March 2004 Newsletter from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2007)

Looking for a good book on North American Indians?
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Start of March 2004 Newsletter - 


You have not heard from me much lately. I have been working on a project 
that was taking up most of my free time. Many of you know about my 
efforts to warn people of the dangers of driving while drowsy, sleepy or 
fatigued ( ). I was working on a 
project to have April 6th declared “Drowsy Driver Awareness Day” in 
California. Working with a couple of lobbyists and the California 
Association of Highway Patrolmen, I was hoping to get a resolution 
passed by the state legislature. Any such efforts as this take some time 
to wind its way through the halls of government in Sacramento. We were 
making some headway, but if our efforts were successful, I would have 
only had a few days to organize a public event. Such a limited lead time 
would have made the participation of the Governor doubtful. The 
California Highway Patrol hierarchy told me they would be happy to 
support my efforts. They, along with several other groups, suggested 
that I postpone the project until next year. This would allow the CHP 
time to be able to produce a brochure dealing with the subject matter. 
With more lead time, I would be able to gather more support, and have a 
larger turnout for any event that was planned. So, I have delayed my 
efforts until 2005. I’ll let you know how thing progress. In any case, 
this is why I have been very slow in responding to e-mails, inquiries, 
and have only written a few things for the newsletter.

I have continued to go through the links pages trying to get them 
updated. With somewhere around 9,000 links, this is a long process. Some 
of the links will not work, as the sites have moved, were deleted or are 
being updated. 



I do have two projects going on right now. One is an essay contest. They 
other project is a walk to raise money for Arthritis research.

I am sponsoring an essay contest for American Indian students. You can 
get all of the facts on this website:   . For those of you that 
participate in other newsletters, forums or newsgroups, I would 
appreciate you passing the info about the contest and this website 
address along to anyone you think might be interested.

The other family project is being handled by my daughter Sarah. Sarah is 
22 years old. Even at that young age, she has a mild to moderate case of 
arthritis. For the past two years, Sarah has participated in a walk to 
help raise money for the Arthritis Foundation. If you would like to know 
more about her project, or would like to donate a few dollars (it is tax 
deductible), please visit this website: 


The ‘Link of the Month’ for March is “Texas Beyond History.”

It is an amazing piece of work. It has in depth information on a wide 
variety of subjects. Many of the articles include numerous photos, maps 
and bibliographies. I was very impressed with this website. You could 
spend many an hour here just browsing through its many pages. On the 
left side of the page is the “New and News on TBH” section. Here you can 
find all kinds of things, including lesson plans for Teachers. There are 
also links to various themes or places.

The main page is at: .

Here are just a few of the other subjects covered in this exceptional 
project: - Caddo Indians - 
Sha'chahdínnih (Timber Hill):
Last Village of the Kadohadacho in the Caddo Homeland - Frontier Forts - Plains 
Villagers of the Texas Panhandle - Stone Tools 
of Texas - Red River War - Bonfire Shelter 
(Buffalo Jump)


The ‘Treaty of the Month’ for March is   TREATY WITH THE MOHAWK, 1797. 
Mar. 29, 1797. | 7 Stat., 61. Part of the treaty is: “Relinquishment to 
New York, by the Mohawk nation of Indians, under the sanction of the 
United States of America, of all claim to lands in that state. AT a 
treaty held under the authority of the United States, with the Mohawk 
nation of Indians, residing in the province of Upper Canada, within the 
dominions of the king of Great Britain.” You can find a copy of the 
treaty here:


Some time back, I told you about a website where you could add your name 
to a spacecraft going to Mars. I thought I would post this update. The 
final count was 3,551,645 names (mine included). You can see the disc on 
the surface of Mars on this page:


Some interesting websites:

The Day You Were Born:



News articles:

Lewis & Clark helped rob American Indians

To slur with love: A plan to restore Squaw Peak

Native American leaders pushing to eliminate school mascots

OutRage Continues

How Do You Join an Indian Tribe?

Rebounding from the backlash

Naval Academy Plebe

Jails hold Natives longest, study finds
Board alters features’ names: Names widely regarded as offensive have 
been eliminated from two geographic features in Yellowstone County.

US justices reject appeal in Indian gambling cases

Village wants quota of single bowhead; WHALING: Restarting the tradition 
said to be important for subsistence needs.

