to visit 
  many places in a large region. I still have not quite figured out the 
  best route (weather permitting). I have considered going south through 
  the Grand Tetons. I absolutely fell in love with this beautiful place 
  during my last visit. Talk about purple mountain majesty! If I do go 
  this way, it will be on Hwy 26 through the Wind River reservation. Then 
  it will north on Hwy 798 to Thermopolis. Then northeast on Hwy 120 to 
  Legend Rock State Petroglyph site. This has one of the largest 
  concentrations of pictographs in the country. Then continuing northeast 
  to Meeteetse where there is an ancient 58 foot object made of stone 
  which looks like an arrow. It is pointing toward the Medicine Wheel near 
  Lovell. The arrow is on private property, so I do not know if I will be 
  able to see it. Then I cut across Hwy 431 to Worland and over to 
  Hyattville to see the Medicine Lodge State Archaeological site. Then, it 
  is up Hwy 788 to Lovell and then east on Alternate 14 to the Medicine 
  Wheel. This is an ancient site which has many stones set in a circle. It 
  is believed to be an ancient astronomical site with certain stones 
  aligned to match the rising sun or stars on certain dates (similar to 
  Stonehenge). I plan to tred lightly here as I hear some tribes still 
  consider this a sacred site.

  Next, I follow Hwy 14 over to Sheridan and the Connor battleground. 
  Then, it is south on Interstate 25 to the Wagon Box & Fetterman 
  battlefields (Story, Wy). A little further southeast is Fort Phil 
  Kearny. Using a few back country roads, I hope to see the Crazy Woman 
  River crossing battleground & the ruins of Fort Reno. Then another 
  backtracking takes me west through Kaycee & Barnum to the Dull Knife 
  battleground. This place is also on private property & rugged roads. 
  Then back onto I-25 through Casper, and Douglas to Fort Fetterman. 
  Continuing southeast takes me to Hwy 26 and eventually Fort Laramie and 
  a few other battle sites.

  From here I might go into Nebraska to Fort Robinson and the War Bonnet 

  South Dakota is the next on my list. I plan a visit to the Pine Ridge 
  reservation and to Wounded Knee. This is one of the places I really want 
  to visit. Then maybe I make a trip through the Badlands and back west so 
  I can see the Crazy Horse Mountain Monument. Now I will have to decide 
  how much time I have left. If I have it to spare, it would be nice to go 
  northeast through the Standing Rock and Cheyenne River reservations and 
  then into North Dakota. I would like to see Fort Buford and Fort Union 
  on the North Dakota-Montana border. However, I still want to see the 
  Reynolds, Rosebud and Little Big Horn battle grounds in southeastern 
  Wyoming. I also want to visit the Bear Paw monument in northern Montana 
  where the Nez Perce were finally stopped on their dash for Canada. I 
  would also like to see the Fort Peck, Fort Berthold, Rocky Boy and 
  Blackfeet reservations and then Glacier Park.

  Eventually, I have to make it to Missoula for my presentation at the 
  Confluences of Culture ( ) conference on 
  the 29th at the University of Montana.

  For those of you who asked, that was more than you wanted to know, 
  wasn’t it!

  I will be taking lots of pictures, which I will add to the website when 
  I can. Yes, I realize that is a lot of territory to cover, but I do move 
  quickly. If any of you have any suggestions of places to visit, or 
  really cheap places to stay, please let me know. If any of you happen to 
  live along this route, I’d be happy to wave as I go by, or even stop by 
  to say “Hi,” if I have the time.


