May 2002 Newsletter from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2002)

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                May 2002 Newsletter 
                Phil Konstantin 
Start of the May 2002 Newsletter


It has been another busy month, although I am still reveling in my lethargy. This month's newsletter is a hodge-podge of information, history and stories. I finally finished updating the Arts section of my links pages. I will be updating the other pages, slowly, but surely.


This month's "Link of the Month" is a website by Michael Walkingstick Gregory. His website looks at part of the history of his family, the Walkingsticks. Michael is a very distant cousin, but, aren't all Cherokees? :-) My great grandmother was Nancy Walkingstick. Michael and I share a relative many generations back. You will find lots of information on Michael's family on his site. More than that, though, you will see the time, effort and love which went into the production of this website. He has included pictures and excerpts from important documents of the time. A link to the next page is at the bottom of each page. I highly recommend a visit to Michael's site:


I subscribe to the Cherokee Nation newsletter. It has all kinds of interesting information. You can sign up for it on the nation's website: . The newsletter addresses one of the things I have to explain to many people. There is not always one way to do things. If you see a comment which says something like "all Indians respect the land" or "all Lakota men had a vision quest," I suggest being very wary of the information. There are many common threads within a tribe and within the larger Indian community. There are also many differences within each tribe. The Cherokee newsletter states it well:

"*Note: Cultural information may vary from clan to clan, location to
location, family to family, and from differing opinions and experiences. Information provided here are not 'etched in stone'."


Here is a link to an article about the Sand Creek massacre site. To paraphrase: "A casino management company plans to buy and donate to Indian tribes the site of the Sand Creek Massacre, where militia troops killed more than 150 Indians in 1864."

Michael Hughes is another friend I have yet to meet. I told him about the story. He thinks the article might have the name of the company wrong. It might be "SOUTHWEST CASINO & HOTEL INC." I once spent many hours looking for the site. It was not marked on the local roads when I went through the area. There is now a marker at part of the site. The actual "battle" took place over some distance along the creek. The property is privately held. Its purchase has been a matter of controversy for some time. In any case, if the story is true, it will be a very positive step toward setting aside this historical site.


Here is a message from Cherokee Chief Chad Smith:


Dear Cherokee Citizen,

This week I went to Washington D.C. to testify at a Congressional
hearing on legislation to settle our claims on the Arkansas Riverbed issue. This issue has long been in the public eye, and I would like to bring you up to date on its current status in the hope that you encourage your U.S. Representative and Senators to support HR 3534.

First and foremost, the Cherokee, Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations own the Arkansas Riverbed from Muskogee to Fort Smith. Under the settlement legislation, that will not change.

7,750 acres of the Arkansas Riverbed are now dry land, occupied by Indians and non-Indians. That land belongs to the Cherokee, Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations. In the past, court action has been initiated to remove those people from that land.

This settlement would instead compensate the Cherokee, Choctaw and Chickasaw Nations for disclaiming interest in those lands, and allow the Cherokee Nation to spend the settlement money to quickly take other land into trust in Sequoyah, Muskogee and Sequoyah counties, near the Arkansas River. This would allow us to avoid lengthy and controversial court battles with the present occupants of the land and allow those occupants to move forward with their lives.

The Cherokee Nation, the Choctaws and the Chickasaws are supporting the passage of HR 3534, which would settle the three Nations' damage claims against the United States now pending in the Court of Federal Claims, and it would give us, in a single lump sum, the past and future fair rental value of the lands being used for the two electric powerheads that were constructed on tribal lands on the bed of the Arkansas.

HR 3534 will be of great benefit not only to the people of the Cherokee Nation, but also to many non-Indian citizens of Oklahoma as well. Again, the tribes are not selling the Arkansas Riverbed. Instead, this settlement gives the Cherokee Nation an opportunity to exchange disputed lands for other lands which we choose to acquire.

To offer your support for HR 3534, contact your U.S. Representative by going to:

And contact your U.S. Senators by going to:


Chad Smith
Principal Chief


Here is a website which mentions the 50th birthday of Canyon Records, which specializes in American Indian music.


