February 2008 Newsletter from
"This Day in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2010)

Click Here To Return To The Previous Website

Start of Phil Konstantin's February 2008 Newsletter - Part 1


Yes, I am still writing newsletters. January was an extra
busy month for me. I had some out of town visitors for a
while. Both of my daughters had some serious medical issues.
And, I had my own other activities to keep me busy.

So, I plan on doing a bit more this month than I would
normally do. To that end, I have included a much more
detailed "On This Date" section.

I'll have a Part II along in a few days...

By the way, today is my father's (Morris Benjamin
Konstantin, Jr.) 79th birthday. Happy Birthday, Dad!

Phil Konstantin


The "Link of the Month" for February 2008 is the Original
Pechanga's Blog. It describes itself as "Terminated member
of the Temecula Band of Luiseno Indians from the Pechanga
Reservation trying to shine light on actions of a corrupt
Pechanga government Working with tribal members who have
been denied civil rights,enduring the pain of disenrollment
and moratoriums."

This blog's author was disenrolled from the Pechanga tribe.
The blog is an interesting look into the politics within
one Southern California tribe.



The "Treaty of the Month" for February 2008 is the of
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848). It was a "TREATY

It was through this treaty that most of the southwestern
parts of the United States were ceded to the USA by
Mexico. This event greatly affected the tribes of this

You can read a transcript of the treaty on this website:


News Articles:

Opinion: Claiming Indian heritage becomes more popular

Original enrollee Daisy Blackbird celebrates 105th Birthday

'Great Day in Indian Country,' Cobell Says of Ruling

Icon leads Native American walk

30th Anniversary of Historic Native American Rights March Inspires “The
Longest Walk 2”

Nike Unveils the Nike Air Native N7

Choctaws might hold new genetic key in blood research

Native Nacimientos: Cross-Cultural Christmas

Navajo Reservation on standby due to impending
conditions from snow melt

Dawes Commission very imperfect system of census

Bill fails to ban alcohol near sacred mountain

In Step With American Indians

President Shirley calls loss of environmental advocate
Luther 'a sad day for Native people'

Human Rights Commission renews call for Aboriginal
human rights

Turtle Mountain see private Indian owned bank opened

Indian leader says Republican meeting chance to
open dialogue

South Dakota Indian journalist gave voices to a
people long ignored

New Yosemite Indian war: Tribes fight over place in history

Aboriginal students targetted for film industry training

Jarrid Smith Closes Season, Football Career Victorious

Mrs. Shavney recalls WWII service at D.C. celebration

Eagles rise again Story pole took a village


John Richards: The native education gap

First Nations chief demands apology from NHL’s Campbell

Initiative helps tribes preserve at-risk artifacts

Retired Lakota soldier honored at U.S. Army Women's Museum

The Yup'ik language has no term to describe sexual abuse.

Boulder may spark big fight

Idaho anglers start protest against treaty rights

Aboriginal MP asserts government's position on Kapyong

Magazine features article on dwindling Salish language

Senate Hears Stories of Sexual Assault on Reservations

Festival incorporates American Indian art, music

American Indian artists come together for show

‘Chepota Chikasha Anumpoli’ (children speaking Chickasaw)

Black Mesa Trust to request Mohave proceeds for
Hopi and Navajo

Obama opens office on Navajo Nation, Clinton also organizing


GOP has a chance to sway voters in Montana,
tribal leaders say

Native Americans skeptical that gaming pacts
will solve woes

Spirit Lake Nation To Vote on UND Nickname

Home construction halted on apparent American
Indian burial ground

Tribal sovereignty in the 21st century

Tribunal vows to speed up First Nation land claims

Hopi students meet with tribal leaders in Phoenix

Indians find business success on Web

Report: Discrimination blatant against NJ’s
American Indians

Native American Tribes Speak Out About Climate Change

First Nation takes holistic approach to learning

First parenting class in Tonalea deemed a success

Court: Tribe not immune from crash suit

Jamestown white bison calf named Dakota Miracle

Sweetest Success Story Ever

Meet Miss Indian North Carolina

Meet Miss Indian Nations


Tribe plans to preserve Arapaho language

Elk herd keeps Stillaguamish Tribe fed

Navajo lawmakers to vote on proposed tribal Superfund law

The politics of politics: Indian Country holds the
Balance of Power

Historic agreement between Crow Tribe and Montana
Secretary of State's Office

Bill would expand tribal police authority

Activist continues to fight for American Indians

Chickasaw elements infused in health care facility

Paying to teach and 'play Indian'

Federal court says Interior unreasonably delayed
Indian trust accounting

Why not give Kapyong to First Nations?