  Featured Link of the Month for May 2003:
  The Link of the Month for May 2003 is the Frontier Heritage Alliance. 
  The mission of the Alliance is to address historical themes that cross 
  county and state lines on the Great Plains and in the Rocky Mountain 
  region, and to facilitate the communication, cooperation, and 
  coordination between all entities involved." One of the pages on their 
  site is titled "Six Campaigns Of General Crook." This is an amazingly 
  detailed look into Crook's campaign during 1876. If you like reading 
  detailed history, you will love this material. You can find it at: 


  The “Treaty of the Month” is the TREATY WITH THE KICKAPOO, 1854. May 18, 
  1854. | 10 Stat., 1078.
  The treaty covers such subjects as: Cession of land to the United 
  States., Reservation for a permanent home, Payment for said cession, 
  Release from former treaties, Provisions against use of ardent spirits 
  and a few other things. You can see a complete transcript here:


  This month I am going to do a short review of the movie: “The Creator’s 

  When I started watching this movie, I struck me as something that might 
  have been done by one of the production companies in Utah. There are 
  several companies in Utah that specialize in family-oriented movies. 
  Sure enough, “The Creator’s Game” was produced by a Utah company.

  According to the International Movie DataBase website: 
  Tagline: Not All of Life's Lessons Are Learned on the Field.   Plot 
  Outline: Daniel must defeat all odds, even himself, if he wants to 
  regain the respect of his team and get the coaching position he covets.

  Dakota House plays Daniel Cloud. Daniel is an ace at lacrosse, but he 
  wants to be a football coach. Without giving away too much of the plot, 
  Daniel must coach a winning lacrosse team before he can get a job as a 
  football coach. 

  This movie, written and directed by Bruce Troxell, tries to make several 
  points about family, tradition, hard word, honesty and cultural clashes. 
  I found the story to be a bit contradictory, but not that bad. It does 
  have a few stereotypical “mystical” American Indian scenes. While I 
  would not pay to rent this movie, you might want to watch it if it shows 
  up on TV or cable.


  Apply now to attend the "Youth Crime in Context," a Casey Journalism 
  Center two-day conference for journalists from Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, 
  Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South 
  Dakota, Texas, Utah and Wyoming.

  The conference will be held in Denver on June 20-21, 2003.

  Be one of 25 professional print, broadcast and online journalists 
  selected to examine juvenile crime and justice issues. Recognized 
  experts will discuss what's known about juvenile delinquents and 
  criminals; trends in treatment and punishment; the politics of juvenile 
  crime, and more. Guest journalists will share ideas for reporting 
  stories that engage audiences and dispel stereotypes. Fellowships cover 
  materials, one night's lodging and a travel subsidy.

  Application deadline: Monday, May 12, 2003

  The Casey Journalism Center on Children and Families is a resource for 
  journalists who cover the issues, policies and institutions that affect 
  U.S. children and their families, particularly the disadvantaged. CJC is 
  nonprofit program of the Philip Merrill College of Journalism at the 
  University of Maryland.

  To apply, send the following to Beth Frerking, director, at the address 
  1) A biographical sketch (including contact information) and one sample 
  of your work
  2) A brief statement of why you want to attend the conference (max. 500 
  3) a brief letter of nomination from a supervisor

  Beth Frerking
  Director, Casey Journalism Center on Children and Families
  4321 Hartwick Road, Suite 320, College Park, MD 20740
  301-699-5133    Fax: 301-699-9755
  E-mail:        Web:

  Sorry, if I have already posted this one…

  The Arizona Republic
  E.J. Montini

  April 8, 2003 12:00 AM

  Who would call warrior 'squaw'?

  Here's a chance to right a wrong.

  I'm wondering if during her short life Army Pfc. Lori Piestewa was 
  ever referred to as a "squaw." It will never happen now. She has 
  earned that much. Not just for herself, but for every woman like 

  There have been suggestions over the years to remove the word 
  from parks and public facilities. But these suggestions have failed. 
  Those who like the word point out that in many dictionaries, 
  "squaw" is simply defined as a Native American woman. They say 
  that Indians who find the word offensive are thin-skinned and that 
  non-Indians who believe the word is derogatory are either 
  misinformed liberals or the softheaded victims of an educational 
  system that has replaced historical fact with out-of-control political 

  Given that, I'm wondering now if there is anyone out there who 
  would dare to call Pfc. Piestewa, the first Native American 
  servicewoman to die in combat, a "squaw." I have been checking 
  the newspaper headlines and the TV broadcasts for days and I 
  haven't seen it yet.

