April 2008 Newsletter from
"This Day in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2010)

Click Here To Return To The Previous Website

Start of Phil Konstantin's April 2008 Newsletter - Part 1


There have been several trips to the hospital for my family
the last month, or so. Sarah, my youngest at 26, had neck surgery
the last week of February. Two of her vertebrae were fused
together. We are hoping this will relieve some of the pain
she constantly experiences. It is still too soon to tell.
Heidi, my middle child at 28, was in the hospital for a
little over a week. She was also in a lot of pain. She just
got out on Wednesday. She had a staph infection which is
very hard to treat. The condition is called MRSA. You can
check it out on the internet, if you wish. Ron, my oldest,
and myself have had our normal aches and pains. Ron was in
a collision some time ago which hurt his neck. Wow, it sounds
like my family is falling apart.

I have an interesting job. In case you didn't know, I do traffic
reports on TV in San Diego. My work day is from 5am to 9am. I'm
not much of a morning person. One of my favorite sayings is:
"The only way I want to see a sunrise is at the end of the day."
But, I work the early morning shift because that was the only
shift they had. We have a nice group of people there. There is
a lot of turnover in the personnel; but, that is very common in
broadcasting. Broadcasting is not a very stable occupation.
There are usually 400 people who would love to have your job
for less than you are getting paid, because they want to get
into the 'exciting world of journalism.' In some ways, it is
glamorous. Recently, I have sent a little time with Chubby
Checker (singer, dancer), Grace Slick (Jefferson Airplane/Starship),
Ben Vereen (Roots, All That Jazz), Paula Poundstone (comic),
Connie Chung (reporter), and out usual group of local newsmakers.
You can see pictures of all of these folks (and lots of others)
on my KUSI website at:


Another book just came out with some of my work in it. This
one is about treaties with American Indian tribes. It is titled:
"Treaties with American Indians - An Encyclopedia of Rights,
Conflicts, and Sovereignty." It covers Canada and the United States.
I wrote one article, and they included my listing of tribal names.
With three volumes, it is expensive, around $250. Fortunately,
they gave me a copy. That is the only way I could afford it. It
does look very good.

I mentioned last month that I have a new online shop. Several
of you have visited it, and a few have made some purchases. I
thank you. I get a dollar or two from each purchase there. The
easiest way to see all of the designs is to click the link
below and then click on the "Design" tab. That will show you
each of the designs. Clicking on anything there will show you
what products are available with that design. Some of them have
turned out very nicely. You can look all over the store without
buying anything. No hard sales pitch here...

Here is the direct link to the store.

I also still have the connection to Amazon.com on my main
store page. I get a small commission there for any purchase.
That will cost you the same as visiting Amazon on your own. So,
if you shop on Amazon, I appreciate it when you get there through
my website:


You can also go to Amazon by clicking on any of the links for
my books.



Similar to last month, my 'Link Of The Month' for April is a
'protest' website. "The Home Page Of The United Cherokee Nation"
addresses what they feel are the abuses and illegalities of the
administration of the Cherokee Nation in Tahlequah, Oklahoma.
"We Support The Actions Of All Cherokee Citizens In Their Fight!
Against The Oppression By: The Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma!
Dictatorial Tyranny Upon The Cherokee People Must Be Halted."

I do not always agree with their conclusions; but; I do find it
interesting to look at other points of view.

You can find it at:



The "Treat of the Month" for April is The AGREEMENT WITH THE FIVE
NATIONS OF INDIANS, 1792. - April 23, 1792

This is a very short, and early treaty.



Interesting website:

Steven J. Waller's Rock Art Acoustics page


Information requests:

If you can help, please contact these people directly:


The Group on International Perspectives on Governmental
Aggression and Peace (GIPGAP) is a multi-ethnic/multi-national
group that includes researchers, students, and members of
NGOs who want to gain a better understanding of why there
is so much tolerance for violence in the world. (For more
information, see http://people.bu.edu/gipgap/ .) We are
particularly anxious to hear the views of ordinary people
from diverse groups about governmental aggression (e.g.,
war, capital punishment) and peace. We have developed a
survey that is being administered to all major ethnic groups
within the United States as well as to groups in countries
on every continent except Antarctica. The survey asks
respondents to respond to items concerning such issues as
the extent to which they think governments have the right
to use aggression (e.g., to invade another country) and
the extent to which children have the right to grow up in
a world of peace. Respondents are asked to explain their
views on these issues ANONYMOUSLY and in their own words.
We want to include the “voices” of people from diverse
backgrounds in books and articles designed to help people
around the world gain a better understanding of the extent
to which people from other cultural backgrounds and other
nations have views that are similar to or different from
their own. We believe that some views will differ between
people from largely White industrialized nations, many of
which were formerly colonizers of other parts of the world,
and people from groups that have been colonized, invaded,
or otherwise oppressed. We are eager to hear the views of
individuals from Native American Indian communities and
request that you fill out our anonymous survey. It is
available online at:


If you have any questions, you can contact the project
supervisor, Kathleen Malley-Morrison, at kkmalley @ comcast.net.

Thank you very much.


Research Question on Tribal "Kitchen" Gardens: We are
currently doing research on community gardening in Indian
Country. We are looking for specific statistics dealing
with the cost savings benefit of small scale tribal
gardens and agriculture as a food source for tribal
members. Also we are looking for numbers supporting the
benefits of having gardening projects in tribal communities.
Do you know of any research to this effect, or where I
might be able to find such numbers? Thank you for any
information you might be able to provide. Melissa E.
Christy AmeriCorps VISTA Leader for the National Society
for American Indian Elderly.
200 E. Fillmore St #151Phoenix,
AZ 85004. 602-424-0542 ext. 3.

melissa.christy @ nsaie.org




On March 13, 2008 a meeting between the Honorables
Congresspersons Barney Frank, John Conyers, Diane
Watson,and Mel Watt was held with the Assistant
Secretary of the Interior Carl Artman in Washington
DC. The Congresspersons held the meeting to determine
the DOI position on the freedmen and the DOI plans
to resolve the issue.


Oral arguments have been set at the Washington DC
court of Appeals on the Vann versus Kempthorne case
for May 6th 2008. The Appeals court is reviewing the
district court judge's denials of motions to dismiss
the case which were filed by the Cherokee nation. The
order can be reviewed at the pacer service center


Marilyn Vann will be featured on www.kkfi.org show
"Guess whose coming to Kansas City on Saturday March
22 2008 at 5pm central time. THose with the internet
can listen online at http://www.kkfi.org/

Mark your calendars for the Descendants of freedmen
genealogy workshop set for April 26th at the Langston
University Oklahoma City campus. The workshop will begin
at 11am and end at 3pm. (The workshop will break for
lunch (participants will be on their own for lunch as
it is not included in the registration fee)). Registration
fee is $15 for non members/non official supporters. 10
for members and official supporters. For more information,
contact Rhonda Grayson:   dof5ctac @ yahoo.com

Freedmen in Muskogee will begin meeting every 2nd
Saturday to share information and learn important
news updates . Meetings will be at the King center.
Please contact Mr HIghtower for more information
Hax.Muskogee @ yahoo.com

Our next freedmen meeting will be on Saturday May
17th at the Rudisill library in TUlsa Oklahoma.

Please visit our conference website for updates on
our June 7th 2008 freedmen conference.
Our conference Chair MS Grayson can be reached
at dof5ctac @ yahoo.com

Visit the website: www.thecreekfreedmen.com for
additional news on freedmen issues

WE hope everyone will support the Coffeyville Kansas
Stomp Dance and Powwow on April 18th-April 19th

We thank those who attended town hall meetings of
Oklahoma Senator Coburn this week. Our Descendants
of Freedmen Vice President Ron Grahamas well as
Senator Coburn was shown on OETA TV discussing the
issue on March 18th in Okmulgee. Senator Coburn again
expressed his belief in the freedmen treaty rights.
Next week, Oklahoma Congresspersons Cole, Lucas and
Fallin will host Town hall meetings. we encourage
constituents to attend if possible and express your
views on the freedmen issue. http://www.okgop.com/Calendar/

Marilyn Vann
President - Descendants of Freedmen association


Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian Announces 13
of New Visual and Expressive Arts Grants Program

Kevin Gover (Pawnee/Comanche), director of the National Museum of the
American Indian today announced the inaugural awards for the museum’s
new Visual and Expressive Arts Grants program.