Natives welcome a helping hand from National
Relief Charities

Tribal Council Meets in BC

Red Cloud Leads the Nation in Gates Scholars

NCAI Joins Reconnecting The Circle™ in a National
Prize Essay Contest

Study of Native American genes searches for
way to reduce cancer

Native American Elvis Impersonator Takes Center Stage

Ho Chunk files new lawsuit over state compacts

Harsh reality of northern reserves

US Department of the Interior’s Assistant Secretary of Indian Affairs
Visits United Keetoowah Band

Black Mesa Trust to request Mohave proceeds for
Hopi and Navajo

NSU Indian symposium to focus on cosmos

Lighthorse chief builds force’s mission

Navajo Beauty Queen Hopes To Send Message Of Respect

Navajo Code Talkers subject of Japanese
photographer’s work

Tribes worry oil pipeline might cross culturally
important sites

BA in American Indian Studies now offered

Local man installed as Anishinaabe Ogitchdaw
Warriors Society's leader

Interior's trust denial provokes media backlash

Tenants, First Nations fight new voting rules

Colorado River Indian Tribes representative selected
to attend national conservation forum

Lawyers spar over tribal police brutality lawsuit

AhNiYvWiYa Inc.

Rape Most Common Among Native Women

Torino Advances North American Indigenous Olympic Bid

A language too beautiful to lose

United Nations Declaration on Rights of Indigenous
Peoples Elicits Strong Support

Educational barriers broken down U of M program helps turn
Aboriginal students into health-care professionals

Chickasaw diplomatic presence important in Washington

Federal study backs up land claim by Tigua tribe

The Unresolved Story of Wounded Knee

First Nations Ban Booze

Baucus urges passage of Indian Health bill

Funding sought to preserve native languages

Tribe supports Klamath pact
Salmon - The basin deal still awaits word from
PacifiCorp on removal of four dams

Never ever learn how to make Fry Bread

What Tom Brady Thinks of Native Americans

Northern Cheyenne Indian Nation seeks donations
for Sand Creek Massacre project

Ardmore After School Art class produces warrior masks

NIEA President to Give Annual Indian Education
Address to the Nation

The Navajo Bigfoot

Inuit battle with environmentalists again

Flag from American Indian occupation of Alcatraz
sold at auction

Indian Blood - From the beginning, white Americans
have brutalized American Indians. Half a millennium
later, the hate goes on.

Boy finds American Indian remains

Statement by Assembly of First Nations National
Chief regarding ...

Bringing the Global Market to Native Lands

The story of Hweeldi: a 93-year-old revels in Navajo
lore during "Remembrance Days"

Aboriginal population surpasses one million

Two Blackfeet women spread inspiration

Native America Gangs and Evolution of Gangs

Nakwatsvewat Institute graduates first class of
certified Hopi mediators

Who will pay the costs of saving Alaska Native communities?

The Ka-ching Doesn't Ring for Everyone - Indian casinos
are thriving but they haven't made most Indians wealthy,
and they can't solve the myriad problems that exist on

The new ‘white buffalo’ in Indian country

Tribal buffalo programs hurt by cuts in federal aid


Program serves Native American women in prison

Progress made on Kanawha community, museum site

Indian children at high risk for injury from house fires

Incredible Injustice for Indigenous Women

In the beginning . . . Twins are heroes in Navajo
creation story

Native leaders want new president to maintain ties
with pueblos

Principal Chief of Cherokee Nation ---Chad Smith

Freedom Forum Indian journalism session open to Indian
college students

Henry touts education goals in speech

Committee hearing next week on Native recognition

High Interest Loans Common on Reservations

Nunatsiavut government to receive title to crown
land from province

Indigenous community challenges Alberta oil
sands development

Indian singers featured at Wichita Council

A woman and a tribe's world pass into the beyond

Cherokee Nation to dedicate $17M health clinic

Alaska coastal erosion washes away the past

NFL Program Allows Salt River Students To Connect
With Other Students

You Can Use Native American Drums To Create Chic
Country Home Decor

School Hears Call to End Mascot's Act

State Education Secretary Says Indian Education
Will Take Time

American Indian Mormons in crisis of spiritual identity

Ottawa invests in new Aboriginal economic
development program

Malign Neglect - Racial violence against Native
Americans has drawn attention from the federal government
twice in recent years, but many hate crimes still seem
to get a pass.

Family advocate says Nebraska court decision is troubling

Preventing suicide among aboriginal teens

American Indian school, black town among those on
endangered list

Diversifying Tribes Take a Global View

Court rules tribal challenge to state income tax
can proceed

Oropeza drops Gabrielino bill after casino letter surfaces

Ontario chiefs defend 'right' to banish

Young Black, Native-American Children at Higher
Risk of Fatal Accidents

Northwest Jesuits settle Indian boarding school
abuse claims

BIA recognition decision database v2.0 now online

Utah educators want schools to teach Indians
native languages

AIM Trimbach and the FBI

Ex-astronaut tells students to be 'passionate'

Off-reserve Aboriginal leader outlines economic
blueprint for First Nations

Gathering Of Nations Celebrates 25 Years

Ely Shoshones hope to see cash settlement soon
Tribe looks to economic development of newly acquired lands

Anna Sui Inspired By American Natives

Landless Little Shell waits federal recognition

Compacts' opponents say no lawsuit pending

Slight cut seen in IHS budget for 2009

A look at the talks over management of the
National Bison Range

Charon Asetoyer: “I took to heart the health issues
of American Indian women”

Urban Indian Health Program Zeroed-Out for
Third Consecutive Year


Historical Events for February

February 1

1834: The state of Georgia had begun the process of
seizing Cherokee property. Much of the land was given
to white settlers under a lottery. The Cherokees were
forced out at gunpoint, in many cases. Cherokees begin
arriving at the Cherokee Agency in eastern Tennessee to
be moved to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).
The first boats left the agency on March 14, 1834.