  I have heard Pfc. Piestewa referred to as a "warrior" by her brother 
  and as a "hero" by friends and associates. She also has been 
  described as a good soldier and as a patriot, all of which is true. 

  But I have not heard anyone call her a "squaw." If the word were 
  not offensive, as so many claim, I would have expected it to be 
  used many times by now.

  But it has not been used. And it will not be used. Because those 
  who so confidently and casually informed Native Americans and 
  others that "squaw" is not insulting or defamatory would never use 
  the word to describe this dedicated 23-year-old woman who was 
  killed in Iraq.

  On the day that Lori's death was confirmed by the Army a light 
  snow fell in Tuba City, her hometown. According to Hopi beliefs, 
  the soul of a person who has led a good and honorable life returns 
  to Hopi land in the form of precipitation. Lori Piestewa came home 
  that day, but there were no reports on television announcing the 
  return of a "squaw."

  Nor have I heard any of the radio talk show hosts who said the 
  word "squaw" is inoffensive use it to describe this good and 
  gracious young mother who died in the service of her nation.

  Last month, state Rep. Jack Jackson Jr. introduced a bill in the 
  Legislature that would prohibit the state, counties and towns from 
  using the word "squaw" as part of the name of publicly funded 
  roads, landmarks or facilities.

  "Most people, particularly Indian people, will say the word is 
  demeaning and offensive, especially to Indian woman," said 
  Jackson, who is Navajo.

  His proposal is considered an unnecessary overreaction by many 
  and completely inappropriate by others. One woman wrote a letter 
  to the editor of The Republic, saying, "I love these Indian words. I 
  do not feel they are unflattering in any way. They add romance to 
  Arizona and bring to mind the colorful history of the Indian 

  I wonder if those who agreed with her believe that now, or if they 
  used the word "squaw" when talking about Pfc. Piestewa. I wonder 
  if the sight of Piestewa's grieving family or the makeshift 
  memorial outside of their Tuba City home has changed their 
  minds. I wonder if the photographs of Piestewa in uniform, 
  smiling, proud, have altered their view.

  According to Rep. Jackson there are more than 1,000 sites around 
  the nation that use the word "squaw" in their names. We have 
  many in Phoenix, including a road that runs through the heart of 
  the city and the jagged mountain rising above it.

  I don't know if politicians here have the guts to right an old wrong 
  and at the same time honor a fallen Arizona warrior. But I do like 
  the sound of Piestewa Peak.


  This came from Hal & Cheryl Carson, who got it from someone else:

                        Subject: [Circle] OT- a story told by the Wintu 
  Tribal Elders of
                        Date: Sat, 03 May 2003 20:51:17 -0400

                        I thought this might interest some of you. This 
  came from my Oneida
                        Indian foster daughter. Mary

  Subject: a story told by the Wintu Tribal Elders of California

  When it comes time for the female Eagle to choose her mate, she prepares 
  herself for many suitors. And many come before her. She looks them over 
  quite well and then picks one to fly with for awhile. If she likes the 
  way he flies she finds a small stick, picks it up and flies high with 

  At some point she will drop the stick to see if the male can catch it. 
  If he does, then she finds a larger stick and flies with it much higher 
  this time.

  Each time the male catches the sticks, she continues to pick up larger 
  and larger sticks. When she finds the largest, heaviest stick that she 
  herself can carry, the stick is at this point almost the size of a small 
  log! But she can still fly very high with this large stick. At any time 
  in this process, if the male fails to catch the stick, she flies away 
  from him as her signal that the test is now over. She begins her search 
  all over again. And when she again finds a male she is interested in, 
  she starts testing him in the exact same way. And she will continue 
  this"testing" until she finds the male Eagle who can catch all the 

  And when she does, she chooses him, and will mate with him for life.