Minn. tribes oppose governor's call for 'better deal'

American Idol just being herself

Inuit, KIA have advantage in land claims

Massacre nearly destroyed northern Calif. tribe

BIA allows Rocky Boy’s new rules

Daschle: Native American children must not be left behind

Shaffer honored by governor, Democrats

A Historic Raid, From All Sides

Major decisions may affect Indian country

Bill introduced to legalize tribal workers’ compensation program

Pojoaque addresses recent teen suicides

Kiowas remove tribal leaders in overwhelming vote; McKenzie and Bointy 
recalled by Kiowa voters

Kiowa leaders denounce recall election as bogus

Coin: Fighting the myth of the rich Indian

Time running out on Akaka bill

Report says tribe experienced 'indirect' prejudice

Looted remains force Indians to consider reburials

Navajo Comedians Revive Laughter In Culture

Looking Cloud trial raises questions

Juror: Looking Cloud convicted by own accounts

Tribal library opens in Pauma

Savannah U.S. Courthouse To Be Renamed For Yamacraw Chief

Idaho professor will help to teach language of SoCal Indians

Native student participates in NASA recovery mission

Indian Community School on verge of layoffs

Play honors life of American Indian activist

Wax museum would depict Native life in SE Alaska (2/26)

First Nations' new wave taking art to the edge

Minor news notes:

SoCal rainstorm delays flights, triggers car crashes, mudslides

Orange County sheriff official dies in accident near Temecula home


Joseph RedCloud is an e-mail friend of mine. I often add some of his 
comments to this newsletter. He wrote a very eloquent letter about the 
performance the group OutKast gave at the recent GRAMMYs. Here it is:

Dear Sirs:

I find it difficult to believe that members of the Soul Train Music 
Awards would award any honor to the musical group known as Outkast in 
light of their offensive and derogatory depiction of American Indians 
during the Grammy Awards broadcast recently.

The fact that CBS has made Justin Timberlake apologize for the breech of 
conduct made with Janet Jackson but has not, as of this writing, issued 
any specific comment about the racist and inappropriate actions made by 
Outkast is deplorable.

I find that your consideration of awarding anything to this group to be 
nothing short of condoning future episodes of this nature.

To think that, in the 21st century, established and honored agents of 
the music industry would turn their collective backs upon the violent 
and often bloody struggles of various minority groups of this country in 
their efforts to establish some sense of equality is bewildering at best 
and racist at the worst.

While I know of no one in Indian Country who wishes to detract from the 
skills and talent of up and coming new groups, I fail to understand how 
episodes of this nature can, not only be permitted, but encouraged by 
awarding honors to these agents of distention.

I implore you to reconsider your stance on this issue. African-Americans 
are not the only group of minorities who have had to struggle through 
over one hundred years of oppression in these United States. 

Music is something that is supposed to bind us together not tear us 
apart. When did the message and purpose of music change from one of 
communication to one more concerned with market share and profits?

In a time wherein our country finds itself torn over another war 
overseas, with smaller budgets to address the needs of the needy and 
growing concerns about the upcoming Presidential elections, why does the 
music industry feel it necessary to pour salt into wounds that had only 
recently begun to heal?

Musical groups such as Outkast send a message to our youth. Are we to 
sit silently by while these same groups preach disrespect and dishonor 
to our children?

I, for one, cannot and will not permit actions of this nature to quietly 
pass by. I ask that you stand up as well against actions of this nature.


Joseph RedCloud
Pine Ridge Indian Reservation
Pine Ridge, South Dakota


Here are some notices:

There is an online petition about the OutKast performance:

Call For Presentations
Voices from the Past,
Education for the Future
Sequoyah Research Center
Symposium 2004
University of Arkansas at Little Rock
October 21-23, 2004


ABC-CLIO, a publisher specializing in historical reference works, is 
currently in the preliminary stages of planning a four-volume 
encyclopedia covering American Indian history from continental history, 
policy history, and tribal history perspectives. Intended for use at 
both the university and advanced secondary school levels, this set will 
cover both the variety of issues discussed in American Indian history 
and individual tribal histories, drawing out the points of intersection 
between the two and helping users put federal American Indian policy and 
the histories of Indian peoples and tribes into context with one

The four volumes will be broken down as follows: Volume I: Pre-Contact 
American Indian History and European Colonization, Volume II: American 
Expansion and Indian Removal, Volume III: The Reservation Era, Reform, 
and Sovereignty, and Volume IV: Tribal Histories and Research Aids. A 
vital component of this encyclopedia will be primary sources that will 
present a variety of perspectives on issues both Indian peoples and 
non-Indians consider important in their relationships with one another. 
Topics such as water rights, tribal government bodies, relationships 
with government agencies, and many others will receive special 
treatment in sidebars.