1839: Cherokee Chief John Ross and 228 other Cherokees
arrived in Little Rock, en route to the Indian Territory
(present-day Oklahoma), as part of their forced emigration.
Quatie Martin Ross, Chief Ross’s wife, died. She was
buried in Little Rock.

1876: The secretary of the interior advises the secretary
of war that any Indians who had not returned to their
reservations were under his jurisdiction. The army could
use any means to deal with the hostiles. This primarily
involves the Plains Indians.

1876: Army Indian scouts fought with a group of hostile
Indians near Chevelons Fork, Arizona. According to army
documents, four Indians were killed, and six were captured.

1877: By executive order, 7,579.75 acres of land in
Arizona were set aside for the use of the military. It
was called Fort Apache.

1877: Colonel Nelson Miles sent a scout, and two of the
Cheyenne he captured on January 7, 1877, out to tell the
hostiles his terms for surrender. The Indians were informed
they would be attacked if they did not comply.

1917: By executive order, the Papago Indian Reservation
was established in Sells, Arizona. The act was amended
on February 21, 1931, and on October 28, 1932.

1977: The Swinomish permanent zoning legislation was enacted.


February 2

1836: Benjamin Marshall and his fellow Creeks reached
Fort Gibson in eastern Indian Territory (present-day

1839: Reverend Evan Jones and 1,033 Cherokees arrived
in the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). Seventy-one
of their original parties died on the trail.

1848: The Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty was signed. It was
the policy of the United States, in keeping with the
treaty’s (9 Stat. 929) understanding and long-established
custom, to provide certain necessary services and
facilities to Native American Indians.

1874: An order was issued that canceled the executive
order of May 29, 1873, regarding the Fort Stanton Indian
Reserve set aside for the Mescalero Apache in New Mexico.

1874: Indians fought with soldiers from the Tenth Cavalry
near Home Creek, Texas. According to army documents,
no casualties were reported.

1887: A law was passed that prohibits the use of Indian
languages in schools.

1911: By Executive Order No. 1296, the Camp McDowell
Reservation was modified.

1911: An executive order set aside 17,315 acres of land,
which eventually became part of the Fort Mojave tribal lands.

1945: In 1905, the Shoshone and Arapaho Tribes of the
Wind River Reservation ceded a large part of their
reservation to the United States. According to Federal
Register No. 10FR02254, they got a small part of that
land back.

Every: San Felipe Candelaria Day for many Pueblos.


February 3

1837: In southeastern Alabama, near Cowikee Creek, Creek
warriors and Alabama militia exchanged a few shots.

1838: The Oneida signed a treaty (7 Stat. 566) in
Washington, D.C. It ceded some of their land.

1847: General Sterling Price reached the fortified Taos
Pueblo. A cannonade proved unfruitful in dislodging the
rebels, so Price retreated to the city of Taos.

1876: The War Department acknowledged Sitting Bull’s
notice about having to report to a reservation.

1880: A band of Hunkpapa Sioux had attacked some civilians
on the Powder River in Montana. Sergeant Thomas Glover,
eight men from Troop B, Second Cavalry, and eleven Indian
scouts pursued the Sioux for almost seventy miles and
circled them on Pumpkin Creek. A fight ensued, and each
side lost one man. Two Indians and one soldier were wounded.
After reinforcements arrived, three of the Hunkpapa were

1956: Assistant Secretary of the Interior Wesley D’Ewart
ratified an election that approved an amendment to the
constitution and bylaws for the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe
of Nevada. The election was held on December 26, 1955.

1961: An amendment to the constitution and bylaws of
the Coeur D'Alene Tribe of Idaho was approved by H. Rex
Lee, deputy commissioner of Indian Affairs.

1975: The Department of the Interior determined that
the Pit River Indian Tribe was to be designated as the
“beneficial owner” of the XL Ranch.


February 4

1509: Cakchiquel (Kaqchikel) Maya King Lahuh-Noh took
the throne.

1829: The Mississippi house of representatives passed
a law to “extend legal process into that part of the
state now occupied by the Chickasaw and Choctaw tribes
of Indians.”