The museum’s newest grant program offers support to a wide range of arts
activities with the goal of increasing knowledge, understanding and
appreciation of contemporary Native American arts. “The National Museum
of the American Indian considers the recognition of living artists of
the Western Hemisphere to be of the utmost importance,” said Gover.
“These grants will strengthen scholarship and create opportunities for
new and innovative work in this underserved field.”

Grants are made in two funding areas, the visual arts and the expressive
arts. Visual arts awards support exhibitions and installations of
contemporary Native American art, as well as publications and critical
writing. The expressive arts category supports the creation and
presentation of new works with an emphasis on collaboration.

Visual Arts Grants
The Art Association of Jackson Hole will host the traveling exhibition
“Marie Watt: Blanket Stories,” organized by the Nicolaysen Art Museum in
Casper, Wyo. Watt (Seneca) explores the symbolism of blankets within
American Indian culture past and present. The exhibition includes
enormous quilts, stacked blanket works and cedar and bronze sculpture.
Watt will lead gallery talks, present a slide lecture and organize a
family sewing circle to encourage discussion about contemporary and
historical Native American art, traditions and personal inspiration.

The “Ili-ho: The Surface Within” exhibition will explore, from an
indigenous perspective, four textile treasures from the Bishop Museum in
Honolulu , Hawaii : a magnificent feathered cloak, a makaloa mat, an
intricate kappa and a moving protest quilt. The exhibition, for which
Native Hawaiian artist and professor Maile Andrade serves as guest
curator, will invite eight contemporary Hawaiian artists to explore
these ancestral creations and create their own works. The exhibition is
a celebration of Native contemporary textile art and emphasizes the role
of the Native community in interpreting their own material culture.

Cultural Resources Inc., in conjunction with the Maine Indian Basket
Alliance, will organize the traveling exhibition “North by Northeast:
Wabanaki, Akwesasne, Mohawk and Tuscarora Traditional Arts.” The
exhibition will feature beadwork, basketry, woodcarving, birch bark
canoe making and other traditional arts to increase the visibility of
regional artists David Mose Bridges (Passamaquoddy), Marlene Printup
(Tuscarora), Henry Arquette (Mohawk) and Jennifer Neptune (Penobscot),
among many others. The exhibition will be presented at the Akwesasne
Cultural Center in Hogansburg , N.Y. ; the Abbe Museum in Bar Harbor ,
Maine ; and the Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center in
Mashantucket , Conn.

The Hallie Ford Museum of Art at Williamette University and the
University of Washington Press will co-publish the exhibition catalog
“Joe Feddersen: Vital Signs.” The exhibition is a retrospective of the
work of multimedia artist Joe Feddersen ( Colville ). The full-color,
112-page catalog will feature an extraordinary selection of the artist’s
best work in prints, glass and weaving since the mid-1990s. With a
biographical essay by exhibition curator Rebecca Dobkins, an
introduction by artist Barbara Thomas and a critical essay by
artist–writer Gail Tremblay (Onondaga/Mi’kmaq), “Joe Feddersen: Vital
Signs” will be a new volume in the prestigious Jacob Lawrence Series on
American Art and Artists of the University of Washington Press.

The Nicolaysen Art Museum will present a retrospective exhibition,
titled “David Bradley: American Indian Gothic,” as part of its
contemporary American Indian art series. Bradley’s (Minnesota White
Earth Chippewa) paintings combine a folk narrative style with political
and social messages concerning Native American life and culture. He also
draws from icons of Western art history to craft his jolting, colorful
and playful paintings. A 40-page exhibition catalog will be published
featuring essays by curator Lisa Hatchadoorian and writer Gerald Vizenor
(Minnesota White Earth Chippewa).

As part of the restoration of Stanley Park in Vancouver , British
Columbia , which was damaged by a windstorm in 2006, the Stanley Park
Environmental Art Project brings together artists to work in
collaboration with ecologists, park stewards and educators to create
site-specific artwork. Tania Willard, a multimedia artist from the
Secwepemc (Shuswap) Nation of British Columbia will create work
responding to new evidence of Native history in the park and integrate
the knowledge of elders. Through this project, Willard will work
alongside other commissioned artists, including T’Uy’Tanat Cease Wyss
(Coast Salish), Peter Von Tiesenhausen and Shirley Wiebe.

Expressive Arts Grants

Composer and cellist Dawn Avery (Mohawk descent) from Rockville , Md. ,
along with percussionist Steven Alvarez (Yaqui/Mescalero Apache/Upper
Tanana Athabaskan) and violinist

Tara-Louise Montour (Mohawk), will form a new Native classical chamber
music trio, Three Sides. Narratives by poet Janet-Marie Rogers
(Mohawk/Tuscarora), videography by Chris Bose (N’laka pamux) and a
narrative ceremony led by elder Jan Longboat (Mohawk), will accompany
three original works by Dawn Avery.

Tsimshian artist and performer David Boxley from Anchorage , Alaska ,
will teach a Tsimshian dance to the Alaska Native Heritage Center
dancers, oversee the inaugural performance of that dance and produce a
working box drum for use during ANHC dances and theatrical performances.
He will serve also as executive producer for a dramatic performance of a
new play based on Tsimshian cultural traditions and provide a
mask-making workshop for ANHC staff, which will use the mask in the
dramatic performance.

“Cauyaqa Nauwa? – Where is My Drum?” is a collaboration between Yup’ik
storyteller Jack Dalton and Yup’ik singer and dancer Stephen Blanchett.
Their story will trace the history and relate the importance of the
cauyaq, or drum, in Yup’ik culture. The story will follow the cauyaq
from its creation and perfection as an implement used in sacred,
ceremonial and social life; its repression and destruction by
missionaries; and its resurrection and renaissance in modern times. The
piece will have two versions, one developed purely for theatrical
presentation and other as a teaching device for area school children.

“Home: Inside & Out,” a series of vignettes, will express the
connections to home that delve into the deep sense of belonging and
identity that connects Native Hawaiians to place, family, friends,
values and emotions. New dances will be choreographed by fusing a
mixture of traditional hula, creative movement and dramatic staging.
These dances will be set to nouveau-Hawaiian musical compositions that
will be drawn from ancient forms and chanting textures, accompanied by
Native and Western instruments. The project is an intergenerational
collaborative project involving the Maui Arts and Cultural Center, kuma
hula Hokulani Holt and a culture-based team of next-generation
Native Hawaiian artists who share a connection to traditional hula.

The Witness Project is a collaborative, multidisciplinary work by
choreographer Tom Pearson (Coharie/Creek/Eastern Band Cherokee),
composer–performer Louis Mofsie (Hopi/Winnebago) and performer Donna
Ahmadi (Cherokee/Chickasaw). These artists will visit the sites and
communities of their respective Native lineage and create a series of
vignettes that explore the issue of identity and an attempt to
understand and reconcile the realities of being mixed-race Native
artists living and working in an urban landscape.

The Tomaquag Indian Memorial Museum of Exeter, R.I., has a project
titled, “Places, Memories, Stories and Dreams: The Gifts of Inspiration”
that will harness the power of storytelling, music and digital media to
build cross-cultural understanding of the relationship between tradition
and geography in Native culture. Renowned Niantic-Narragansett
storyteller Paulla Dove Jennings will visit several culturally relevant
historic places, and each story will be video and audio recorded. The
stories then will be digitally edited, and original and traditional
music performed by the Nettukkusq Singers will be incorporated and
available on DVD.

Playwright Rhiana Yazzie (Navajo), visual artist Carolyn Anderson
(Navajo), choreographer Emily Johnson (Yup’ik) and Pangea World Theater
dramaturge Meena Natarajan will draw together their talents to create
the one-person play “Ady” about the life of dancer–artist from
Guadeloupe, Ady Fidelin, to confront an unexpected intersection of
colonialism, DNA, Navajo culture, sexuality, dancing, writing, the
island of Guadeloupe and the art of Man Ray and Pablo Picasso.