  One of the reasons for this test is that at some point they will build a 
  nest together high up and will then have their Eaglettes. When the 
  babies begin to learn to fly, they sometimes fall instead. It is then 
  that the male must catch his young. And he does! The female Eagle and 
  their Eaglettes have depended on him to be strong for them. Just as we 
  Native women and children need to depend upon our Native men. (jan 

  So what I would like to offer to you my friends is this. Sisters, how 
  well do you "test" your suitors before you allow them into your life?

  And my Brothers, how well have you caught the "sticks" for your women 
  and your children?

  Whatever our past has been like, if we need to change, let's do so now 
  together. Our children are counting on us to make these good choices for 
  them and for their children. My Sisters, it's time for us to welcome our 
  Native men back into our Circles. We need to bring balance and harmony 
  back to our and our communities.

  This won't happen until we as men and women can come together and learn 
  to truly Love one another in a healthy and repectful way. Open your arms 
  today, we can do this together.

  Let's love each other in a good way! Let's love and be faithful like Our 
  Eagle relatives! Let's learn from their wisdom.

                        Aho! Mitakuye Oyasin.... All My Relations.;-)

                        * end of forwarded story *



  FYI, I am passing this along. I do not know enough about it to support 
  or oppose it:

  Bill SB 174 - Filed by Jane Nelson, District 12 Grapevine, TX makes it 
  impossible to be able to access information on marriage records to the 
  public including genealogists and family historians. Bills SB861/HB1778 
  seek to make birth records remain closed for 75 years. Currently they 
  are closed for 50 years. This makes it increasingly difficult, and for 
  some impossible to research their lineage and family history. DD214 
  legislation is also being passed in a futile attempt to stop identity 
  theft. There is a petition online but if you would rather develop your 
  own, that is fine, too. The link to it is ,then 
  click on human rights tab. Please help us to stop the government from 
  taking away access to our heritage. We would appreciate you signing the 
  petition, and/or contacting your state Representatives and Senators 
  regarding this issue or any other help. Thank you for your support.

                                                   Rosanna Urban Parra


  This notice came from Juliana D. Marez:

             CALL TO CONFERENCE 
             OIEA YOUTH CONFERENCE 2003
             MAY 16-17, 2003 
             PORTLAND OREGON 

           SPEECH CONTEST/NIEA 2003

          Registration $35.00 
          Payable to: OIEA Youth Conference
  Mail Payment to: Urbana Ross, PO Box 726, Warm Springs, OR 97761
          Phone # 541-553-1655 
  For more information contact Ramona “Tedi” Tanewasha at 541-553-3311 



  I do not know if all of these are true, but they seem like it. JJ sent 
  me this one:

  Interesting facts

  1. Rubber bands last longer when refrigerated.
  2. Peanuts are one of the ingredients of dynamite.
  3. There are 293 ways to make change for a dollar.
  4. The average person's left hand does 56% of the typing.
  5. A shark is the only fish that can blink with both eyes.
  6. There are more chickens than people in the world.
  7. Two-thirds of the world's eggplant is grown in New Jersey.
  8. The longest one syllable word in the English language is "screeched."
  9. On a Canadian two dollar bill, the flag flying over the Parliament 
  building is an American flag.
  10. All of the clocks in the movie "Pulp Fiction" are stuck on 4:20.
  11. No word in the English language rhymes with month, orange, silver, 
  or purple.
  12. "Dreamt" is the only English word that ends in the letters "mt."
  13. All 50 states are listed across the top of the Lincoln Memorial on 
  the back on the $5 bill.
  14. Almonds are a member of the peach family.
  15. Winston Churchill was born in a ladies' room during a dance.
  16. Maine is the only state whose name is just one syllable.
  17. There are only four words in the English language which end in 
  "dous": tremendous, horrendous, stupendous, and hazardous.
  18. Los Angeles' full name is "El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora Reina de los 
  Angeles de Porciuncula"
  19. A cat has 32 muscles in each ear.
  20. An ostrich's eye is bigger than its brain.
  21. Tigers have striped skin, not just striped fur.
  22. In most advertisements, the time displayed on a watch is 10:10.
  23. Al Capone's business card said he was a used furniture dealer.
  24. The characters Bert and Ernie on Sesame Street were named after Bert 
  the cop and Ernie the taxi driver in Frank Capra's "It's a Wonderful 
  25. A dragonfly has a life span of 24 hours.
  26. A goldfish has a memory span of t! hree seconds.
  27. A dime has 118 ridges around the edge. !
  28. It's impossible to sneeze with your eyes open.
  29. The giant squid has the largest eyes in the world.
  30. In England, the Speaker of the House is not allowed to speak.
  31. The microwave was invented after a researcher walked by a radar tube 
  and a chocolate bar melted in his pocket.
  32. Mr. Rogers was an ordained minister.
  33. The average person falls asleep in seven minutes.
  34. There are 336 dimples on a regulation golf ball.
  35. "Stewardesses" is the longest word that is typed with only the left 


  Dreamkeeper: A Hallmark miniseries will play on ABC soon. For more info, 
  go to this site:


  EcoTour Fellowships Available

  The National Science Foundation is providing 10 fellowships for 
  journalists to attend the Eco Tour June 17-18, 2003 in Green Bay, 
  Wisconsin. Fellowship winners also receive complimentary registration 
  for the annual NAJA convention June 18-21. Please visit for 
  application and details or contact the NAJA office at 605-677-5282.


  Here are some interesting websites (in no particular order):

  Northern CA Native Events and News

  Walk up to any Indian woman and call her a squaw

  Paiutes are Developing Their Land and Rediscovering Their Heritage

  Lessons Bridge Past, Future - PORTERVILLE CA

  Native American spirit nurtured at Jazz Fest

  Ancient Ways meets modern technology

  Bill removes jurisdiction over reservation

  Court rules against California tribe in political donations case

  Judges suspend court monitor in American Indian royalties case

  Arizona governor signs Navajo Code Talker Monument bill,1413,129%257E6572%257E1342051,00.html

  Feds' reports misled judge on payments to Indians

  Fight continues to save Kaho'olawe

  THAT REMINDS ME: Uproar over Sitting Bull's bones continues smoldering 
  to this day

  Hammering out stereotypes while nailing down jobs

  Legislature resumes debate on mascots

  JODI RAVE LEE: Soldier's death helped better America for Natives

  Meskwakis invite federal intervention,1011263

  Native American tribes ask state for formal recognition

  Obituary: Charles Deegan Jr., a founding member of AIM, pioneer in 
  American Indian health care delivery


  Police lay more charges in B.C. residential abuse investigation

  Work Continues On American Indian Monument

  Legacy of honor

  School using casino fight to recruit Indian students

  Poet Monreal's trip to tribal center proves fruitful

  Aboriginal paper prospers at 20 years

  American Indians celebrate graduation, unity at powwow

  What it means to be Alutiiq - State museum exhibit examines Kodiak-area 
  Native culture

  Y programs shed Indian trappings now deemed racist
  Often-beloved rituals used to develop parent-child bonds no longer 


  Here are some random historical events which do not appear on my 

  May 1, 1540: Hernando de Soto's expedition reaches the river across from 
  the village of Cofitachequi. Among the high Chiefs who are rowed across 
  the river to meet de Soto, is the "Lady of Cofitachequi". She is carried 
  on a litter. The "lady" speaks with de Soto, and gives him a string of 
  pearls. Eventually, de Soto's men "liberate" approximately 200 pounds of 
  pearls from a temple in the town. It is believed this village is near 
  present day Silver Bluff, South Carolina. 