Here is a question from "Howling Wolf"

Osiyo Phil,
       This might sound like alittle strange email, but being 1/2
Cherokee and 1/2 Scottish, but leaning more to my Native American beliefs, I know that the Spirit realm comes to us in our deams. I was wondering if you might be able to share some insight on a recent visit I had? I was asleep and then I heard the screech of an owl, sitting up in bed there on my footboard of my bed sat 2 beautiful owls side by side, there were no spoken words but it did appear that the owls were communicating back and forth between themselves, and then they would look towards me still no spoken words but a sense
of understanding between us, So in closing still just wondering if you or your readers might be to help me understand this visit.

    Wa-do my brother,

You can answer him directly at the e-mail address listed above.


Here is a notice about an educational opportunity"

" If the Great Spirit had desired me to be a white man, he would have made me so in the first place.  He put in your heart certain wishes and plans; in my heart he put other and different desires.  Each man is good in the sight of the Great Spirit.  It is not necessary that eagles be crows".
                   -SITTING BULL

A New Opportunity for Native Education—Project CLASS   -- 

Swelling with pride, he brushes aside a few loose ebony strands and steps closer to his wife.  There is a serene, almost spiritual feeling in the wind blowing around them as they share the view across the ancient Wichitas and look onto the plains of their people.

 "I am what I am because I am Indian," explains Lee Juarez, Cameron University alumnus and graduate student.  "And I was taught to never forget where you come from or you negate all of those who came and sacrificed before you."

As Native American children growing up, both Charlotte, CU alumnus, and Lee Juarez never really saw a purpose behind their education.  Charlotte remembers how she felt in public school.  "I know it sounds naïve, but I didn’t know until I attended Cameron that Native Americans had the option to be teachers because it was at Cameron that I first saw any", she explains.  "For the first time in my life, I had people around me who were not forcing me to be white."

As the wind moves the clouds to hide the setting sun, a look of determination crosses over Lee’s face.  "There is more to our culture than Pow-Wows," Lee declares.  "Sadly, our culture is dying.  Something must change before it’s too late."

From the peaks of the Wichita mountain range to the classrooms at both CU and in public schools, Juarez epitomizes the phrase, "A man on a mission."  His mission is to teach and preserve the Native American culture as a public educator.  And he is not alone.

Alongside eight other graduate students, Juarez was accepted into a brand-new CU graduate program:  Project Cohorts in Leadership and Administration for Scholastic Settings (CLASS).

Project CLASS is being offered again this year through a joint venture between the American Indian Research and Development, Inc. (AIRD) and the Cameron Secondary Teacher Education Program (CAMSTEP).

Mark Reid, Associate Professor and CAMSTEP coordinator, explains the program’s objectives. "Project CLASS provides a venue for the education of American Indian educators because populations of American Indian students tend to be under-represented in the teaching workforce," says Reid.  "This program trains people of that heritage to prepare them to return to public schools and teach American Indian students."

Applicants for the program must meet certain criteria, they must be American Indians, they must possess an undergraduate degree in one of the fundamental areas of education; and they must commit upon completion of the program to work with American Indian students.

Stuart Tonemah, President of AIRD, recognizes the need for programs that focus on American Indian education issues. "The CLASS students are getting a great opportunity to improve their education.  All we ask in return is that they put their skills to use by serving American Indian students as teachers and administrators."

Complementing great educational opportunities are the program’s incentives:  full college tuition, a living stipend, a dependent stipend where applicable and a book allowance, In addition, upon completion of the program, they will receive Oklahoma teaching certificates and Master of Arts in Teaching degrees. 

A great example of when the Indian people became ineffective was when they were first "formally" educated by being taken from their reservations and tribal communities and put into boarding schools from 1870 to 1930.  As a result, much of the American Indian’s heritage was extracted: their language, religion, tradition, government and any other part of their culture that seemed primitive; thus, the silencing of a culture began under a directed cultural genocide.

Today, assimilation attitudes still linger witching the public schools, and Project CLASS students are on a mission to educate Native American students by focusing on individual price- this group believe it’s important to know and practice who they are and where they come from.

"Folks of American Indian descent have long recognized that in order to ‘succeed’ in the majority of society, it may be necessary to embrace and practice the values, attitudes and perceptions of that society," states Tonemah.  "This may mean putting aside their tribal and cultural values, attitudes and perspectives and conform, in a lot of ways, to American values.  This either-or situation has existed for Indian students as long as there has been traditional American education provided for them or forced upon them."

