April 2007 Newsletter from
"This Day in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2010)

Click Here To Return To The Previous Website

Start of Phil Konstantin's April 2007 Newsletter - Part 1


I hope all is going well with you. We had a very nice event
here last month in San Diego to help organize the local
satellite community of the Cherokee Nation. Along with
officials from Oklahoma, we had around 200 local attend
the event. I have posted pictures of the event on the
following page.

Here is a link to watch Cherokee Principal Chief Chad Smith
& Miss Cherokee Michelle Locust on my television station
talking about the upcoming event.

If you are interested in the San Diego organization, here
is our website:

Speaking of things Cherokee, there has been LOTS of discussion
about the recent vote to remove the Cherokee Freedmen from
tribal membership if they do not have any verifiable amount
of Cherokee blood. I have an entire section below which
discusses this subject.

Friday was the 8th anniversary of my wife Robyn's death. She
fell asleep behind the wheel while driving from Florida to
California. If you would like to know more about the dangers
of drowsy driving, please visit my website dedicated to
this issue at:

Best wishes,



The "Link of the Month" for April 2007 is "WHEN CHEROKEES
WERE CHEROKEE." This is an interesting, and detailed look
at the history and culture of the ancient Cherokee.

I think you will find it interesting, even if you are not



The "Treaty of the Month" is the "AGREEMENT WITH THE FIVE
NATIONS OF INDIANS, April 23, 1792."

It is a short treaty between George Washington (for the US)
and the "Senecas, Oneidas, and the Stockbridge Indians,
incorporated with them the Tuscaroras, Cayugas, and Onondagas."

You can see a transcript here:


Cherokee Freedmen Election

In early March, an election was held to see if the ancestors
of former slaves held by Cherokees should remain members of
the tribe if they could not prove they had any Cherokee blood.
The vote (3 to 1 margin) decided that only people who could
prove their Cherokee ancestry "by blood" would be allowed to
be citizens.

While this is a complicated issue, here is the simple
explanation. When the American Civil War broke out, there
were Cherokees who supported the north, the south, and those
who wanted to remain neutral. As was the case with the rest
of the United States, this conflict split the Cherokee nation.
Eventually, the nation decided to support the Confederacy.
After the north won the conflict, they imposed considerable
penalities for everyone who had supported the south. One of
the items forced on the Cherokees was a new treaty in 1866.
One provision of this treaty was that the former slaves of
the Cherokee would be given citizenship in the Cherokee Nation.
As with most things political, there are still disagreements
to this day as to how the treaty should be interpreted. A
movement developed in the Cherokee nation which felt that only
people who were Cherokee "by blood" should be allowed to be
citizens of the nation. This movement led to the March 2007

Some people feel the election was not valid, others think it
was legal. Some say you cannot invalidate one part of a treaty.
Others say it is part of a tribe's sovereign rights to decide
who their citizens should be. Some saw the election as racism,
others as a vote on sovereign rights.

To let you know where I stood on the issue, I also had mixed
feelings. I was in the minority as far as the voting was
concerned. My feelings were that people who were considered
to be Cherokee for over 140 years should be allowed to remain.
While I agree with the concept of tribal sovereignty, I am
very concerned about the invalidation of a specific part of
an old treaty. Does this mean we could have another vote to
invalidate the bogus New Echota treaty which was used to move
the Cherokees from our ancestral lands to Oklahoma?

Incidently, this issue has affected several other tribes.
The Seminoles had a similar election within the least few
years. The Choctaw and Creek also have a significant number
of "Freedmen."

I have gathered some of the news articles from both sides of
the issue and posted them below. There is also part of an
exchange I had with a friend of mine who is an American Indian


Cherokee Nation Vote: No Such Thing As A Black Or White Indian

Newcomb: The Cherokee Nation's contradictory stance

Cherokees Pull Memberships of Freed Slaves

Cherokees Vote For Indian Blood - NAJA Alerts - March 13th

Letter to the Editor - issue of Cherokee rolls is Cherokee business

Tribe to transition non-citizens after vote

Dawes Commission defined CN citizenship

News outlets run factual errors about vote

Voters amend constitution in special election

Federal judge denies Freedmen injunction

Freedmen file injunction against special election

Previous Freedmen decisions ignored

Tribe intervenes in Freedmen lawsuit

Freedmen citizenship timeline goes back to 1866

Special election called to decide citizenship issue

Q and A from the Freedmen perspective - Part 1

Q and A from the Freedmen perspective - Part 2

Freedmen debate spreads to communities

Freedmen vote may haunt Cherokees in the future

The people speak: Do freedmen expect gaming dividends?

The people speak: Let’s enforce all 31 articles in 1866 Treaty

The people speak: What is the motive behind racist charge?

The people speak - Representative has no clue about vote

Group questions Cherokee vote to oust freedmen - National Congress of
Black Women, Inc., wants federal funds to be withheld from tribe

The people speak: Nation shames itself with freedmen vote

The people speak: Exceptions made for those they want

Cherokees vote out freedmen

The people speak: Cherokee Constitution is not based on race - Chad

Freedmen plan fight against vote

Cherokee Freedmen issue

Legislators voice concerns on Freedmen controversy

Racism call as Cherokees expel sons of slaves

Who is a Cherokee? Many Americans have Indians in the family tree



Descendants of freedmen and their supporters will have a
"treaty rights demonstration" outside of the Bureau of Indian
Affairs BIA regional Office at 3100 West Peak Boulevard, Muskogee
Oklahoma 2pm on Good friday - April 6th Bring your signs!

Cherokee casino "boycott weekend" is announced for the weekend
of April 6-8 for supporters of the Cherokee freedmen who were illegally
divisted of citizenship on march 3rd. Please contact
ALL of your friends, relatives, coworkers, and neighbors who
may still be patronizing the Cherokee casinos to take their money
to other casinos such as the Sac And Fox or better yet, to take
their gaming moneys to the "storehouse" at the House of God. A
flyer telling of the boycott and the BIA demonstration is
attached for your use. We welcome press covereage of this demonstration.

APril 21 - The next meeting of the Descendants of freedmen
association will be held at the Divine Love Christian Fellowship
500 N.F Street Muskogee Oklahoma begining at 1:30pm. Updates
will be given on the political situations of the Creek and
the Cheorkee nation freedmen. The press and public is welcome
to attend. We ask both the general public and the media to
publicize this event.

On March 27th, Descendants of Freedmen Association President
Vann and Attorney Jon Velie organized a press conference and
a demonstration in Oklahoma City at the State Capitol Building
to PRotest a fundraiser hosted by Governor Brad Henry,
Lietenant Governor Askins, State Treasurer Scott Meachem,
among others to reelect Principal Chief smith. Members of
the State Black Caucus led by State Senator Connie Johnson
and State NAACP PResident Roosevelt Milton stated their
displeasure with Smith and Henry and spoke of their support
of the freedmen treaty rights. Other speaches were made by
Vann and Velie. Coverage of the event is discussed at:

On March 28, Assistant Secretary of the Interior Artman sent
a letter to CHerokee Chief Smith telling him that the Federal Government
does not recognize the recent constitutional vote disenrolling the
freedmen or an amendment to the 1975
constitution which was set up to withdraw federal oversight
of tribal constitutions and or their amendments. The letter
(as well as Department of Justice Filings on Februrary 12 2007
also stating that the special election would not be recognized)
is located on the lawsuit link of " www.freedmen5tribes.com   

ON March 13, 2007 27 members of the Congressional Black Caucus
called for an investigation into the Cherokee nation March 3rd
vote disenrolling Cherokee freedmen tribal members and calling
for enforcement of the freedmens treaty rights.
Representative Diane Watson of California recently appeared on ABC news
( www.abcnews.com) with attorney JOn Velie, calling for an investigation
and the witholding of federal funds for the
tribe until the freedmen treaty rights are upheld.
Other organizations such as Choctaw Chickasaw Freedmens
assocaition http://www.african-nativeamerican.com/petition.htm
and the national Congress of Black Women have expressed their
concern to Congress regarding the disregaridng of the freedmen citizens
treaty rights http://www.african-nativeamerican.com/pressrelease.htm

A sample letter which can be written to members of Congress or
to Senators regarding freedmen treaty rights is enclosed.
Addresses of Senators, Congress, the Black Caucus, etc. can be
gotten from www.house.gov or www.senate.gov. The letter will
be placed on the www.freedmen5tribes.com website in the near

Since the Cherokee freedmen disenrollment is not recognized
by the US government, Vann and Velie recommnd that the CHerokee freedmen
who were recognized as tribal members in good standing
as of march 3 2007 continue to try to exercise their rights as
tribal members and try to get in writing any denial of services.
Freedmen tribal members should also request absentee ballots by
certified mail to try to vote in the upcoming june 23rd
elections for tribal officials if they are unable to go to
their precincts to try to vote in person on June 23rd.

