March 2002 Newsletter from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2002)

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                March 2002 Newsletter 
                Phil Konstantin 
  Start of March 2002 Newsletter
  Greetings, this newsletter will be a return to the normal format. After 
  a great deal of work, I have moved all of my files to a new computer 
  system. This has been a very tedious task. I have finally had some time 
  to start checking my links pages for accuracy. I am now mostly through 
  updating the "Arts, Music and Photography" links page.

  One of the changes you will notice is that there are fewer links pages. 
  However, each page has more links on it that before. Now you do not have 
  to go to a N-P section of a links page to look for a page which starts 
  with a N. The one draw back to this is that each page is much longer 
  now. It will take a bit longer for each page to load. I hope this is not 
  too much of a problem for you.

  Another change on the website is in the "Dates" section. Now I post an 
  entire month of events on one page. I have reduced the number of events 
  for each day, though.

  The U.S. Census Bureau has put out some more information from the 2000 
  census. I often mention that I am a proud member of the Cherokee Nation. 
  In the 2000 census, more people listed themselves as Cherokee than any 
  other tribal group. This leads to some debate among people who care 
  about such things. I know many people who are proud of the little amount 
  of "Indian blood" they have. Some Indians get a bit annoyed at all of 
  the "white people" who claim to be Indian. How many of you have heard 
  "you don't look it" when you say you are Indian? My family only knows of 
  one photo of my grandfather, George Adair. He was almost full blooded 
  Cherokee. You can see his picture here: . He does not look like the 
  stereotypical movie Indian, either. Neither does my 
  great-great-grandfaher John Bell Adair. His picture is here: . Before 
  you can join most tribes, you must prove your tribal anscestry to the 
  Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). This is the highly debated "blood 
  quantum" level. Most tribes require that you have at least a 1/4 blood 
  line to be an official tribal member. The Cherokee Nation, unlike many 
  other tribes, will accept people of any blood quantum level, as long as 
  you have been recognized as a Cherokee by the BIA. Some people feel this 
  "diluted membership" is inappropriate. Others feel that any "brother or 
  sister" is welcome. I am 3/16th Cherokee, just under the 1/4 level for 
  most tribes. This is because my grandfather was listed on the Dawes 
  Rolls as being 3/4 Cherokee. But, being Cherokee, I am an "official" 
  tribal member because I could prove this to the the BIA (even though it 
  took 40 years to do it). 

  I can understand both sides of the "who is a real Indian" issue. I tend 
  to fall into the camp of the "what is in your heart" side of the debate. 
  A friend is a little over 1/2 Pomo, a California tribe. There was a move 
  to require that all Pomo tribal members be at least 1/2 Pomo. My friend 
  reminded them that due to the dwindling number of "purebred" Pomos, this 
  rule would eliminate almost all of the tribal members under 40 years of 
  age. For the Cherokees, I usually mention Chief John Ross. He is perhaps 
  the most famous "historical" Cherokee chief. He led the tribe during the 
  trying times before, during and after the Trail of Tears. Most people 
  don't know it, but he was only 1/8th Cherokee by blood. So, I have more 
  Cherokee blood than the most famous Cherokee chief. Does that make me 
  more Cherokee than Chief Ross? Hardly. One of the reasons for this 
  debate is that some tribe pay out annuities to their members. These were 
  most commonly from old treaties. In some cases, you could get a free 
  education if you were a certain percentage Indian. Now, with some tribes 
  finally making some money through "tribal gaming operations," being a 
  member of the tribe has become more important to some people.

  The link below is to an article which lists details about how many 
  people listed themselves as American Indians or Alaska Natives in the 
  U.S. census of 2000. It is in the Adobe Acrobat format.

  If you do not have Acrobat Reader, you can get it for free here:

  (This is not an endorse of Acrobat, you just have to have it to read 
  some documents.)

  Featured Link of the Month for March 2002:

  Indian Trust: Cobell v. Babbitt at"

  This website documents the effort to get the U.S. federal government to 
  properly handle funds being held "in trust" for American Indians. It is 
  a real education.

  Here are some interesting articles which appeared in February:
  "Indian Giving by Chris Lombardi, The Nation"
  Oneida land deal will stand, Pataki says


  This month's "Treaty of the Month" is the Grand River Band of Ute treaty 
  of March 2, 1868. It covers boundaries, reservations, lots of rules, 
  laws and requirement for both sides. You can find a copy at:


  I received the following e-mail. If you know of any groups which might 
  be interested, Nellie's e-mail address is at the end of the letter...

