March 2005 Newsletter from
"This Day in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2006)

Click Here To Return To The Previous Website

=================================================== =================================================== Greetings, I just discovered that the newsletter I sent out at the first of the month did not get delivered. I will try to recreate it in the next few days. Sorry about the delay. Phil =================================================== . . ============================================================ Start of Phil Konstantin’s March 2005 Newsletter – Part 2 ============================================================ Greetings, I am not sure why the iriginal version of the newsletter did not make it out. So, here is another try at it. The original version was much bigger. It is hard for me to recreate this because I delete my original material whenever I send out the newsletter. This time I will wait until I know it went out. ------------- I had a very nice couple of days on the previous weekend. I was honored to carry the California flag at SDSU's 34th annual Powwow here in San Diego. While this was smaller than some of the other powwows I have atteneded, they certainly did a nice job. I was very impressed by the dancers and singers. There were several occasions where I was able to talk with some of the participants and to have them explain the significance of objects, dance moves and ceremonies. On one occasion, a dancer's headpiece came off, and an eagle feather fell to the group. A group of veterans were called upon to hold a special ceremony. The eagle feather was considered to be a "fallen warrior." The ceremony was used to help raise this warrior back up. I also saw a very familar face at the powwow. Floyd "Red Crow" Westerman was there as a casual observer. He drove down from Los Angeles just to watch. Floyd has been in many movies (Dances With Wolves, The Doors, Hidalgo, DreamKeeper, etc.) Although he is 70, he often stood and tapped out the rhythm of the drums with his feet. IN fact, there were several elderly dancers who were very impressive with their agility and endurance. I am very happy the organizers asked me to participate. This was my first time to ever be in the arena. While they are nothing fancy, here are the locations of four pictures someone took of me at the powwow: http://americanindian.net/images/PowwowSmaller1.jpg http://americanindian.net/images/PowwowSmaller2.jpg http://americanindian.net/images/PowwowSmaller3.jpg http://americanindian.net/images/PowwowSmaller4.jpg I broke my big toe many years ago at a rock concert when a large speaker fell on it. It started to hurt again as I was dancing out the flag. I joked with my friends that I had developed a case of "powwow toe." ----------- The American Indian Student Essay contest is ongoing. Please let all of the students you know about the contest. To see all of the details, please go to my website at: http://americanindian.net/contest.html ------------ On an non-Indian issue, my efforts to have April 6th declared "Drowsy Driver Awareness Day" are moving along. I wrote up a resolution to this effect last year. You can see the current amended version on my website at: http://americanindian.net/resolution.html For a couple of reasons, the effort was delayed until this year. It was passed by the state senate last week. It is now in the state assembly. The effort is to remember those people who have died in collisions where drowsy driver was a cause, and to help educate the motoring public to prevent these types of collisions. For you new subscribers, my wife Robyn died on April 6, 1999 when she fell asleep behind the wheel and crashed. You can read more about her collision on my site at: http://americanindian.net/sleep.html The California Highway Patrol has joined my efforts and is producing a brochure dealing with this issue. We will be doing a press conference on April 5th in San Diego, and on April 6th in Sacramento. You can follow the progress of the resolution on this website: http://www.aroundthecapitol.com/Bills/SCR_27/ Phil =========================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =========================== Featured Link of the Month for March 2005 The "Link of the Month" for March is "American Indians of the Pacific Northwest Collection" . This website's digital databases includes over 2,300 original photographs as well as over 1,500 pages from the Annual Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to the Secretary of the Interior from 1851 to 1908 and six Indian treaties negotiated in 1855. Secondary sources include 89 articles from the Pacific Northwest Quarterly and 23 University of Washington publications in Anthropology. If you would like to see more and learn more about the tribes of