A Cherokee freedmen fact sheet has been updated and is attached
for those who have questions regarding the circumstances of the Cherokee
nation recent vote and the freedmen position on the
vote. It will be placed on www.freedmen5tribes.com later this

On March 30, 2007, Cherokee nation "secretary of State" Knight requested
from tribal council officials additional funds of
$520,000 to fight the federal lawsuit filed by Cherokee
freedmen in 2003 to protect their treaty rights. We encourage
all persons who support the Cherokee freedmen treaty rights
to donate to the freedmen association legal defense funds or
directly to the law firm of Velie and Velie in Norman Oklahoma.
Unlike tribes, persons fighting for their legal treaty rights
do not receive federal taxpayer/funds for tribal legal staff
and contract lawyers. Addresses for the Descendants of Freedmen
association and the Velie law firm are located on the website:

ON February 28th 2007, Creek nation district court judge moore provided
clarification of his earlier ruling to tribal Supreme
Court JUstices . The judges earlier ruling held that persons
descended from Dawes enrolled freedmen who could prove that
they are "creeks by blood" from other rolls/sources than being
listed on the "creek by blood" section of the Dawes rolls
should have had such documentation taken into account when
they applied for tribal membership prior to 2002.

Marilyn Vann www.freedmen5tribes.com


An e-mail discussion between my friend Lee, and myself...

Lee, while not American Indian, is quite an Indian scholar.
He is working on several indigenous language dictionaries
and histories. His general feeling is that tribal membership
might best be limited to those people who can speak the langauge
and live on the reservation. Lee was under the impression that everyone
who appeared to be African-American had been removed
from the tribal rolls. Lee and I were just casually discussing
the issue, as you can tell by our language. This was not
intended for publication, but I thought it would be informative.

Phil: My understanding is the vote was to exclude any
"freedmen" who had NO Cherokee blood.


Lee: I am confused. If they had no relatives that were Indian,
why were they even on the rolls, in the first place?

As such, I think your vote was wrong.

Why would you vote yes?????   No Cherokee Blood..... kick
everyone with no relatives off the rolls.

I believe other tribes have limits as to claims as to being
in the tribal rolls.   I believe the Navejo limit it to 1/16
or more.

Other tribes are saying 1/8 and you have to return to the
reservation to vote and have basic training in the tribal
language and traditions in order to qualify. Elsewise......
your GONE, GONE!

Actually, I would limit it to 1/6 or more and require
evidence of fluency in the language, as well as tribal
function attendance, but I'm a mean bastard.

Hell, I know more about their history religion, language,
customs, lifestyle, crafts, clothing, food gathering,
horsemanship, warfare ..... And I am damn Irish Anglo.

If they can't pledge the allegiance, or say the Lords
Prayer in tribal language, while hand talking the words
in plains hand talk ....... KICK THEM OUTA



Phil: The freed negro slaves were granted citizenship because the
Cherokees sided with the Confederacy, and the north won. Some
historians thought it was another form of punishment to make the
Cherokees accept them as full citizens. There were negros who had
intermarried into the Cherokees before (and since) 1866. As
long as they have any Cherokee blood, they are still considered
Cherokee, regardless of amount.

My feeling is that if your family had been considered part
of the tribe for 141 years, that is long enough of a connection
for me. Now, if soon after being freed, your ancestors moved
away from Cherokee areas to places such as California, New
Hampshire, etc., and never had anything to do with the
Cherokees, I could see restricting those non-blood Cherokees.
However, some of the families of the people being removed
from citizenship have continued to live & work in the old
Cherokee lands since 1866. They have been active in Cherokee
culture and politics, too. As I recall, one or two even have
family members who served on the tribal council. I could be
wrong about that, though.

One side issue of this is that primarily African-American
members of the tribe were listed as "Freedmen" when the
official roles were taken around 1900. You may have been
part Cherokee by blood, but you may have only been listed as a
Freedmen. Since our "blood quantum" is based on those rolls,
it may be very hard for descendants of those people to now
prove that have some Cherokee blood.

Essentially, the Nation says it is promoting the sovereignty
issue. They say we should be able to decide who our citizens
are. In principle, I agree. I have two issues with that, though.

1.) The election voted down part of a treaty. Even if that
treaty was forced down our throats, it is still a treaty.
Does that mean we can now vote to rescend all of the other
treaties we signed or were tricked into signing? Could we
now vote to take Georgia and Tennessee back since the New
Echota Treaty, which led to the Trail Of Tears, was an
absolute sham? Hey, we won that decision in the Supreme Court,
but it did not get us anywhere. The government still forced
us to Oklahoma.

2.) There are also Delawares and Shawnees in the Cherokee
Nation. Generally speaking, we took them in at the request (insistance,
according to some) of the federal government.
They are considered to be full Cherokee citizens with some
exceptions. This law does not affect them, even though they
are not Cherokees by blood. Yes, as a group, they are
"Indians," but they are not Cherokee.

You make an interesting point about the language and living
on the reservation. There are several problems with that,
though. Several generations of many tribes were forced to go
to government run schools (Carlisle, Haskell, Chilocco). They
were punished if they spoke their native language. Many
people lost their language during those years. A couple of
my oldest uncles and aunts went through that. You can be a native-born,
American citizen and not speak English. Let's
say your Innuit parents never let you speak it & you went
to tribal schools. Now this is not very likely, but it is
possible. The Cherokee are making a big push to reinstitute
the Cherokee language. That is one of the reasons they
started setting up the groups the article mentioned.

The other issue you mentioned is living on the reservation. I
can see the point. That would cause a bit of a problem for
me though. We do not have a reservation. In their infinite
wisdom, the US government decided we would become more
civilized if we got over the concept of communal ownership
of the land. If we had individual plots, we would become
farmers much more quickly. Oddly enough, this would also
leave lots of "extra" land left over for the federal
government to appropriate. There is very little "reservation"
land left in Oklahoma. The government gave most adults a
homesteader sized piece of property & then sold the rest.
The Osage are the only group in Oklahoma to have any
sizeable acreage. So, as a member of the Cherokee Nation,
I have no reservation to go to. To give you more information
that you probably want, we do have some jurisdictional
rights in the area of our former reservation in Oklahoma.
This covers 14 counties in eastern Oklahoma. Some Cherokees,
as you mention, say you should live in one of these counties
if you want to be a member of the tribe. That argument has
some merit. Not living there, though, I disagree.



I was a California Highway Patrol officer for twenty years.
Here is an interesting clip from the old TV show Dragnet

So you want to be a cop?



Joe RedCloud is an "e-mail friend." We have yet to meet face
to face but we correspond frequesntly. Joe is a direct
descendant of the famous Sioux leader Red Cloud.

An article by Joe RedCloud, my reply, and his reply to me...

Joe RedCloud

The scene is my home office. Here I quietly sit and endeavor
to catch up on some work. I have cause to run a search for
RedCloud in Google. One of the more unusual results is from
a group listed as Access Genealogy. Intrigued, I open the
link. I observe the subheading is entitled Indian Tribal
Records. I begin to read the entry listed under Red Cloud, (
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianchiefs/red_cloud.htm )
The first line is so inflammatory that I carefully read and
re-read the entire entry. "Braves" and "war bonnet" were
words that leapt out at me. I read further and learned that, apparently,
Red Cloud was a warmonger. Even more enlightening
was the information that he "hated" the white people.