We are currently searching for the best editorial team and group of 
contributors to give this set the high quality, broad coverage, and 
depth of interpretation necessary to produce a useful and groundbreaking 
encyclopedia. If you are interested in either working on the editorial 
team or contributing entries to the encyclopedia, please contact:


One last reminder, the Cherokee Nation History Course is being offered 
to residents of Houston, TX. Weekends - March 6-7 and March 20-21, 
2003. This is an extraordinary class and if you can make it, It is worth 
the time and effort. Registration form must be received at the Cherokee 
Nation by 5:00 P.M., March 4, 2004. For more information please check 


From one of my Hawaiian friends…..

The Case of Indigenous Human Rights

Aloha kakou… I wanted to let you know that Haunani-Kay Trask will be 
speaking here in San Diego.

Wednesday, March 3rd, 2004
7pm at UCSD Price Center Ballroom

This event is FREE and open to the public. Unfortunately, parking will 
be $3.00 after 4:30pm. For additional information call (858) 822-0510 or 
send an e-mail to You can also visit the website at

Haunani-Kay Trask is an Indigenous Hawaiian nationalist, political 
organizer, poet, and professor at the University of Hawai’i. The winner 
of Honolulu Magazine’s Islander of the Year Award, Trask is a member of 
Ka Lahui Hawai’i, the largest sovereignty organization in Hawai’i. She 
is an outspoken speaker of Hawaiian sovereignty, indigenous human 
rights, and the prostitution of Native cultures by global tourism. She 
is the author of four books, including “From a Native Daughter: 
Colonialism and Sovereignty in Hawai’i” and is co-producer of the 
award-winning documentary “Act of War: Overthrow of the Hawaiian 


The PRC sent this to me….


Date: Sun, 1 Feb 2004 11:40:15 -0600 (CST)
From: "Progressive Resource/Action Coop." ;
Subject: Anti-"Chief" Introductory Meeting - this Wednesday!

On March 11th, 2004, the Board of Trustees is expected to vote on the 
future of "Chief Illiniwek." Such a vote has been 15 years in the 
making, and the next month and a half is the final push. We know that 
many of you, though you haven't been able to be directly involved, have 
supported the 
movement for years. But now is the time. We are writing to ask you to 
increase your involvement in the anti-"Chief" movement, if only between 
now and March 11th.

To get involved, we invite you to attend the upcoming Anti-"Chief" 
Introductory Meeting this Wednesday evening:

     Anti-"Chief" Introductory Meeting
     February 4, 2004 at 7:30pm
     Illinois Disciples Foundation
     (NW corner of Springfield & Wright, Champaign)

We all waited anxiously in November for the Board of Trustees to finally 
vote to eliminate the "Chief" as the mascot and logo of the U of I. 
However, the Board, once again, backed out of a vote to eliminate this 
offensive stereotype from our community. We must make sure that this 
not happen again and that the Board feels compelled by overwhelming 
campus and community pressure to eliminate the "Chief" once and for all 
on March 11th.

Toward this goal, we are organizing a month of anti-"Chief" activities 
and events leading up to the Board of Trustees vote. And we need your 
help! Come to the anti-"Chief" Introductory Meeting to hear about how 
YOU can participate in and help to plan the upcoming Month of 
Ant-"Chief" Action. This is a rare time in the history of the struggle 
against the "Chief". Don't miss your opportunity to be part of a 
successful movement that is making a real difference!

For more information, contact the PRC at (217) 352-8721 or email



Some humor & thoughts:

From: Andre Cramblit ;
Subject: Survivor (humor)


10 White people will be dropped into a remote reservation where they 
will have to endure one week of hardship such as, gossiping, 
back-stabbing, jealousy, pow wow music, commods, teepee creeping, 49ing, 
and of course the inevitable real Tribal Council.

The 10 contestants will be given:

* Five sacred rocks.
* Rez car with no doors and no backglass.
* Unwinterized HUD house.
* Three days worth of food stamps.
* Cigs
* Five days of continuous "Pow-Wow Highway" clips.
* Moccasins, headbands, and feathers to wear around the rez (which 
demonstrates cultural sensitivity to reservation inhabitants).

The SAV, lone survivor of the RESERVATION, will receive:

* Casino coupon book (a $10.00 value).
* Authentic, Indian hand-made Dream Catcher.
* Homemade hand tattoos (with ink pen).
* A "Princess Pale Moon" Edition Pendleton blanket.


From my mother:

I was thinking about how the status symbol of today is those cell phones 
that everyone has clipped on. I can't afford one so I'm wearing my 
garage door opener.

You know, I spent a fortune on deodorant before I realized that people 
didn't like me anyway.

I was thinking that women should put pictures of missing husbands on 
beer cans.

I was thinking about old age and decided that it is when you still have 
something on the ball but you are just too tired to bounce it.