the Pacific Northwest, this is a great place to visit. http://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/index.html =========================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =========================== Treaty of the Month: TREATY WITH THE CREEKS, 1832. Mar., 24, 1832. | 7 Stat., 366. | Proclamation, Apr. 4, 1832. You can see a transcript of it at: http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0341.htm =========================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =========================== From the Cherokee Nation newsletter: Cherokee Delegation to England From the Salem Gazette, Vol. V, No. 227, Salem, MA Feb. 15, 1791 London. Particulars of the Cherokee Embassy - The Indian Chiefs have been absent from their own country eighteen months. They arrived at Halifax, nova Scotia, in May last after a most tedious journey, of only twelve days short of twelve months. Their country is situated somewhere about the source of the Mississippi; but instead of adopting the course of that river for their general guide to the North American shore, by which they might have penetrated through Vermont, and reached Virginia in three months, they took a westerly direction and thereby unnecessarily traveled a tract some thousand miles, which at last brought them to the Halifax. The Governor of that settlement was unwilling to take upon himseld the conduct of their voyage to England, and therefore sent them to Quebec, Lord Dorchester, who provided them with a passage on board a vessel bound for London. The avowed purpose of their mission to this country, was to solicit a supply of arms and ammunition for the present purpose of effectually repelling the inroads of some troublesome neighborsl in search of this assistance they were willing to enter into an engagement to turn their whole force against any power in that quarter of the globe whoe views were inimical to the interests of Great Britain. The appearance of the political hemisphere certainly renders it impolitic to enter into any engagement of this nature at the present period; but may nor infer that these offers would be a most propitous circumstance for this country, had public affairs taken a different turn, as they have at this time between 40 and 50,000 men ready to take the field. *Note: Cultural information may vary from clan to clan, location to location, family to family, and from differing opinions and experiences. Information provided here is not 'etched in stone'. ------------------------------------------------------------ =========================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =========================== E-mails from subscribers: From Gwen: The most destructive habit..............................Worry The greatest Joy......................................Giving The greatest loss.......................Loss of self-respect The most satisfying work......................Helping others The ugliest personality trait....................Selfishness The most endangered species.................Dedicated leaders Our greatest natural resource.......................Our youth The greatest "shot in the arm"..................Encouragement The greatest problem to overcome.........................Fear The most effective sleeping pill................Peace of mind The most crippling failure disease....................Excuses The most powerful force in life..........................Love The most dangerous pariah..........................A gossiper The world's most incredible computer................The brain The worst thing to be without... ...................... Hope The deadliest weapon..............................The tongue The two most power-filled words......................"I Can" The greatest asset.....................................Faith The most worthless emotion..........................Self-pity The most beautiful attire..............................SMILE! The most prized possession......................... Integrity The most powerful channel of communication.............Prayer The most contagious spirit.........................Enthusiasm ---------------- From Andre: The Gloria Barron Prize for Young Heroes seeks nominations for its 2005 awards. The Barron Prize honors young people ages 8 to 18 who have shown leadership and courage in public service to people and our planet. Half of each year's winners are chosen for their work to protect the environment. Ten winners each receive $2,000 to support their service work or higher education. Nomination deadline is April 30, 2005. For more informaion and to nominate, visit www.barronprize.org. Barbara Ann Richman Program Director Gloria Barron Prize for Young Heroes P.O. Box 17 Boulder, CO 80306 (970) 875-1448 www.barronprize.org ---------------- By KAREN FLORIN Day Staff