However, according to the author and the website, Red Cloud
eventually "buried his tomahawk and signed what he called a
peace paper."
The point of this e-mail is to remind you that other people
have their own views about you and, apparently, the actual f
acts of the matter don't matter. In our push button society,
I encourage each of you to take a few minutes one day and cast
around on the Internet for information about you and your
family. You might be shocked at what you find.
I've not decided on a course of action to pursue against
Access Genealogy as of yet. Of course, if you have any
suggestions, I'll be interested in hearing your thoughts.
In the meantime, never forget, facts don't mean a lot to
some people especially when they interfere with their
preconceived attitudes toward others.


My reply----

Hi Joe,

Yeah, I have seen the article before. It is part of a
series written by Army General O.O. (Oliver Otis) Howard.
He wrote several books: Nez Percé Joseph (1881), My Life
and Experiences Among Hostile Indians (1907) and Famous
Indian Chiefs I Have Known (1908). The story about Red
Cloud comes from "Famous Indian Chiefs I Have Known." Howard
was actively involved in the Nez Percé war. He went on to
be commandant at West Point.

I guess the article is more of a demonstration of perspective
than history. I would suggest you send them (Access Genealogy)
an article with more accurate information.

Would you mind if I use your comments in my next newsletter?



Joe's reply to me...

Good afternoon Phil,

Always a pleasure to receive an e-mail from you.

Thanks for the information. I had set aside some time
this evening to look deeper into the situation. Well, at
least I now know that this particular person's
perspective comes from the past. That should be useful.
On the other hand, I haven't seen any cartoons from
Looney Tunes about their little black sambo character.
I have seen numerous cartoons that portray Indians as
the old, cigar store type, "Ugh" Indians. There's a
paper in all of this somewhere.

Please, you are quite welcome to use my statements in
your newsletter.

Best wishes,




A Cherokee Nation Without Borders - 100-Year plan to preserve
traditional culture

American Indian Tribal Clinics in Urban Areas Told To Deny Undocumented
Patients, Officials Say

Suspect arrested for stealing Indian artifacts

Tribal casino is favored in court ruling

Casino money delights agencies

Recognizing Tribally Centered Cultures

Dissident members vote to overthrow some Pit River leaders

Deal signed for water line to serve Great Wolf Lodge

Torres-Martinez's new casino one giant leap for tribe, Salton Sea area

Southland tribes mobilizing for gaming hearings

Big tribes' pending compacts trouble some in Assembly

Colville mill reopens after fire

California's Darker Side

Spring break course opens eyes to rural life

Appeals court upholds water for fish before farms

Ruling inflames tribes' $90 million feud

Between Heaven & Earth

From Navajo To Washington To Wounded Knee - 1st of 4 Articles

'72 AIM Takover Of BIA In Washington - 2nd of 4 Articles

Wounded Knee: Inside The Bunker - 3rd of 4 Articles

Escape From Wounded Knee - 4th of 4 Articles

UCSB Professors Preserve Native American Language

Judge tosses tribe's suit vs. state over more slots

Anti-casino group to hold forum

Casino's program focuses on recruitment, advocacy

Houston councilman's radio remarks offend American Indians

Houston Councilman Hears from American Indians

The Little Tribe That Could

Smoldering tensions erupt in Elk Creek

'It's all about the future'; Members say project to help build

Tribe Cleans Up (community) - Wiyot

Morongo tribe to host presidential candidate forum

Indian group hopes to lure presidential candidates to Inland debate

Radioactive water near Hopi springs

Telling stories, the Native way

Chairman, committee re-elected by Chumash

Program helps youth learn and appreciate tribal culture

Condor sighting over mountains of S.D. County is first since 1910; N.
America's largest bird is coming back

Nanticoke try to bring tribe's ancient tongue back to life

Appeals Court Rules In Tribe's Favor On Peaks

A Victory for the Sacred

How 1 man unraveled arrowhead falsification

Archaeology firm asks Marana for $472K over lost-job claim at ancient
burial site

Tribes at odds over plan to curb Indian casinos

Amador sues U.S. to block casino

Tracking the legend of Chief Marin

Steal Their Land, Steal Their Money

Tribal warfare between Hoopa and Yurok goes on and on

Nunavut legislation enforces use of Inuktitut in schools, businesses,

Johnson O'Malley grants stressed at Indian education conference

Chumash leader disgusted with Santa Barbara County

Basketball player reigns supreme on, off court

Metis Scout Troupe Stands Tall!

New evidence surfaces in Schaghticoke appeal

Museums/Agencies Face October NAGPRA Deadline

That's ancient history - Overlooked amid the bustle, Pueblo Grande
quietly takes visitors back to Valley's roots

Lyons pulls plug on wells near Chaco

Do we need a new Eagle Feather Law?


Reservation Seeks VA Outreach Program

Unparalleled views impress tourists at Skywalk public debut

Preserving languages; A Tlingit 'Macbeth'

Native women spread heart disease awareness

Forest Service studies archeology on public lands

American Indians say English-only policy diminishes their tribal

Feinstein: Congress shouldn't ax funding for urban Indian health

1,000 years, little change - Archaeology Month unearths the past to
understand the present

Native American Trackers To Step Up Border Role

Kern Valley, Tubatulabals make strides toward recognition

Sharing a love of Native American rock art

Artist offers sculpture to inspire discussion, healing to disenrolled
Pechanga members

State archaeologist steps in when bones are unearthed

The First People of Imperial Valley

Mashpee Wampanoag - A Nation Reborn!

Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe chooses Wright as new chairman

Bush '08 Budget Devastating To Indian Country

Yuroks to receive disputed $90 million fund

The Office Of The Special Trustee Is Looking For A Few Good Indianz.

Umatilla recall the ending of a way of life at Celilo Falls

Reviving a Native Tongue - Can a UBC program bring back to life the
Musqueam dialect?

Frank Day Historian and Legend Painter

Some health clinics deny care to urban Indians

Inuit Accuse U.S. Of Destroying Way Of Life With Global Warming

LA Times, Does Cal Really Need More Casinos?

Tech tidal wave heads toward tribe

Keeping Native tongues out of the pickling jar

Keweenaw community seeks to save Ojibwe language

Lady Indians win third consecutive championship

A Grand Discovery

Dr. Joe Shirley, Jr to Co-Present Rule of Law and the Displacement of
Native Americans

Persistence pays off for the White Mountain Apache Tribe

American Indians Struggle to Find Parts in Hollywood

Native nations convene Spring summit to fulfill pre-Columbian peace

Cherokee to compete for Miss America crown

Help for ancient remains and landowners passes

J.H. Simpson: An unhappy visitor to New Mexico

Native American history comes to life at an Amarillo museum

Hohokam celebrated at park, site of dig


The Onondaga: People of the Hills




Please contact all of these people directly if you have
any comments or questions. These are posted for your
information and do not necessarily have my endorcement.


Dear Phil Konstantin

Rockstar Games is seeking a consultant to educate us further
on Native American Indians in the Southwest in the late 1800's
time period.

We are in development on a game that will be inspired by
historical events during this time.

Let me know if you are interested in discussing or if you
could possibly recommend someone.

Here is information on the previous version of the game:

thank you

Sean Macaluso
622 Broadway
New York, NY 10012
212-334-6633 x.6229
sean @ rockstargames.com


From my friend Karne Strom:


Hello friends. In this great democracy of ours, it is
required that one rallies all their friends and relatives to
vote for them when the time comes. No, I'm not on American
Idol, but I do have a photograph entered in the CameraArts
Blog Photo of the Month Poll: Architecture at the above address.
Each IP# gets a single vote. One photographer already has a
running start with more than 10 votes in the first hour. The
voting continues for a few more days. At any rate, take a
look at the 20 photographs and vote for your favorite. My
photograph is the last one on the page, just above the pull
down menu.


Karen Strom      kstrom @ hanksville.org



Please forgive me for imposing on you. There was a young
woman in the store where I work part time whose name meant
"Wind in the Forest" ! I is a beautiful name and I very
faithfully wrote it down so I could remember it and the
correct spelling! Well I can't find it--- I know it was a
South Western Tribe because she said her parents heard it
when they were in Arizona or New Mexico... It began with a
'W' and sounds something like Wahnemaha??? long e Like:
Waa Ne Ma----    I appreciate your help and than you ever
so much if you do find the time-

AEINora @ aol.com
Nora Paul Budziak
Kingston, NY


To who this may concern,

My name is Theo Bell, I am on a committee for an annual
event called "Wild Western Days" held June 9, 10, 2007.
In Downtown Warren, Ohio It is a fund raiser for S.C.O.P.E.
of Trumbull county, the purpose of this event is to Celebrate
the Native American Indian and Pioneer History of Northeast
OH and Trumbull County.