I thought about making a movie for folks my age and call it "Pumping 

I have gotten that dreaded furniture disease ...that's when your chest 
is falling into your drawers.

You know when people see a cat's litter box, they always say, "Oh, have 
you got a cat?" Just once I wanted to say, "Nope. It's for company. Help 
yourself. Make yourself comfy. Take your time."

I thought about how mothers feed their babies with little tiny spoons 
and forks so I wonder what Chinese mothers use. Perhaps toothpicks?

Employment application blanks always ask who is to be notified in case 
of an emergency. I think you should write A Good Doctor ... or 911!

Why do they put pictures of criminals up in the Post Office? What are 
you supposed to do, write to these men? Why don't they just put their 
pictures on the postage stamps so the mailmen could look for them while 
they deliver the mail?

I was thinking about how people seem to read the Bible a whole lot more 
as they get older then it dawned on me: They were cramming for their 

From Alan Sconzert:

I believe-
that we don't have to change friends if we understand that friends 

I believe-
that no matter how good a friend is, they're going to hurt you every 
once in a while and you must forgive them for that.

I believe-
that true friendship continues to grow, even over the longest distance. 
Same goes for true love.

I believe-
that you can do something in an instant that will give you heartache for 

I believe-
that it's taking me a long time to become the person I want to be.

I believe-
that you should always leave loved ones with loving words. It may be the 
last time you see them.

I believe-
that you can keep going long after you can't.

I believe-
that we are responsible for what we do, no matter how we feel.

I believe-
that either you control your attitude or it controls you.

I believe-
that regardless of how hot and steamy a relationship is at first, the 
passion fades and there had better be something else to take its place.

I believe-
that heroes are the people who do what has to be done when it needs to 
be done, regardless of the consequences.

I believe-
that money is a lousy way of keeping score.

I believe-
that my best friend and I can do anything or nothing and have the best 

I believe-
that sometimes the people you expect to kick you when you're down, will 
be the ones to help you get back up.

I believe-
that sometimes when I'm angry I have the right to be angry, but that 
doesn't give me the right to be cruel.

I believe-
that just because someone doesn't love you the way you want them to 
doesn't mean they don't love you with all they have.

I believe-
that maturity has more to do with what types of experiences you've had 
and what you've learned from them and less to do with how many birthdays 
you've celebrated.

I believe-
that it isn't always enough to be forgiven by others. Sometimes you have 
to learn to forgive yourself.

I believe-
that no matter how bad your heart is broken the world doesn't stop for 
your grief.

I believe-
that our background and circumstances may have influenced who we are, 
but we are responsible for who we become.

I believe-
that just because two people argue, it doesn't mean they don't love each 
other. And just because they don't argue, it doesn't mean they do.

I believe-
that you shouldn't be so eager to find out a secret. It could change 
your life forever.

I believe-
that two people can look at the exact same thing and see something 
totally different.

I believe-
that your life can be changed in a matter of hours by people who don't 
even know you.

I believe-
that even when you think you have no more to give, when a friend cries 
out to you, you will find the strength to help.

I believe-
that credentials on the wall do not make you a decent human being.

I believe-
that the people you care about most in life are taken from you too soon.


Oxymoronic phrases:

1. Act naturally 
2. Found missing 
3. Resident alien 
4. Advanced BASIC 
5. Genuine imitation 
6. Airline food 
7. Political science 
8. Tight slacks 
9. Definite maybe 
10. Pretty ugly 
11. Good grief 
12. Same difference 
13. Almost exactly 
14. Government organization 
15. Legally drunk 
16. Working vacation 
17. Soft rock 
18. Plastic glasses 
19. Terribly pleased 
20. Diet ice cream


My daughter sent me this. I don’t know if they work, but they sound 

Amazing Things You Never Knew – Part 1 of 2 
1. Budweiser beer conditions the hair 
2. Pam cooking spray will dry finger nail polish 
3. Cool whip will condition your hair in 15 minutes 
4. Mayonnaise will KILL LICE, it will also condition your hair 
5. Elmer's Glue - paint on your face, allow it to dry, peel off and see 
the dead skin and blackheads if any 
6. Shiny Hair - use brewed Lipton Tea 
7. Sunburn - empty a large jar of Nestea into your bath water 
8. Minor burn - Colgate or Crest toothpaste 
9. Burn your tongue? Put sugar on it! 
10. Arthritis? WD-40 Spray and rub in, kill insect stings too 
11. Bee stings - meat tenderizer 
12. Chigger bite - Preparation H 
13. Puffy eyes - Preparation H 
14. Paper cut - crazy glue or chap stick (glue is used instead of 
sutures at most hospitals) 
15. Stinky feet - Jell-O! 
16. Athletes feet - cornstarch 
17. Fungus on toenails or fingernails - Vicks vapor rub 
18. Kool aid to clean dishwasher pipes. Just put in the detergent 
section and run a cycle, it will also clean a toilet. (Wow, and we drink 
this stuff) 
19. Kool Aid can be used as a dye in paint also Kool Aid in Dannon plain 
yogurt as a finger paint, your kids will love it and it won't hurt them 
if they eat it! 
20. Peanut butter - will get scratches out of CD's! Wipe off with a 
coffee filter paper 

