April 2003 Newsletter Part 2 from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2002)

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  Start of the April 2003 Newsletter - Part Two

  O'siyo (Cherokee for Hello), again,

  Here is Part Two of the April 2003 Newsletter.

  One of my e-mail friends, Vonda McIntrye, let me know that John Cleese 
  did not write the humorous article about the Axis of Evil. It was 
  actually written by Andrew Marlatt. You can see the original here: 
  http://www.satirewire.com/news/jan02/axis.shtml . It just goes to show 
  you that you cannot believe everything you read in your e-mail. By the 
  way, if you like science-fiction, you might enjoy looking through 
  Vonda's website: http://www.sff.net/people/vonda/ . She has won, among 
  other things, both the Hugo and the Nebula Awards for her work. 
  Stature-wise, they are the rough equivalents of the Oscar and the Emmy.

  Yellowwolf asked me this question about my plan to donate copies of my 
  book to Indian schools and reservation libraries: "Why only to the 
  reservation libraries, why not to a lot of white mans libraries so the 
  ones like me that don't live on an reservation?" That's a fair question. 
  I figure I can only afford to give away so many copies of my book. I 
  have to buy all of the extra copies I get. So, I thought I would start 
  with those people who could least afford it. I figured that Indian 
  schools and libraries would be where learning about our history would be 
  most appreciated, and perhaps beneficial. When I win the lottery, I'll 
  be able to send copies everywhere.

  I had not planned on having some much info about the war in Iraq. Many 
  people have sent my their thoughts, so I decided to share a few more 
  things with you. In Part One, I first called the war a "conflict." I 
  also used other terms. We have often discussed the subject of naming 
  things in this newsletter. For example, my preference for the term 
  "American Indian" over "Native American." Yes, I still prefer Phil over 
  all of them. In any case, you could call the events in Iraq a conflict, 
  a war, a police action, a raid, a liberation, an invasion, international 
  intervention, a righteous move, a cowardly act, the enforcement of 
  international resolutions, and many other things, depending on your 
  point of view. The phrase I made up was "an eviction with extreme 
  prejudice." I am not trying to suggest how any of you should feel about 
  these events, regardless of what you call it. When I write, I do try to 
  demonstrate a little of my vocabulary. I will occasionally try to reach 
  up to the literary levels of people like Vonda. Unfortunately, I do not 
  write as well as I once did. I seldom reach those levels, but I enjoy 
  the effort. 


  April's "Link of the Month" is the National Tribal Justice Resource 
  Center. This is an exceptional resource. It was designed to help tribal 
  courts, but anyone can find useful information here. It lists many 
  tribal constitutions and codes. It posts tribal and Supreme Court 
  opinions. It also has links to many other organizations and projects. I 
  highly recommend this website. You can find it at:



  April 23, 1792. It is a very short document. Two of the names on it are 
  George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. You can find it here: 



  This month I am going to look at the movie "The Doe Boy." Blood and 
  Identity are two of the main subjects in this movie. It is usually 
  called a 'coming of age' movie. One reviewer called it a "Doughy drama 
  about a half-Cherokee," pun intended. The main character is named 
  Hunter. He is half Cherokee. Most people remember the tough transition 
  from teenager to adult. This movie deals with those issues. It also 
  throws in some cultural issues. Hunter has hemophilia. So, the issue of 
  blood is doubly important to him. One review said it is "essentially a 
  Native American variation on Rebel Without a Cause." It is set in. and 
  around, Tahlequah, Oklahoma, the Cherokee capital. I recognized a few of 
  the places in the movie.

  You can find lots of symbolism in this movie. You can also just view it 
  as a straight forward story. It is simply presented, with only a few 
  special effects. It will not change you life, but it will make you 
  think. You can find it in some video stores, online and one of the 
  premium channels on cable has shown it. 

  Cast: James Duval, Kevin Anderson, Andrew J. Ferchland, Jeri Arredondo 
  Director: Randy Redroad. It is 83 minutes long. 

  Here are some links on the movie, and or its director:



  Here are a few links of interest:

  Today's Front Pages - this site shows the front pages of many different 
  daily newspapers.

  Another website about Lori Plestewa 

  Cherokee Constitution Education Forums To Be Held (Oklahoma & other 
  According to Ed Jumper, Administrative Asst. at the Cherokee Nation, the 
  meetings in California are as follows: Sacramento 
  on April 12, 2003 at the Heritage Hotel beginning at 1:00pm and it is 
  located at 1780 Tribute Road, and in Los Angeles it will be at the 
  Southwest Museum on 234 Museum Drive beginning at 3:00pm. 