Writer, Casinos/Gambling Published on 2/4/2005 Lawyer. Author. Activist. Add "Consultant to the Stars" to Jeff Benedict's list of endeavors. The East Lyme resident is working with musician David Crosby, actress Bo Derek, songwriter Bernie Taupin and dozens of other prominent Californians in an effort to reform national Indian gambling policy. The celebrities are motivated by the Chumash Indians' growing presence in their neighborhood in Santa Ynez Valley, Cal. Benedict, president of the Connecticut Alliance Against Casino Expansion, says he sees the potential to bring national attention to a problem Connecticut has been struggling with for more than a decade. "I've been on the lookout for partners who share the same vision and are capable of carrying it out," Benedict said. "In this case the partners came to me." Crosby, Derek and Taupin are members of Concerned Citizens for Santa Ynez Valley, a group opposing land claims by the Chumash Indians. The tribe has operated a casino in the valley since 1994, starting, like the Mashantucket Pequots, with a simple bingo hall and expanding it into a full-scale resort. The Concerned Citizens are engaged in a bitter dispute with the Chumash and local actor-turned-winemaker Fess Parker. Parker, best known for his roles as Davy Crockett and Daniel Boone, is negotiating to sell 745 acres to the tribe and go into business with them to develop homes, a hotel and golf course. Neighbors say it would be unfair and environmentally disastrous if the site became trust land and the tribe and Parker did not have to adhere to current zoning restrictions that limit development to two houses per 100 acres. David and Jan Crosby read Benedict's 'Without Reservation," the 2000 book that questioned the legitimacy of the Mashantuckets and the manner in which they developed the world's largest casino. They invited him to Crosby's performance last summer at the Oakdale Theater and asked him for help. "He seemed to know more about the ins and outs of tribal politics and how the law gets bruised and twisted, and what I call the law of unintended consequences," David Crosby said Thursday. He called from Amsterdam, where he is on tour with longtime partner Graham Nash. Benedict went to Washington, D.C., last month with the Crosbys and Doug Herthel, a prominent equine veterinarian who also lives in Santa Ynez Valley, a ranch community nestled between two mountain ranges in Santa Barbara County. They met with members of Congress, including U.S. Reps. Christopher Shays, R-4th District, and Frank Wolf, R-Va., who have championed reforms to the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. Crosby had worked with Sen. John McCain, R-Ariz., on campaign-finance reform and had talked to McCain in his new capacity as chairman of the Committee on Indian Affairs. The musician who championed civil rights and opposed the war in Vietnam now finds himself battling wealthy Indian tribes and their influence in Washington, D.C. "The one thing they (Indians) can't buy is me," said Crosby. "So I will do what I can. I'm used to fighting uphill." Crosby still performs at casinos, but said he would never play at the Chumash property. Derek, whose horse farm is within a quarter-mile of the property, said she has no problem with the tribe's reservation and casino, but is shocked that they might be able to "all of a sudden disregard all local regulations" when developing the Fess Parker site. "I'm really happy to have Jeff as someone who can help us get to the right people and lead us," she said via phone Thursday. Benedict, who recently started a consulting company and was retained by the Washington law firm Perkins & Coie, said the Crosbys and Herthel paid him for advice and help with strategy. In Washington, Benedict said they talked about the practice of "reservation shopping" in which tribes gain trust status on land outside the boundaries of their reservations and open casinos. They spoke about the Bureau of Indian Affairs, an agency Benedict said is inefficient and corrupt. "The overriding theme is that one single federal agency, the BIA, has basically taken over at the policy level to decide in which community gambling enterprises will go in," Benedict said. "And they're basically doing it without input from the communities." "The next step is, we're seeking oversight hearings and a full airing of the problem, which doesn't have just a Connecticut perspective," he said. "For years people in the Congress have been telling our delegation, you people in Connecticut need to work your problems out. That's going to change." Meanwhile, things are getting ugly in Santa Ynez. The Concerned Citizens say the Chumash have unfairly labeled them as racist and elitist in an effort to divert attention from the real problem. They say the Indians have an unfair tax