  May 2, 1833: Secretary of War, Lewis Cass, assigns Colonel John Abert, 
  and General Enoch Parsons, to approach the Creeks about a new treaty to 
  start the removal to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) 

  May 3, 679: Maya forces from Dos Pilas, Guatemala attack and defeat the 
  forces at Tikal. Tikal King Nun Bak Chak is killed in the fighting.

  May 4, 1730: Sir Alexander Cuming, and seven prominent Cherokees leave 
  Charlestown, South Carolina, en route to visit King George II of 
  England. The two Cherokee Chiefs in the group are Oukah-Ulah and 
  Attakullaculla (Little Carpenter). 

  May 5, 1882: President Chester Arthur, by Executive Order, adds 
  additional land to the Gila River Reserve in the Pima Agency, for the 
  Pima and Maricopa Indian reservation. This reservation is established on 
  February 28, 1859. Lands already homesteaded in the new areas are 

  May 6, 1796: Congress passes “An Act Making Appropriations for Defraying 
  the Expenses Which May Arise in Carrying into Effect a Treaty Made 
  Between the United States and Certain Indian Tribes, Northwest of the 
  River Ohio.”

  May 7, 1763: Pontiac attempts to enter Fort Detroit with a large group 
  of armed Indians. However, his plans are leaked to the fort commanders, 
  and they only meet with Pontiac, and a few Chiefs. The next day, he 
  attempts to distract the soldiers with a intertidal lacrosse game 
  outside the fort, but the soldiers will not be distracted. Pontiac 
  delays his plans for a few days. Pontiac will start the siege of Fort 
  Detroit. The siege lasts until late October. 

  May 8, 1716: The French have learned that the Natchez Indians have 
  killed five Frenchmen. The French commander Bienville has established a 
  makeshift fort on an island on the Mississippi River near a Tonica 
  village. Bienville has the Tonicas summons the Natchez for a conference. 
  Believing that the Natchez are planning a surprise attack, Bienville 
  plans his own surprise. Thirty-two Natchez row up to Bienville's camp. 
  After a brief period of ceremonies, Bienville has the Natchez 
  surrounded, and manacled. Bienville informs the Natchez Chiefs that they 
  must bring him the heads of those who killed the five Frenchman, and 
  those Chiefs who ordered it done. Bienville threatens the Natchez with 
  destruction if they do not comply with his demands. The next morning, a 
  group of the Natchez, and a dozen French soldiers set out for the 
  Natchez village (see May 14th). 

  May 9, 1832: The Seminoles are told that they must move to the Indian 
  Territory (present day Oklahoma). If they do not agree to a removal 
  treaty, their annuities from their treaty of September 18, 1823, are 
  paid to the Creeks. The United States Government still considers the 
  Seminoles to be Creeks. At Payne's Landing, Florida, they sign the 
  removal treaty (7 stat. 368). The treaty has the provision that a part 
  of Seminoles are sent to Indian Territory first, and report back to the 
  tribal leaders. If the leaders decided the lands are adequate, they 
  would agree to moving to the Indian Territory. They are promised a shirt 
  and a blanket when they arrive in the Indian Territory. The Americans 
  are represented by Colonel James Gadsden. In many minds, the Second 
  Seminole War is fermented by disagreements on this treaty and its 

  May 10, 1676: Captain Turner, and 100 men from Boston, approach 
  Deerfield, in central Massachusetts. The Wampanoags have moved into the 
  deserted city, and planted crops in the fields. Turner's attack is a 
  complete surprise, and he routs the Indians. One soldier is killed in 
  the fighting, Turner reports he has dispatched 300 Indians. Later, May 
  18th, Turner meets another group of Indians. In the fighting, Turner, 
  and a third of his men, are killed. 

