March 2003 Newsletter Part 2 from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2002)

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  Start of the March 2003 Newsletter - Part 2

  Greetings (O'siyo in Cherokee),

  It took me a couple of days longer than I planned to get this half of 
  the newsletter out. Sorry about that....

  I got a bit too busy to do justice to my look at the movie The Doe Boy. 
  So, that will come in the next newsletter.


  If you have the time, I would appreciate your help on a project. I am 
  compiling a list of the enrollment requirements for as many tribes as I 
  can find. I have them for the Cherokee and the Yaqui. If you know of any 
  others, please let me know what they are. For example, a blood quantum 
  (if you have one), must live in a certain area, be a direct blood 
  relation of someone on a tribal roll, speak the tribal language, etc. 
  For my branch of the Cherokee Nation, you must be a direct blood 
  relative of someone on the official rolls taken around 1900. You must 
  get a "Certified Degree of Indian Blood" card from the BIA. There is no 
  blood quantum, and you do not have to live near the tribal headquarters. 
  There are two other federally recognized Cherokee Tribes. For the 
  Eastern Band Of Cherokee Indians it is (and I quote): direct lineal 
  ancestor must appear on the 1924 Baker Roll of the Eastern Band of 
  Cherokee Indians. Blood Quantum: must possess at least 1/16th degree of 
  Eastern Cherokee blood. For the Keetoowah (and I quote): Today, in order 
  to be a member of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in 
  Oklahoma, individual Cherokee Indians must be at least one-quarter 
  Cherokee Indian blood and be a descendant of an individual on the 
  (certified) 1949 roll or the final rolls of the Cherokee Nation, which 
  were closed in 1907. 



  Lone Ranger and Tonto Jokes & rhymes (you'll see why later):

  The Lone Ranger tells Tonto that he is going into town to see the widow 
  Jones. The masked man asks Tonto to guard their silver mile. Tonto says: 
  "As usual, Lone Ranger gets the woman, and Tonto gets the shaft.

  Hi-ho silver, everywhere
  Tonto lost his underware
  Tonto say, "me no care,
  Lone Ranger buy me streamlined pair."

  The Lone Ranger and Tonto are camping in the prairie. They awaken to the 
  sounds of rustling in the nearby mesquite. They look to the west, and 
  there are over 100 Comanche wearing war paint. To the south are over 200 
  Apache warriors. To the north is a large band of Cheyenne who are on the 
  war path. To the east are another hundred angry Pawnees. The Lone Ranger 
  says to Tonto: "Well, Tonto, we are surrounded. This looks like the end 
  of us." Tonto replies: "what do you mean by us, white man."


  Here are a few more posts from subscribers to the newsletter:

  Thanks to Jason Spaulding:


  Web-accessible at:

  Argued December 2, 2002 -- Decided March 4, 2003
  Opinion author: Ginsburg


  Board of Directors 

  After reviewing our records,the Native American Journalists Association 
  has found that we do , indeed, have one vacancy on the board of 
  directors coming up this year in June, 2003.

  This job offers no pay, long hours but a whole lot of personal 
  satisfaction and a real chance to make a difference. NAJA members 
  interested in running for the board must declare their candidacy by 
  April 30, 2003 to the NAJA office. Declarations may be sent via, email, 
  fax or mail and must include the candidates name, complete contact 
  information and place of employment. Declarations should also include a 
  short bio and reasons for running as well as potential contributions 
  that candidates hope to make to the organization. Terms are for three 
  Native American Journalists Association
  U of S. Dakota
  414 E. Clark St
  Vermillion, SD 57069
  866-694-4264 fax 

  Candidates must be at least 18 years old and working journalists who 
  earn at least 51% of their income from journalism. (Journalism educators 
  and journalism students are exempt). A journalist is someone who works 
  in the gathering, writing, editing, publishing, photographing and 
  dissemination of news through, but not limited to, a newspaper, 
  magazine, radio, television station or web publication owned and 
  operated by a news media outlet. In addition, EXPERIENCE IN FINANCIAL 
  Candidates must be NAJA members in good standing. Only one person per 
  publication or medium shall serve on the board.