Amazing Things You Never Knew– Part 2 of 2 
1. Sticking bicycle chain - Pam no-stick cooking spray 
2. Pam will also remove paint, and grease from your hands! Keep a can in 
your garage for your hubby 
3. Peanut butter will remove ink from the face of dolls 
4. When the doll clothes are hard to put on, sprinkle with corn starch 
and watch them slide on 
5. Heavy dandruff - pour on the vinegar! 
6. Body paint - Crisco mixed with food coloring. Heat the Crisco in the 
microwave, pour in to an empty film container and mix with the food 
color of your choice! 
7. Tie Dye T-shirt - mix a solution of Kool Aid in a container, tie a 
rubber band around a section of the T-shirt and soak 
8. Preserving a newspaper clipping - large bottle of club soda and cup 
of milk of magnesia, soak for 20 min. and let dry, will last for many 
9. A Slinky will hold toast and CD's! 
10. To keep goggles and glasses from fogging, coat with Colgate 
toothpaste (might prevent you from seeing as well…) 
11. Wine stains, pour on the Morton salt and watch it absorb into the 
12. To remove wax - Take a paper towel and iron it over the wax stain, 
it will absorb into the towel. 
13. Remove labels off glassware etc. rub with Peanut butter! 
14. Baked on food - fill container with water, get a Bounce paper 
softener and the static from the Bounce towel will cause the baked on 
food to adhere to it. Soak overnight. Also; you can use 2 Efferdent 
tablets, soak overnight! 
15. Crayon on the wall - Colgate toothpaste and brush it! 
16. Dirty grout - Listerine 
17. Stains on clothes - Colgate 
18. Grass stains - Karo Syrup 
19. Grease Stains - Coca Cola, It will also remove grease stains from 
the driveway overnight. We know it will take corrosion from car 
batteries! It will also dissolve a tooth left overnight in a jar – but 
that’s another matter. 
20. Fleas in your carpet? 20 Mule Team Borax- Sprinkle and let stand for 
24 hours. Maybe this will work if you get them back again. 
21. To keep FRESH FLOWERS longer Add a little Clorox, or 2 Bayer 
aspirin, Or just use 7-up instead of water. 
22. Want to make a Flower bloom quickly. Put a penny in the water 


Christi Lawler sent this one:

The Mule, the dog, the Monkey & The Man

God created the mule, and told him, "You are mule. You will work 
constantly from dusk to dawn, carrying heavy loads on your back. You 
will eat grass and lack intelligence. You will live for 50 years." 

The mule answered, "To live like this for 50 years is too much. Please, 
give me no more than 20." 

And it was so. 

Then God created the dog, and told him, "You are dog. You will hold 
vigilance over the dwellings of Man, to whom you will be his greatest 
companion. You will eat his table scraps and live for 25 years." 

The dog responded, "Lord, to live 25 years as a dog like that is too 
much. Please, no more than 10 years." 

And it was so. 

God then created the monkey, and told him, "You are monkey. You shall 
swing from tree to tree, acting like an idiot. You will be funny, and 
you shall live for 20 years."

The monkey responded, "Lord, to live 20 years as the clown of the world 
is too much. Please, Lord, give me no than 10 years." 

And it was so. 

Finally, God created Man and told him, "You are Man, the only rational 
being that walks the earth. You will use your intelligence to have 
mastery over the creatures of the world. You will dominate the earth and 
live for 20 years." 

The man responded, "Lord, to be Man for only 20 years is too little. 
Please, Lord; give me the 20 years the mule refused, the 15 years the 
dog refused, and the 10 years the monkey rejected." 

And so God made Man to live 20 years as a man, then marry and live 20 
years like a mule working and carrying heavy loads on his back. Then, he 
is to have children and live 15 years as a dog, guarding his house and 
eating the leftovers after they empty the pantry; then, in his old age, 
to live 10 years as a monkey, acting like an idiot to amuse his 

And it is so ..


My cousin Eugene Sims sent me this one…. 

Subject: WHY MEN LIE 

One day, while a woodcutter was cutting a branch of a tree above a 
river, his axe fell into the river.

When he cried out, the Lord appeared and asked, "Why are you crying?"