advantage. The Crosbys voted for the bingo hall, thinking it would help the tribe, but say the law that enabled Indian gambling has had unintended consequences on surrounding communities. "Nobody knew that those two casinos in Connecticut would end up doing $2.5 billion (a year) between the two of them," Crosby said. "Nobody had any idea here, either, that there would be that kind of cash flow." Frances Snyder, a Chumash tribal member who serves as their spokeswoman, said a member of the community spat on an elder tribal member recently. She said she only frequents one restaurant outside the reservation for fear of harassment at the others. She laughed when she recalled how Crosby and other community members protested the tribe's application for a liquor license for a restaurant on the reservation, saying people should not be driving on the windy country roads after drinking. "Here's something funny, David Crosby protesting a liquor license," Snyder said. "David Crosby, who spent three decades in rehab. David Crosby who is on his second liver." Snyder said it was sad that the tribe is fighting the same battles her mother fought 60 years ago in school. "They used to throw rocks at her because she was an Indian," Snyder said. "Instead of throwing rocks, they're throwing lawsuits and ugly words and they're protesting everything we do. We've been here longer than they have and will be here longer than they will. We are looking at economic self-sufficiency for the current generation and future generations." Crosby, who says his wife has 1/16th Cherokee blood, does not buy the argument that the Indians are entitled to the land since they occupied it first. "That's the same thing the Palestinians say, but the fact is the Israelis took the land," he said. "We took America. I don't think we're going to give Texas back to Mexico, do you? Let's not kid around here." =========================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =========================== A bit of humor: This is from Ruth: DEMOCRATIC You have two cows. Your neighbor has none. You feel guilty for being successful. Barbara Streisand sings for you. REPUBLICANISM You have two cows. Your neighbor has none. So? SOCIALIST You have two cows. The government takes one and gives it to your neighbor. You form a cooperative to tell him how to manage his cow. COMMUNIST You have two cows. The government seizes both and provides you with milk. You wait in line for hours to get it. It is expensive and sour. CAPITALISM, AMERICAN STYLE You have two cows. You sell one, buy a bull, and build a herd of cows. BUREAUCRACY, AMERICAN STYLE You have two cows. Under the new farm program the government pays you to shoot one, milk the other, and then pours the milk down the drain. AMERICAN CORPORATION You have two cows. You sell one, lease it back to yourself and do an IPO on the 2nd one. You force the two cows to produce the milk of four cows. You are surprised when one cow drops dead. You spin an announcement to the analysts stating you have downsized and are reducing expenses. Your stock goes up. FRENCH CORPORATION You have two cows. You go on strike because you want three cows. You go to lunch and drink wine. Life is good. JAPANESE CORPORATION You have two cows. You redesign them so they are one-tenth the size of an ordinary cow and produce twenty times the milk. They learn to travel on unbelievably crowded trains. Most are at the top of their class at cow school. GERMAN CORPORATION You have two cows. You engineer them so they are all blond, drink lots of beer, give excellent quality milk, and run a hundred miles an hour. Unfortunately they also demand 13 weeks of vacation per year. ITALIAN CORPORATION You have two cows but you don't know where they are. While ambling around, you see a beautiful woman. You break for lunch. Life is good. RUSSIAN CORPORATION You have two cows. You have some vodka. You count them and learn you have five cows. You have some more vodka. You count them again and learn you have 42 cows. The Mafia shows up and takes over however many cows you really have. TALIBAN CORPORATION You have all the cows in Afghanistan, which are two. You don't milk them because you cannot touch any creature' private parts. You get a $40 million grant from the US government to find alternatives to milk production but use the money to buy weapons. IRAQI CORPORATION You have two cows. They go into hiding. They send radio tapes of their mooing. POLISH CORPORATION You have two bulls. Employees are regularly maimed and killed attempting to milk them. BELGIAN CORPORATION You have one cow. The cow is schizophrenic. Sometimes the cow thinks he's French, other times he's Flemish. The Flemish cow won't share with the French cow. The French cow wants control of the Flemish cow's milk. The cow asks permission to