Tonemah further explains that little consideration is given to the importance of integrating tribal values and culture into the curriculum; therefore, this either-or situation contributes to high dropout rates and low achievement levels for many Indian students.

"Historically, assimilation failed and will continue to fail because the Indian people are survivors.  Today, in order to keep our culture alive, we need to provide American Indian students with role models, mentors and leaders they can relate to.  And CLASS students are up to the challenge of integrating their culture into the curriculum."

In response to that Casey Sovo expects this program to provide him with the tools to become an effective leader.  After graduating from Dartmouth College, Sovo came to Lawton to enroll in the CLASS program.  "Through this program I will have acquired the knowledge and field experience that will undoubtedly prepare me to serve and improve upon the quality of American Indian education."

"American Indian educators can serve as role models, advocates, peer professional development persons, and Indian awareness resources as well as fill teaching positions, "Tonemah explained.

"The problem that exists at times is that American Indian educators have a unique set of responsibilities.  If they don’t have the interest, motivation and commitment to do the ‘Indian thing,’ and if there are not American Indian leaders in the US schools trying to aid in preserving the culture, then the schools would just continue to do what they have always done.  They would give token credence to diversity and celebrate the ‘special days’ as they occur- from their majority perspectives."

For Juarez, doing the ‘Indian thing’ is not an option.  "As an Indian first and an educator second, we are better prepared to address and meet the needs of American Indian students," he declares. "We have learned that we don’t have to shed who we are to be successful.  We can teach students that the thing we strive for are held up by our tribal foundations, and if there is to be a revolution in the education of Indian students, let it begin at Cameron University."  

CLASS participants have come from throughout Indian Country.  Current and past participants have come from, the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, Choctaw Nation of Mississippi, Northern Cheyenne Tribe, Kiowa Tribe, Caddo Tribe, Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe, Bad River Band of Chippewa, the Blackfeet Nation, Western Delaware of Oklahoma, Menominee Nation, Comanche Nation,  the Citizen Potawatomi Nation, and the Apache Tribe of Oklahoma.

Project CLASS is accepting applications for the 2002-2003 academic year. Applications are due by May 3, 2002. For more information and an application visit the aird website at  or email Stuart Tonemah at  Ph: 405-364-0656


A note from Richard Gooden:

I hope all is well. The Center for Research on Health Disparities has recently launched a lecture series and the third speaker on our docket is Tim Tall Chief,  the Chairman of the Board for the Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission. He will be presenting a lecture entitled "Health Issues in the Native American Community," on April 30 in the Rita Anne Rollins Room of the Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University.  Not only did I want to extend an invitation to you, I was also hoping to speak with you about spreading the word to other local organizations and people who might be interested in the discussion. Please, at your earliest convenience, call me at one of the numbers listed below. 
Center for Research on Health Disparities 2002 Lecture Series
"Health Issues in the Native American Community"
presented by:
Tim Tall Chief, M.Ed.
 Chairman of the Board
Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission
Date:  Tuesday, April 30
Time:   12:00 pm – 1:00 pm
Location:   Rita Anne Rollins Room
Cost:  Free
Richard A. Gooden
Sr. Research Project Coordinator
Department of Behavioral Sciences 
and Health Education
Rollins School of Public Health
Emory University
1518 Clifton Rd., NE
Atlanta,  GA 30322
Tel:  404-712-9258, 404-712-8889
Fax:  404-712-8872


Here is another meeting notice:

Dear Native American Community Members and Supporters:

Once again, The ball is now in our court!

The Native American community is being asked to make its causes know to the State Affairs Subcommittee on Native American Affairs.  Much time and effort has gone into the Texas Senate Subcommittee on Native American Affairs.  I personally would like to think that the thousands of letters, emails, fax's, and telephone calls over the years have not gone to waste.

DATE:         Monday, April 29, 2002

PLACE:       San Antonio City Council Chambers
                   103 Main Plaza
                   San Antonio, Texas

TIME:          1:00 PM

What could be done by those who cannot attend?

EMAIL the Texas Senators listed below . . . FAX the Texas Senators listed below . . . WRITE the Texas Senators listed below . . . CALL the Texas Senators listed below and let them know that we need a Texas Indian Commission.