  May 11, 1864: The third group of Navajos to take the "long walk" from 
  the Canyon de Chelly to the Bosque Redondo Reservation, finally arrive 
  at their destination. Of the 946 who start the trip, 110 die en route 
  due to severe winter weather conditions, and inadequate provisions. 

  May 12, 1676: Narragansetts, under Pumham, attack the New England 
  village of Hatfield. They make off with six dozen head of cattle. 

  May 13, 1816: William Clark, Auguste Chouteau, and Ninian Edwards sign a 
  treaty (7 stat. 141) with the Rock River Sauk and Fox Indians at Saint 
  Louis. This treaty ratifies the treaty of 1804 and deals with property 
  concerns of white settlers. Black Hawk signs the treaty, but later he 
  says he is misled as to what he is signing.

  May 14, 1716: The delegation Bienville sent to the Natchez village on 
  May 9, 1716, returns to the French camp. They are bearing the heads of 
  three Natchez men. Bienville is upset because one of the heads does not 
  belong to any of the murderers of five Frenchmen. The Natchez explain 
  the third head is the brother of one of the murderers who escaped. 
  Bienville demands the head of the Chief, Oyelape, who ordered the 

  May 15, 1649: Fleeing before advancing Iroquois, first the Hurons, then 
  the Jesuits abandon the mission at Sainte-Marie, Canada. The Jesuits 
  burn the mission before they leave. 

  May 16, 1704: After the Pennsylvania Assembly passed a law prohibiting 
  the sale of rum to local Indians, the rum traders ignored the law. In 
  Philadelphia, Susquehanna Chief Oretyagh addresses the Pennsylvanians 
  about the depredations that alcohol has caused his people. His speech is 
  moving, but the traders still sell their wares. 

  May 17, 1790: Colonel Marinus Willett invites the Alexander McGillivray 
  and other Creek Chiefs to come to New York City to conduct a council. 

  May 18, 1676: After the fight at Deerfield, Captain William Turner, sets 
  out to attack a large gathering of Indians near the falls of the 
  Connecticut River. Leading a force of 160 settlers, Turner attacks a 
  sleeping camp. Many of the few Indians who escape the fighting make 
  their way to the river. Once on the river, many of the Indians die when 
  they go over the falls. At least, 100 Indians are killed or drowned. 
  Later in the day, as survivors contact other Indians along the river, a 
  large band of warriors gather, and attack Turner. During Turner's 
  retreat to Deerfield, he and forty men, are killed. Some sources say 
  this happens on May 19th.

  May 19, 1830: Congressman Davey Crockett, frontiersman and later to be a 
  "hero" at the battle of the Alamo, and Vermont Representative Horace 
  Everett speak out in Congress against President Jackson's bill to remove 
  the Indians to west of the Mississippi River. 

  May 20, 1636: British trader John Gallop sees John Oldham’s ship near 
  Block Island. The decks are covered with Indians. Oldham is not in 
  sight. Gallop attacks the ship and the Indians. Most get away. Gallop 
  finds Oldham’s body on the boat. This is one of the first fights of the 
  Pequot War. 

  May 21, 1733: According to some sources, an agreement covering amity, 
  land cession and trade is reached by representatives of the British in 
  Georgia and the lower Creeks, Yamacraw and Yuchi Indians. 

  May 22, 1976: The Area Director, Portland Area Office, Bureau of Indian 
  Affairs has authorized an election to amend the Constitution and By-Laws 
  of the Kalispel Indian Community of the Kalispel Reservation. The 
  amendment is approved by a vote of 17 to 5.

  May 23, 1774: Lower Creek warrior Ogulki murdered another Creek and left 
  false clues implicating white settlers. Angry Creeks attack the settlers 
  in retaliation. When Ogulki sees that he has accomplished his goal, he 
  begins a series of unprovoked attacks on the settlers. These attacks 
  lead to expeditions against the Creeks by the local militia. Realizing 
  that Ogulki has started the entire affair, Upper Creek Chiefs demand 
  that the Lower Creeks put Ogulki to death, to end the matter. Today, 
  Ogulki is killed by Cussita Creek warriors. 