In addition to the purpose, we are wanting to express the
truth and create a better understanding of the American
Native culture from the Ohio area.

I am looking for any group or individuals who would like
to be a part of our annual event. Last we had The Shawnee
Indian Tribe of Oklahoma and they are unable to come this year.

We are looking for a POW WOW, and some other public
attractions, to help our event out.

Thanks in advance THEO BELL 330-898-8863 we are a 501
(c) (3) non profit and have no budget to pay.


March 7, 2007
Billy Bob Walkabout of 7 Dydo Drive, Uncasville, CT passed
on 7 March 2007. Billy was born into the Cherokee Nation on
31 March 1949 in Cherokee County Oklahoma.

Billy was the son of Warren Walkabout and Bobby Jean Chaudoin Walkabout.
He was married to Juanita Medbury-Walkabout on 3
April 2000.

Billy was a life member of the Military Order of the Purple
Heart, Disabled American Veterans, Legion of Valor and the
Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States.

He is preceded in death by his Daughter Amy Rene, Father
Warren Walkabout, Mother Bobby Jean, Brother James Henry,
and Brother Warren Gene.

Billy is survived by his wife Juanita, two son’s Justin and
Trista Walkabout and his children, Autumn, twin boys David
and Michael, Vivian and Abbey. Jason Knapp his daughters
Madison and Emily, five step-children, Lisa her husband Peter
Bernier, Mark McNicol, Donna her husband Andres Vasquez,
Randi Johnson and Gregory Curtis, Randy his wife Debra McNicol
and 9 grandchildren, Aimee, Corey, Michael, Stephanie,
Magdelena, Madeline, Chrystal, Kevin and Andrew and one great-grandchild
Haley and her Mother Sabrina. Billy is also
survived by his Step-Father Jess Phillips Sr, Sister Michelle
Cordial and Brother Jess Jr and his wife Twila and numerous
Nieces and Nephews.

Billy honored himself, his family and the Cherokee Nation
during the Vietnam War serving in Co. F 58th Infantry, 101
Airborne Div. and was awarded many medals including the
Distinguished Service Cross for his actions.

Calling hours will be held at Church and Allen Funeral Home,
136 Sachem Ave, Norwich, CT from 2:00 PM to 4:00 PM, and
7:00 PM to 9:00 PM Monday, 12 March 2007 Memorial Services
will be held at the same location at 11:01 AM Tuesday,
March 13, 2007.

Donations in memory of Billy Walkabout may be made to the
National Kidney Foundation.


I've written what my grandmother gave me as she was subjected
to a world totally opposite from her own and at the tender age
of four year old.

She managed to Keep Up and did well for herself and her
children. Read her inspiring story in my book:

Donna Jones Flood, author
Half-Breed Clan, Ponca
Cherokee by blood


From Kimberly Sowinski


Hey everyone in case you didn't already know the National
Museum of American Indian(NMAI) is going to be hosting it's
second biannual National Powwow this year. They are also
going to be doing the National Memorial Day Parade. They
will be carrying a sign for the Parade and this will help
get the word out about the upcoming Powwow!

They are looking for all the Natives (So get your friends &
family!) in the area to come out and support them during the
Parade and walk with us! You are encouraged to come in full
regalia. You will be able to change into your Regalia at
the Museum. If you don't dance, come anyway and just wave
and smile pretty.....LOL....it should be a great time!

The point of contact is Justin Giles, he works over at NMAI.
They are still working out the final details but he would be
more then happy to answer any questions you may have. Also,
if you can participate can you please send him an email to
let him know that you & your family/friends will be able to
attend so that he can get a good head count! His POC info is:

        Justin Bruce Giles - Muscogee (Creek) Nation
        National Museum of the American Indian
        Cultural Protocols Unit - Programs Assistant
        301-238-1549 (wk)
        301-238-3202 (fax)
        gilesj @ si.edu
    The link to the National Memorial day Parade is:

Hope to see "ALL" of you there and please feel free to pass
this email along to as many people as possible!

             Semper Fi!


June 4th - June 29th, 2007
8:00 am - 5:00 pm
Cherokee Elementary, Tahlequah, OK 1-4th

Learn about Cherokee Language History, Art, Music, Traditional
games, crafts (marbles, stickball, basket weaving, cornhusk
dolls and much more)

* The Cultural Day Camp is for students coming out of
Kindergarten through 4th grades (No exceptions)
* Child must abide by all rules of the camp.
* Child must have tribal membership or CDIB.
* Breakfast, lunch and afternoon snack is included.
* Parent/s must provide transportation to and from the camp daily.

Application deadline is five o’clock on April 30, 2007.
Applications received after time and date will be put on
a waiting list.

Cultural Resource Center
PO Box 948
Tahlequah, OK 74465
Phone: (918) 453-5151
Fax: (918) 458-6172
E-mail: eva-vanwinkle @ cherokee.org



Would you send out the following information for me? We need
folks to support Native American artists, by supporting
programs that showcase their talents. We’d love to see you
at one of the performances!

Need a distraction from getting your taxes done? Yes? Come
on over to the Autry National Center in Los Angeles and
experience “Super Indian”. If you like radio shows, this
is your show. Created by Arigon Starr, this live production
will be staged at the Autry on Friday, April 13, 2007 at 8pm
and again on Saturday, April 14, 2007 at 2pm and 8pm. Check
the link below for information on tickets, directions, and
information about the Autry. The Autry is also putting on a
BBQ on Saturday (4/14) from 10-5pm. Come out for food and
a some great theater!!!!


Thanks for your help!!   



2007 Meeting of the American Society for Ethnohistory


I'm a reporter in St. Louis working on a story about the Don
Stewart charities, including two supposed Indian charities.
Your name as someone who has kept her eye on these groups.
I couldn't find your number on your site but I'd love to pick
your brain if you could give me a call.


Jeremy Kohler | Staff Writer | St. Louis Post-Dispatch | jkohler @
post-dispatch . com | 314-340-8337


Research Study Announcement

Colorado State University
TITLE OF STUDY: American Indian - Dads and Daughters Survey
Principal Investigator: Dr. Irene Vernon, 970-491-2642,
CO-Principal Investigator: Dr. Martin Reinhardt, 303-623-5531,

This study is being conducted in partnership between the
Interwest Equity Assistance Center (IEAC) and the Center for
Applied Studies in American Ethnicity (CASAE) at Colorado
State University. Our advisory group for this study is composed
of members of the IEAC American Indian Advisory Council, and
Joe Kelly of the Dads and Daughters organization.

We are requesting your assistance in recruiting American
Indian fathers, step-fathers or adoptive-fathers, 18 years
or older, of at least one American Indian daughter to
participate in this study by filling out a paper based, or
web-based, copy of the AI-DADS. A recruitment flyer is
attached to this announcement for public posting.

Very little research based data currently exists regarding
the relationships between American Indian fathers, step-
fathers, and adoptive-fathers and their American Indian
daughters. The purpose of this study is to collect
information about those relationships and the data will
be compared with results of a 2004 Roper Poll conducted
on behalf of Dads and Daughters organization that focused
on fathers in general.

This study is being conducted both on-site and on-line. The
paper based survey will be administered at various conferences/meetings
by the primary or co-primary investigator.
The web-based survey will be
available by clicking on the AI-DADS link at
All participants are required to read a consent form and
check a box if they agree to allow their survey to be used
in this study.

There are 50 questions that will take an estimated 15-30
minutes to answer. Participants can begin the survey at any
time, and if they do not complete it, they are able to save
it and come back later to finish.

The survey will be available for a period of 30 days once
participants sign-in for the first time. Once they complete
the web-based survey and hit the submit button, the survey
will no longer be available. All surveys must be completed
by June 15, 2007 by 12pm Mountain Time.