Thirteen grants totaling $145,000 will support artists and cultural
collaborations across the country, from Maine to Hawaii . The museum
received 83 applications requesting a total of nearly $1 million. The
grant recipients were selected by a panel of museum staff and outside
experts in the contemporary arts field. Visit the museum’s Web site at
www.AmericanIndian.si.edu this summer for information about next year’s
grant applications and deadlines.

The National Museum of the American Indian’s Visual and Expressive Arts
grants are made possible through a generous gift from The Ford



I will reference , the book written by Georges E. Sioui, " Huron-Wendat,
the Heritage of the Circle."

According to Wendat Creation Myths and Wendat Conception they had
originated from a place of a spring of bitter water, "Big Bone Licks",
exact location, Boone County, Kentucky, and then migrated to the
Northeast from there into the place where present day Quebec City and
Montreal are. According to their own myths, the Wendats speak of a long
Southern Migration, which the Wendats crossed a great river with steep
rocky shores, referring to the Mississippi river, later settling on the
site of what is now Montreal. This would refer to the migration that
Walum Olum of the Lenape speak of , when the Lenape and the Mengwe
crossed the Mississippi River at the point where the Missouri and
Mississippi River join , and carried on a 100 years war with the
Alleghans (the Moundbuilders). The place Boone County, Kentucky, is
where the ancestral Wendats originated from, and later became known as
the Stadaconens and Hochelagans.The dispersal from the St. Lawrence
Valley, happened in the 16th century, (after 1542 ad) according to Bruce

In 1837, the group of Wendats( Wyandots) who still lived on the
Amherstburg reserve, in the southern tip of what is now Ontario,
answered questions about the origin of their people. The interviewer was
the distinguished American historian and superintendent of Indian
Affairs Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. " The French say you lived on the St.
Lawrence and afterwards went to the north , from where afterwards you
came down to the vicinity of Detroit," commenced Schoolcraft. Chief
Oriwahento replied that the Wendats originally " lived in the interior,
at the mountains east, about the St. Lawrence." (Barbeau 1915:299)
(referring the mountains north of Quebec City, the Laurentian
Mountains). Regarding their flight from the St. Lawrence, their
settlement in the north, and their subsequent migration to, and
settlement on, the straits of Detroit, Oriwahento said: " the Wyandots
were proud. God said that such would be beaten and brought low. This is
the cause why we were followed from the east and went up north away to
Michilimackinac." '15 Barbeau reports seven allusions in Wendat oral
tradition to the regions of Quebec City, and Montreal as the land of
origin ( Barbeau, 1915:299,300,310,312,324,375 and 383). This gives
legitimacy to the Detroit Wyandot chiefs request in 1739, to settle his
people on the St. Lawrence, where to his mind, no one could henceforth
contest the legitimacy of his ancestral territorial rights
)see Clinton 1979:10-1).

Also , when Chief Oriwahento, as quoted earlier, speaks of God's will to
bring low the powerful(17) and describes the migration in question as
toward the "north", (18) he is giving us a glimpse the catastrophic
dispersal experienced by the St. Lawrence Nadoueks in the decades after
Cartier's third voyage of 1541-1542.

The Wendat tradition reported by Dooyentate is that" the Wyandots once
inhabited a country north-eastward from the mouth of the St. Lawrence,
or somewhere along the Gulf Coast, before they ever met with the French,
or any European adventurers" (Barbeau 1915:375).

There is no evidence that Middle Woodland 300 - 500 ad villages in
Ontario had any connection to the historic Wendat. Also because of the
migration patterns of the Wendat mentioned above, coming from present
day Boone County, Kentucky, and then migrating Northeast to the upper
St. Lawrence to the Laurent Mountains, their is no proof that any of the
Early Iroquoian ( 900-1300 ad), Uren (1300-1330 ad), Middleport
(1330-1420 ad ) or late prehistoric (1420-1550 ad) had an exclusive
connection to only the Huron-Wendat. As the Princess Point (900-1100
ad-Early Iroquoian in other sources indicate the progenitors of the
Erie/Neutral) and Point Peninsula the progenitors of the Huron-Wendat)
The Early Ontario Iroquoians( 1100-1300 ad) were divided into two
groups, the Pickering Branch, which the St. Lawrence Nadouks became a
part of much later, and the Glen Meyer branch which the Erie/Neutrals
are the descendants of. From 1300-1330 ad developed the Uren substage,
which again is not proof of a Wendat-Huron exclusiveness to these sites,
as others might suggest. Also the Middleport substage 1330- 1420 ad,
does not indicate that all villages have an ancestral connection to
Huron-Wendat, as it is all dependant upon where the Wendats were at that
time, which by their own oral traditions indicated they were living in
the upper St.Lawrence mountains. From 1420-1550, this period also does
not necessarily prove that the ancestral Wendat were living all
throughout southern Ontario, as an account from Chief Oriwanento states
that they were not dispersed from the upper St.Lawrence until after
Cartier's third voyage of 1541-1542 ad. Which would put the Wendat
proper not migrating into the area between Lake Simcoe and Nattawasaga
Bay until after 1542, which was just at the latter end of the late
prehistoric period of 1550 ad. Again indicating that any earlier
presence of Wendat villages in large quantities did not occur until
after 1542 in Ontario. Also there is a reference made by the Jesuits,
that indicate that the Wendat Confederacy, (Bear, Cord. Rock ,Deer and
Bog Nations) was not formed until 50 or 60 years prior to 1615, between
1555-1565 ad. Therefore again not all sites that are Early Iroquoian,
Uren, Middleport, or late prehistoric period have an exclusive
relationship to only ancestral Huron-Wendat. In noting a reference from
Tuck 1978:323, the Ontario Iroquoians were the Huron,Petun,Erie/Neutral,
therefore not limiting the Ontario Iroquoians to just Wendat(Huron).

The destruction of many Erie/Neutral villages in Ontario relates to the
plaques that were brought into our villages, through the Wendat-French
influx from the east as they moved into Ontario after 1550 ad. Early
records indicate that the epidemics started arriving here in 1550 and
lasted well into 1656 ad when the Erie/Neutrals at that time through
cooperation agreement with the Five Nations(Six Nations Confederacy) had
placed their traditional homelands under the Six Nations stewardship.
After 1656 the Erie/Neutrals concentrated more of their populations in
areas where the French-Wendat influx was not as prevalent. Many of our
people would take refuge in Six Nations villages, as the Jesuits were
expelled from all Six Nations villages after 1673 ad, which also led to
DeNonville's mercenary expedition against and wholesale massacre of many
of our people in 1687 ad, which evolved into stirring up a hornets nest
with the Five Nations ( Six Nations). As a result of these events many
Erie/ Neutrals and their ancestors can be found living in among the
various Six Nation Communities on both sides of Lake Erie and Ontario
and was far west as Oklahoma.

Niawen skenon! Oneh!

In peace,

David Redwolf
Taiaiko'n Historical Preservation Services
Liaison Erie Indian Moundbuilders Tribal Nation


Notices & Events:
(Posted as FYI only, use your judgment before participating)

The website for the San Diego Mesa College Canyon Days is
below, Jane Dumas has agreed to give the blessing at the
beginning of the event, we hope some of you can be present
for the Day on May 3rd.

Mesa Canyon Day website    http://www.sdmesa.net/canyonday

O. Pierre Romero, Ph.D .


Intertribal Joint Council Meeting between Cherokee Nation and the
Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians will be in Catoosa on April 9,
starting at 9:00 am, to watch the live stream visit our website at:


Symposium of the American Indian at Northeastern State University,
Tahlequah, OK will be April 16 - 19. Three days of lectures,
presentations, theater, films, powwow and exhibitions. Activities
include renowned scholars, authors, and artists, and a Native
Language experts. Also the NSU Alumni Powwow April 11-12. Open to
the public. For more information visit http://www.cts.nsuok.edu
or call 918-444-4350.


American Indian Society of Washington, D.C.

The AIS powwow committee is pleased to send you an E-invitation and
flier (Contact Eagle-@hotmail.com to get a PDF of the flyer) to
attend this years’ AIS Annual Mother’s Day Powwow May 10th & 11th,
2008, Ruther Glen, VA. This year’s event focuses on honoring
grandmothers, mothers, grandmothers to be, and mothers to be.
Emcee Lawrence Baker (Hidatsa) and local host drum Black Bear
(Southern) will lead in the inter-tribal spirit to share the
sacredness and distinction mothers have in the Indian way and
honor our warrior mothers.