  May 24, 1721: In a letter addressed to Bienville (Governor of 
  Louisiana), de Boisbriant (Governor of the Illinois District) warns of a 
  plan by the Spanish. He has been notified that an expedition of 300 
  Spanish soldiers from Santa Fe are headed toward Louisiana to takeover 
  the territory from the French. According to de Boisbriant they are 
  attacked by “Osage and Panis” Indians. The Spanish retreat back to Santa 
  Fe. Some of the facts are considered to be wrong, but this report 
  establishes concern among the French.

  May 25, 1763: At the site of modern Niles, Michigan, the British erected 
  Fort St. Joseph. Its garrison of sixteen men, led by Ensign Francis 
  Schlosser, is attacked by a large Potawatomi war party. Only Schlosser 
  and three other men survive the attack. The British are later traded for 
  Potawatomi prisoners in Detroit. 

  May 26, 1839: Captain John Bird and thirty-four Texas Rangers encounter 
  a force of more than 200 Caddo, Comanche and Kickapoo Indians near 
  modern Temple, Texas. Several people are killed on both sides. This is 
  eventually called the “Bird's Creek Indian Fight.”

  May 27, 1598: Oñate’s expedition reaches the Piro village of Qualacu in 
  modern New Mexico. Some sources say this happens on June 12th.

  May 28, 1754: Twenty-one year old Lieutenant Colonel George Washington 
  led a force of Virginia militia of almost eighty men, including a band 
  of Delaware Indians (under the Half-King Jeskakake), to aid in the 
  building of a new fort at the forks of the Ohio (Pittsburgh, PA). The 
  French beat them to the area and have already started Fort Duquesne. 
  Today, Washington's men surprise a French detachment under Villiers de 
  Jumonville on Chestnut Ridge in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. 
  Washington's troops kill ten, and capture the rest of the French forces. 
  This fight, in southwestern Pennsylvania, is the first battle of the 
  "French and Indian war.” Within a few days, Washington's forces build 
  Fort Necessity not far from here. Among Washington's allies is Iroquois 
  Chief Tanacharison, "Half King" of the Delaware. 

  May 29, 1879: Captain Charles Beyer, with parts of Troops C and I, Ninth 
  Cavalry, fights with Victorio's Warm Springs Apaches, in the Black Range 
  of the of the Miembres Mountains, at Cuchillo Negro River, near Ojo 
  Caliente, New Mexico. One soldier, and two Indians are killed. Two 
  soldiers, and two Indians are wounded in the fighting. The army captures 
  the Indians' animals, during the battle. Victorio flees into Mexico. 
  Sergeant Thomas Boyne, Company C, will be awarded the Congressional 
  Medal of Honor for "bravery in action." 

  May 30, 1540: Hernando de Soto's army arrives in the Cherokee village of 
  Guasili, modern Murphy, in western North Carolina. This is the first 
  recorded meeting between Cherokees and Europeans. The Cherokees give de 
  Soto 300 dogs to be used as food. De Soto's chroniclers describe the 
  village as having 300 homes and wide streets.

  May 31, 1811: Yesterday in modern Oregon, John Clarke and a party of men 
  are camped with some Indians at the Lewis and Pavion rivers. A silver 
  cup is stolen and Clarke threatens to hang the Chief. Today, another 
  Indian is caught stealing. Clarke holds an impromptu trial and hangs the 
  thief. This act leads to considerable ill-will among the Oregon Indians. 


  If you would like to read some of the previous newsletters, you can find 
  this on this website ( )...

  That’s enough for now. I am already way past my bedtime…

  Stay safe,

  Phil Konstantin

  End of the May 2003 Newsletter – Part Two
  Anything below this line is not a part of this newsletter


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