  Kan. tribe criticizes Haskell highway project 

  Rebuilding the Cherokee Nation by Wilma Mankiller

  Sequoyah High School Holds Celebration Activities for Basketball Team


  Here are some e-mails I received from newsletter subscribers:

  Kris sent this great quote:
  "When asked by an anthropologist what the Indians called America before 
  the white man came, an Indian said simply, "ours." Vine Deloria Jr.


  From Rantress:

  By Bill Davidson

  PeaceNik: Why did you say we are we invading Iraq?

  WarMonger: We are invading Iraq because it is in violation of Security 
  Council resolution 1441. A country cannot be allowed to violate Security 
  Council resolutions.

  PN: But I thought many of our allies, including Israel, were in 
  violation of more security council resolutions than Iraq.

  WM: It's not just about UN resolutions. The main point is that Iraq 
  could have weapons of mass destruction, and the first sign of a smoking 
  gun could well be a mushroom cloud over New York.

  PN: Mushroom cloud? But I thought the weapons inspectors said Iraq had 
  no nuclear weapons.

  WM: Yes, but biological and chemical weapons are the issue.

  PN: But I thought Iraq did not have any long range missiles for 
  attacking us or our allies with such weapons.

  WM: The risk is not Iraq directly attacking us, but rather terrorist 
  networks that Iraq could sell the weapons to.

  PN: But couldn't virtually any country sell chemical or biological 
  materials? We sold quite a bit to Iraq in the Eighties ourselves, didn't 

  WM: That's ancient history. Look, Saddam Hussein is an evil man that has 
  an undeniable track record of repressing his own people since the early 
  Eighties. He gasses his enemies. Everyone agrees that he is a 
  power-hungry lunatic murderer.

  PN: We sold chemical and biological materials to a power-hungry lunatic 

  WM: The issue is not what we sold, but rather what Saddam did. He is the 
  one that launched a pre-emptive first strike on Kuwait.

  PN: A pre-emptive first strike does sound bad. But didn't our ambassador 
  to Iraq, April Glaspie, know about and green-light the invasion of 

  WM: Let's deal with the present, shall we? As of today, Iraq could sell 
  its biological and chemical weapons to Al Qaeda. Osama Bin Laden himself 
  released an audio tape calling on Iraqis to suicide attack us, proving a 
  partnership between the two.

  PN: Osama Bin Laden? Wasn't the point of invading Afghanistan to kill 

  WM: Actually, it's not 100% certain that it's really Osama Bin Laden on 
  the tapes. But the lesson from the tape is the same: there could easily 
  be a partnership between Al Qaeda and Saddam Hussein unless we act.

  PN: Is this the same audio tape where Osama Bin Laden labels Saddam a 
  secular infidel?

  WM: You're missing the point by just focusing on the tape. Powell 
  presented a strong case against Iraq.

  PN: He did?

  WM: Yes, he showed satellite pictures of an Al Qaeda poison factory in 

  PN: But didn't that turn out to be a harmless shack in the part of Iraq 
  controlled by the Kurdish opposition?

  WM: And a British intelligence report...

  PN: Didn't that turn out to be copied from an out-of-date graduate 
  student paper?

  WM: And reports of mobile weapons labs...

  PN: Weren't those just artistic renderings?

  WM: And reports of Iraqis scuttling and hiding evidence from 

  PN: Wasn't that evidence contradicted by the chief weapons inspector, 
  Hans Blix?

  WM: Yes, but there is plenty of other hard evidence that cannot be 
  revealed because it would compromise our security.

  PN: So there is no publicly available evidence of weapons of mass 
  destruction in Iraq?

  WM: The inspectors are not detectives, it's not their JOB to find 
  evidence. You're missing the point.

  PN: So what is the point?

  WM: The main point is that we are invading Iraq because Resolution 1441 
  threatened "severe consequences." If we do not act, the Security Council 
  will become an irrelevant debating society.

  PN: So the main point is to uphold the rulings of the Security Council?

  WM: Absolutely. ...unless it rules against us.

  PN: And what if it does rule against us?

  WM: In that case, we must lead a coalition of the willing to invade 

  PN: Coalition of the willing? Who's that?

  WM: Britain, Turkey, Bulgaria, Spain, and Italy, for starters.