  NAJA Board of Directors Duties and Responsibilities

  1. Perhaps the most important responsibilities of board service are 
  understanding and participating in the fiduciary and legal 
  responsibilities as the governing body of NAJA and ensuring that these 
  requirements are met. 

  2. Attend meetings and participate in conference calls. Prepare for 
  meetings by reading and understanding material sent to them beforehand 
  by staff and executive committee. There are two in-person meetings per 
  year, the fall retreat and the convention and approximately 10 one-hour 
  teleconference meetings. The president will establish a meeting schedule 
  with input of board members. Any member of the board of directors for 
  NAJA may be removed from office for failure to attend three (3) duly 
  called meetings. NAJA Charter Article IX Section 5. Board members are 
  also expected to serve actively on committees, attend the annual 
  conference and other NAJA events.

  3. Board members will be alert to any actual or implied conflicts of 
  interest, and will notify the NAJA president or executive committee of 
  any conflict. Board members are expected to sign an agreement to this 
  effect upon election which also includes a commitment to contribute 
  financially at a level appropriate for them to NAJA.

  4. Board members fully approve the mission, goals, objectives, programs 
  and services of NAJA as an organization dedicated to promoting Native 
  American communications and its practioners.

  5. Board members should have support from their employers in the form of 
  time and expenses related to NAJA board service. Board members are 
  responsible for all expenses related to board service, however members 
  may request help with travel, lodging and related expenses from the 
  board in the form of a written request. Approval is based on need and 
  funds available. 

  NAJA Election Process

  Voting eligibility is open to individual and student members of the 
  Native American Journalists Association. Current members are eligible to 

  Members are required to provide a photo ID and a search of those 
  individuals will be done with the membership list. Those individual and 
  student members identified by the list are eligible to vote.

  Any individual eligibility concerns will be addressed to Keith 
  Skenandore, chair of the election committee, the committee will make a 
  final determination of eligibility.

  Thanks to Julie Marz:

  Subject: opening for Resource Teacher Specialist

  Salem-Keizer School District is advertising for a Teacher Resource 
  Specialist to serve as the coordinator of the Indian Education Program. 
  This person must have a valid Oregon teaching certificate, and three 
  years of teaching experience as a classroom teacher or equivalent in 
  experience in working with Native youth. Applicant must have knowledge 
  of the needs of Native American students, and of community, agency, and 
  other resources available to help them. Vision and strong sense of 
  purpose are desirable. Preference will be given to Native American 
  Applicants. The program serves K through 12th grade, and includes school 
  year tutoring, summer school, Native American Leadership Academy, and 
  cultural activities. Position opens February 3 and will remain open 
  until filled. All out-of-district applicants must use the Salem-Keizer 
  website at to submit an application.


  Scholar sought for reference book on Native American literature

  Publication Deadline: 2003-05-01 
  Date Submitted: 2003-02-24 
  Announcement ID: 132863 

  A scholar is sought to write a substantial reference book on Native 
  American literature. The audience will comprise high school and college 
  students, scholars, teachers, librarians, and general readers. 

  The ideal candidate will have a PhD in Native American studies, 
  literature, or another relevant field; a good knowledge of the topic; 
  the ability to write for a broad audience; and time over the next one to 
  two years to write the book. Publications in the field are desirable but 
  not essential. 

  The author will receive a royalty contract and a modest advance. 

  Interested scholars should send a c.v. and, if available, one or two 
  short writing samples. 

  Henry Rasof 
  Consulting Editor 
  116 Monarch St 
  Louisville, CO 80027 
  Phone:(303) 664-0183


  - Box 5653
  + Flagstaff, AZ 86011 
  ( 928.523.9648 
  7 928.523.8855

  From Arigon Starr:

  I'm in the cast of "The Buz'Gem Blues" here in Hollywood. Acting. For 
  money! With Michael Horse!