Sherman Indian High School:



Alexis Villa - Miss Sherman 2007/2008    
FRIDAY, APRIL 18, 2008– 6:00 P.M. to 9:00 P.M.



(951) 712-7650 @ sunset apartments


July 10-12, 2008. "For All My Relations,"
9th Annual Conference for Indian Families
Conducted by the National Indian Justice Center
Anaheim, California.

This conference is for Native youth and parents, tribal
council members, tribal court personnel, various tribal
agency employees, health and social service providers,
judges, attorneys, housing staff, police officers, various
county and state employees, and others who work with or
are concerned about the health, welfare, and safety of
Native Families. For a complete list of proposed conference
workshops, www.HIJC.org

Please contact us at nijc @ aol.com

NIJC will offer Certificates of Achievement for attending
six (6) or more conference workshops. These Certificates
may be used as evidence of attendance for accounting
purposes or to obtain continuing education credit from an agency.

Conference Location:
Anaheim Marriott Hotel (near Disneyland)
700 West Convention Way
Anaheim, Ca 92802
(800) 228-9290


Southern California American Indian Resource Center, Inc. (SCAIR)

Please Join Us For the Grand Opening Of SCAIR Learning
Center San Diego
4265 Fairmount Avenue, Suite 160
San Diego, California 92105
Wednesday, April 9th, 2008 - 11:am to 2:pm
Food and Door Prizes

For More Information please call 1.888.217.2247


You still have a chance to attend the Cherokee Women's Leadership
Conference '08, however you must RSVP by April 11 2008. The
Conference is moderated by Wilma Mankiller, it is scheduled for
Saturday, April 19th. Check out our public notices for more


Contact: Maxine Hillary or Phillip Hamel
202-690-6531 518-897-4156

“Blessed by Tradition: Honoring Our Ancestors Through Government

Society of American Indian Government Employees hosts fifth
national training conference and career fair (Washington,
D.C.) April 18 - The Society of American Indian Government
Employees (SAIGE) will host its fifth national training
conference and career fair at the Grand Traverse Hotel in
Traverse City, Michigan, June 2-6. The 2008 national training
conference, “Blessed by Tradition: Honoring Our Ancestors
Through Government Service,” will focus on training designed
to provide government employees, particularly those involved
in the delivery of Native American services and programs,
the education to reach their full potential in the Federal
workplace. A discounted registration of $50 is offered to
students, providing they have a valid student ID. Students
age 18-25 are also urged to apply for a Youth Track Scholarship.
In conjunction with the conference, a career fair will be
held on Wednesday, June 4th. It is free to the public and
will have exhibit booths and staff available to discuss
career opportunities from various businesses, federal and
state agencies, and others. Training sessions will focus on
tips for applying and interviewing for a position, as well
as other related subjects. There will also be a career
resource center where information and computers will be
available. SAIGE is a private, national non-profit organization
founded in 2001 to promote the recruitment, hiring, retention,
development and advancement of American Indians and Alaska
Natives in the government workforce, and to assist their
respective agencies in fulfilling the Federal Trust
Responsibility. SAIGE is open to federal, state, tribal,
and local employees.

For additional information on registration and scholarship
applications, please visit www.saige.org.


FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE - February 29, 2008
CONTACT: David C. Frankel, Legal Director 415-707-2109
info @ uraniumisnotmyfriend.com
Bruce Ellison, Attorney for Petitioners 605-348-9458
belli4law @ aol.com

Indigenous Grandmothers and Winona LaDuke
Join Indigenous Petitioners Opposing US
Nuclear Regulatory Commission Licensing of
Cameco Inc.’s ISL Uranium Mine Expansion
in Crawford, Nebraska

WASHINGTON, D.C. – Several of the International Council of
Thirteen Indigenous Grandmothers
(www.GrandmothersCouncil.org), and Winona LaDuke of Honor the
Earth (www.HonorEarth.org) filed supporting affidavits explaining
to the NRC panel of administrative judges the significance
of continued access to local, pristine water for medicines
and ceremonies. The affidavits were filed in support of
Indigenous Petitioners who are opposing a proposed license
amendment requested by Crow Butte Resources, Inc., a
subsidiary of Canadian multinational Cameco, Inc. [NYSE: CCJ]
(www.cameco.com), to expand its ISL uranium mine in Crawford,
Nebraska near Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The affidavits
submitted were from Indigenous Grandmothers Beatrice Long
Visitor Holy Dance and Rita Long Visitor Holy Dance, Oglala
Lakota, from Flordemayo, a Nicaraguan Maya, and from Mona Ann
Polacca, from the Havasupai, Hopi and Tewa Tribes, and from
Winona LaDuke, of Honor the Earth and former Green Party
vice-presidential candidate.

The Indigenous Grandmothers pointed out sacredness of water
and the use of water to make medicines and conduct sacred
ceremonies in addition to being used as a vital natural resource.
“When we come into this life, our mothers carry us in their
bodies, and we are in the water. That is our first experience
in this life, being in the water, and so it is holy for us.
We carry that relationship with water through our lives…Lakota
people need to have good water nearby for use for our ceremonies….
the water purifies us,” explains Beatrice Long Visitor Holy
Dance. Indigenous Grandmother Flordemayo explains, “I work
with healing sicknesses, and I use water often. To be useful,
in a healing, the water must be intact….the water is vital to
[the sweat lodge ceremony], and it must be pure, uncontaminated
water for the ceremony to be effective.”

Indigenous Grandmother Polacca adds, “[w]e must not allow
these teachings about water to be forgotten. The water must
be kept pure for the people. The water is what we come from,
and it is through the water that we are all related with peoples
all over the World. The family of human beings is the family
of water, and water is the basis of life around us.” Winona
LaDuke states, “[i]t is time for a new energy policy that is
not built on the continued suffering of Native peoples and
their communities who can rarely wield sufficient political
power to successfully protect their interests.”

The In Situ Leach (ISL) mining process involves injecting a
bicarbonate solution into the water aquifer which releases
uranium from sand particles in the aquifer and also stirs up
and releases radioactive and toxic chemicals like Radon,
Thorium, Radium and Arsenic into the environment. The uranium
is removed from the water and a form of “geo-chemically changed”
water is re-injected into the aquifer. No ISL uranium mine has
ever returned the water in the mined aquifer to baseline levels
and ISL mining may be responsible for elevated kidney and
cancer problems and the closure of 98 wells to due arsenic
contamination at Pine Ridge.

Donations for this effort may be made to Plenty International,
fiscal sponsor of the project (www.thefarm.org), and earmarked
for “Save Crow Butte”: POB 394, Summertown, TN 38483;

Aligning for Responsible Mining (ARM) is an indigenous-led
non-profit organization dedicated to the application of the
International Precautionary Principle to mining and opposition
to “Abusive Mining” which is mining that fails to satisfy the
Precautionary Principle. More information on the Crow Butte
case may be found at www.SaveCrowButte.org and information
from ARM’s Uranium Advocacy Project may be found at


Apr 12-13 - Healing Horse Spirit Pow Wow, a traditional gathering to
honor the earth, the horses and each other, non-profit fundraiser for
Horsenet Horse Rescue. Location: Mt. Airy Volunteer Fire Dept.
Carnival Grounds, Corner of MD Rt 27 and Twin Arch Rd, Mount Airy,
Info: http://www.horsenethorserescue.org, Contact: Debbie Sweitzer ~
(443) 474-6960 ~ deb1617 @ aol.com.
Contact: Becky Tudisco ~ (240) 426-9588 ~ discoark @ hotmail.com

April 26 - 8th Annual American Indian Pow Wow, Red Wing Park, Virginia
Beach, VA, 11 am - 6 pm Contact VA Beach Parks & Recreation @
757.427.2990 or fun @ VBgov.com. Website: VBgov.com/parks

Apr 26-27 - 10th Annual Journey Home Powwow, Frisco Native American
Museum & Natural History Center, Cape Hatteras Elementary School,
Frisco, NC. Info www.nativeamericanmuseum.org/powwow.htm