The woodcutter replied that his axe has fallen into water, and he needed 
the axe to make his living.

The Lord went down into the water and reappeared with a golden axe. "Is 
this your axe?" the Lord asked.

The woodcutter replied, "No."

The Lord again went down and came up with a silver axe. "Is this your 
axe?" the Lord asked.

Again, the woodcutter replied, "No."

The Lord went down again and came up with an iron axe. "Is this your 
axe?" the Lord asked.

The woodcutter replied, "Yes."

The Lord was pleased with the man's honesty and gave him all three axes 
to keep, and the woodcutter went home happy. Some time later the 
woodcutter was walking with his wife along the riverbank, and his wife 
fell into the river. When he cried out, the Lord again! appeared and 
asked him, "Why are you crying?"

"Oh Lord, my wife has fallen into the water!"

The Lord went down into the water and came up with Jennifer Lopez. "Is 
this your wife?" the Lord asked.

"Yes," cried the woodcutter.

The Lord was furious. "You lied! That is an untruth!"

The woodcutter replied, "Oh, forgive me, my Lord. It is a 
misunderstanding. You see, if I had said 'no' to Jennifer Lopez, You 
would have come up with Catherine Zeta-Jones. Then if I also said 'no' 
to her, you would have come up with my wife. Had I then said 'yes,' you 
would have given me all three. Lord, I am a poor man, and am not able to 
take care of all three wives, so THAT'S why I said yes to Jennifer 

The moral of this story is: Whenever a man lies, it is for a good and 
honorable reason, and for the benefit of others.

That's our story, and we're sticking to it! 


From the Cherokee Nation Newsletter:

Spiritual Views and Traditions of the Cherokee
As reported by Rev. Buttrick and John Howard Payne in 1835 

An old man, nearly a hundred years old (1835) by the name of Kotiski 
says that, when a small boy, he used to listen to the conversation of 
two very aged men, who would sometimes sit up and talk nearly the whole 
night; and among other things they told were the following: At the 
townhouse meetings, the principal men called the people together at an 
early hour. No work was done except the women who brought food. The old 
men smoked. At usual breakfast time the victuals were brought by 
fourteen women previously appointed, seven of whom waited on the men and 
seven waited on the women. The priests sat on their appropriate white 
seats; other old men on seats near the middle of the house; other men 
and boys on seats to the right and the women and girls at the left. The 
victuals were set on the ground in dishes, before the several seats, and 
then the waiting women took their seats with the other females. The 
priest then arose and told the people that the Creator had given them 
food, and thay by partaking it, they would be refreshed and then told 
them to eat. The repast being ended, the fourteen women took away the 
dishes. The leader of the dances was then called forward. He arranged 
the company in single file; the leader followed by his wife, the next 
principal man and his wife, and so on, a man and his wife; or if a man 
had no wife, he was followed by a single female who was a near relative 
or of the same clan. This arrangement might form a number of circles in 
the house. Being thus arranged, while standing, the congregation was 
addressed by four priests successively. They occupied the white middle 
seat. The eldest arose and spoke, holding a white wing of a fowl by the 
right side of his face. Together with the various instructions he 
charged the people to love and be kind to one another. On concluding, 
the first took his seat, and handed the white wing to the one next him, 
and so on, till all four had spoken. The white wind was then hung in a 
sacred place over their heads. The dance then commenced. Towards 
evening, all being again seated, the same women who had provided 
breakfast now brought forward the dinner which was served as in the 
morning and the night wholly spent in dancing. None must sleep but the 
small children. On Monday morning, breakfast was brought and after 
eating, all retired to their houses. 


Here are some random historical events:

March 1, 1524: Giovanni da Verrazano, sailing for France, anchors near 
Wilmington, North Carolina, in the "Dauphine.” He kidnaps an Indian 
child they encounter to bring back to Europe. Some sources report this 
happening on March 7th.

March 2, 1889: The original confines of the Pine Ridge Indian 
Reservation are defined by an Act (25 Stat. L. 888) according to the 
Constitution of the Oglala Sioux Tribe of the Pine Ridge Indian 
Reservation. Section 11 of the Act which allocated lands to individual 
tribal members and provided that "the United States does and will hold 
the land thus located for a period of twenty-five years, in trust for 
the sole use and benefit of the Indian to whom such allotment shall have 
been made."

March 3, 1791: An Act of Congress gives the Kaskaskia Indians a 320-acre 
tract of land near the Kaskaskia township. 

March 4, 1541: Chickasaw Indians attack de Soto's forces. They set fire 
to the huts de Soto's men are using. Approximately twelve Spaniards are 
killed. They lose a considerable number of their horses, and livestock. 
The Chickasaw suffer only minimal losses. 