  PN: I thought Turkey refused to help us unless we gave them tens of 
  billions of dollars.

  WM: Nevertheless, they may now be willing.

  PN: I thought public opinion in all those countries was against war.

  WM: Current public opinion is irrelevant. The majority expresses its 
  will by electing leaders to make decisions.

  PN: So it's the decisions of leaders elected by the majority that is 

  WM: Yes.

  PN: But George Bush wasn't elected by voters. He was selected by the 
  U.S. Supreme Court.

  WM: I mean, we must support the decisions of our leaders, however they 
  were elected, because they are acting in our best interest. This is 
  about being a patriot. That's the bottom line.

  PN: So if we do not support the decisions of the president, we are not 

  WM: I never said that.

  PN: So what are you saying? Why are we invading Iraq?

  WM: As I said, because there is a chance that they have weapons of mass 
  destruction that threaten us and our allies.

  PN: But the inspectors have not been able to find any such weapons.

  WM: Iraq is obviously hiding them.

  PN: You know this? How?

  WM: Because we know they had the weapons ten years ago, and they are 
  still unaccounted for.

  PN: The weapons we sold them, you mean?

  WM: Precisely.

  PN: But I thought those biological and chemical weapons would degrade to 
  an unusable state over ten years.

  WM: But there is a chance that some have not degraded.

  PN: So as long as there is even a small chance that such weapons exist, 
  we must invade?

  WM: Exactly.

  PN: But North Korea actually has large amounts of usable chemical, 
  biological, AND nuclear weapons, AND long range missiles that can reach 
  the west coast AND it has expelled nuclear weapons inspectors, AND 
  threatened to turn America into a sea of fire.

  WM: That's a diplomatic issue.

  PN: So why are we invading Iraq instead of using diplomacy?

  WM: Aren't you listening? We are invading Iraq because we cannot allow 
  the inspections to drag on indefinitely. Iraq has been delaying, 
  deceiving, and denying for over ten years, and inspections cost us tens 
  of millions.

  PN: But I thought war would cost us tens of billions.

  WM: Yes, but this is not about money. This is about security.

  PN: But wouldn't a pre-emptive war against Iraq ignite radical Muslim 
  sentiments against us, and decrease our security?

  WM: Possibly, but we must not allow the terrorists to change the way we 
  live. Once we do that, the terrorists have already won.

  PN: So what is the purpose of the Department of Homeland Security, 
  color-coded terror alerts, and the Patriot Act? Don't these change the 
  way we live?

  WM: I thought you had questions about Iraq.

  PN: I do. Why are we invading Iraq?

  WM: For the last time, we are invading Iraq because the world has called 
  on Saddam Hussein to disarm, and he has failed to do so. He must now 
  face the consequences.

  PN: So, likewise, if the world called on us to do something, such as 
  find a peaceful solution, we would have an obligation to listen?

  WM: By "world", I meant the United Nations.

  PN: So, we have an obligation to listen to the United Nations?

  WM: By "United Nations" I meant the Security Council.

  PN: So, we have an obligation to listen to the Security Council?

  WM: I meant the majority of the Security Council.

  PN: So, we have an obligation to listen to the majority of the Security 

  WM: Well... there could be an unreasonable veto.

  PN: In which case?

  WM: In which case, we have an obligation to ignore the veto.

  PN: And if the majority of the Security Council does not support us at 

  WM: Then we have an obligation to ignore the Security Council.

  PN: That makes no sense.

  WM: If you love Iraq so much, you should move there. Or maybe France, 
  with all the other cheese-eating surrender monkeys. It's time to boycott 
  their wine and cheese, no doubt about that.

  PN: Here... have a pretzel, instead. 


  From an e-mail friend in Daventry, UK:
  You know the entire world is going crazy when: The best rap musician is 
  White, the best golfer is Black, the tallest basketball player is 
  Chinese, the French think Americans are arrogant and Germany won't get 
  involved in a war

  Breaking news from Iraq...Reuters: 
  News reports have filtered out early this morning that US forces have 
  swooped on an Iraqi Primary School and detained a 6th Grade teacher, 
  Mohammed Al-Hazar. Sources indicate that, when arrested, Al-Hazar was in 
  possession of a ruler, a protractor, a set square and a calculator. US 
  President George W Bush argued that this was clear and overwhelming 
  evidence that Iraq indeed possessed weapons of maths instruction.