Do we need to be in attendance?

Yes, this event is important and one for all to see.  This Senate hearing is open to all, ask everyone you know, including your friends, community leaders, community organizations, school, newspaper, radio, political groups, church, or other Native American groups.

List of Senators below;

The Honorable John Carona
P.O. Box 12068, Capitol Station
Austin, Texas 78711
Phone: (512) 463-0116
Fax: (214) 953-1886
Fax: (972) 864-0712

The Honorable Ken Armbrister
P.O. Box 12068, Capitol Station
Austin, Texas 78711
Phone: (512) 463-0118
Fax: (512) 475-3736

The Honorable Frank L. Madla
P.O. Box 12068, Capitol Station
Austin, Texas 78711
Phone: (512) 463-0119
Fax: (210) 922-9521
Fax: (512) 463-1017

Again, all suggestions, comments, and responses can be forward to any of the prospective tribes or organizations.


Daniel Castro Romero, Jr., M. S. W. 
General Council Chairman
Lipan Apache Band of Texas, Inc. 


Here are two stories I received from Douglas A Kaiser. They are not Indian related, but I find them interesting.


Does the statement, We've always done it that way ring any bells... ? 
The US standard railroad gauge (distance between the rails) is 4 feet 8. 5 inches. That's an exceedingly odd number. 

Why was that gauge used? 

Because that's the way they built them in England, and English expatriates built the US Railroads. 

Why did the English build them like that? 

Because the first rail lines were built by the same people who built 
the pre-railroad tramways, and that's the gauge they used. 

Why did they use that gauge then? 

Because the people who built the tramways used the same jigs and tools that they used for building wagons, which used that wheel spacing. 

Okay! Why did the wagons have that particular odd wheel spacing? 

Well, if they tried to use any other spacing, the wagon wheels would 
break on some of the old, long distance roads in England, because that's the spacing of the wheel ruts. 

So who built those old rutted roads? 

Imperial Rome built the first long distance roads in Europe (and 
England) for their legions. The roads have been used ever since. 

And the ruts in the roads? 

Roman war chariots formed the initial ruts, which everyone else had to match for fear of destroying their wagon wheels. Since the chariots were made for Imperial Rome, they were all alike in the matter of wheel spacing. 

The United States standard railroad gauge of 4 feet, 8.5 inches is 
derived from the original specifications for an Imperial Roman war 
chariot. And bureaucracies live forever. So the next time you are handed a specification and wonder what horse's ass came up with it, you may be exactly right, because the Imperial Roman war chariots were made just wide enough to accommodate the back ends of two war horses. 

Now the twist to the story... 

When you see a Space Shuttle sitting on its launch pad, there are two 
big booster rockets attached to the sides of the main fuel tank. These are solid rocket boosters, or SRBs. The SRBs are made by Thiokol at their factory at Utah. The engineers who designed the SRBs would have preferred to make them a bit fatter, but the SRBs had to be shipped by train from the factory to the launch site. The railroad line from the factory happens to run through a tunnel in the mountains. The SRBs had to fit through that tunnel. The tunnel is slightly wider than the railroad track, and the railroad track, as you now know, is about as wide as two horses' behinds. 

So, a major Space Shuttle design feature of what is arguably the 
world's most advanced transportation system was determined over two thousand years ago by the width of a horse's ass. 

... and you thought being a HORSE'S ASS wasn't important! 


More from Douglas:

You're Not A Cop Until You Taste Them 

The department was all astir, there was a lot of laughing and joking 
due to all the new officers, myself included, hitting the streets today for the first time. After months of seemingly endless amounts of classes, paperwork,and lectures we were finally done with the Police Academy and ready to join the ranks of our department. All you could see were rows of cadets with huge smiles and polished badges. 
As we sat in the briefing room, we could barely sit still anxiously awaiting our turn to be introduced and given our beat assignment or, for the lay person, our own portion of the city to "serve and protect." 