  First of all, for those of you who don't speak Ojibway (there might be 
  one or two of you), "Buz'Gem," pronounced Buzz-Gum, means boyfriend or 
  girlfriend. The play is a romantic comedy from Drew Hayden Taylor, an 
  award-winning Canadian-Ojibway playwright. If you're wondering if you 
  can find love at an Elders' Conference, "The Buz'Gem Blues" will answer 
  all of your questions.

  Produced by Native Voices at the Autry, the "Buz'Gem Blues" opens for 
  previews this Thursday, March 6th and Friday, March 7th. The gala 
  opening takes place on Saturday, March 8th in the Wells Fargo Theater. 
  Times and ticket information are listed below.

  In a surprising twist -- I will also be appearing at the Autry Museum of 
  Western Heritage for a full-on concert on Sunday, March 23rd at 1:00 PM. 
  The show is free with museum admission.

  My understudy (Mary Cordova) is absolutely thrilled. March 23rd is the 
  last performance of "Buz'Gem Blues" -- and she'll get to step into my 
  acting shoes so I can do my music gig. Isn't that cool?

  Thanks again for enjoying my music. I am absolutely having the time of 
  my life. It's only a matter of time until I'm doing my Native-themed 
  movie with George Clooney. Aaay!


  Here are some random historical events:

  March 1, 1524: Giovanni da Verrazano, sailing for France, anchors near 
  Wilmington, North Carolina, in the "Dauphine.” He kidnaps an Indian 
  child they encounter to bring back to Europe. Some sources report this 
  happening on March 7th.

  March 2, 1889: The original confines of the Pine Ridge Indian 
  Reservation are defined by an Act (25 Stat. L. 888) according to the 
  Constitution of the Oglala Sioux Tribe of the Pine Ridge Indian 
  Reservation. Section 11 of the Act which allocated lands to individual 
  tribal members and provided that "the United States does and will hold 
  the land thus located for a period of twenty-five years, in trust for 
  the sole use and benefit of the Indian to whom such allotment shall have 
  been made."

  March 3, 1791: An Act of Congress gives the Kaskaskia Indians a 320-acre 
  tract of land near the Kaskaskia township. 

  March 4, 1541: Chickasaw Indians attack de Soto's forces. They set fire 
  to the huts de Soto's men are using. Approximately twelve Spaniards are 
  killed. They lose a considerable number of their horses, and livestock. 
  The Chickasaw suffer only minimal losses. 

  March 5, 1980: Harold Smith also known as the popular American Indian 
  actor, Jay Silverheels died on this day. Silverheels was the first 
  American Indian actor to have a star placed in Hollywood's Walk of Fame 
  along Hollywood Boulevard. His middle name was Jay. Life for Jay Smith 
  Silverheels - that is the name he legally adopted later - began on the 
  Six Nations Indian Reserve in Ontario on May 26, 1919. Thanks to & National Native News 

  March 6, 1836: On February 27, General Edmund Gaines' troops were forced 
  into a battle on the Withlacoochee River, in central Florida, with the 
  Seminoles. They have continued fighting until today when the Seminoles 
  request a conference. While the talks are being held, General Duncan 
  Clinch, and his troops arrive. These troops are a decisive force, and 
  the battle break off and the Seminoles retreat. 

  March 7, 1539: Mexican Viceroy Don Antonio de Mendoza has decided to 
  send an expedition to search for wealthy cities north of Mexico. Friar 
  Marcos de Niza leaves from Culiacan today. He will “discover” Cibola, 
  although he never sets foot in the pueblo. His report will lead to 
  future expeditions looking for the “Seven Cities of Gold.”

  March 8, 1782: Monrovian missionaries have converted many Delaware, 
  Mahican, and Munsee Indians to Christianity. They have established 
  villages in Pennsylvania in 1746, but move them to the Muskingum River 
  in Ohio in 1773 after their old villages are attacked by other Indian 
  tribes. Unfortunately, at the outbreak of the American Revolutionary 
  war, the “Moravian” Indians found themselves directly between American 
  and British forces, and their allies. Both sides believe the “Moravians” 
  are helping the other. Today, Colonel David Williamson, and American 
  soldiers from Pennsylvania, surround the peaceful village of 
  Gnadenhutten (the second village of the name, the first had been in 
  Pennsylvania), and herd the occupants into two houses. While some of the 
  militia refused to participate, the majority of the soldiers decide to 
  kill all of the “Moravians.” After allowing them to have a final prayer, 
  the soldiers kill the ninety-six Indian men, women, and children in cold 
  blood. (Some sources say this happens on the 7th.)