be cut in half. The cow dies happy. FLORIDA CORPORATION You have a black cow and a brown cow. Everyone votes for the best looking one. Some of the people who actually like the brown one best accidentally vote for the black one. Some people vote for both. Some people vote for neither. Some people can't figure out how to vote at all. Finally, a bunch of guys from out-of-state tell you which one you think is the best-looking cow. CALIFORNIA CORPORATION You have millions of cows. They make real California cheese. Only five speak English. Most are illegals. Arnold likes the ones with the big udders. ---------------- From Donna Page: Who's On First for the Next Generation! George: Condi! Nice to see you. What's happening? Condi: Sir, I have the report here about the new leader of China. George: Great. Lay it on me. Condi: Hu is the new leader of China. George: That's what I want to know. Condi: That's what I'm telling you. George: That's what I'm asking you. Who is the new leader of China? Condi: Yes. George: I mean the fellow's name. Condi: Hu. George: The guy in China. Condi: Hu. George: The new leader of China. Condi: Hu. George: The main man in China! Condi: Hu is leading China. George: Now whaddya' asking me for? Condi: I'm telling you, Hu is leading China. George: Well, I'm asking you. Who is leading China? Condi: That's the man's name. George: That's who's name? Condi: Yes. George: Will you, or will you not, tell me the name of the new leader of China? Condi: Yes, sir. George: Yassir? Yassir Arafat is in China? I thought he's dead in the Middle East. Condi: That's correct. George: Then who is in China? Condi: Yes, sir. George: Yassir is in China? Condi: No, sir. George: Then who is? Condi: Yes, sir. George: Yassir? Condi: No, sir. George: Look Condi. I need to know the name of the new leader of China. Get me the Secretary General of the U.N. on the phone. Condi: Kofi? George: No, thanks. Condi: You want Kofi? George: No. Condi: You don't want Kofi. George: No. But now that you mention it, I could use a glass of milk. And then get me the U.N. Condi: Yes, sir. George: Not Yassir! The guy at the U.N. Condi: Kofi? George: Milk! Will you please make the call? Condi: And call who? George: Who is the guy at the U.N? Condi: Hu is the guy in China. George: Will you stay out of China?! Condi: Yes, sir. George: And stay out of the Middle East! Just get me the guy at the U.N. Condi: Kofi. George: All right! With cream and two sugars. Now get on the phone. ------------ =========================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =========================== Here are some random historical events which do not appear on my website: March 1 1524: Giovanni da Verrazano, sailing for France, anchors near Wilmington, North Carolina, in the Dauphine. He kidnapped an Indian child they encountered to bring back to Europe. (Also recorded as happening on March 7.) March 2 1811: Congress passed “An Act for Establishing Trading Houses with the Indian Tribes.” 1889: The original confines of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation were defined by an act (25 Stat. L. 888) according to the constitution of the Oglala Sioux Tribe of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. Section 11 of the act allocated lands to individual tribal members and provided that “the United States does and will hold the land thus located for a period of twenty-five years, in trust for the sole use and benefit of the Indian to whom such allotment shall have been made.” The boundaries of the Lower Brule Reservation and the Rosebud Sioux Reservation were established. March 3 1820: The Mi’kmaq Afton First Nation Reserve of Pomquet-Afton was established in Nova Scotia. The Bear River First Nation Reserve of Bear River was also established. 1851: The Mi’kmaq Anapolis Valley First Nation Reserve of St. Croix was established in Nova Scotia. 1865: The Mi’kmaq Afton First Nation Reserve of Franklin Manor was established in Nova Scotia. 1867: The Mi’kmaq Millbrook First Nation Reserve of Beaver Lake No. 17 was established in Nova Scotia. 1886: The Mi’kmaq Millbrook First Nation Reserve of Millbrook No. 27 was established in Nova Scotia. 1904: The Mi’kmaq Millbrook First Nation Reserve of Truro No. 27A was established in Nova Scotia. 1907: The Mi’kmaq Horton First Nation Reserve of Horton was established in Nova Scotia. The Millbrook First Nation Reserve of Truro No. 27B was also set up. 1909: In Nova Scotia, Truro No. 27C Reserve was established for the Mi’kmaq Millbrook First Nation. 1938: The Mi’kmaq Bear River First Nation Reserve of Bear River No. 6A was established in Nova Scotia. March 4 1541: Chickasaw Indians attacked de Soto’s forces. They set fire to the huts de Soto’s men were using. Approximately twelve Spaniards were killed. They lost a considerable number of their horses and livestock. The Chickasaw suffered only minimal losses. 