It was then that he walked in. A statue of a man - 6 foot 3 and 230 pounds of solid muscle, he had black hair with highlights of gray and steely eyes that make you feel nervous even when he wasn't looking at you. He had a reputation for being the biggest and the smartest officer to ever work our fair city. He had been on the department for longer than anyone could remember and those years of service had made him into somewhat of a legend. The new guys, or "rookies" as he called us, both respected and feared him. When he spoke, even the most seasoned officers paid attention. It was almost a privilege when one of the rookies got to be around when he would tell one of his police stories about the old days. But we knew our place and never interrupted for fear of being shooed away. He was respected and revered by all who knew him. 
After my first year on the department I still had never heard or saw him speak to any of the rookies for any length of time. When he did speak to them all he would say was, "So, you want to be a policeman do you hero? I'll tell you what, when you can tell me what they taste like, then you can call yourself a real policeman." 

This particular phrase I had heard dozens of times. Me and my buddies 
all had bets about "what they taste like" actually referred to. Some 
believed it referred to the taste of your own blood after a hard fight. Others thought it referred to the taste of sweat after a long day's work. Being on the department for a year, I thought I knew just about everyone and everything. So one afternoon, I mustered up the courage and walked up to him. When he looked down at me, I said, "You know, I think I've paid my dues. I've been in plenty of fights, made dozens of arrests, and sweated my butt off just like everyone else. So what does that little saying of yours mean anyway?"
With that, he merely stated, "Well, seeing as how you've said and done it all, you tell me what it means, hero." When I had no answer, he shook his head and snickered, "rookies," and walked away. 

The next evening was to be the worst one to date. The night started 
out slow,but as the evening wore on, the calls became more frequent and dangerous. I made several small arrests and then had a real knock down drag out fight. However, I was able to make the arrest without hurting the suspect or myself. After that, I was looking forward to just letting the shift wind down and getting home to my wife and daughter.  I had just glanced at my watch and it was 11:55, five more minutes and I would be on my way to the house. I don't know if it was fatigue or just my imagination, but as I drove down one of the streets on my beat, I thought I saw my daughter standing on someone else's porch. I looked again but it was not my daughter as I had first thought but merely a small child about her age. She was probably only six or seven years old and dressed in an oversized 
shirt that hung to her feet. She was clutching an old rag doll in her arms that looked older than me. 

I immediately stopped my patrol car to see what she was doing outside 
her house at such an hour by herself. When I approached, there seemed to be a sigh of relief on her face. I had to laugh to myself, thinking she sees the hero policeman come to save the day. I knelt at her side and asked what she was doing outside. 

She said, "My mommy and daddy just had a really big fight and now 
mommy won't wake up." My mind was reeling. Now what do I do? I instantly called for backup and ran to the nearest window. As I looked inside I saw a man standing over a lady with his hands covered in blood, her blood. I kicked open the door, pushed the man aside and checked for a pulse, but unable to find one. I immediately cuffed the man and began doing CPR on the lady. 

It was then I heard a small voice from behind me, "Mr. Policeman, 
please make my mommy wake up." I continued to perform CPR until my backup and medics arrived but they said it was too late. She was dead. 

I then looked at the man. He said, "I don't know what happened. She 
was yelling at me to stop drinking and go get a job and I had just had enough. I just shoved her so she would leave me alone and she fell and hit her head." 

As I walked the man out to the car in handcuffs, I again saw that 
little girl. In the five minutes that has passed, I went from hero to 
monster.  Not only was I unable to wake up her mommy, but now I was taking daddy away too. 

Before I left the scene, I thought I would talk to the little girl. 
To say what, I don't know. Maybe just to tell her I was sorry about her mommy and daddy. But as I approached, she turned away and I knew it was useless and I would probably make it worse. 

As I sat in the locker room at the station, I kept replaying the 
whole thing in my mind. Maybe if I would have been faster or done something different,just maybe that little girl would still have her mother. And even though it may sound selfish, I would still be the hero. 

It was then that I felt a large hand on my shoulder. I heard that 
all too familiar question again, "Well, hero, what do they taste like?" But before I could get mad or shout some sarcastic remark, I 
realized that all the pent up emotions had flooded the surface and there was a steady stream of tears cascading down my face. It was at that moment that I realized what the answer to his question was. Tears. 

With that, he began to walk away, but he stopped. "You know, there 
was nothing you could have done differently," he said. "Sometimes you 
can do everything right and still the outcome is the same.  You may not be the hero you once thought you were, but now you ARE a police officer."