Miigwech (Thank you),
Martin Reinhardt, Ph.D.
Research Associate
Interwest Equity Assistance Center
Colorado State University
410 Seventeenth Street, Suite 1690
Denver, Colorado 80202
(303) 623-5531
Cell: (720) 209-5190
Fax: (303) 623-9023
martinr @ cahs.colostate.edu



My name is Ben, and I am a theatre and film artist currently
working out of New York.

While researching a project, I came across your website, and
felt it to be serenedipitous to discover that you worked for
NASA, as my father did as well.

Though I have no American Indian blood of which I am aware, I
have recently become very drawn to the tricksters and clowns
of Native Nations, and I would like to explore this dimension
in detail and authenticity. As I am not very connected to the
Native community, I would like to ask you for guidance in
this area. Are there story-tellers that are well-versed in
the trickster tales with whom I could converse? Do you know
of specific powwows or ceremonies in which the role of the
trickster is acted out?

I would be very appreciative of any help you could offer.

Thank you very much, and I look forward to a fruitful sharing!

Ben Sumrall
sumrallb @ msn.com


I don't know who else to ask about this, so I am giving this
a try. I live in Sedona Arizona and I have been finding
pieces of Native American Indian pottery on my property.
How do I identify it? Some of the pieces you can still see
the patterns. Some pieces are red with black stripes and
some are white with black designs. I am curious about who
ever these people might have been. I am actually Cherokee,
and I think this is Yavapi area, I am not sure, we just
moved here a few months ago. If you can help me I would be
gratefull. I think they are beautiful and I plan on putting
them in a shadow box and putting them on display.
Thank you....Jackie

gypsyrunfarms @ yahoo.com



Maidu Center events for April 2007


2nd Annual Sherman Indian High School Pageant & Pow Wow /
April 20
22nd annual Sherman Indian High School Pageant and Powwow –

Pageant will be held on Friday, April 20th at 6:00pm in the Auditorium.

Pow wow – Saturday, April 21st, 2007
10am – 12:00am.
9010 Magnolia Avenue
Riverside, CA –92503

—Free admission--$3.00 for parking.
All proceeds of Pow wow after cost go to Senior Scholarships—
Bring chairs—NO DOGS—craft Vender $150.00—Food vender $300.00
for vender info call Cheryl Frost @ (951) 509-8780---
or for Pow wow info Call Ruth Austin @ (951) 232-5354


Nationally Recognized Speakers! Collaboration and Networking!
Empowering Workshops! Continuing Education Units!
Promising Practices! Exhibits, Vendors, and Posters!
Cutting Edge Research! Cultural Activities and More!

Visit the conference website at:

For more information, please contact:
Victor Paternoster, Project Manager
Kauffman and Associates, Inc.
South 165 Howard Street, Suite 200
Spokane, WA 99201
509-747-4994 Phone * 509-747-5030 Fax
victor @ kauffmaninc.com



From my mother:

Subject: Health by Heaven (Too good to ignore!)

The couple were 85 years old, and had been married for sixty
years. Though they were far from rich, they managed to get
by because they watched their pennies.

Though not young, they were both in very good health, largely
due to the wife's insistence on healthy foods and exercise
for the last decade. One day, their good health didn't help
when they went on a rare vacation and their plane crashed,
sending them off to Heaven.

They reached the pearly gates, and St. Peter escorted them
inside. He took them to a beautiful mansion, furnished in
gold and fine silks, with a fully stocked kitchen and a
waterfall in the master bath. A maid could be seen hanging
their favorite clothes in the closet.

They gasped in astonishment when he said, "Welcome to
Heaven. This will be your home now."

The old man asked Peter how much all this was going to cost.
"Why, nothing," Peter replied, "remember, this is your reward
in Heaven."

The old man looked out the window and right there he saw a championship
golf course, finer and more beautiful than any
ever-built on Earth.

"What are the greens fees?", grumbled the old man.

"This is heaven," St. Peter replied. "You can play for free,
every day."

Next they went to the clubhouse and saw the lavish buffet
lunch, with every imaginable cuisine laid out before them, from seafood
to steaks to exotic deserts, free flowing beverages.

"Don't even ask," said St. Peter to the man. "This is Heaven,
it is all free for you to enjoy."

The old man looked around and glanced nervously at his wife.

"Well, where are the low fat and low cholesterol foods, and the
decaffeinated tea?" he asked.

"That's the best part," St. Peter replied. "You can eat and
drink as much as you like of whatever you like, and you will
never get fat or sick.

This is Heaven!"

The old man pushed, "No gym to work out at?"

"Not unless you want to," was the answer.

"No testing my sugar or blood pressure or..."

"Never again. All you do here is enjoy yourself."

The old man glared at his wife and said, "You and your bran
muffins. We could have been here ten years ago!


From a subscriber:

The best things about being over 50!

1. Kidnappers are not very interested in you.
2. In a hostage situation you are likely to be released first.
3. No one expects you to run--anywhere.
4. People call at 9PM and ask if they woke you.
5. People no longer view you as a hypochondriac.
6. There is nothing left to learn the hard way.
7. Things you buy now won't wear out.
8. You can eat dinner at 4 pm.
9. You can live without sex but not your glasses.
10. You enjoy hearing about other people's operations.
11. You get into heated arguments about pension plans.
12. You no longer think of speed limits as a challenge.
13. You quit trying to hold your stomach in no matter who
    walks into the room.
14. You sing along with elevator music.
15. Your eyes won't get much worse.
16. Your investment in health insurance is finally beginning
     to pay off.
17. Your joints are more accurate meteorologists than the
    national weather service.
18. Your secrets are safe with your friends because they can't
    remember them either.
19. Your supply of brain cells is finally down to manageable size.


From Ed Clark (this has one "rude" word in it.....)

A motorcycle officer stops a man for running a red light. The
guy is a real jerk and comes running back to the motor officer
The violator demands to know why he is being harassed by the
Gestapo! So the officer calmly tells him of the red light
violation. The "Motorist" instantly goes on a tirade,
questioning the officer's ancestry, sexual orientation, etc.,
in rather explicit terms. The officer, being a professional,
takes it all in stride, figuring "Battleship mouth and
Rowboat Ass".

The tirade goes on without the cop saying anything. When
he gets done with writing the citation he puts an "AH" in
the lower right corner of the narrative portion of the
citation.He then hands it to the "Violator" for his

The guy signs the cite angrily, tearing the paper, and
when presented his copy points to the "AH" and demands to
know what it stands for. The officer then removes his mirror sunglasses
, get in the middle of the guys face and say,
"That's so when we go to court, I'll remember you're an

Three months later they are in court. The "Violator" has
such a bad record he is about to lose his license and has
hired an attorney to represent him.

On the stand the officer testifies to seeing the man run
the red light.

Under cross examination the defense attorney asks; Officer
is this a reasonable facsimile of the citation you issued
my client?

Officer responds, "Yes sir, this is the defendants copy,
his signature and mine, same number at the top. Attorney:
Officer , is there any particular marking or notation on
this citation you don't normally make?

Officer: Yes sir, in the lower right corner of the narrative
there is an "AH", underlined.

Attorney: What does the AH stand for , officer?

Officer? "Aggressive and Hostile Sir"

Attorney: Aggressive and hostile"

Officer: "Yes Sir?

Attorney: Officer,,,, Are you sure it doesn't stand for Asshole?

Officer: Well Sir, You know your client better than I do !


From Bev Fox:

"English Is Tough Stuff"

Multinational personnel at North Atlantic Treaty Organization
headquarters near Paris found English to be an easy language ...
until they tried to pronounce it. To help them discard an
array of accents, the verses below were devised. After trying
them, a Frenchman said he'd prefer six months at hard labor
to reading six lines aloud. Try them yourself.

    Dearest creature in creation,
    Study English pronunciation.
    I will teach you in my verse
    Sounds like corpse, corps, horse, and worse.

    I will keep you, Suzy, busy,
    Make your head with heat grow dizzy.
    Tear in eye, your dress will tear.
    So shall I! Oh hear my prayer.

    Just compare heart, beard, and heard,
    Dies and diet, lord and word,
    Sword and sward, retain and Britain.
    (Mind the latter, how it's written.)