1847: General Sterling Price returned to the fortified
Taos Pueblo, and two hours of cannonade were again
unsuccessful. Price’s troops attacked and make some
headway. The cannon was moved closer and breached a wall.
The troops swarmed through a hole in the church and other
buildings. Many of the Pueblo Indians tried to escape
but were cut down by volunteers stationed to the east of
the pueblo. One of the leaders of the revolt, Jesus de
Tafoya, was killed in the fighting.

1861: John Ward’s stepson, Feliz Tellez, was kidnapped by
Indians from his ranch on Sonoita Creek in Arizona. Ward
complained to the army, and it sent Second Lieutenant
George Bascom and fifty-four soldiers to find him. Today,
Chiricahua Apache Chief Cochise was invited to talk with
Bascom in Apache Pass in southwestern Arizona. Cochise
brought some family with him to the parlay in Bascom’s
tent. Cochise was shocked when Bascom accused him of
kidnapping the boy. Cochise denied his involvement, but
Bascom did not believe him. Bascom then told Cochise he
was under arrest. Cochise cut a hole in the tent and
escaped. Bascom kept Cochise’s relatives as hostages.
Cochise quickly seized several whites as hostages as well.

1869: According to army records, members of the First
Cavalry and Indian scouts fought with a band of Indians
in the Arivaypa Mountains in Arizona. Eight Indians were
killed, and eight more were captured.

1960: Secretary of the Interior Roger Ernst approved the
constitution of the Mission Creek Band of Indians of
Mission Creek, California.

1994: The Osage Nation’s constitution was ratified by
a vote of 1,931-1,013.


February 5

1692: Canadians and Indians attacked the southern Maine
town of York. Almost fifty settlers were killed, and at
least another seventy become captives. (Also recorded as
happening on January 25.)

1802: Orono was a Penobscot chief. During his life, he was
converted to Catholicism. He fought in the French and
Indian War against the British settlements in New England.
He fought on the American side during the Revolutionary
War, and he was believed to have been 108 years old when
he died.

1832: Nitakechi and 200 Choctaws began the wagon-train
march from Little Rock to the Red River area.

1847: The rebel Pueblo Indians and Mexicans of Taos
surrendered to General Sterling Price. They handed over
rebel leader Pablo Montoya. He was tried and shot on
February 7, 1847.

1856: The Stockbridge and Munsee signed a treaty (11 Stat.
663). It involved the cession of lands in Wisconsin and

1869: According to army records, members of the Eighth
Cavalry fought with a band of Indians on Black Mesa in
Arizona. One Indian was killed.

1874: Lieutenant Colonel George Buell and Troops D and G,
Tenth Cavalry, and men from Companies A, F, and G,
Eleventh Infantry, found an encampment of Comanche on
the Double Mountain Fork of the Brazos River in Texas.
The army attacked, and eleven Indians were killed. The
soldiers sustain only one wounded man. Sixty-five horses
were seized.

1877: Sixth Cavalry soldiers and some Indian scouts
fought a group of Indians in the Tonto Basin of Arizona.
According to army documents, eighteen Indians were killed,
and twenty were captured. The fighting started on January 9.

1881: Crow King surrendered at Fort Buford.

1881: Ninth Cavalry soldiers and Indian scouts fought a
group of Indians in the Candelaria Mountains of Mexico.
According to army documents, no casualties were reported.

1934: More than 400 Zuni held a mass meeting to discuss
the selection of Pueblo officials.

1937: Based upon authority granted by an act of Congress
(47 Stat.777) passed on January 27, 1933, a trust agreement
was established with the Five Civilized Tribes.

1948: An act (62 Stat. 17) was passed by Congress to
“empower the Secretary to grant rights-of-way for various
purposes across lands of individual Indians or Indian tribes,
communities, bands, or nations.”

1973: The assistant secretary of the interior authorized
an election for amendments to the constitution and bylaws
for the Covelo Indian Community of the Round Valley
Reservation in California. The election would be held on
April 14, 1973.

1990: Deputy to the Assistant Secretary of Indian Affairs
Hazel Elbert approved the results of an election by the
Coast Indian Community of the Resighini Rancheria on a
constitutional amendment.


February 6

1682: Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, and a force
of twenty-two French and thirty-one Indians reached the
confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi Rivers. La Salle
then sailed down the Mississippi to see if it emptied into
the Gulf of Mexico. The expedition contacted many Indian
tribes along the way. Based on this expedition, La Salle
claimed the Mississippi Valley and Louisiana for the French.
La Salle reached the Gulf of Mexico on April 9, 1682.

1740: A force of 180 French troops and 400 Choctaw and
Iroquois, led by Captain Pierre Celeron, left Fort
Assumption (modern Memphis) to arrange for a peace with
Chickasaw Indians in the region. They arrived in the
Chickasaw village on February 22.