(note from Phil: I know what they taste like. Law enforcement can be a hard job, but I still receommend it to people who really want to make a difference.)

I received this from Cliff Bemis. You might remember Cliff as the guy who did the "rooty=tooty" commercials for IHOP. Cliff got this from a friend...

One day, when I was a freshman in high school, I saw a kid from my
class was walking home from school. His name was Kyle. It looked like
he was carrying all of his books. I thought to myself, "Why would
anyone bring home all his books on a Friday? He must really be a nerd."
I had quite a weekend planned (parties and a football game with my
friends tomorrow afternoon), so I shrugged my shoulders and went on.
As I was walking, I saw a bunch of kids running toward him. They ran at him, knocking all his books out of his arms and tripping him so he
landed in the dirt. His glasses went flying, and I saw them land in the grass about ten feet from him. He looked up and I saw this terrible sadness in his eyes.
My heart went out to him. So, I jogged over to him and as he crawled
around looking for his glasses, and I saw a tear in his eye. As I
handed him his glasses, I said, "Those guys are jerks. They really
should get lives." He looked at me and said, "Hey thanks!" There was a big smile on his face. It was one of those smiles that showed real gratitude.
I helped him pick up his books, and asked him where he lived. As it
turned out, he lived near me, so I asked him why I had never seen him
before. He said he had gone to private school before now.
I would have never hung out with a private school kid before. We talked all the way home, and I carried some of his books. He turned out to be a pretty cool kid. I asked him if he wanted to play a little football with my friends. He said yes. We hung out all weekend and the more I got to know Kyle, the more I liked him, and my friends thought the same of him.
Monday morning came, and there was Kyle with the huge stack of books
again. I stopped him and said, "Boy, you are gonna really build some
serious muscles with this pile of books everyday!" He just laughed and
handed me half the books.
Over the next four years, Kyle and I became best friends. When we were
seniors, we began to think about college. Kyle decided on Georgetown,
and I was going to Duke. I knew that we would always be friends, that
the miles would never be a problem. He was going to be a doctor, and I
was going for business on a football scholarship.
Kyle was valedictorian of our class. I teased him all the time about
being a nerd. He had to prepare a speech for graduation.
I was so glad it wasn't me having to get up there and speak. Graduation day, I saw Kyle. He looked great. He was one of those guys that really found himself during high school.  He filled out and actually looked good in glasses. He had more dates than I had and all the girls loved him. Boy, sometimes I was jealous.
Today was one of those days. I could see that he was nervous about his
speech. So, I smacked him on the back and said, "Hey, big guy, you'll
be great!" He looked at me with one of those looks (the really grateful one) and smiled.
"Thanks," he said.
As he started his speech, he cleared his throat, and began. "Graduation is a time to thank those who helped you make it through those tough years. Your parents, your teachers, your siblings, maybe a coach...but mostly your friends. I am here to tell all of you that being a friend to someone is the best gift you can give them. I am going to tell you a story."
I just looked at my friend with disbelief as he told the story of the
first day we met. He had planned to kill himself over the weekend. He
talked of how he had cleaned out his locker so his Mom wouldn't have to do it later and was carrying his stuff home.  He looked hard at me and gave me a little smile.
"Thankfully, I was saved. My friend saved me from doing the
I heard the gasp go through the crowd as this handsome, popular boy
told us all about his weakest moment. I saw his Mom and dad looking at
me and smiling that same grateful smile. Not until that moment did I realize it's depth.
Never underestimate the power of your actions. With one small gesture
you can change a person's life. For better or for worse.
God puts us all in each other's lives to impact one another in some
way. Look for God in others.


Here are some random historical events for May:

May 1, 1637: After numerous incidents, and incursions on both sides, English settlers in Connecticut declare war on the Pequot Indians. Most of the fighting take places in Connecticut and Massachusetts. 

May 2, 1670: King Charles of England gives all trade rights to "all the Landes Countreyes and Territoryes upon the Coastes and Confynes of the Seas" lying within the Hudson Strait to the Hudson’s Bay Company. This monopoly remains in effect until 1859.

May 3, 490: Maya Lord Kan - Xul I (King K'an Joy Chitam I) is born, according to some sources. Eventually, he rules over Palenque, Mexico. 