March 5, 1980: Harold Smith also known as the popular American Indian 
actor, Jay Silverheels died on this day. Silverheels was the first 
American Indian actor to have a star placed in Hollywood's Walk of Fame 
along Hollywood Boulevard. His middle name was Jay. Life for Jay Smith 
Silverheels - that is the name he legally adopted later - began on the 
Six Nations Indian Reserve in Ontario on May 26, 1919. Thanks to & National Native News 

March 6, 1836: On February 27, General Edmund Gaines' troops were forced 
into a battle on the Withlacoochee River, in central Florida, with the 
Seminoles. They have continued fighting until today when the Seminoles 
request a conference. While the talks are being held, General Duncan 
Clinch, and his troops arrive. These troops are a decisive force, and 
the battle break off and the Seminoles retreat. 

March 7, 1539: Mexican Viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza has decided to 
send an expedition to search for wealthy cities north of Mexico. Friar 
Marcos de Niza leaves from Culiacan today. He will “discover” Cibola, 
although he never sets foot in the pueblo. His report will lead to 
future expeditions looking for the “Seven Cities of Gold.”

March 8, 1782: Monrovian missionaries have converted many Delaware, 
Mahican, and Munsee Indians to Christianity. They have established 
villages in Pennsylvania in 1746, but move them to the Muskingum River 
in Ohio in 1773 after their old villages are attacked by other Indian 
tribes. Unfortunately, at the outbreak of the American Revolutionary 
war, the “Moravian” Indians found themselves directly between American 
and British forces, and their allies. Both sides believe the “Moravians” 
are helping the other. Today, Colonel David Williamson, and American 
soldiers from Pennsylvania, surround the peaceful village of 
Gnadenhutten (the second village of the name, the first had been in 
Pennsylvania), and herd the occupants into two houses. While some of the 
militia refused to participate, the majority of the soldiers decide to 
kill all of the “Moravians.” After allowing them to have a final prayer, 
the soldiers kill the ninety-six Indian men, women, and children in cold 
blood. (Some sources say this happens on the 7th.)

March 9, 1768: According to some sources, Shawnee Pucksinwah's third 
child, Tecumseh (The Panther Passing Across) is born. His mother is 
Methotasa (A Turtle Laying Her Eggs in the Sand).

March 10, 1760: The Mi’kmaq of Richibuto and Mouscadaboet sign a treaty 
with the British of Nova Scotia.

March 11, 431: Palenque Maya Lord Bahlum - Kuk ascends the throne 
according to the museum at Palenque.

March 12, 1771: Spaniards under Father Junipero Serra begin construction 
of the Presidio (or fort) in what becomes San Diego, California. It is 
built on the bluffs above the Kumeyaay village of Cosoy. 

March 13, 1857: The Senate rejects six different treaties made with 
Indians of the American Southwest.
March 14, 1697: The last of the independent Maya tribes, called the 
Itza, are finally conquered by the Spanish. The Spanish attack and 
defeat the Itza at their capital city of Tayasal, Guatemala. 

March 15, 1697: The northwestern Massachusetts town of Haverhill is 
attacked by Abenaki Indians. Hannah Dustin, her newborn child, and their 
nurse are among the captives. While leaving the area, an Indian kills 
the child for fear its crying will give them away. In one of the most 
famous escapes of the era, Dustin bided her time for a month and a half. 
Finally seeing their opportunity, Dustin and the nurse kill all of their 
sleeping captors with an ax, except an old woman, and a child. Dustin, 
brings back her captors' scalps, for which she is paid twenty-five 
pounds by the Massachusetts Government. 

March 16, 1700: According to records kept by French missionaries, 
lightning strikes the temple in the Taensa village on Lake Saint Joseph 
near modern Newellton, Louisiana. The temple catches fire. The tribal 
shaman tell the women of the tribe to throw their small children into 
the fire to appease the angry god who started the fire. French priest 
Francois Joliet de Montigny attempts to stop the women. 

March 17, 1830: Members of the Choctaw "rump" council, sign a treaty 
selling Choctaw lands, and agreeing to moving west. The paper eventually 
goes to Washington, along with protests from the "non-rump" Indians. The 
treaty does not get Senate approval. 

March 18, 1837: As a part of the treaty signed on March 6th, Seminole 
Chief Mikanopy surrenders to General Jesup. He is prepared to move to 
the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). 

March 19, 1885: Louis Riel’s Metis establishes a government at Batoche. 
They also declare themselves independent from Canada. This is a 
significant event in “Riel’s Rebellion.”