1793: After William Blount gained the promise of
Chickamauga chiefs to stop their raids and murdering
of European settlers on May 29, 1792, the rampages
continued. Blount returned to the Chickamauga at Coyatee
with the same request and an offer for the principal
chiefs to visit the “great white father” at Philadelphia.
The chiefs considered the offer, but within the next few
months the village was attacked by Europeans. This
hardened the hearts of the Chickamauga and some of their
Cherokee neighbors. The attack continued.

1854: The state of Texas passed a law that allowed the
United States to pick sites for two Indian reservations
in Texas. One was on the Main Fork of the Brazos River.
The other was on the Clear Fork of the Brazos River.

1861: Cochise left Lieutenant George Bascom a note offering
to exchange hostages. Bascom agreed to the exchange if Cochise included
the kidnapped boy Feliz Tellez. Cochise said he
never had the boy, and the exchange did not take place.
Cochise’s hostages were found dead in a few days.

1870: According to official army records, Indians skirmished
with a group of soldiers from the Ninth Cavalry and Twenty-
Fourth Infantry between the Pecos and Rio Grande Rivers in
Texas. No casualties were reported. The fighting started
on January 3.

1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the First Cavalry
in Hell Canyon in Arizona, according to army documents. Two
Indians were killed, and one was captured.

1880: On the Yellowstone River, Sioux Indians stole more
than a dozen horses from the settlement at Pease’s Bottom.
They also stole horses from Terry’s Landing. Crow Indian
scouts tracked the Sioux and managed to retrieve or kill
all of the horses near Porcupine Creek.

1945: According to Federal Register No. 10FR02812, the
Wind River Reservation tribes returned some of the
“undisposed of, ceded lands” that were given to the United
States in the past.

1973: Local authorities had failed to charge the white
killer of a local Oglala Indian named Wesley Bad Heart
Bull with murder. Angered by this lack of action, several
militant Indians set fire to the Chamber of Commerce
building and the courthouse in Custer, South Dakota.

1979: Acoma Pueblo were listed among Indian tribal entities
“that have a government-to-government relationship with the
United States” in the Federal Register.

1998: Activist groups worldwide declared this day as “Free
Leonard Peltier Day.”


February 7

1778: According to some sources, Daniel Boone was captured
by Shawnee warriors under Chief Blackfish near the Blue
Licks in Kentucky while making salt.

1813: Instigated by the Spanish governor of Florida, Florida
Indians had attacked settlements in Georgia. Seeking revenge,
a force of 250 militia and volunteers from Tennessee, led
by Colonel John Williams, began a series of attacks on
Indian villages in Florida. They destroyed many villages
and looted supplies.

1861: Convinced that they would get better treatment from
a southern government than from the one in Washington, D.C.,
the Choctaw announce their support of the Confederacy.

1867: According to army records, members of the First
Cavalry fought with a band of Indians near Camp McDowell,
Arizona. One Indian was reported as captured.

1869: A group of Indians stole some livestock about three
miles from Fort Selden, near Las Cruces, New Mexico. Troops
from the fort attempt to catch up to the Indians, but the
Indians disappeared into the local mountains.

1876: The War Department authorized General Sheridan to
start operations against the Indians.

1979: Bernard Granum, area director of the Minneapolis
Office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, authorized an
election for an amendment to the constitution of the Red
Lake Band of Chippewa Indians of Minnesota.

1983: The Inuit Circumpolar Conference was held at the
United Nations.


February 8

1837: During the Second Seminole War, a battle took place
between Seminole and U.S. forces on the bank of Lake Monroe
(near modern Sanford, Florida). The Americans were led by
Colonel Alexander Fanning. More than 600 Seminoles, led
by Chiefs Philip and Wildcat (Coacoochee), participate in
the fighting, which began with a Seminole attack before
dawn. Both sides lost a considerable number of men. The
deciding factor in the battle was the arrival of a steamship
with a cannon. Fort Monroe was built on the site of the

1876: General Sheridan ordered Generals George Crook and
Alfred Terry to make ready for a campaign in the Powder
River area against the Sioux and other tribes who had not
reported to the reservation. General Crook was called
“Three Stars” by the Indians. He was also called “Grey Wolf”
by the Apache.

1887: The Dawes Severalty Act (24 Stat. 388–389) regarding
land allotments took effect. Its official title was “An
Act to Provide for the Allotment of Lands in Severalty to
Indians on the Various Reservations, and to Extend the
Protection of the Laws of the United States and the
Territories over the Indians, and for Other Purposes.”
1918: An executive order was issued to remove 160 acres
from the Winnemucca Shoshone Indian Colony in Nevada.

1936: An election was held to approve a constitution and
bylaws for the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the
Manchester Rancheria. It passed by a vote of 33-4.

1936: An election was held to approve a constitution and
bylaws for the Kashia Band of Pomo Indians of the Stewarts
Point Rancheria. It was approved by a vote of 47-2.

1971: The commissioner of Indian affairs ratified the new
constitution for the Reno-Sparks Indian Community.

1975: An election for amendments to the constitution of
the Papago (Tohono O’odham) was held. Of the 3,251 eligible
voters, 1,521 voted for the amendments, 690 against.