May 3-4 - VITAL Pow Wow at the Chickahominy Tribal Grounds, Charles
City, VA Info: www.vitalva.org call (804) 829-2027 for directions. For
other information, contact organizers: (804) 966-2448

May 10-11 - AIS Mother's Day Pow Wow, Indian Pines, Ruther Glen, VA
(Details TBA)

May 16-18 - Monacan Indian Nation 16th Annual Pow Wow, Rt. 130, 6 Miles
West of Rt. 29, Elon, VA. Info: (434) 946-0389,

May 24 - Memorial Day Honor Gourd Dance, noon to sunset at the National
Museum of the American Indian. Sunrise Wreath laying at the Vietnam
Veterans Memorial Wall. Info: Larry Anderson Sr. 928.729.2035; T.J. or
Alta 505.726.0427 or Paul Bemore 505.379.6921

June 7-8 - Eagles Nest Natives Honoring Veterans Festival 2008,
Veteran's Hospital Grounds, Perry Point, VA. Contact Al Milliner at

June 21-22 - Eighth Annual Shenandoah Valley Pow Wow, Silver Phoenix
Indian Trading Post, Mt. Jackson, VA (1371 Caverns Road, Quicksburg, VA
22847) - Take I-81 Exit 269 Shenandoah Caverns exit. Contact:
540-477-9616 or sphoenix @ shentel.net

June 28 -American University WINS Pow Wow at American University,
Washington, DC.

Jul 12-13 - Howard County Pow Wow, Howard County Fairgrounds, 2210
Fairgrounds Rd, West Friendship, MD 21794. Contact 202-532-0821 or
powwow @ vance.net. Website: http//www.myspace.com/powwow4life.

August 22-24 - Baltimore American Indian Center 34th Annual Pow Wow,
Patterson Park 400 South Linwood Ave/corner of Eastern Ave Baltimore,
Maryland 21224. Contest Powwow. Total Prizes: $23,000. Contact:
410-675-3535 baic @ starpower.net www.baic.org

Sep 6-7 - Nanticoke Indian Association's Annual Powwow sponsored by:
Nanticoke Indian Association, Inc. and will be held at: The Nanticoke
Anderson. HL: Adrienne Harmon. AD: Jay Hill. Directions: The Nanticoke
Indian Powwow site is located approximately 8 miles east of Millsboro,
Delaware, on DE Rt 24 (John J. Williams Hwy) east of DE Rt 113. From
DE Rt 1, take DE Rt 24 West,(John J. Williams Hwy) approximately 12
miles to Powwow site. Signs will be posted along route 24, both east
and west. Contact: Marilyn Jackson 302-945-3400 nanticok @ verizon.net

Sep 13-14 - 16th Annual Nause-Waiwash Band of Indians Native American
Festival, Ball Field in Vienna , MD. Rt. 50 East or West to Vienna MD &
follow signs to ball field. Contact NWBOI Office: 410-376-3889
Sep 20-21 - Nottoway Indian Tribe of VA Inc., People of the Longhouse,
Pow Wow, Surry Parks & Recreation Center, Highway 10 at Highway 31, 205
Enos Farm Drive, Surry, VA 23883. Contact 757.654.9301 or 757.686.8602.
Email: NottowayofVA @ aol.com

Oct 18-19 - 15th Annual Healing of All Nations Fall Festival & Pau Wau
sponsored by: Accohannock Indian Tribe and will be held at Bending
Water Park, Marion Station, MD. Contact: Tribal Office 410-623-2660
accohannock @ dmv
Nov 15-16 - The Great American Indian Exposition and Pow Wow, The
Showplace, 3000 Mechanicsville Turnpike, Richmond, VA 23223. Contact
202-532-0821 or powwow @ vance.net. Website:


APRIL 26TH, 2008 - 11:00AM-9:00PM
156 Homestead Ave. Salinas, Ca 93901
Gourd Dancing 11am & 5pm-Grand Entry Noon & 6pm


Sunday, April 6, 2008 10:00 am ~ 6:00 pm on D-Q U campus
33250 County Rd. 31 Davis, Calif. 95617 The Associated Student
Body will be hosting a Pow Wow on Sunday, April 6, 2008. The
community is invited to attend a Planting of the Corn Ceremony,
which will happen in conjunction with the Pow Wow, to welcome
in the new Spring Season and celebrate Mother Earth.
Applications for enrollment into the new Board of Trustees
will also be accepted on this day. For more information visit:
or contact one of our coordinators. more info as it becomes available !


Native American jewelry on display at GIA


Thunderbird American Indian Dancers Pow wow
Saturday, April 19 7:00 PM - 11:00 PM Thunderbird American Indian
Traditional Social Pow wow - Diker Pavilion
National Museum of the American Indian
1 Bowling Green - 212-514-3700

25th Annual Gathering of Nations Pow Wow & Miss Indian World Pageant
Thursday, April 24 -- Saturday, April 26 25th Annual Gathering of
Nations Pow Wow & Miss Indian World Pageant
University of New Mexico, "The Pit" - Alurquerque, NM

Drums Along The Hudson - A Native American Fesitval and ShadFest
Saturday, May 03 11:00 AM - 6:00 PM Drums Along The Hudson -
A Native American Fesitval and ShadFest
Shorakapok Park (Inwood Hill Park)
218th Street, New York City - Rain or Shine - 212-627-1026
www.lotusmusicandda nce.org
Nimham Mountain & VA Medical Center Intertribal Pow Wow
Saturday, May 17 -- Sunday, May 18
Nimham Mountain & VA Medical Center Intertribal Pow Wow
VA Medical Center, RT 9A - Montrose, NY

Red Earth Native American Festival
Friday, June 06 -- Sunday, June 08 Red Earth Native American Festival
Cox Convention Center - Oklahoma, OK
www.redearth. org

Annual Kanatsiohareke Festival
Saturday, June 28 -- Sunday, June 29 Annual Kanatsiohareke Festival
Kanatsiohareke Mohawk Community
4934 State Highway, Route 5 - Fonda, NY

Thunderbird American Indian Dancers Annual Mid-Summer Pow wow
Friday, July 25 -- Sunday, July 27 Thunderbird American
Indian Dancers Annual Mid-Summer Pow wow
Queens County Farm Museum
73-50 Little Neck Parkway, Floral Park, NY
718-347-FARM - www.queensfarm. org


Online News Stories:

Study: Native Americans Can Trace DNA to 6 Women

Similar scholarly articles:
Genetic Variation and Population Structure in Native Americans

Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders


An Oklahoma House committee passes a bill that would
make English the official state language.

Tribal officials protest English-only hearing

Native American Tribal Leader Not Allowed to Testify in Committee

Poop Fossil Pushes Back Date for Earliest Americans

Group eyes ways to capitalize on history

Sonora filmmaker sentenced to probation after taping American Indian

Sedona Visitors Enjoy Archaeology Along
The Colorado River Exhibit

Native artifacts illustrate Glen Helen’s historic richness

Vet recalls fighting in Pacific with USMC

Possible turbine site includes burial grounds

Distant Native languages bridge Bering Sea

Russell Means on Lakotah Sovereignty

Kiowa Tribe purchases "Indian City", plans to expand

Chaco and Mesa Verde: Southwest parks are stark opposites

San Manuel Band's new leader vows end to criminal influences

Possibilities | 2008 NYS Child Abuse Prevention Conference

Former One Feather editor sues Eastern Band


Humor or Non-Indian Material:

From a co-worker:

There were 3 good arguments that Jesus was Black:
1. He called everyone brother
2. He liked Gospel
3. He didn't get a fair trial

But then there were 3 equally good arguments
that Jesus was Jewish:
1. He went into His Father's business
2. He lived at home until he was 33
3. He was sure his Mother was a virgin and his Mother
    was sure He was God
But then there were 3 equally good arguments
that Jesus was Italian:
1. He talked with His hands
2. He had wine with His meals
3. He used olive oil

But then there were 3 equally good arguments
that Jesus was a Californian :
1. He never cut His hair
2. He walked around barefoot all the time
3. He started a new religion

But then there were 3 equally good arguments
that Jesus was an American Indian :
1. He was at peace with nature
2. He ate a lot of fish
3. He talked about the Great Spirit

But then there were 3 equally good arguments
that Jesus was Irish:
1. He never got married.
2. He was always telling stories.
3. He loved green pastures.
But the most compelling evidence of all -
3 proofs that Jesus was a woman:
1. He fed a crowd at a moment's notice when
   there was virtually no food
2. He kept trying to get a message across
   to a bunch of men who just didn't get it
3. And even when He was dead, He had to get
   up because there was still work to do


From Ed Clark:

You must see this incredible! This is acro-ballet,
not just regular ballet. If the U.S. is in their
planned tour, I hope they come to a city close
enough to drive to from OKC. I'd love to see
the entire ballet. The second part of this video
shows the most incredible pas de deux I have ever
seen. The Bolshoi, the NYC Ballet... you name it...
cannot begin to compete with this talent. You do
not have to be a classical ballet fan to view this
with gaping jaw. Enjoy!