1844: In Oregon City, Oregon, a large fight broke out along the Willamette River. One Molalla Indian and two settlers were killed in the fighting. The fight became known as the Cockstock Affair. March 5 1712: As a part of the Tuscarora War, a force of 600 militia entered the Tuscarora village of Catechna (near Grifton). They discovered it had been abandoned. March 6 1861: According to the constitution of the Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska, “The jurisdiction of the Iowa Tribe shall extend to the territory within the confines of the Iowa Reservation as defined in the Treaty of March 6, 1861.” March 7 1539: Mexican Viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza had decided to send an expedition to search for wealthy cities north of Mexico. Friar Marcos de Niza left from Culiacan today. He would “discover” Cibola, although he never set foot in the pueblo. His report would lead to future expeditions looking for the Seven Cities of Gold. 1862: The Civil War’s Battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas, started today and continued through the next. Many Indians were fighting on both sides. The Cherokees had a large contingent (including the author’s great-great-grandfather). See a picture of him on my site at: http://americanindian.net/picturesmore.html. March 8 1782: Monrovian missionaries had converted many Delaware, Mahican, and Munsee Indians to Christianity. They had established villages in Pennsylvania in 1746 but moved them to the Muskingum River in Ohio in 1773 after their old villages were attacked by other Indian tribes. Unfortunately, at the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, the “Moravian” Indians found themselves directly between American and British forces and their allies. Both sides believe the Moravians were helping the other. Today, American Colonel David Williamson and soldiers from Pennsylvania, surround the peaceful village of Gnadenhutten (the second village of the same name; the first had been in Pennsylvania) and herded the occupants into two houses. While some of the militia refused to participate, the majority of the soldiers decided to kill all of the Moravians. After allowing the victims a final prayer, the soldiers killed ninety-six Indian men, women, and children in cold blood. (Also recorded as happening on March 7.) March 9 1768: According to some sources, Shawnee Pucksinwah’s third child, Tecumseh (Panther Passing Across), was born. His mother was Methotasa (Turtle Laying Her Eggs in the Sand). March 10 1675: According to some sources, a land-cession agreement was reached between representatives of the Kiawah Indians and the South Carolina colonies. March 11 1859: According to his journals, Reverend Pierre De Smet arrived at the Mission St. Ignatius. He was there to minister to the Pend d’Oreilles. March 12 1771: Spaniards under Father Junipero Serra began construction of the Presidio (fort) in what became San Diego, California. It was built on the bluffs above the Kumeyaay village of Cosoy. March 13 1857: The U.S. Senate rejected six different treaties made with Indians of the American Southwest. March 14 1697: The last of the independent Maya tribes, called the Itza, were finally conquered by the Spanish. The Spanish attacked and defeated the Itza at their capital city of Tayasal (Guatemala). March 15 1697: The northwestern Massachusetts town of Haverhill was attacked by Abenaki Indians. Hannah Dustin, her newborn child, and their nurse were among the captives. While leaving the area, an Indian killed the child for fear its crying would give them away. In one of the most famous escapes of the era, Dustin bided her time for a month and a half. Finally seeing an opportunity, Dustin and the nurse kill all of their sleeping captors, except an old woman and a child, with an ax. Dustin brought back her captors’ scalps; for that she was paid twenty-five pounds by the Massachusetts government. March 16 1700: According to records kept by French missionaries, lightning struck the temple in the Taensa village on Lake Saint Joseph (near modern Newellton, Louisiana). The temple caught fire. The tribal shaman told the women of the tribe to throw their small children into the fire to appease the angry god who started the fire. French priest Francois Joliet de Montigny attempted to stop the women. March 17 1830: Members of the Choctaw “rump” council signed a treaty selling Choctaw lands and agreeing to the move west. The paper eventually went to Washington, along with protests from the “nonrump” Indians. The treaty did not receive Senate approval. 