1978: John Artichoker Jr., Phoenix area director of the
Bureau of Indian Affairs, ratified an election for
Amendment 3 to the constitution for the Papago (Tohono
O’odham). The election was held on January 21, 1978.


February 9

1526: Spaniards were living in the Cakchiquel (Kaqchikel)
Maya town of Iximche’ in modern Guatemala. A few decided
to desert. They set a large fire as a diversion.

1607: There had been a long period of fighting between
the Indian tribes of the Powhatan Confederacy and the
English colonists in Virginia. While leading a Paspahegh
war party near Jamestown, Chief Wochinchopunck was seen
by the colonists. A fought ensued, and the chief was killed.

1690: Some 300 Indians and French sneaked into the
stockade at Schenectady, New York, during a snowstorm.
After posting warriors at each building, a signal was
given, and the primarily Dutch occupants were attacked.
Sixty settlers were killed, and twenty-seven were captured.
Mohawk Indians attempted to rescue some of the captives
as they were marched off to Canada, with little success.

1730: A large Choctaw force under French-Canadian Jean
Paul Le Sueur had forced the Natchez to remain in two
forts (called Fort de la Valeur, and Fort de la Farine
by the French) they had built in their main village (see
January 27, 1730). Starting today French forces arrived
and joined in the battle. The fighting continued until
February 24.

1813: Members of the Red Stick Creek faction of the Creek
Indians, who resisted adopting European customs, were
attacked by a Mississippi militia group at Burnt Cork
Creek, Mississippi Territory. The Red Stick Creeks were
transporting a wagon train loaded with ammunition they
obtained from Spain.

1836: General Edmund Gaines and 1,100 troops landed in
Tampa Bay. They were sent to quell the Seminole uprising,
known as The second Seminole War. They planned to march
to Fort King.

1869: According to General Philip Sheridan’s official
report, from March 2, 1868, to February 9, 1869, in the
Department of the Missouri (from Texas and New Mexico to
Dakota and Minnesota), 353 officers, soldiers, and citizens
were killed, wounded, or captured by Indians. Of the
Indians, 319 were killed, 289 wounded, and fifty-three
captured. Approximately 1,200 surrendered.

1870: Louis Riel was elected president of the Metis.

1872: Three soldiers from Troop B, Fourth Cavalry, were
attacked by Indians on the North Concho River in Texas.
No casualties were suffered on either side.

1874: Lieutenant L. H. Robinson, Fourteenth Infantry, and
Corporal James Coleman were among several people
“wantonly murdered” by Indians on Cottonwood Creek, near
Laramie Peak, Wyoming. Robinson and Coleman were leading
a wagon train of lumber returning from a sawmill when
they were attacked. Army reports cited this attack as a
signal for the start of numerous battles in the area.

1935: By Executive Order No. 6968, the federal government
extended the trust period on allotments made to Indians
of the Crow Creek Band of Sioux Indians in Dakota.

1987: The Lac Du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa
Indians modified local codes regarding timber trespassing.


February 10

1676: The Narragansett attacked Lancaster, Massachusetts.
This battle in King Philip’s War killed fifty settlers.
Twenty-four whites were taken prisoner. One of the
prisoners, Mary Rowlandson, escaped. She wrote a best-seller
about her ordeal. Mary Rowlandson’s narrative was the first
in a series of true-life stories published by Indian captives.
Participating in the raid was Chief Quinnapin.

1763: “The definitive Treaty of Peace and Friendship
between his Britannick Majesty, the Most Christian King,
and the King of Spain is concluded at Paris the 10th day
of February, 1763.” England claimed sovereignty over all
Indians east of the Mississippi River as a part of the
Treaty of Paris.

1824: The president was authorized to order surveys of what
were now Indian lands.

1834: The Western Cherokees did not wish to share their
current holdings in the Indian Territory (present-day
Oklahoma) with the Cherokees remaining in the east if
they decided to emigrate. Western Chiefs Black Coat, John
Jolly, and Walter Webber signed a treaty with Indian Agent
George Vashon that gave them more land, and larger annual
payments, if the Eastern Cherokees did move to the Indian
Territory. Federal authorities in the Indian Territory
did not pass the treaty along to Washington, D.C.

1876: General Terry got his “anti-Sioux” orders.

1890: The South Dakota land grab took place. Parts of
the Great Sioux Reservation were opened to settlers.

1890: President Benjamin Harrison announced that Indians
had agreed to open their lands.

1913: By Executive Order No. 1700, lands in New Mexico
were set aside as a reservation for the Santa Clara
Pueblo Indians.

1972: The constitution of the Indians of the Tulalip
Tribes in Washington was modified.

1982: The first Indian was appointed director of the
Indian Health Service.

1991: The Campo Band of Kumeyaay (Mission) drafted a
solid-waste management plan by the establishment of the
solid waste code and solid waste regulations.