  March 9, 1768: According to some sources, Shawnee Pucksinwah's third 
  child, Tecumseh (The Panther Passing Across) is born. His mother is 
  Methotasa (A Turtle Laying Her Eggs in the Sand).

  March 10, 1760: The Mi’kmaq of Richibuto and Mouscadaboet sign a treaty 
  with the British of Nova Scotia.

  March 11, 431: Palenque Maya Lord Bahlum - Kuk ascends the throne 
  according to the museum at Palenque.

  March 12, 1771: Spaniards under Father Junipero Serra begin construction 
  of the Presidio (or fort) in what becomes San Diego, California. It is 
  built on the bluffs above the Kumeyaay village of Cosoy. 

  March 13, 1857: The Senate rejects six different treaties made with 
  Indians of the American Southwest.
  March 14, 1697: The last of the independent Maya tribes, called the 
  Itza, are finally conquered by the Spanish. The Spanish attack and 
  defeat the Itza at their capital city of Tayasal, Guatemala. 

  March 15, 1697: The northwestern Massachusetts town of Haverhill is 
  attacked by Abenaki Indians. Hannah Dustin, her newborn child, and their 
  nurse are among the captives. While leaving the area, an Indian kills 
  the child for fear its crying will give them away. In one of the most 
  famous escapes of the era, Dustin bided her time for a month and a half. 
  Finally seeing their opportunity, Dustin and the nurse kill all of their 
  sleeping captors with an ax, except an old woman, and a child. Dustin, 
  brings back her captors' scalps, for which she is paid twenty-five 
  pounds by the Massachusetts Government. 

  March 16, 1700: According to records kept by French missionaries, 
  lightning strikes the temple in the Taensa village on Lake Saint Joseph 
  near modern Newellton, Louisiana. The temple catches fire. The tribal 
  shaman tell the women of the tribe to throw their small children into 
  the fire to appease the angry god who started the fire. French priest 
  Francois Joliet de Montigny attempts to stop the women. 

  March 17, 1830: Members of the Choctaw "rump" council, sign a treaty 
  selling Choctaw lands, and agreeing to moving west. The paper eventually 
  goes to Washington, along with protests from the "non-rump" Indians. The 
  treaty does not get Senate approval. 

  March 18, 1837: As a part of the treaty signed on March 6th, Seminole 
  Chief Mikanopy surrenders to General Jesup. He is prepared to move to 
  the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). 

  March 19, 1885: Louis Riel’s Metis establishes a government at Batoche. 
  They also declare themselves independent from Canada. This is a 
  significant event in “Riel’s Rebellion.”

  March 20, 1699: Continuing his exploration up the Mississippi River, 
  French explorer Pierre le Moyne d'Iberville visits the village of the 
  Houma Indians. 

  March 21, 1873: General Canby decides not to wait for the Modocs to meet 
  him and the peace commissioners at Fairchild Ranch. Instead, he leads a 
  small detachment to Captain Jack's lava bed stronghold. Jack agrees to 
  meet Canby and they discuss several matters. Canby promises to treat the 
  Modocs well if they come out of the lava beds. Captain Jack asks the 
  soldiers to leave, because all they want is to continue their normal 
  lives. With no headway being made on either side, the meeting breaks up. 

  March 22, 1803: On March 12th, the American fur-trading ship “Boston” 
  anchored in Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island. The crew began trading 
  with the Nootka Indians. Today, the ship’s captain insults a Nootka 
  Chief. The Nootka attack the ship’s crew. Only two crew members survive.