March 20, 1699: Continuing his exploration up the Mississippi River, 
French explorer Pierre le Moyne d'Iberville visits the village of the 
Houma Indians. 

March 21, 1873: General Canby decides not to wait for the Modocs to meet 
him and the peace commissioners at Fairchild Ranch. Instead, he leads a 
small detachment to Captain Jack's lava bed stronghold. Jack agrees to 
meet Canby and they discuss several matters. Canby promises to treat the 
Modocs well if they come out of the lava beds. Captain Jack asks the 
soldiers to leave, because all they want is to continue their normal 
lives. With no headway being made on either side, the meeting breaks up. 

March 22, 1803: On March 12th, the American fur-trading ship “Boston” 
anchored in Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island. The crew began trading 
with the Nootka Indians. Today, the ship’s captain insults a Nootka 
Chief. The Nootka attack the ship’s crew. Only two crew members survive.

March 23, 1859: Fort Stockton, in west Texas, is established on the San 
Antonio-El Paso road where it crosses the Comanche war trail. The fort 
is named in honor of Commodore Robert Stockton, "who captured California 
for the United States". The fort is abandoned by U.S. Army troops, 
during the Civil War, until 1867. It is permanently abandoned on June 
30, 1886. 

March 24, 706: As part of a series of attacks on neighboring cities in 
Guatemala, Maya warriors from Naranjo attack Yootz.

March 25, 1839: Peter Hilderbrand, and 1,312 of his original group of 
1,776 forced Cherokee emigrants arrive in the Indian Territory (present 
day Oklahoma). This is the last of the major groups of arriving 
Cherokees in the Indian Territory. The migration is called "the Trail of 
Tears.” Although figures vary according to the source, it is believed 
almost 12,000 Cherokees survived the emigration. Almost 4,000 died 
during the move. 

March 26, 1676: The English attack Chief Canonchet, and his Narraganset 
followers, at Patuxet. Many of the English are killed in the fighting. 

March 27, 1756: Lieutenant Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Lééry is 
leading a force of 251 Canadians and 103 Iroquois, Abenaki and Nepissing 
Indians. They attack the British garrison of seventy soldiers at Fort 
Bull (also called Wood Creek Fort) near modern Rome, New York. All but 
twenty-eight of the soldiers are killed in the fighting. Knowing 
reinforcements will soon be arriving from nearby Fort William, Lééry 
leaves soon after destroying most of the fort’s supplies. Due to the 
vicious nature of the fighting, the British call this the “Massacre at 
Fort Bull.”        

March 28, 1833: Several Seminoles have been sent to Indian Territory 
(present day Oklahoma) to look over the areas proposed as their new 
lands. The Seminoles in Indian Territory were only sent to look at the 
land, but the government has them sign an agreement that the land is 
adequate, and to commit the Seminoles to removal. The agreement is 
signed at Fort Gibson, in western Oklahoma and is called the Fort Gibson 
Treaty (7 stat. 423). The Payne's Landing Treaty (7 stat. 368) of May 9, 
1832 stated the Seminoles have to be satisfied with the report of the 
delegation to Indian Territory, before they agree to move. The 
government words the new agreement so that the Seminoles in Florida do 
not get to discuss the matter. While the Seminole delegation is 
satisfied with the lands, and being with their former kin, the Creeks, 
they are not satisfied with the proximity of the belligerent plains 
Indians. Upon the return of the delegation to Florida, the Seminole 
Nation repudiates the agreement, with the exception of John Blunt, and 
his Apalachicola followers. The enforcement of this illegal treaty by 
the American government leads to the start of the Second Seminole War. 

March 29, 1542: Hernando de Soto's expedition reaches the territory of 
the Anilco Indians. As with many of his previous encounters, a battle is 

March 30, 1824: Southern officials feel that the U.S. government should 
remove the Indians from their states. Georgia asks President James 
Monroe to remove the Indians based on an agreement whereby Georgia 
released western lands it claimed, to the United States. Monroe says the 
U.S. government is not required to do so, "Indian title was in no way 
affected by the compact with Georgia." 

March 31, 1885: According to the Oklahoma Law Enforcement Memorial, 
Captain Thomas Cloud and Officer Sam Cudgo, are part of a Seminole 
Lighthorse posse. On Mar29, the posse attempted to arrest Rector Roberts 
when he barricaded himself in a hut and opens fire on the posse. The 
first shot hits Officer Cudgo in the stomach and the next bullet strikes 
Captain Cloud in the left leg. The rest of the posse returns fire and 
kills Roberts. Officer Cudgo dies within the hour on March 29th. Captain 
Cloud dies today.


That’s it for now. Stay safe,


End of the March 2004 Newsletter – 

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