1994: The Osage Nation constitution was approved according
to the constitution’s first page.


February 11

1715: The Tuscarora (Coree) Indians led by Tom Blount
sign a peace treaty with the English settlers in North
Carolina. This ended much of the fighting in the area.
Some sources report that it was signed at a fort known
as Nooherooka to the Indians.

1805: Sacajawea gave birth to a baby boy.

1828: John Tipton, representing the United States, and
members of the Eel River Band of the Miami Indians signed
a treaty (7 Stat. 309). Under the Treaty of Wyandot
Village, the Indians moved to a reservation and gave up
lands along Sugartree Creek. They received $10,000 in

1837: The Potawatomi signed a treaty (7 Stat. 532) in
Washington, D.C. The treaty agreed to give “to the
Pottawatomies of Indiana a tract of country on the Osage
River, southwest of the Missouri River, sufficient in
extent and adapted to their habits and wanted.”

1856: The Menominee signed a treaty (11 Stat. 679) at
Keshena. The treaty ceded some land.

1861: In Arizona, Lieutenant George Bascom had discovered
the bodies of the six hostages that had been held by
Cochise. The bodies were buried. Today, three of Cochise’s
relatives who Bascom held hostage, and three Coyotero Apache prisoners,
were hung over the graves of the white hostages.

1880: The president warned Indian-land usurpers to stop
their illegal acts.

1887: The boundary lines of the Jicarilla Apache Reservation
were established by executive order.

1890: Half of the Sioux Reservation was opened to the public.

1918: The federal government extended the trust period on
allotments on Devils Lake Reservation, North Dakota.

1931: By Executive Order No. 5556, the trust period on
allotments made to members of the Prairie Band of Potawatomi
Indians of Kansas was extended.

1957: Imposition of North Dakota State fish and game laws
on Indians claiming treaty and other rights to hunt and fish.

1959: An election for a constitution for the Standing Rock
Sioux Tribe was held. They vote in favor by a 409-182 margin.

1975: The commissioner of Indian affairs authorized an
election for amendments to the constitution of the
Shoalwater Bay Indian Organization in Washington State.
The election would be held on April 19.

1978: The Longest Walk takes place to protest Indian


February 12

1599: Of the seventy Acoma tried for battling with
Spaniards on December 4, 1598, all seventy were found
guilty. Today, Juan de Oñate ordered their punishment.
All men over twenty-five years old had one foot cut off
and served as slaves for twenty years. Everyone from twelve
to twenty-five only had a foot cut off.

1733: Oglethorpe founded Savannah.

1825: Upper Creek Chief Jim Fife signed the Treaty of
Indian Springs, Georgia. This treaty (7 Stat.237), signed
by Creeks who were in favor of moving west, exchanged the
remaining Creek lands in Georgia and Alabama for land west
of the Mississippi River. The treaty was repudiated by most
Creeks. Many of the Creek signers of this treaty eventually
were killed by the Creeks opposed to moving west.

1848: As a part of the efforts to fight the Cayuse who
attacked the Whitman Mission in Oregon Country, soldiers
and militia had been reporting to The Dalles. By today,
537 men had arrived.

1854: Colonel Jesse Stem was a special Indian agent in
Texas until he retired to become a rancher. While
transporting some goods near Fort Belknap in north-central
Texas, he was killed by Kickapoo Indians.

1874: An executive order established the boundaries of
the reservation for the Moapa Band of the Paiute.

1875: President Grant established the Lemhi Valley Indian
Reservation in central Idaho. This act was instigated by
the effort of Chief Tendoy and his Lemhi followers.

1881: Major George Ilges and soldiers of the Fifth Infantry
arrested 185 Yanktonni Sioux, including forty-three
warriors in their camp at Redwater, Montana. Seven guns
and fifteen horses were seized.

1937: A constitution and bylaws for the Yavapai Apache of
the Camp Verde Reservation were approved by Secretary of
the Interior Harold Ickes.

1974: Native fishing rights were upheld in court.

1980: The governing body of the Paiute-Shoshone Tribe of
the Fallon Reservation and Colony adopted a resolution that
added amendments to their constitution and bylaws.

1987: The area director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs
ratified the Nez Perce election to amend their constitution
and bylaws.

1992: The Pequot started a bingo hall.


February 13

1684: According to some sources, an agreement was reached
by representatives of the Cusabu Indians for the South
Carolina colonies to acquire some land.

1743: Schaghticook Sachem Mahwee was baptized in New York.
He was the first of his tribe to did so.

1811: A very large earthquake was felt along the Mississippi
River. Many tribes passed along stories of the quake for
many years.