More from Ed:

Football Truisms

"At Georgia Southern, we don't cheat. That costs money and we don't have
Erik Russell / Georgia Southern   

'Football is only a game. Spiritual things are eternal. Nevertheless,
Beat Texas.'
Seen on a church sign in Arkansas prior to the 1969 game.

'After you retire, there's only one big event left....and I ain't ready
for that.'
Bobby Bowden / Florida State

'The man who complains about the way the ball bounces is likely to be
the one who dropped it.'
Lou Holtz / Arkansas

'When you win, nothing hurts.'
Joe Namath / Alabama

'Motivation is simple. You eliminate those who are not motivated.'
Lou Holtz / Arkansas

'If you want to walk the heavenly streets of gold, you gotta know the
password, 'Roll, tide, roll!'
Bear Bryant / Alabama

'A school without football is in danger of deteriorating into a medieval
study hall.'
Frank Leahy / Notre Dame

'There's nothing that cleanses your soul like getting the hell kicked
out of you.'
Woody Hayes / Ohio State

'I don't expect to win enough games to be put on NCAA probation. I just
want to win enough to warrant an investigation.'
Bob Devaney / Nebraska

'In Alabama, an atheist is someone who doesn't believe in Bear Bryant.'

Wally Butts / Georgia

'You can learn more character on the two-yard line than anywhere else in
Paul Dietzel / LSU

'It's kind of hard to rally around a math class.'
Bear Bryant / Alabama

When asked if Fayetteville was the end of the world.
'No, but you can see it from here.'
Lou Holtz / Arkansas...

'I make my practices real hard because if a player is a quitter, I want
him to quit in practice, not in a game.'
Bear Bryant / Alabama

'There's one sure way to stop us from scoring-give us the ball near the
goal line.'
Matty Bell / SMU

'Lads,you're not to miss practice unless your parents died or you died.'
Frank Leahy / Notre Dame

'I never graduated from Iowa, but I was only there for two terms -
Truman's and Eisenhower's.'
Alex Karras / Iowa

'My advice to defensive players: Take the shortest route to the ball and
arrive in a bad humor.'
Bowden Wyatt / Tennessee

'I could have been a Rhodes Scholar, except for my grades.'
Duffy Daugherty / Michigan State

'Always remember ..... Goliath was a 40 point favorite over David.'
Shug Jordan / Auburn

'They cut us up like boarding house pie. And that's real small pieces.'
Darrell Royal / Texas

'Show me a good and gracious loser, and I'll show you a failure.'
Knute Rockne / Notre Dame

'They whipped us like a tied up goat.'
Spike Dykes / Texas Tech

'I asked Darrell Royal, the coach of the Texas Longhorns, why he didn't
recruit me and he said: 'Well,Walt, we took a look at you and you
weren't any good.'
Walt Garrison / Oklahoma State

'Son, you've got a good engine, but your hands aren't on the steering
Bobby Bowden / Florida State

'Football is not a contact sport - it is a collision sport. Dancing is a
contact sport.'
Duffy Daugherty / Michigan State

After USC lost 51-0 to Notre Dame, his postgame message to his team:
'All those who need showers, take them.'
John McKay / USC

'If lessons are learned in defeat, our team is getting a great
Murray Warmath / Minnesota

'The only qualifications for a lineman are to be big and dumb.
To be a back, you only have to be dumb.'
Knute Rockne / Notre Dame

'Oh, we played about like three tons of buzzard puke this afternoon.'
Spike Dykes / Texas Tech

'It isn't necessary to see a good tackle. You can hear it.'
Knute Rockne / Notre Dame

'We live one day at a time and scratch where it itches.'
Darrell Royal / Texas

'We didn't tackle well today but we made up for it by not blocking.'
Wilson Matthews / Little Rock Central High School

'Three things can happen when you throw the ball, and two of them are
bad .'
Darrell Royal / University of Texas

'I've found that prayers work best when you have big players.'
Knute Rockne / Notre Dame

'Gentlemen, it is better to have died a small boy than to fumble this
John Heisman


From my niece Marsha:

An interview with an 80-year-old woman

The local news station was interviewing an 80-year-old lady
because she had just gotten married -- for the fourth time.

The interviewer asked her questions about her life, about
what it felt like to be marrying again at 80, and then
about her new husband's occupation.

"He's a funeral director," she answered.

"Interesting," the newsman thought.

He then asked her if she wouldn't mind telling him a
little about her first three husbands and what they did
for a living.

She paused for a few moments, needing time to reflect
on all those years. After a short time, a smile came
to her face and she answered proudly, explaining that
she'd first married a banker when she was in her early
20's, then a circus ringmaster when in her 40's, later
on a preacher when in her 60's, and now in her 80's, a
funeral director.

The interviewer looked at her, quite astonished, and
asked why she had married four men with such diverse

She smiled and explained, "I married one for the money,
two for the show, three to get ready, and four to go."


From Sal Camarillo

Indian Chicken Jokes:

SOVEREIGN INDIAN: This is the Chickens inherent right as he is
indigenous to this land!!!

MILITANT INDIAN: That chicken should block the road, not cross the

GRASSROOT INDIAN: If the darn chickens need to get across the road, let
'em cross the darn road!

COLONIZED INDIAN: Chiggens should never cross the roads that white men
built before the great white father crosses it first. If the white
father crosses it, it is good. We must then follow.

AMERICANIZED INDIAN: We must have roads. We must cross the roads that
the white man built for us. We have to be thankful to the white man for
this. I don't know why you Indians are always complaining. You embarrass
us. Chickens are good for us.

REPUBLICAN INDIAN: It's true that that white man built those roads for
us. We are merely chickens. We will always be chickens until we learn to
build those roads ourselves - for profit.

DEMOCRATIC INDIAN: The chicken crossed the road because he didn't have
enough funding.

TRADITIONAL INDIAN: Those chiggens weren't traditional because they were
supposed to be on it - not crossing it!

INDIAN GRANDPA: I think he was runnin' away from rezidential school.

URBAN INDIAN: That chicken crossed the road 'cause it was a city, man.
You know what I mean?

NEW AGE INDIAN: It was basically because of Jungian dream therapy,
drumming, sweatlodges, my shaman, and long walks on the beach, near my
beach house.

POW WOW INDIAN That chicken must have been heading to a 49!

EDUCATED INDIAN: I think it has to do with Einstein's theory which
basically posits: "Did the chicken really cross the road or did the road
move beneath the chicken?"

REZ INDIAN: Whats a chicken?

IHS INDIAN: I really don't care why he crossed that road. We still
aren't paying for no stinkin hospital bills.

BIA INDIAN: They crossed it because of CFR 49, Section 11299, gives them
the authority to do so, under Department of Interior regulations, in the
Executive Branch. They wrote a grant and we funded them. We are very
proud of them.

KFC INDIAN: I'll take a leg, a thigh, with corn and potatoes. Extra
Crispy, please.

TRIBAL INDIAN COUNCIL: The chicken crossed the road before we did? Fire
his family!!!