    Now I surely will not plague you
    With such words as plaque and ague.
    But be careful how you speak:
    Say break and steak, but bleak and streak;

    Cloven, oven, how and low,
    Script, receipt, show, poem, and toe.
    Hear me say, devoid of trickery,
    Daughter, laughter, and Terpsichore,

    Typhoid, measles, topsails, aisles,
    Exiles, similes, and reviles;
    Scholar, vicar, and cigar,
    Solar, mica, war and far;

    One, anemone, Balmoral,
    Kitchen, lichen, laundry, laurel;
    Gertrude, German, wind and mind,
    Scene, Melpomene, mankind.

    Billet does not rhyme with ballet,
    Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet.
    Blood and flood are not like food,
    Nor is mould like should and would.

    Viscous, viscount, load and broad,
    Toward, to forward, to reward.
    And your pronunciation's OK
    When you correctly say croquet,

    Rounded, wounded, grieve and sieve,
    Friend and fiend, alive and live.
    Ivy, privy, famous; clamour
    And enamour rhyme with hammer.

    River, rival, tomb, bomb, comb,
    Doll and roll and some and home.
    Stranger does not rhyme with anger,
    Neither does devour with clangour.

    Souls but foul, haunt but aunt,
    Font, front, wont, want, grand, and grant,
    Shoes, goes, does. Now first say finger,
    And then singer, ginger, linger,

    Real, zeal, mauve, gauze, gouge and gauge,
    Marriage, foliage, mirage, and age.
    Query does not rhyme with very,
    Nor does fury sound like bury.

    Dost, lost, post and doth, cloth, loth.
    Job, nob, bosom, transom, oath.
    Though the differences seem little,
    We say actual but victual.

    Refer does not rhyme with deafer.
    Foeffer does, and zephyr, heifer.
    Mint, pint, senate and sedate;
    Dull, bull, and George ate late.

    Scenic, Arabic, Pacific,
    Science, conscience, scientific.
    Liberty, library, heave and heaven,
    Rachel, ache, moustache, eleven.

    We say hallowed, but allowed,
    People, leopard, towed, but vowed.
    Mark the differences, moreover,
    Between mover, cover, clover;

    Leeches, breeches, wise, precise,
    Chalice, but police and lice;
    Camel, constable, unstable,
    Principle, disciple, label.

    Petal, panel, and canal,
    Wait, surprise, plait, promise, pal.
    Worm and storm, chaise, chaos, chair,
    Senator, spectator, mayor.

    Tour, but our and succour, four.
    Gas, alas, and Arkansas.
    Sea, idea, Korea, area,
    Psalm, Maria, but malaria.

    Youth, south, southern, cleanse and clean.
    Doctrine, turpentine, marine.
    Compare alien with Italian,
    Dandelion and battalion.

    Sally with ally, yea, ye,
    Eye, I, ay, aye, whey, and key.
    Say aver, but ever, fever,
    Neither, leisure, skein, deceiver.

    Heron, granary, canary.
    Crevice and device and aerie.
    Face, but preface, not efface.
    Phlegm, phlegmatic, ass, glass, bass.

    Large, but target, gin, give, verging,
    Ought, out, joust and scour, scourging.
    Ear, but earn and wear and tear
    Do not rhyme with here but ere.

    Seven is right, but so is even,
    Hyphen, roughen, nephew Stephen,
    Monkey, donkey, Turk and jerk,
    Ask, grasp, wasp, and cork and work.

    Pronunciation -- think of Psyche!
    Is a paling stout and spikey?
    Won't it make you lose your wits,
    Writing groats and saying grits?

    It's a dark abyss or tunnel:
    Strewn with stones, stowed, solace, gunwale,
    Islington and Isle of Wight,
    Housewife, verdict and indict.

    Finally, which rhymes with enough --
    Though, through, plough, or dough, or cough?
    Hiccough has the sound of cup.
    My advice is to give up!
        (Author Unknown)


From Joe RedCloud:


If you can start the day without caffeine,

If you can always be cheerful, ignoring aches and pains,

If you can resist complaining and boring people with your

If you can eat the same food every day and be grateful
for it,

If you can understand when your loved ones are too busy to
give you any time,

If you can overlook it when those you love take it out on
you when through no fault of yours, something goes wrong.

If you can take criticism and blame without resentment,

If you can resist treating a rich friend better than a poor

If you can face the world without lies and deceit,

If you can conquer tension without medical help,

If you can relax without liquor,

If you can sleep without the aid of drugs,

If you can honestly say that deep in your heart you have no
prejudice against creed, color, religion, gender preference,
or politics,

Then you have reached the same level of development as your dog.


Also from Joe RedCloud:

Think About This One!!!

It is short but very interesting!

A car company can move its factories to Mexico and claim that
it's a free market.

A toy company can out source to a Chinese subcontractor and
claim that it's a free market.

A shoe company can produce its shoes in south east Asia and
claim that it's a free market.

A major bank can incorporate in Bermuda to avoid taxes and
claim that it's a free market.

We can buy HP Printers made in Mexico.

We can buy shirts made in Bangladesh .

We can purchase almost anything we want from 20 different

BUT, heaven help the senior citizens who dare to buy their
prescription drugs from Canadian or Mexican pharmacy. That's
called un-American! And, do you really think the pharmaceutical
companies don't have a powerful lobby? Think again!


From Jeff Tempest:

You may have heard on the news about a southern California
man that was put under 72-hour psychiatric observation when
it was found that he owned 100 guns and allegedly also had
(by rough estimate) 1 million rounds of ammunition stored in
his home. His house also featured a secret escape tunnel. My
favorite quote from the dim-wit television liberal-media
reporter: "Wow! He has ... about a million MACHINE gun

The headline referred to it as a "massive weapons cache."

BTW, it certainly is a dubious fact about ammo estimate
based the pile of ammunition boxes and cans that they showed.
It looked big enough to contain no more than about 100,000
rounds, unless there was a lot of .22 rim fire ammo. However,
by liberal Southern California standards, even someone
owning 100,000 rounds would be called "mentally unstable."

Just imagine if he lived elsewhere:

In Arizona , he'd be called "an avid gun collector"

In Texas , he'd be called "a novice gun collector"

In Utah , he'd be called "moderately well prepared," (But
they'd probably reserve judgment until they made sure that
he had a corresponding quantity of storage food).

In Montana , he'd be called "The neighborhood 'Go-To' guy."

In Idaho , he'd be called "a likely gubernatorial candidate."

In Wyoming he'd be called "an eligible bachelor".

And in Colorado , he'd be the guy in the bathroom mirror that
I see each morning!


From J Marez:

There was a young woman who had been diagnosed with
a terminal illness and had been given three months to live.
So as she was getting her things "in order," she contacted
her pastor and had him come to her house to discuss certain
aspects of her final wishes.

She told him which songs she wanted sung at the service, what
scriptures she would like read, and what outfit she wanted to
be buried in.

Everything was in order and the pastor was preparing to leave
when the young woman suddenly remembered something very
important to her. "There's one more thing," she said excitedly.

"What's that?" came the pastor's reply.

"This is very important," the young woman continued. "I want
to be buried with a fork in my right hand."

The pastor stood looking at the young woman, not knowing
quite what to say.

"That surprises you, doesn't it?" the young woman asked.

"Well, to be honest, I'm puzzled by the request," said the pastor.

The young woman explained. "My grandmother once told me this
story, and from there on out, I have always done so. I have
also, always tried to pass along its message to those I love
and those who are in need of encouragement.

'In all my years of attending church socials and potluck
dinners, I always remember that when the dishes of the main
course were being cleared, someone would inevitably lean over
and say, 'Keep your fork' It was my favorite part because
I knew that something better was coming .. like velvety
chocolate cake or deep-dish apple pie. Something wonderful,
and with substance!' So, I just want people to see me there
in that casket with a fork in my hand and I want them to
wonder "What's ! ! with the fork?". Then I want you to tell
them: "Save your fork ... the best is yet to come." The
pastor's eyes welled up with tears of joy as he hugged the
young woman good- bye.

He knew this would be one of the last times he would see
her before her death. But he also knew that the young woman
had a better grasp of heaven than he did.

She had a better grasp of what heaven would be like than
many people twice her age, with twice as much experience
and knowledge She KNEW that something better was coming.

At the funeral people were walking by the young woman's
casket and they saw the pretty dress she was wearing and
the fork placed in her right hand. Over and over, the pastor
heard the question "What's with the fork?" And over and over
he smiled.