  March 23, 1859: Fort Stockton, in west Texas, is established on the San 
  Antonio-El Paso road where it crosses the Comanche war trail. The fort 
  is named in honor of Commodore Robert Stockton, "who captured California 
  for the United States". The fort is abandoned by U.S. Army troops, 
  during the Civil War, until 1867. It is permanently abandoned on June 
  30, 1886. 

  March 24, 706: As part of a series of attacks on neighboring cities in 
  Guatemala, Maya warriors from Naranjo attack Yootz.

  March 25, 1839: Peter Hilderbrand, and 1,312 of his original group of 
  1,776 forced Cherokee emigrants arrive in the Indian Territory (present 
  day Oklahoma). This is the last of the major groups of arriving 
  Cherokees in the Indian Territory. The migration is called "the Trail of 
  Tears.” Although figures vary according to the source, it is believed 
  almost 12,000 Cherokees survived the emigration. Almost 4,000 died 
  during the move. 

  March 26, 1676: The English attack Chief Canonchet, and his Narraganset 
  followers, at Patuxet. Many of the English are killed in the fighting. 

  March 27, 1756: Lieutenant Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Lééry is 
  leading a force of 251 Canadians and 103 Iroquois, Abenaki and Nepissing 
  Indians. They attack the British garrison of seventy soldiers at Fort 
  Bull (also called Wood Creek Fort) near modern Rome, New York. All but 
  twenty-eight of the soldiers are killed in the fighting. Knowing 
  reinforcements will soon be arriving from nearby Fort William, Lééry 
  leaves soon after destroying most of the fort’s supplies. Due to the 
  vicious nature of the fighting, the British call this the “Massacre at 
  Fort Bull.”        

  March 28, 1833: Several Seminoles have been sent to Indian Territory 
  (present day Oklahoma) to look over the areas proposed as their new 
  lands. The Seminoles in Indian Territory were only sent to look at the 
  land, but the government has them sign an agreement that the land is 
  adequate, and to commit the Seminoles to removal. The agreement is 
  signed at Fort Gibson, in western Oklahoma and is called the Fort Gibson 
  Treaty (7 stat. 423). The Payne's Landing Treaty (7 stat. 368) of May 9, 
  1832 stated the Seminoles have to be satisfied with the report of the 
  delegation to Indian Territory, before they agree to move. The 
  government words the new agreement so that the Seminoles in Florida do 
  not get to discuss the matter. While the Seminole delegation is 
  satisfied with the lands, and being with their former kin, the Creeks, 
  they are not satisfied with the proximity of the belligerent plains 
  Indians. Upon the return of the delegation to Florida, the Seminole 
  Nation repudiates the agreement, with the exception of John Blunt, and 
  his Apalachicola followers. The enforcement of this illegal treaty by 
  the American government leads to the start of the Second Seminole War. 

  March 29, 1542: Hernando de Soto's expedition reaches the territory of 
  the Anilco Indians. As with many of his previous encounters, a battle is 

  March 30, 1824: Southern officials feel that the U.S. government should 
  remove the Indians from their states. Georgia asks President James 
  Monroe to remove the Indians based on an agreement whereby Georgia 
  released western lands it claimed, to the United States. Monroe says the 
  U.S. government is not required to do so, "Indian title was in no way 
  affected by the compact with Georgia." 

  March 31, 1885: According to the Oklahoma Law Enforcement Memorial, 
  Captain Thomas Cloud and Officer Sam Cudgo, are part of a Seminole 
  Lighthorse posse. On Mar29, the posse attempted to arrest Rector Roberts 
  when he barricaded himself in a hut and opens fire on the posse. The 
  first shot hits Officer Cudgo in the stomach and the next bullet strikes 
  Captain Cloud in the left leg. The rest of the posse returns fire and 
  kills Roberts. Officer Cudgo dies within the hour on March 29th. Captain 
  Cloud dies today.


  That's it for the second half of this month's newsletter. Have a great 
  and safe month,


  p.s., anything below the next line is an ad for the company which allows 
  me to distribute the newsletter for free...

  End of the March 2003 Newsletter - Part 2


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