  "Hi Phil,

  My brother and son have purchased the Mt. Maria ski lodge at Hubbard 
  Lake, Mi. northeast section of the state) They are restoring the face of 
  the Mt. to its natural setting (planting trees, removing the ski 
  equipment, etc.) and developing a scenic look-out at the top of the Mt. 
  overlooking the lake and displaying the area's historical information. 
  Additionally, they have converted the ski lodge into a resturant lodge.

  They are hoping to locate a group of local native americans who would be 
  willing to come to the lodge the weekend of June 8th, 2002 to hold a pow 
  wow, set up a teepee and tables/booths with native crafts and or 

  Would you know of such a group and how we may get in touch with them? 
  Any information will be appreciated.

  Thank you,

  Here are some random historical events for March:

  March 1, 1793: Congress passes "An Act to Regulate Trade and Intercourse 
  with the Indian Tribes." It also passes "An Act Making An Appropriation 
  to Defray the Expense of a Treaty With the Indians Northwest of the 

  March 2, 1868: The Seven Bands of Ute treaty (15 stat. 619) is signed in 
  Washington, D. C. 

  March 3, 1820: The Miíkmaq Afton First Nation reserve of Pomquet - Afton 
  is established in Nova Scotia. The Bear River First Nation reserve of 
  Bear River is also established. 

  March 4, 1870: Louis Rielís Metis have taken over the government in the 
  Red River Colony. They execute Thomas Scott for "taking up arms" against 
  Rielís government. This execution helps to speed up an expedition 
  against Rielís Metis.

  March 5, 1861: The Confederacy appoints Albert Pike, of Arkansas, to 
  negotiate treaties with the Indians in the region. He establishes the 
  "United Nations of the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma)" as an 
  Indian confederacy to oppose the government of Abraham Lincoln. 

  March 6, 501: Maya King Ahkal Mo' Naab' I ascends to the throne in 
  Palenque, Mexico

  March 7, 1524: Giovanni da Verrazano, sailing for France, anchors near 
  Wilmington, North Carolina, in the "Dauphine." He kidnaps a child they 
  encounter to bring back to Europe. Some sources report this happening on 
  March 1st.

  March 8, 1857: Inkpaduta, and a little over a dozen Wapekutah Sioux 
  warriors, attack a series of settlements in northwestern Iowa along 
  Spirit Lake. As many as forty settlers are killed.

  March 9, 1805: The Grand Chief of Minnetarees visits Lewis and Clark. 

  March 10, 1957: The Dalles Dam floods sacred fishing areas on the 
  Columbia River

  March 11, 1848: As a part of the Cayuse War, a fight takes place . 
  Captain McKay, and a force 268, are ambushed by approximately 400 
  Palouse. The Palouse are allied to the Cayuse. 

  March 12, 1798: According to Hudsonís Bay Company records, two Kootenay 
  Indians arrived at Edmonton House in Canada. The Indians made their way 
  through the Rockies during to winter to seek trade.

  March 13, 1864: The first group of Navajos finish the "Long Walk" to 
  Fort Sumner on the Bosque Redondo Reservation, in east-central New 
  Mexico. During their march, thirteen of the 1,430 who started the trip 
  are kidnaped by Mexicans or die. 

  March 14, 1697: The last of the independent Maya tribes, called the 
  Itza, are finally conquered by the Spanish. The Spanish attack and 
  defeat the Itza at their capital city of Tayasal, Guatemala. 

  March 15, 1869: Colonel George Custer, and his troops discovers two 
  Cheyenne villages, of over 250 lodges, on Sweetwater Creek near the 
  Texas-Oklahoma boundary. The Cheyenne have been order to report to their 
  reservation. Custer captures four Chiefs. He threatens to hang the Chief 
  unless the Cheyenne surrender. Both of the villages decide to give up. 

  March 16, 1621: Samoset meets the Pilgrims. 

  March 17, 1853: Joel Palmer becomes superintendent of Indian Affairs in 
  Oregon . He guides the creation of the Oregon Indian reservations. 

  March 18, 1877: The "Battle of Yellow House Canyon" takes place near 
  modern Lubbock, Texas. It involves over 150 Quahadi Comanches led by 
  Black Horse, and about fifty local hunters. Black Horse had killed a 
  buffalo hunter who had shot and killed a large number of buffalo in the 
  area. Black Horse is infuriated by the slaughter of his tribeís economic 
  mainstay. The buffalo hunters sneak up on Black Horseís camp and attack 
  it in retaliation for the killing of the hunter. Some sources list this 
  as the last significant Indian fights in the Texas panhandle. 