During his message, the pastor told the people of the
conversation he had with the young woman shortly before she
died. He also told them about the fork and about what it
symbolized to her.

The pastor told the people how he could not stop thinking
about the fork and told them that they probably would not
be able to stop thinking about it either.

He was right.

So the next time you reach down for your fork, let it remind
you ever so gently, that the best is yet to come.


From Halethea Nez:

One day someone special will be gone.
And on that clear, cold morning,
In the warmth of your bedroom,
You might be struck with
The pain of learning that sometimes
There isn't any more.
No more hugs,
No more lucky moments to celebrate together,
No more phone calls just to chat,
No more "just one minute."
Sometimes, what we care about the most goes away.
Never to return before we can say good-bye,
Say "I Love You."

So while we have it . . it's best we love it . .
And care for it and fix it when it's broken.
And take good care of it when it's sick.
This is true for marriage ..... And friendships ...
And children with bad report cards;
And dogs with bad hips;
And aging parents and grandparents.
We keep them because they are worth it,
Because we cherish them!

Some things we keep --
Like a best friend who moved away
Or a classmate we grew up with.
There are just some things that
Make us happy, No matter what.

Life is important,
And so are the people we know.
And so, we keep them close!


Here are some random historical events:

April 1: 1880: Captain Eli Huggins, and Troop E, Second
Cavalry, from Fort Keogh, in east-central Montana, surprise
a band of "hostile" Sioux. During a brief battle, the soldiers
capture five Indians, forty-six horses, and some weapons.
Lieutenant John Coale, and Troop C, Second Cavalry, from Fort
Custer, in south-central Montana, has a skirmish with Sioux
on O'Fallon's Creek. One soldier is killed in the fighting.
According to Army reports, some of these Indians are believed
to have been involved in the theft of Crow Indian scout horses,
from Fort Custer, on March 24, 1880. For his part in cutting
off the Indians' herd of ponies through the use of "fearless
exposure and dashing bravery," Second Lieutenant Lloyd M.
Brett is awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. Captain
Huggins will also be awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions
in the fighting.

April 2: 1781: Established on the heights above the
Cumberland River, Fort Nashborough served as a central point
of defense for the settlers in the area which eventually
becomes Nashville, Tennessee. The fort is the scene of
almost continuous sniping by local Indians over a twenty-
year period. A Cherokee war party attempts to capture the
fort. Using a few exposed warriors as bait, they lure
twenty woodsmen out of the fort. The main body attacks the
Europeans, killing five. The fort lets loose a pack of
hunting dogs which attack the Cherokees. The surviving
woodsmen make their escape while the Cherokees fight off
the dogs. This attack is the last serious attack on the
fort by the Cherokees.

April 3: 1975: Gerald Tailfeathers, a Blood from Alberta,
Canada is an accomplished artist. He dies on the Blood Reserve.

April 4: 1840: Comanche Chief Piava arranges an exchange of
two prisoners with the residents of San Antonio, Texas. Two
captives from each side are released.

April 5: 1879: Having been cast out of Little Wolf's Band of
Cheyenne for killing two of their fellow Northern Cheyenne, a
group of eight Indians are moving on their own. They attack a Sergeant,
and a Private, of the Second Cavalry, on Mizpah Creek.
The Sergeant is seriously wounded, and the Private is killed.

April 6: 572: Maya King Kan B'alam I (Great Sun Snake Jaguar)
takes the throne in Palenque, Mexico

See pictures of Palenque on my websites at:

April 7: 1864: Colonel John Chivington, Commander of the
District of Colorado, reports to his supervisor, Major General
Samuel Curtis, that Cheyennes have stolen 175 cattle from a
ranch on the Smokey Hill stage coach route. An investigation, conducted
much later shows no proof the Indians are involved
in any such activity.

April 8: 1756: Governor Robert Morris declares war on the
Delaware and Shawnee Indians. As a part of his declaration,
he offer the following cash bounties: prisoners: men over
twelve = 150 Spanish pieces of eight, women or boys = 130;
scalps: men = 130, women and boys = 50. The bounty on scalps
leads to the killing of many innocent Indians who are members
of neither tribe. The legislation for this is called "The
Scalp Act." Some sources list this happening on April 14th

April 9: 1830: After some "politicking," Greenwood le Flore
is elected as Chief of the Choctaw Nation, during a "rump"
council. Previously, there were three regional Chiefs. Le
Flore is in favor of selling the Choctaw lands, and moving
to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Some sources state
this happens on March 16th.

April 10: 1837: As part of the treaty signed in March 1933,
the Seminoles are to report to Tampa Bay no later than today
for transport to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma).
Prior to today, General Jesup reneged on one of the
provisions of the treaty. He allowed whites to come among
the Indians to seek out blacks whom they claimed as runaway
slaves. This makes the Seminoles doubt if the United States
will live up to this agreement. Many of the Seminoles
disappear into the woods.

April 11: 1873: Captain Jack and several of his warriors
arrive at the peace conference site between the lava beds
and the soldier's camp in northen California. The army is
composed of soldiers from the First Cavalry, Twelfth &
Twenty-First Infantry, Fourth Artillery and some Indian
scouts . A little before noon, General Canby, who convinced
Manuelito and his Apache followers to sign a peace treaty,
and his peace commissioners arrive at the meeting place.
Canby says he wants to help the Modocs find good land for
a reservation. Captain Jack tells him he wants land near
the lava beds and Tule Lake. Captain Jack repeated his
request for the soldiers to be removed before they continue
their talks. Angry words are then passed between Schonchin
John, Hooker Jim and commissioner Alfred Meacham. General Canby
says that only the "Great Father in Washington" can order the
soldiers to leave. Captain Jack, again, repeats his demands
to be given lands nearby, and to do it today. Meacham tells
Canby to promise him the land. Captain Jack suddenly jumps
up, points his pistol at Canby and fires, mortally wounding
Canby. Boston Charley shoots, and kills, commissioner
Reverend Eleazar Thomas. The other commissioners escape.
Six soldiers are also killed. Two officers, thirteen soldiers
and two civilians are wounded during the
fighting which lasts until April 26th.

April 12: 1676: As a part of King Philip's War, 500 Indians
attack Sudbury, Massachusetts. Most of the settlers escape
into fortified structures. The Indians burn many of the
outlying buildings. Hearing of the attack, three relief
forces consisting of a total of approximately 100 men from
Concord, Watertown, and Marlborough, converge on the
settlement. In one battle, the Indians start grass fires to
strike at the Europeans. At least, thirty whites are killed
in the fighting, and much of the town is destroyed before
the Indians withdraw.

April 13: 1940: The Assistant Secretary of the Interior
approves an election for amendments to the Constitution of
the Tuolumne Band of Me-Wok Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria;
the Kashia Band of Pomo Indians of the Stewarts Point
Rancheria; AND, the Tule River Indian Tribe.

April 14: 1665: A deed for Indian land is registered in New
England. It says, "articles of agreement, and a firme
bargaine agreed and confirmed between the Sachem of Setaucet, Warawakmy
by name."

April 15: 1715: Many European settlers have moved onto
Yamassee lands without permission. The Yamassee have also
been cheated by many traders. The British authorities have
ignored almost all of the Yamassees complaints. Yamassee
Indians attack settlements near the southeastern Georgia-
South Carolina boundary. Several hundred settlers are
killed. Among the dead are Indian Agent Thomas Naire and
trader William Bray who has been engaged in a conference
at the Indian village of Pocotaligo. Bray had settled,
without permission, on Yamassee lands and established a
trading post. After amassing debts, which they can not
pay, Bray suggested the Yamassee pay their debts by giving
him slaves from other Indian tribes. This slave trade, and
Bray's habit of capturing Indians and selling them as slaves,
is a significant factor in the war.

April 16: 1519: According to some sources, after landing on the Mexican
mainland, Hernan Cortes and his army start their travels toward
Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City).

April 17: 1528: Panfilo de Narvaez begins his exploration of
Florida by coming ashore near Tampa Bay. He visits an Indian
house which is big enough to hold 300 people, in his opinion.
He also finds a "rattle" made of gold in the abandoned house.
The discovery of gold spurs Narvaez onward across Florida.