1. You can point with your lips and give your fingers a rest.

2. You'll never be alone because everyone is related to you.

3. You'll never starve because there is always a feast of some kind,
somewhere, at any time.

4. We are the only ones who can save the rain forests with our dances.

5. You'll alway's know the first letter of the alphabet (Ayyyyy).

6. If you know how to "stomp" you'll always have a "snag".

7. Because Indians are just...somehow.

8. You can recognize the IHS dentures in Dances with Wolves.

9. You'll never need lotion when you have a greasy frybread.

10. Because "you just need one more number to cry out 'BINGO'.


You might be an Indian Jedi if...

...You use the phrase, "May the force be with you, aye!!!"
...Your Jedi robe is beaded
...You use your light saber to butcher a buffalo or to open a Bud
...At least one wing of your "rezzed out" X-wing fighter is primer
colored and your transmitter is a clothes hanger.
...You discover that Ewoks taste like dogs
...You have at least one land-speeder up on blocks in your yard
...The worst part of eating with Yoda is eating his commodity food
...Wookies are offended by your Buffalo robes
...You have used the force to get your tape recorder to work so you
could record that new 49 song
...Used the force to negotiate with the federal gov't
...Your council man has told you, "Come over to the Darkside...selling
out ain't bad, enit"
...You have a dream catcher in the window of your land-speeder and/or
X-wing fighter
...You fantasize over Princess Leah's fry bread looking head
...You have to get in from the passenger's side of your X-wing fighter
and start it with a screwdriver
...You suggest that the Millennium Falcon is outfitted with a trailer
...If you hear, "Luke, I am your father.....and your councilman.


Here are some random historical events for April:

April 1: 1880: Captain Eli Huggins, and Troop E, Second Cavalry, from
Fort Keogh, in east-central Montana, surprise a band of "hostile" Sioux.
During a brief battle, the soldiers capture five Indians, forty-six
horses, and some weapons. Lieutenant John Coale, and Troop C, Second
Cavalry, from Fort Custer, in south-central Montana, has a skirmish with
Sioux on O'Fallon's Creek. One soldier is killed in the fighting.
According to Army reports, some of these Indians are believed to have
been involved in the theft of Crow Indian scout horses, from Fort
Custer, on March 24, 1880. For his part in cutting off the Indians' herd
of ponies through the use of "fearless exposure and dashing bravery,"
Second Lieutenant Lloyd M. Brett is awarded the Congressional Medal of
Honor. Captain Huggins will also be awarded the Medal of Honor for his
actions in the fighting.

April 2: 1781: Established on the heights above the Cumberland River,
Fort Nashborough served as a central point of defense for the settlers
in the area which eventually becomes Nashville, Tennessee. The fort is
the scene of almost continuous sniping by local Indians over a
twenty-year period. A Cherokee war party attempts to capture the fort.
Using a few exposed warriors as bait, they lure twenty woodsmen out of
the fort. The main body attacks the Europeans, killing five. The fort
lets loose a pack of hunting dogs which attack the Cherokees. The
surviving woodsmen make their escape while the Cherokees fight off the
dogs. This attack is the last serious attack on the fort by the

April 3: 1975: Gerald Tailfeathers, a Blood from Alberta, Canada is an
accomplished artist. He dies on the Blood Reserve.

April 4: 1840: Comanche Chief Piava arranges an exchange of two
prisoners with the residents of San Antonio, Texas. Two captives from
each side are released.

April 5: 1879: Having been cast out of Little Wolf's Band of Cheyenne
for killing two of their fellow Northern Cheyenne, a group of eight
Indians are moving on their own. They attack a Sergeant, and a Private,
of the Second Cavalry, on Mizpah Creek. The Sergeant is seriously
wounded, and the Private is killed.

April 6: 572: Maya King Kan B'alam I (Great Sun Snake Jaguar) takes the
throne in Palenque, Mexico

See my photos of Palenque at:

April 7: 1864: Colonel John Chivington, Commander of the District of
Colorado, reports to his supervisor, Major General Samuel Curtis, that
Cheyennes have stolen 175 cattle from a ranch on the Smokey Hill stage
coach route. An investigation, conducted much later shows no proof the
Indians are involved in any such activity.

April 8: 1756: Governor Robert Morris declares war on the Delaware and
Shawnee Indians. As a part of his declaration, he offer the following
cash bounties: prisoners: men over twelve = 150 Spanish pieces of eight,
women or boys = 130; scalps: men = 130, women and boys = 50. The bounty
on scalps leads to the killing of many innocent Indians who are members
of neither tribe. The legislation for this is called "The Scalp Act."
Some sources list this happening on April 14th

April 9: 1830: After some "politicking," Greenwood le Flore is elected
as Chief of the Choctaw Nation, during a "rump" council. Previously,
there were three regional Chiefs. Le Flore is in favor of selling the
Choctaw lands, and moving to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma).
Some sources state this happens on March 16th.

April 10: 1837: As part of the treaty signed on March 6th, the Seminoles
are to report to Tampa Bay no later than today for transport to the
Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Prior to today, General Jesup
reneged on one of the provisions of the treaty. He allowed whites to
come among the Indians to seek out blacks whom they claimed as runaway
slaves. This makes the Seminoles doubt if the United States will live up
to this agreement. Many of the Seminoles disappear into the woods.

April 11: 1873: Captain Jack and several of his warriors arrive at the
peace conference site between the lava beds and the soldier's camp in
northen California. The army is composed of soldiers from the First
Cavalry, Twelfth & Twenty-First Infantry, Fourth Artillery and some
Indian scouts . A little before noon, General Canby, who convinced
Manuelito and his Apache followers to sign a peace treaty, and his peace
commissioners arrive at the meeting place. Canby says he wants to help
the Modocs find good land for a reservation. Captain Jack tells him he
wants land near the lava beds and Tule Lake. Captain Jack repeated his
request for the soldiers to be removed before they continue their talks.
Angry words are then passed between Schonchin John, Hooker Jim and
commissioner Alfred Meacham. General Canby says that only the "Great
Father in Washington" can order the soldiers to leave. Captain Jack,
again, repeats his demands to be given lands nearby, and to do it today.
Meacham tells Canby to promise him the land. Captain Jack suddenly jumps
up, points his pistol at Canby and fires, mortally wounding Canby.
Boston Charley shoots, and kills, commissioner Reverend Eleazar Thomas.
The other commissioners escape. Six soldiers are also killed. Two
officers, thirteen soldiers and two civilians are wounded during the
fighting which lasts until April 26th.

April 12: 1676: As a part of King Philip's War, 500 Indians attack
Sudbury, Massachusetts. Most of the settlers escape into fortified
structures. The Indians burn many of the outlying buildings. Hearing of
the attack, three relief forces consisting of a total of approximately
100 men from Concord, Watertown, and Marlborough, converge on the
settlement. In one battle, the Indians start grass fires to strike at
the Europeans. At least, thirty whites are killed in the fighting, and
much of the town is destroyed before the Indians withdraw.

April 13: 1940: The Assistant Secretary of the Interior approves an
election for amendments to the Constitution of the Tuolumne Band of
Me-Wok Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria; the Kashia Band of Pomo
Indians of the Stewarts Point Rancheria; AND, the Tule River Indian

April 14: 1665: A deed for Indian land is registered in New England. It
says, "articles of agreement, and a firme bargaine agreed and confirmed
between the Sachem of Setaucet, Warawakmy by name."

April 15: 1715: Many European settlers have moved onto Yamassee lands
without permission. The Yamassee have also been cheated by many traders.
The British authorities have ignored almost all of the Yamassees
complaints. Yamassee Indians attack settlements near the southeastern
Georgia-South Carolina boundary. Several hundred settlers are killed.
Among the dead are Indian Agent Thomas Naire and trader William Bray who
has been engaged in a conference at the Indian village of Pocotaligo.
Bray had settled, without permission, on Yamassee lands and established
a trading post. After amassing debts, which they can not pay, Bray
suggested the Yamassee pay their debts by giving him slaves from other
Indian tribes. This slave trade, and Bray's habit of capturing Indians
and selling them as slaves, is a significant factor in the war.

April 16: 1519: According to some sources, after landing on the Mexican
mainland, Hernán Cortés and his army start their travels toward
Tenochtitlán (modern Mexico City).

April 17: 1528: Panfilo de Narvaez begins his exploration of Florida by
coming ashore near Tampa Bay. He visits an Indian house which is big
enough to hold 300 people, in his opinion. He also finds a "rattle" made
of gold in the abandoned house. The discovery of gold spurs Narvaez
onward across Florida.