May 4, 1805: The Pascagoula, and the Biloxi, Indians sell their lands along the Gulf Coast to "Miller and Fulton." Miller and Fulton are among the first settlers in the Rapides Parish area. The documents, signed by six Indians, are confirmed. The Pascagoulas move to the Red River area. 

May 5, 1800: William Augusta Bowles is an adventurer in the southeastern part of the United States. With Creek and Cherokee supporters, he proclaims a new nation, Muscogee, out of lands claimed by Spain along the Gulf coast, with himself as "Director-General". Bowles declares war on Spain, and begins a campaign against their outposts in his "nation." Some sources list this as happening on April 5, 1800.

May 6, 1626: The Purchase of Manhattan takes place. The Shinnecock or Canarsee Indians, according to which source you believe, sell it to Peter Minuit. 

May 7, 1877: Colonel Nelson Miles, and his force of four Cavalry Troops, and six Infantry Companies, finds Lame Deer, and his followers on the Muddy Creek, near the Rosebud. Nelson surprises the village with a charge. Lame Dear, and Iron Star, parley with Miles about a peaceful settlement, but after they return, fight erupts, again. The battle continues, and proceeds toward the Rosebud River. Lame Deer, Iron Star, and twelve other Indians are killed. Four soldiers are killed. Lt. Alfred M. Fuller, and six soldiers are wounded. Almost 450 mounts are seized. The camp supplies, and many lodges are also captured. Corporal Harry Garland and Private William Leonard, Company L, and Private Samuel Phillips, Company H, Second Cavalry, will win the Congressional Medal of Honor for "gallantry in action" as a part of today's battle. Company L First Sergeant Henry Wilkens, and Farrier William H. Jones, will also be awarded the Medal of Honor for their gallantry in today's battle, and for actions against the Nez Perce on August 20, 1877. 

May 8, 1725: In one of the last battles of Lovewell’s or Father Rasle’s War, Pigwacket Indians defeat a British army under Captain John Lovewell at Fryeburg, Maine.

May 9, 1885: Today through the 12th, events in the Second Riel Rebellion take place in Canada. Major General Frederick Middleton and a force of 800 soldiers attack the Metis and Cree holding the village of Batoche. The fighting continues through the 12th until the soldiers finally overrun Batoche.

May 10, 1869: One of the most devastating events in the lives of the plains Indians is the crossing of their lands by the railroads. The railroads bring settlers, hunters, and separate the buffalo herds.The "iron horses" of the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific meet at Promontory Point, Utah, completing the first cross continental railroad in the United States. 

May 11, 1968: The Constitution of the Indians of the Tulalip Tribes in Washington is modified.

May 12, 1860: A battle in the Paiute War takes place in Nevada at Big Bend in the valley of the Truckee River. Major William Ormsby’s Nevada militia are attacked by Paiutes under war Chief Numaga.

May 13, 1614: The Viceroy of Mexico finds Spanish Explorer Juan de Oñate guilty of atrocities against the Indians of New Mexico. As a part of his punishment, he is banned from entering New Mexico again.

May 14, 1832: Near the Kyte River, Major Isaiah Stillman, and 275 soldiers are patrolling the area, on the lookout for Black Hawk. Weary of fighting, Black Hawk sends a few representatives to Stillman's camp to negotiate the surrender of his four dozen warriors. When the soldiers fire on Black Hawk's representatives, a few manage to escape. With the soldiers in pursuit, Black Hawk sets up an ambush. Becoming confused by the sudden attack, Stillman's troop panick and flee the area. Eleven soldiers, and three Indians are killed in the fighting. However, the soldiers report a massacre of troops. The "battle" is called "Stillman's Run." 

May 15, 1846: A treaty is signed by Texas Governor Pierce Butler, and Colonel M.G. Lewis (Meriwether Lewis' brother), and sixty-three Indians of the Aionai, Anadarko, Caddo, Comanche, Kichai (Keehy), Lepan (Apache), Longwha, Tahuacarro (Tahwacarro), Tonkawa, Waco, Wichita and tribes. It is ratified on February 15, 1847, and signed by President Polk on March 8, 1847. 