April 18: 1879: After the Custer disaster, the U.S. government
decides to punish the plains Indians. While the Poncas have
no part in the Custer battle, the have erroneously been placed
in a reservation with the Sioux. When it is decided to force
the Sioux to go to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma),
the Poncas are ordered to go as well. Many Poncas start to
walk back to their old reservation from Indian Territory.
Eventually, General George Crook sympathizes with the Poncas
and one of their Chiefs, Standing Bear. Seeking public support
to avoid being ordered to send Standing Bear back to Indian
Territory, General Crook contacts the press about the Poncas'
plight. Many editorials are written in support of the Poncas,
and several lawyers volunteer their services for free. Judge
Elmer Dundy, with Crook's blessing, issues a writ of habeas
corpus to the General to produce the Poncas and show why he
is holding them. A U.S. District Attorney argues that the
Poncas can not be served a writ because they have no legal
standing, or are not recognized as people, under the law.
On this date the tribe begins to determine if Indians, and particularly
Standing Bear, are people under U.S. laws and
can enjoy constitutional rights and privileges. The judge
eventually rules Standing Bear is indeed a person and can
not be ordered to a reservation against his will. While
this decision seems to prevent keeping any Indians on any
particular reservation against their will, the eventual
course of the U.S. Government is to say the ruling applied
only to Standing Bear, and to no one else.

April 19: 1735: A force of eighty French and over 200 Indian
warriors start a four day attack on a Sauk and Fox village
on the Mississippi River near the Des Moines River. The
expedition led by Captain Nicolas de Noyelles, is not
prepared for siege warfare and they abandon the attack.

April 20: 1865: As a part of the investigation into the Sand
Creek massacre (November 29, 1864) , Lt. James Olney appears
before the commission at Fort Lyon, Colorado. He testifies
he witnessed a specific incident of brutality. "Three squaws
and five children, prisoners in charge of some soldiers;
that, while they were being conducted along, they were
approached by Lieutenant Harry Richmond, of the third
Colorado cavalry; that Lieutenant Richmond thereupon
immediately killed and scalped the three women and the
five children while they (prisoners) were screaming for
mercy; while the soldiers in whose charge the prisoners
were shrank back, apparently aghast."

April 21: 1869: Donehogawa (Ely Samuel Parker) is the first
Indian appointed to be Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Donehogawa, a Seneca Iroquois, is trained as a lawyer and
a civil engineer. Unable to find work in the white world,
Donehogawa contacts his old friend Ulysses Grant. Grant
makes him an aide, and they work together through much of
the Civil War. Because of his excellent penmanship,
Donehogawa draws up the surrender papers for Lee to sign
at Appomattox. Promoted to Brigadier General, Ely Parker
worked to settle many conflicts between whites and Indians.
After Grant becomes President, he is appointed as Indian
Commissioner on this date.

April 22: 1877: Two Moons, Hump, and 300 other Indians
surrender to Colonel Nelson Miles. Most of the rest of Crazy
Horse's followers surrender on May 6, 1877 at the Red Cloud,
and Spotted Tail agencies.

See a picture of Two Moons' grave on my website:

April 23: 906: Uxmal is a Maya ruin in the Yucatan peninsula
of Mexico. A dedication ceremony is held for one of the
buildings, according to an inscription in the building.

See my website for pictures of Uxmal:

April 24: 1885: The Fish Creek fight takes place between
Canadian forces under Major General Frederick Dobson
Middleton and 150 Metis under Gabriel Dumont. This is one
of the more significant fights of the "Riel Rebellion."

April 25: 1541: Coronado leaves Alcanfor en route to Quivira.
While in Quivira, Coronado killed many of the inhabitants
of Tiguex Pueblo.

April 26: 1872: Captain Charles Meinhold, and Troop B, Third
Cavalry, encounter an Indian war party on the South Fork of
the "Loup" River, Nebraska. A fight ensues, in which, three
Indians are killed. Scout William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody,
Sergeant John H. Foley, Privates William Strayer and Leroy
Vokes will be given the Congressional Medal of Honor for
"gallantry in action" during this engagement.

April 27: 1877: General George Crook contacts Red Cloud with
a message for Crazy Horse. Crook promises that if Crazy Horse
surrenders, he will get a reservation in the Powder River
area. On this date, Red Cloud delivers the message to Crazy
Horse. Crazy Horse agrees and heads to Fort Robinson, in
northwestern Nebraska, where he surrenders to the U.S. Army.

April 28: 1882: The Mi'kmaq Membertou First Nation reserve
of Caribou Marsh is established in Nova Scotia.

April 29: 1700: Pierre le Moyne d'Iberville visits a Pascagoula
Indian village, one day's walk from the French post at Biloxi.
The Pascagoulas have been hit hard by disease brought by the Europeans.
D'Iberville is impressed by the beauty of the
Pascagoula women.

April 30: 1598: Don Juan de Onate claims all lands in modern
New Mexico, including those of the resident Pueblos, for Spain.
The event known as "La Toma" takes place near San Elizario.


That's it for now. There should be more before the
end of the month.

Have a great month.

Phil Konstantin

End of Phil Konstantin's April 2007 Newsletter - Part 1

Monthly Newsletter

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Four of the five books I have worked on. I either wrote, co-wrote, or contributed to each of these beeks

This is the cover to my first book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy. Click on the cover to order a copy or to get more info.
This Day in North American Indian History
This Day in North American Indian History is a one-of-a-kind, vastly entertaining and informative book covering over 5000 years of North American Indian history, culture, and lore. Wide-ranging, it covers over 4,000 important events involving the native peoples of North America in a unique day-by-day format.

The thousands of entries in This Day in North American Indian History weave a compelling and comprehensive mosaic of North American Indian history spanning more than five millennia-every entry an exciting opening into the fascinating but little- known history of American Indians.

Over 100 photographs and illustrations - This book has 480 pages, weighs 2.2 pounds and is 8" by 9.5" in size. The Dates, Names and "Moons" section of these pages are based on the book.

This is the cover to my 4th book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info.
This is the cover to my 4th book. Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info."

Native American History For Dummies

I wrote six of the twenty-four chapters in this book. I am credited with being the technical editor. Book Description:
Native American History For Dummies introduces readers to the thousand-year-plus history of the first inhabitants of North America and explains their influence on the European settlement of the continent. Covering the history and customs of the scores of tribes that once populated the land, this friendly guide features vivid studies of the lives of such icons as Pocahontas, Sitting Bull, and Sacagawea; discusses warfare and famous battles, offering new perspectives from both battle lines; and includes new archaeological and forensic evidence, as well as oral histories that show events from the perspective of these indigenous peoples. The authors worked in concert with Native American authorities, institutions, and historical experts to provide a wide range of insight and information.
This is the cover to my 3rd book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info.
This is the cover to my 3rd book. Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info
Treaties With American Indians I wrote an article and several appendix items for this book.
Clips from a review on Amazon.com: *Starred Review* In the 93 years from 1778 until 1871, there were more than 400 treaties negotiated by Indian agents and government officials. Editor Fixico and more than 150 contributors have crafted a three volume comprehensive tool that will soon become essential for anyone interested in the topic. A resource section with lists of ?Alternate Tribal Names and Spellings,? ?Tribal Name Meanings,? (<---- I wrote this part) Treaties by Tribe,? and ?Common Treaty Names? and a bibliography and comprehensive index are repeated in each volume. This impressive set has a place in any academic library that supports a Native American studies or American history curriculum. It is the most comprehensive source of information on Canadian-Indian treaties and U.S.-Indian treaties. Also available as an e-book.

"The Wacky World of Laws"
It was just released in May 2009.
The Wacky World of Laws. Click on the cover to order a copy or to get more info.

The Wacky World of Laws is a compilation of U.S. and International Laws that are out of the ordinary. With the U.S. churning out 500,000 new laws every year and 2 million regulations annually, this book is the ideal go-to book fro everyone who wants a good laugh at the expense of our legal system. Law so often can be boring! Now with The Wacky World of Laws, you can be the hit of any water cooler conversation, and amaze your friends with precious legal nuggets.

I wrote most of this book. It is my fifth book.

(copyright, © Phil Konstantin, 2010)

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