  You are the President of the U.S.A. and you've just learned that there 
  is an asteroid headed for France that will wipe out their entire 
  country. It is scheduled to hit about 2.30 a.m. in just two days time 
  from now. You have enough ships and military personnel nearby to 
  evacuate them safely, but they are on stand-by in case needed in the 
  Gulf. Your question: do you set the VCR to record the asteroid hitting 
  France, or do you stay up to watch it live


  Shawna sent this:
  The Military Man

  The average age of the military man is 19 years. He is a short haired, 
  tight-muscled kid who, under normal circumstances is 
  considered by society as half man, half boy. Not yet dry behind the 
  ears, not old enough to buy a beer, but old enough to die for his 
  country. He never really cared much for work and he would rather wax 
  his own car than wash his father's; but he has never collected 
  unemployment either. He's a recent High School graduate; he was 
  probably an average student, pursued some form of sport activities, 
  drives a ten year old jalopy, and has a steady girlfriend that either 
  broke up with him when he left, or swears to be waiting when he returns 
  from half a world away. He listens to rock and roll or hip-hop or rap 
  or jazz or swing and 155mm Howitzers. He is 10 or 15 pounds lighter now 
  than when he was at home because he is working or fighting from before 
  dawn to well after dusk. He has trouble spelling, thus letter writing 
  is a pain for him, but he can field strip a rifle in 30 seconds and 
  reassemble it in less time in the dark. He can recite to you the 
  nomenclature of a machine gun or grenade launcher and use either one 
  effectively if he must. He digs foxholes and latrines and can apply 
  first aid like a professional. He can march until he is told to stop or 
  stop until he is told to march. He obeys orders instantly and without 
  hesitation, but he is not without spirit or individual dignity. He is 
  self-sufficient. He has two sets of fatigues: he washes one and wears 
  the other. He keeps his canteens full and his feet dry. He sometimes 
  forgets to brush his teeth, but never to clean his rifle. He can cook 
  his own meals, mend his own clothes, and fix his own hurts. If you're 
  thirsty, he'll share his water with you; if you are hungry, his food. 
  He'll even split his ammunition with you in the midst of battle when you 
  run low. He has learned to use his hands like weapons and weapons like 
  they were his hands. He can save your life - or take it, because that 
  is his job. He will often do twice the work of a civilian, draw half 
  the pay and still find ironic humor in it all. He has seen more 
  suffering and death then he should have in his short lifetime. He has 
  stood atop mountains of dead bodies, and helped to create them. He has 
  wept in public and in private, for friends who have fallen in combat and 
  is unashamed. He feels every note of the National Anthem vibrate 
  through his body while at rigid attention, while tempering the burning 
  desire to 'square-away' those around him who haven't bothered to stand, 
  remove their hat, or even stop talking. In an odd twist, day in and day 
  out, far from home, he defends their right to be disrespectful. Just as 
  did his Father, Grandfather, and Great-grandfather, he is paying the 
  price for our freedom. Beardless or not, he is not a boy. He is the 
  American Fighting Man that has kept this country free for over 200 
  years. He has asked nothing in return, except our friendship and 
  understanding. Remember him, always, for he has earned our respect and 
  admiration with his blood. 

  For our Military Prayer wheel for our military...please don't break it. 
  Please send this on after a short prayer. Prayer Wheel: "Lord, hold our 
  troops in your loving hands. Protect them as they protect us. Bless 
  them and their families for the selfless acts they perform for us in our 
  time of need. Amen." 

  Prayer Wheel: When you receive this, please stop for a moment and say a 
  prayer for our ground troops in Afghanistan and Iraq , sailors on ships, 
  and airmen in the air. Of all the gifts you could give a US Soldier, 
  Sailor, Marine or Airman, prayer is the very best one. 


  Here are some random historical events:

  April 1, 1621: Massasoit, Quadequina, Samoset (a Pemaquid), Squanto, and 
  sixty warriors visit the Plymouth colony with great ceremony. They 
  freely give lands to the pilgrims. According to some calendars, this 
  happens on March 22nd or April 2nd.

  April 2, 1873: Captain Jack, and several of his Modoc warriors and 
  women, meet with several of the peace commissioners about halfway 
  between the soldier's and Jack's camps in northern California. After the 
  meeting on March 21, instead of moving the soldiers away, Canby brings 
  in reinforcements. Captain Jack questions Canby on this action. Canby 
  says the soldiers make him feel safer during councils with the Modocs. 
  Captain Jack asks for them to go away. They discuss the matter of the 
  Hooker Jim killing of the white settlers. A sudden rain storm interrupts 
  the meeting, and both parties leave without resolving any of the issues. 