April 18: 1879: After the Custer disaster, the U.S. government decides
to punish the plains Indians. While the Poncas have no part in the
Custer battle, the have erroneously been placed in a reservation with
the Sioux. When it is decided to force the Sioux to go to Indian
Territory (present day Oklahoma), the Poncas are ordered to go as well.
Many Poncas start to walk back to their old reservation from Indian
Territory. Eventually, General George Crook sympathizes with the Poncas
and one of their Chiefs, Standing Bear. Seeking public support to avoid
being ordered to send Standing Bear back to Indian Territory, General
Crook contacts the press about the Poncas' plight. Many editorials are
written in support of the Poncas, and several lawyers volunteer their
services for free. Judge Elmer Dundy, with Crook's blessing, issues a
writ of habeas corpus to the General to produce the Poncas and show why
he is holding them. A U.S. District Attorney argues that the Poncas can
not be served a writ because they have no legal standing, or are not
recognized as people, under the law. On this date the tribe begins to
determine if Indians, and particularly Standing Bear, are people under
U.S. laws and can enjoy constitutional rights and privileges. The judge
eventually rules Standing Bear is indeed a person and can not be ordered
to a reservation against his will. While this decision seems to prevent
keeping any Indians on any particular reservation against their will,
the eventual course of the U.S. Government is to say the ruling applied
only to Standing Bear, and to no one else.

April 19: 1735: A force of eighty French and over 200 Indian warriors
start a four day attack on a Sauk and Fox village on the Mississippi
River near the Des Moines River. The expedition led by Captain Nicolas
de Noyelles, is not prepared for siege warfare and they abandon the

April 20: 1865: As a part of the investigation into the Sand Creek
massacre (November 29, 1864), Lt. James Olney appears before the
commission at Fort Lyon, Colorado. He testifies he witnessed a specific
incident of brutality. "…Three squaws and five children, prisoners in
charge of some soldiers; that, while they were being conducted along,
they were approached by Lieutenant Harry Richmond, of the third Colorado
cavalry; that Lieutenant Richmond thereupon immediately killed and
scalped the three women and the five children while they (prisoners)
were screaming for mercy; while the soldiers in whose charge the
prisoners were shrank back, apparently aghast."

April 21: 1869: Donehogawa (Ely Samuel Parker) is the first Indian
appointed to be Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Donehogawa, a Seneca
Iroquois, is trained as a lawyer and a civil engineer. Unable to find
work in the white world, Donehogawa contacts his old friend Ulysses
Grant. Grant makes him an aide, and they work together through much of
the Civil War. Because of his excellent penmanship, Donehogawa draws up
the surrender papers for Lee to sign at Appomattox. Promoted to
Brigadier General, Ely Parker worked to settle many conflicts between
whites and Indians. After Grant becomes President, he is appointed as
Indian Commissioner on this date.

April 22: 1877: Two Moons, Hump, and 300 other Indians surrender to
Colonel Nelson Miles. Most of the rest of Crazy Horse's followers
surrender on May 6, 1877 at the Red Cloud, and Spotted Tail agencies.

April 23: 906: Uxmal is a Maya ruin in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico.
A dedication ceremony is held for one of the buildings, according to an
inscription in the building.

See my photos of Uxmal at:

April 24: 1885: The Fish Creek fight takes place between Canadian forces
under Major General Frederick Dobson Middleton and 150 Metis under
Gabriel Dumont. This is one of the more significant fights of the "Riel

April 25: 1541: Coronado leaves Alcanfor en route to Quivira. While in
Quivira, Coronado killed many of the inhabitants of Tiguex Pueblo.

April 26: 1872: Captain Charles Meinhold, and Troop B, Third Cavalry,
encounter an Indian war party on the South Fork of the "Loup" River,
Nebraska. A fight ensues, in which, three Indians are killed. Scout
William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody, Sergeant John H. Foley, Privates William
Strayer and Leroy Vokes will be given the Congressional Medal of Honor
for "gallantry in action" during this engagement.

April 27: 1877: General George Crook contacts Red Cloud with a message
for Crazy Horse. Crook promises that if Crazy Horse surrenders, he will
get a reservation in the Powder River area. On this date, Red Cloud
delivers the message to Crazy Horse. Crazy Horse agrees and heads to
Fort Robinson, in northwestern Nebraska, where he surrenders to the U.S.

See my photos of Fort Robinson here:

April 28: 1882: The Mi’kmaq Membertou First Nation reserve of Caribou
Marsh is established in Nova Scotia.

April 29: 1700: Pierre le Moyne d'Iberville visits a Pascagoula Indian
village, one day's walk from the French post at Biloxi. The Pascagoulas
have been hit hard by disease brought by the Europeans. D'Iberville is
impressed by the beauty of the Pascagoula women.

April 30: 1598: Don Juan de Oñate claims all lands in modern New Mexico,
including those of the resident Pueblos, for Spain. The event known as
"La Toma" takes place near San Elizario.


That's it for now. There may be more...........

Have a great month.

Phil Konstantin

End of Phil Konstantin's April 2008 Newsletter - Part 1

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Four of the five books I have worked on. I either wrote, co-wrote, or contributed to each of these beeks

This is the cover to my first book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy. Click on the cover to order a copy or to get more info.
This Day in North American Indian History
This Day in North American Indian History is a one-of-a-kind, vastly entertaining and informative book covering over 5000 years of North American Indian history, culture, and lore. Wide-ranging, it covers over 4,000 important events involving the native peoples of North America in a unique day-by-day format.

The thousands of entries in This Day in North American Indian History weave a compelling and comprehensive mosaic of North American Indian history spanning more than five millennia-every entry an exciting opening into the fascinating but little- known history of American Indians.

Over 100 photographs and illustrations - This book has 480 pages, weighs 2.2 pounds and is 8" by 9.5" in size. The Dates, Names and "Moons" section of these pages are based on the book.

This is the cover to my 4th book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info.
This is the cover to my 4th book. Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info."

Native American History For Dummies

I wrote six of the twenty-four chapters in this book. I am credited with being the technical editor. Book Description:
Native American History For Dummies introduces readers to the thousand-year-plus history of the first inhabitants of North America and explains their influence on the European settlement of the continent. Covering the history and customs of the scores of tribes that once populated the land, this friendly guide features vivid studies of the lives of such icons as Pocahontas, Sitting Bull, and Sacagawea; discusses warfare and famous battles, offering new perspectives from both battle lines; and includes new archaeological and forensic evidence, as well as oral histories that show events from the perspective of these indigenous peoples. The authors worked in concert with Native American authorities, institutions, and historical experts to provide a wide range of insight and information.
This is the cover to my 3rd book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info.
This is the cover to my 3rd book. Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info
Treaties With American Indians I wrote an article and several appendix items for this book.
Clips from a review on Amazon.com: *Starred Review* In the 93 years from 1778 until 1871, there were more than 400 treaties negotiated by Indian agents and government officials. Editor Fixico and more than 150 contributors have crafted a three volume comprehensive tool that will soon become essential for anyone interested in the topic. A resource section with lists of ?Alternate Tribal Names and Spellings,? ?Tribal Name Meanings,? (<---- I wrote this part) Treaties by Tribe,? and ?Common Treaty Names? and a bibliography and comprehensive index are repeated in each volume. This impressive set has a place in any academic library that supports a Native American studies or American history curriculum. It is the most comprehensive source of information on Canadian-Indian treaties and U.S.-Indian treaties. Also available as an e-book.

"The Wacky World of Laws"
It was just released in May 2009.
The Wacky World of Laws. Click on the cover to order a copy or to get more info.

The Wacky World of Laws is a compilation of U.S. and International Laws that are out of the ordinary. With the U.S. churning out 500,000 new laws every year and 2 million regulations annually, this book is the ideal go-to book fro everyone who wants a good laugh at the expense of our legal system. Law so often can be boring! Now with The Wacky World of Laws, you can be the hit of any water cooler conversation, and amaze your friends with precious legal nuggets.

I wrote most of this book. It is my fifth book.

(copyright, © Phil Konstantin, 2010)

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