1842: The Wyandot signed a treaty (11 Stat. 581) in Kansas City. They gave up their lands in Ohio for lands west of the Mississippi River and $17,500 per year. March 18 1877: The Battle of Yellow House Canyon took place near modern Lubbock, Texas. It involved over 150 Quahadi Comanche, led by Black Horse, and about fifty local hunters. Black Horse had killed a buffalo hunter who had shot and killed a large number of buffalo in the area. Black Horse was infuriated by the slaughter of his tribe’s economic mainstay. The buffalo hunters sneaked up on Black Horse’s camp and attacked it in retaliation for the killing of the hunter. Some sources cited this as the last significant Indian fight in the Texas Panhandle. March 19 1885: Louis Riel’s Metis established a government at Batoche. They also declared themselves independent from Canada. This was a significant event in Riel’s Rebellion. March 20 1862: As a part of the Owens Valley Indian War in California, a group of settlers attacked a Pauite Indian village north of Owens Lake. Almost a dozen Indians were killed; white settlers suffer only a few injuries. March 21 1842: General Zachary Taylor estimated that by this date 2,833 Seminoles had relocated to the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). March 22 1622: Opechancanough was Chief of the Pamunkey Indians, part of the Powhatan confederacy. They attacked the English today, Good Friday, at Jamestown. An Indian named Chanco warned his stepfather, Richard Pace, of the impending attack. The town was warned, and the outer settlements suffered the brunt of the attack. Of the 1,240 English, 347 were killed in the fighting, the first large massacre by Indians in North America. March 23 1859: Fort Stockton, in western Texas, was established on the San Antonio—El Paso Road where it crosses the Comanche war trail. The fort was named in honor of Commodore Robert Stockton, “who captured California for the United States.” The fort was abandoned by U.S. Army troops during the Civil War and reoccupied in 1867. It was permanently abandoned on June 30, 1886. March 24 1832: The Creeks signed a treaty (7 Stat. 366) with the United States and ceded more than half of their lands east of the Mississippi River. They were allowed sections of land to live on for a maximum of five years unless they sold it first. All white interlopers were to be removed during this five-year period. The Creeks who decided to stay permanently in Alabama were subject to Alabama laws. The temporary land areas granted to the Creeks amounted to 2,187,200 acres of their original 5.2 million acres. The rest were ceded immediately. This was called the Second Treaty of Washington. March 25 1879: Little Wolf and a small band of Northern Cheyenne had managed to elude capture by army troops since they split off from Dull Knife’s group when they were captured during a fight on October 23, 1878. Lieutenant William Clark (called “White Hat” by the Cheyenne), Troops E and I, Second Cavalry, as well as some infantry, Indian scouts, and artillery discovered Little Wolf’s band near Box Elder Creek in Dakota. The group of thirty-three men, forty-three women, and thirty-eight children surrendered. The army seized thirty-five lodges, all the Cheyenne weapons, and 250 horses. This last significant group of “free” Northern Cheyenne was marched to Fort Keogh in east-central Montana. March 26 1676: The English attacked Chief Canonchet and his Narragansett followers at Patuxet. Many of the English were killed in the fighting. March 27 1756: Lieutenant Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Lééry was leading a force of 251 Canadians and 103 Iroquois, Abenaki, and Nepissing Indians. They attacked the British garrison of seventy soldiers at Fort Bull (also called Wood Creek Fort, near modern Rome, New York). All but twenty-eight of the soldiers were killed in the fighting. Knowing reinforcements would soon be arriving from nearby Fort William, Lééry left soon after destroying most of the fort’s supplies. Due to the vicious nature of the fighting, the British called this the Massacre at Fort Bull. 1858: A group of Bannock and a few Shoshone stole some cattle from the local Mormon settlers near Fort Limhi, Idaho, on February 25. This led to a brief battle, with a couple of settlers being killed. Under orders from Brigham Young, the fort was abandoned and the settlers returned to safer territory. Eventually, the name “Limhi” would evolve into “Lemhi” and became a common place name in central Idaho. March 28 1833: Several Seminoles had been sent to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) to look over the areas proposed as their new lands. The Seminoles in Indian Territory were sent to only look at the land, but the government had them sign an agreement that the land was adequate and committing the Seminoles to removal. The agreement was signed at Fort Gibson in western Oklahoma and was called the Fort Gibson Treaty (7 Stat. 423). The Payne’s Landing Treaty (7 Stat. 368) of May 9, 1832, stated that the Seminoles had to be satisfied with the report of the delegation to Indian Territory before they agreed to move. The government words the new agreement so that the Seminoles in Florida did not get to discuss the matter. The Seminole delegation was satisfied with the lands; being with their former kin, the Creeks, they were not satisfied with the proximity of the belligerent Plains Indians. Upon the return of the delegation to Florida, the Seminole Nation repudiated the agreement, with the exception of John Blunt and his Apalachicola followers. The enforcement of this illegal treaty by the U.S. government led to the start of the Second Seminole War. 1856: As a part of the Battle of the Cascades, local Indians under the instructions of Yakima Chief Kamiakin attacked Fort Cascade on March 26. The militia in the fort, near the modern Cascade Locks and the Bridge of the Gods, would hold out until today, when a boatload of soldiers from Fort Vancouver arrived. The soldiers, led by Lieutenant Phil Sheridan, defeated the Indians. This was one of the last fights in Kamiakin’s War. March 29 1778: Captain James Cook anchored his two ships, HMS Discovery and HMS Resolution, in Nootka Sound. He worked on the ships and traded with the Nootka for the next month. March 30 1870: Based on the congressional act of April 8, 1864, and today’s executive order by President Grant, Round Valley Reservation was established in Mendocino County, California. In time it would house Clear Lake, Concow, Little Lake, Nomelaki, Pit River, Potter Valley, Redwood, Wailaki, and Yuki Tribes within approximately fifty square miles of land. March 31 1885: According to the Oklahoma Law Enforcement Memorial, Captain Thomas Cloud and Officer Sam Cudgo were part of a Seminole Lighthorse posse. On March 29, the posse attempted to arrest Rector Roberts when he barricaded himself in a hut and opened fire on the posse. The first shot hit Officer Cudgo in the stomach and the next bullet struck Captain Cloud in the left leg. The rest of the posse returned fire and killed Roberts. Officer Cudgo died within the hour on March 29. Captain Cloud died on this day. =========================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =========================== That is it for now. I’ll have more later. Stay safe, Phil ========================================================== End of Phil Konstantin’s March 2005 Newsletter – Part 2 ========================================================== . . . . . . . . ============================================================ Start of Phil Konstantin’s March 2005 Newsletter – Part 3 ============================================================ Greetings, For those of you who live in California, I would appreciate your help in my efforts to have April 6th declared "Drowsy Driver Awareness Day" in California. The resolution I wrote has passed the California Senate. It has been sent to the California Assembly. It is titled: "SCR 27 (Dunn) Drowsy Driver Awareness Day." I need your help in e-mailing or writing to Assembly members to act on the resolution quickly, so it can go into effect before April 6th of this year. You can find the addresses of each of the 80 members of the California Assembly on the website below. http://www.aroundthecapitol.com/directory.html If you could write to the person who represents your area, I would greatly appreciate it. The resolution will not cost taxpayers anything. The California Highway Patrol has already created a new brochure to cover this issue. We will be holding a press conference in San Diego on April 6th to announce the CHP's educational campaign. April 6th is the 6th anniversary of my wife's death. She fell asleep behind the wheel and crashed. An average of 100 Californians die each year in drowsy-driver related collisions. You can see the current amended version of the resolution on my website at: http://drowsydriverawarenessday.com or http://americanindian.net/resolution.html Please feel free to get in touch with me, if you have any questions. Thanks for your help. ======================= X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ======================= My essay contest for American Indian students is still going on. April 15th is the last day for entries. You can see all of the details on my website at: http://americanindian.net/contest.html ======================= X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X ======================= That's it for now. Stay safe, Phil ========================================================== End of Phil Konstantin’s March 2005 Newsletter – Part 3 ========================================================== . . . . .

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