  April 3, 686: Maya King Yuknoom Yich'aak K'ak' (Jaguar Paw Smoke) takes 
  the throne of Calukmal.    

  April 4, 1805: Lewis and Clark send many objects they have collected so 
  far, including Indian goods, to President Jefferson.    

  April 5, 1800: William Augustus Bowles, the self-proclaimed "Director 
  General and Commander-In-Chief of the Muskogee Nation,” declares war on 
  Spain. Some sources state this occurs on May 5, 1800.

  April 6, 1854: Fort Phantom Hill, north of Abilene, Texas, is abandoned. 
  The fort is often visited by the local Comanches, Lipan-Apaches, Kiowas 
  and Kickapoos.

  April 7, 1781: General Daniel Broadhead, and 300 troops, attack a 
  peaceful Delaware village at Coshocton, Ohio. The town is burned to the 
  ground. After the fighting, the soldiers murder fifteen prisoners, 
  earning the Delaware's wrath.   

  April 8, 1880: Colonel Edward Hatch, with 400 Ninth Cavalry, sixty 
  Infantry, and seventy-five Indian scouts, attacks Victorio's fortified 
  camp in Hembrillo Canyon, the San Andreas Mountains of New Mexico. 
  According to the Army report, Victorio's force included Warm Springs 
  Apaches, Mescaleros, and Comanches. Three Indians are killed in the 
  fighting. Captain Henry Carroll, Ninth Cavalry, and seven other 
  soldiers, are wounded. Twenty-five of the soldiers' horses and mules are 

  April 9, 1682: The expedition of French and Indians under la Salle 
  reaches the mouth of the Mississippi River, based on his expedition 
  along the Mississippi from its juncture with the Illinois River, la 
  Salle claims the Mississippi valley, and what becomes Louisiana, for the 

  April 10, 1758: As of today's date, British General John Forbes reports 
  he has gathered 500 Indians at his fort, in present day Bedford, in 
  southwestern Pennsylvania. He hopes to make use of the Indians in his 
  maneuvers against the French, however, delays caused many of the Indians 
  to leave. 

  April 11, 1862: Twenty members of the Alabama-Coushatta tribe enlist in 
  the Confederate Army. One of them, John Scott, eventually becomes Chief 
  of the tribe.

  April 12, 1676: As a part of King Philip's War, 500 Indians attack 
  Sudbury, Massachusetts. Most of the settlers escape into fortified 
  structures. The Indians burn many of the outlying buildings. Hearing of 
  the attack, three relief forces consisting of a total of approximately 
  100 men from Concord, Watertown, and Marlborough, converge on the 
  settlement. In one battle, the Indians start grass fires to strike at 
  the Europeans. At least, thirty whites are killed in the fighting, and 
  much of the town is destroyed before the Indians withdraw.

  April 13, 1851: As a part of the “Mariposa Indian Wars” in California, 
  California soldiers attack a Chowchilla Indian village. While much of 
  the village is destroyed, most of the Indians escape.

  April 14, 1524: Spaniards under Pedro de Alvarado are welcomed as they 
  enter the Cakchiquel (Kaqchikel) Maya town of Iximche’, Guatemala.

  April 15, 1715: Many European settlers have moved onto Yamassee lands 
  without permission. The Yamassee have also been cheated by many traders. 
  The British authorities have ignored almost all of the Yamassees 
  complaints. Yamassee Indians attack settlements near the southeastern 
  Georgia-South Carolina boundary. Several hundred settlers are killed. 
  Among the dead are Indian Agent Thomas Naire and trader William Bray who 
  has been engaged in a conference at the Indian village of Pocotaligo. 
  Bray had settled, without permission, on Yamassee lands and established 
  a trading post. After amassing debts, which they can not pay, Bray 
  suggested the Yamassee pay their debts by giving him slaves from other 
  Indian tribes. This slave trade, and Bray's habit of capturing Indians 
  and selling them as slaves, is a significant factor in the war. 

  April 16, 1519: According to some sources, after landing on the Mexican 
  mainland, Hernán Cortés and his army start their travels toward 
  Tenochtitlán (modern Mexico City).