May 16, 1760: Creek warrior Chief Hobbythacco (Handsome Fellow) has often supported the English, but, at the outbreak of the Cherokee war, he decides to support the Cherokees. He leads an attack on a group of English traders in Georgia. Thirteen of the traders are killed during the fighting. Creek Chief "The Mortar" also participates in the fighting. 

May 17, 1629: According to a deed, Sagamore Indians, including Passaconaway, sell a piece of land in what becomes Middlesex County, Massachusetts.

May 18, 1661: Captain John Odber is order by the Maryland General Assembly to take fifty men and go to the "Susquesahannough Forte." According to a treaty signed on May 16th, Maryland is required to help protect the Susquehannocks from raids by the Seneca. Odber’s force is to fulfill that part of the treaty.

May 19, 1796: Congress passes "An Act Making Appropriations for Defraying the Expenses Which May Arise in Carrying into Effect a Treaty Made Between the United States and Certain Indian Tribes, Northwest of the River Ohio."

May 20, 698: As part of a series of attacks on neighboring cities in Guatemala, Maya warriors from Naranjo attack Kinichil Kab'

May 21, 1877: In retaliation for the Custer defeat, the Sioux and Ponca are ordered to go to a new reservation in Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). The Poncas have nothing to do with the war, and they continue their complaints about the bureaucratic error which places them on a reservation with the Sioux in the first place. The government does not bend, and the Ponca begin their march to Indian Territory. 

May 22, 1851: As one of the last conflicts in the "Mariposa Indian Wars" in California, a large group of Yosemite Indians are captured at Lake Tenaija.

May 23, 1873: The Northwest Mounted Police is founded. One of the main reasons for its creation is the problems being fomented by Americans selling alcohol to Canadian Indians. This organization eventually becomes the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. 

May 24, 1539: Mexican Viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza has decided to send an expedition to search for wealthy cities north of Mexico. On March 7, 1539, Friar Marcos de Niza started the expedition from Culiacan. Accordiong to Niza’s journal,  he finally sees Cibola, although he never sets foot in the pueblo. His report will lead to future expeditions looking for the "Seven Cities of Gold."

May 25, 1763: At the site of modern Niles, Michigan, the British erected Fort St. Joseph. Its garrison of sixteen men, led by Ensign Francis Schlosser, is attacked by a large Potawatomi war party. Only Schlosser and three other men survive the attack. The British are later traded for Potawatomi prisoners in Detroit. 

May 26, 1540: The "Lady of Cofitachequi" has been taken with the de Soto expedition, against her will. With a large quantity of the pearls that de Soto's men took from her village, she escapes. 

May 27, 1763: Fort Miami is located at the site of modern Fort Wayne, Indiana. It is garrisoned by twelve British soldiers, led by Ensign Robert Holmes. Pontiac's rebellion has started, and the Ensign is convinced to leave the Fort by his Miami Indian girlfriend. Miami warriors kill the Ensign, and a Sergeant who leaves to Fort to look for the Ensign. The Miamis demand the surrender of the remaining soldiers. To drive home their point, they throw the head of Ensign Holmes into the fort. The soldiers surrender, and all but one are eventually killed. 

May 28, 1830: Andrew Jackson, called "Sharp Knife" by the Indians, has long fought the Indians of the southeast. He believes that the Indians and white settlers will not be able to peacefully live together. His solution to this is to renege on all of the previous treaties, which granted the Indians their lands forever, and to move all Indians west of the Mississippi River. Jackson makes this proposal to Congress during his First Congressional speech on December 8, 1829. Congress makes the proposal into a law on this date. 

May 29, 1980: Department of the Interior Field Solicitor Elmer Nitzschke, states the Mille Lacs Reservation Business Committee has the right to control the Sandy Lakes Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The Sandy Lakes Band of Ojibwe, which lives on the reservation, feels they should have control of the reservation. 

May 30, 1851: A treaty is signed by Kko-ya-te and Wo-a-si, in California. 

May 31, 1796: The Treaty of the Seven Tribes of Canada is signed by three Chiefs at New York City. The tribes give up all claims to lands in New York, except six square miles in Saint Regis. They are paid 1233 pounds, six shillings, and eight pence now, and 213 pounds, six shillings, eight pence annually, if five more Chiefs show up and sign the treaty. 


That's it for this newsletter. Have a great Month!


End of the May 2002 Newsletter

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