  March 19, 1851: According to the Costan internet site, one in a series 
  of treaties with California Indians is signed at Camp Fremont. These 
  treaties purports to set aside lands for the Indians and to protect them 
  from angry whites. The Americans are represented by George W. Barbour, 
  Redick McKee and Oliver M. Wozencraft. 

  March 20, 1699: Continuing his exploration up the Mississippi River, 
  French explorer Pierre le Moyne d'Iberville visits the village of the 
  Houma Indians. 

  March 21, 1842: General Zachary Taylor estimates that by this date, 
  2,833 Seminoles have relocated to the Indian Territory (present day 

  March 22, 1622: Opechancanough is Chief of the Pamunkey Indians. They 
  are part of the Powhatan Confederacy. They attack the English today, 
  Good Friday, at Jamestown. An Indian, named Chanco, warns his 
  step-father, Richard Pace, of the impending attack. While the town is 
  warned, the outer settlements suffer the brunt of the attack. 347 of the 
  1,240 English are killed in the fighting. This is the first large 
  "massacre" by Indians in North America. 

  March 23, 1889: President Benjamin Harrison says part of Oklahoma will 
  be opened to the public. 

  March 24, 1617: King James I, of England, decides the Indians of 
  Virginia must be educated. He directs the Anglican church to collect 
  funds to build churches and schools. 

  March 25, 1839: Peter Hilderbrand, and 1,312 of his original group of 
  1,776 forced Cherokee emigrants arrive in the Indian Territory (present 
  day Oklahoma). This is the last of the major groups of arriving 
  Cherokees in the Indian Territory. The migration is called "the Trail of 
  Tears." Although figures vary according to the source, it is believed 
  almost 12,000 Cherokees survived the emigration. Almost 4,000 died 
  during the move. 

  March 26, 1777: Henry Hamilton is the British Lieutenant Governor of 
  Detroit. He receives orders to dispatch his Indian allies against 
  American settlers in Ohio.

  March 27, 1814: East of modern Alexander City, Alabama, Andrew Jackson, 
  and 2000 whites, Cherokees, Choctaws and "White Stick" Creeks, discover 
  a fort built at the village of Tohopeka on a Horseshoe Bend in the 
  Tallapoosa River, by " Red Stick" Creeks. The Red Stick Creeks are 
  anti-white, the White Stick Creeks are pro-white. Jackson attacks the 
  800 to 1,000 Red Stick Creeks, led by Chief Menewa. The Creek village 
  and defenses covered approximately 100 acres on the peninsula made by 
  the bend in the river. To cross the river, Jackson's Cherokee allies, 
  led by Chief Junaluska, swim the river to steal Creek canoes. Jackson's 
  forces eventually set fire to the Red Stick Creeks' wooden barricade. In 
  the end, only about fifty of the Red Stick Creeks survive the battle. 
  Jackson's forces lose forty-nine soldiers and twenty-three warriors 
  killed, and 157 soldiers and forty-seven warriors wounded. Jackson's 
  forces capture approximately 300 women and children. The Red Stick Creek 
  leader William Weatherford is not at the battle. Weatherford will turn 
  himself in later. This defeat leads to the Treaty of Horseshoe Bend 
  signed on August 9, 1814, whereby the Creeks gave up twenty-three 
  million acres of land to the United States. 

  March 28, 1676: After attacking a military group near the town two days 
  before, King Philip's forces attack the village of Rehoboth, 
  Massachusetts. While most of the townspeople survive in barricaded 
  homes, most of the town is razed. 

  March 29, 1542: Hernando de Soto's expedition reaches the territory of 
  the Anilco Indians. As with many of his previous encounters, a battle is 

  March 30, 1870: Based on the Congressional Act of April 8th, 1864, and 
  today's Executive Order by President Grant, Round Valley Reservation is 
  established in Mendicino County, California. It one day houses Clear 
  Lake, Concow, Little Lake, Nomelaki, Pit River, Potter Valley, Redwood, 
  Wailaki, and Yuki Tribes, in fifty and a half square miles. 

  March 31, 1882: The Havasupai Reservation boundaries, in Arizona, are 


  That's it for this newsletter. Have a great month!


  End of March 2002 newsletter

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