  April 17, 1868: According to army records, members of the Twenty-Third 
  Infantry fight with a band of Indians at Camp Three Forks near the 
  Owyhee River in Oregon. Five Indians are reported killed, and three are 

  April 18, 1754: With a force of 1,000 French and Indians, Captain 
  Contrecoeur demands the surrender of Fort Trent on the Ohio River. The 
  unfinished fort is defended by forty militia, and they promptly 
  surrender. This is one of the first actions of the "French and Indian 
  War." The French complete the fort and name it Fort Dusquesne. It is 
  later called Fort Pitt. Some sources say this happens on April 16th.

  April 19, 1786: Near Louisville, Kentucky, the Chickamaugas have been 
  attacking the local settlements. Militia Colonel William Christian, with 
  twenty men, cross the Ohio river to find the Indian warriors. They come 
  across a war party led by Chief Black Wolf. During the fighting, both 
  Black Wolf and Christian are killed. 

  April 20, 1519: Shortly after arriving in Mexico, Hernán Cortés meets 
  with a representative of Montezuma, in the Yucatan. The representative, 
  Teudile, delivers Montezuma’s best wishes and some gifts. Cortés says he 
  represents the ruler of most of the world (the King of Spain). He 
  demonstrates the might of his soldiers. Teudile is impressed by the 
  power of the conquistadors. Some sources say this happened on April 

  April 21, 1864: Based on the Congressional Act of April 8, 1864, Austin 
  Wiley, Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the state of California, 
  proclaims the proposed establishment of the Hoopa Valley reserve, on the 
  Trinity River. Located in Klamath County, California, settlers are 
  advised not to make further improvements to their properties, or to move 
  into the area. This proposal requires Presidential approval. 

  April 22, 1847: Punnubbee, and 342 Choctaws from six towns in 
  Mississippi, arrive at Fort Towson, in southeastern Indian Territory 
  (present day Oklahoma). 

  April 23, 906: Uxmal is a Maya ruin in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico. 
  A dedication ceremony is held for one of the buildings, according to an 
  inscription in the building.

  April 24, 1885: The Fish Creek fight takes place between Canadian forces 
  under Major General Frederick Dobson 
  Middleton and 150 Metis under Gabriel Dumont. This is one of the more 
  significant fights of the “Riel Rebellion.”

  April 25, 1890: Blackfeet Chief Isapo-Muxika (Crowfoot) dies on a 
  reserve near Gleichen, Alberta, Canada. He is one of the signers of 
  Treaty 7.

  April 26, 1778: Last month, Captain James Cook anchored his two ships, 
  the H.M.S. Discovery and the H.M.S. Resolution, in Nootka Sound. He has 
  worked on the ships and traded with the Nootka since then. Today, he 
  leaves the area of British Columbia.

  April 27, 1774: Still trying to instigate a war with local Indians in 
  Kentucky, with hopes of seizing their lands as spoils of war, Michael 
  Cresap, and some followers, attack a party of peaceful Shawnees 
  returning home from a conference at Fort Pitt. They "frontiersmen" kill 
  several of the Indians. This is one of the fights which eventually leads 
  to what is commonly called "Dunmore's War." This series of battles is 
  occasionally called "Cresap's War." 

  April 28, 1659: The Quinebaug Indians live in Connecticut. Chiefs 
  Allumps, Ma-Shan-Shawitt and Aguntus, sell their lands in the area 
  around modern Plainfield and Canterbury. There is a provision in the 
  deed to allow the tribe the privilege of "hunting, fishing and 
  convenient planting" forever.

  April 29, 1842: After losing most of their provisions during a fight 
  near Lake Ahapopka, Florida, ten days ago, Mikasuki Seminole Chief 
  Hallack Tustenuggee, and his followers are starving. Hallack comes to 
  the camp of Colonel William Worth for talks. Worth offers food and 
  alcohol to any Seminoles who come into the camp. Many of the Seminoles 
  come into the camp. At a signal, soldiers capture forty-three warriors 
  and seventy-one women and children. The Seminoles are force to leave 
  Florida for Oklahoma. 

  April 30, 1598: Don Juan de Oñate claims all lands in modern New Mexico, 
  including those of the resident Pueblos, for Spain. The event known as 
  “La Toma” takes place near San Elizario.


  If you plan on doing any online shopping, you might check out the links 
  on my store page. it will cost you the same, and I get a small 
  commission if you get to their website through my link. So much for the 
  hard sell...thanks. 




  While I am sure I will think of something else as soon as I send this, 
  that is all for now. 

  Stay safe,

  Phil Konstantin

  End of the April 2003 Newsletter - Part Two
  Anything below this line is not a part of this newsletter


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