1861: In fighting that took place through January 14 in
Arizona, assistant surgeon Bernard J.D. Irwin took command
of a group of soldiers who went to the rescue of Lieutenant
Bascom’s troops, who were engaging Cochise. For his actions,
Irwin would be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

1864: A Civil War battle took place at Middle Boggy Depot
in Indian Territory (modern Atoka County, Oklahoma). Union
forces under Major Charles Willette surprised Confederate
forces under Lieutenant Colonel John Jumper. Jumper
commanded members of the Seminole Battalion, Company A,
First Choctaw and Chickasaw Cavalry Regiment, and a
detachment of the Twentieth Texas Regiment. The bluecoats
won the fight.

1879: According to U.S. Army reports, Victoria and
twenty-two Warm Springs Apache Indians surrendered to
Lieutenant Charles Merritt of the Ninth Cavalry at Ojo
Caliente, New Mexico. The Apaches lived in Mexico for
years, eluding the army’s attempts to move them to the
San Carlos Reservation on September 2, 1877.

1907: Lands were set aside for the Robinson Rancheria in
California by secretarial order.

1931: The trust period on allotments made to Indians on
the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota, was extended
by Executive Order No. 5557.

1942: Fishing rights of Alaska Indians were addressed
in court.

1942: An election for a constitution and bylaws for the
Moapa Band of Paiute Indians was authorized by Assistant
Secretary of the Interior Oscar Chapman.

1969: The undersecretary of the interior ratified an
election that approved amendments to the constitution
and bylaws of the Jicarilla Apache. The election was held
on December 23, 1968.


February 14

1756: Several Delaware attacked settlers in Berks County, Pennsylvania.
A dozen settlers, including six children,
were killed. Two of the settlers killed were young women,
sisters who had a premonition of evil tidings the previous
day. One of the sisters died in her father’s arms when he
found her in his burned farm.

1776: The first Spanish arrived at what eventually became
Needles, California.

1873: Congress created the office of Indian Inspector.
The initial three inspectors were appointed by the
president for four-year terms. They inspected the
operations of Indian officers in the field.

1913: By an act of Congress (37 Stat. 675) “all non-mineral, unallotted,
unreserved lands within the Standing Rock
Indian Reservation are opened to settlement and entry,
to be disposed of under the general provisions of the
Homestead laws.”

1931: Congress passed an act (Public Law No. 667, 71st
Congress) that authorized the president to establish the
Canyon de Chelly National Monument in the Navajo Indian
Reservation in northeastern Arizona. Another act (46 Stat.
1106) was also passed. Its purpose was to “enable the
Secretary to accept donations of funds or other property
for the advancement of the Indian race. An annual report
will be made to Congress on donations received and
allocations made from such donations.”

1938: Assistant Secretary of the Interior Oscar Chapman
ratified a constitution and bylaws approved by the
Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of
Oregon in an election held on December 18, 1937.

1969: The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe of the
Flathead Reservation enacted a resolution prohibiting the
hunting or killing of mountain sheep.

1973: Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Interior W. L.
Rogers authorized the Nooksack Indian Tribe of Washington
an election for a constitution and bylaws.

1989: As of today, the residential population of Acoma
Pueblo communities was as follows: Acomita, 2,342; Anzac,
200 (est.); McCartys, 1,646; Old Acoma (Sky City), 150
(est.); total 4,338.


February 15

1831: The U.S. Senate passed a resolution asking
President Jackson if he was going to live up to the
Indian Trade and Intercourse Act passed on March 30,
1802. If he was not going to live up to this law, they
wanted to know why. He responded a week later.

1866: Elements of the Second Cavalry engaged Indians near
Guano Valley, Nevada. One soldier was killed, and seven
were wounded. Ninety-six Indians were killed, fifteen
were wounded, and nineteen were captured, according to
army records.

1867: According to army records, members of the Eighth
Cavalry fought with a band of Indians near Black Slate
Mountains, Nevada. Five Indians were reported killed.

1870: The second intercontinental railroad started. It
also went through Indian lands.

1901: The Reservation Land Definition Act was passed.

1907: The confines of the Robinson Rancheria in
California were established.

1936: The Omaha Tribe of Nebraska voted on a constitution.
By a vote of 311-27, they approved it.


February 16

1863: An act (12 Stat. l652) stated that all treaties
between the United States and the “Sisseton, Wahpaton,
Medawakanton, and Wahpakoota Bands of Sioux of Dakota
are aborgated and annulled” as far as occupancy or
obligations in Minnesota were concerned. This act took
away their lands in Minnesota because of the Santee
Sioux Uprising.

1866: Elements of the Fourteenth Infantry fought some
Indians near Jordan Creek, Oregon. One soldier was
wounded; one Indian was killed according to army records.

1867: According to army records, members of the First
Cavalry and Ninth Infantry fought with a band of Indians
near Surprise Valley, California. Five Indians were
reported killed, and two were captured.

1867: According to army records, members of the First
Cavalry fought with a band of Indians near Warm Springs,
Idaho. Two Indians were reported killed, and five were

1878: According to Army files, Victorio Rios and Sevoriano
Elivano were killed by Indians near Point of Rocks,
Limpia Canyon, Texas.

1911: President Taft issued several executive orders
that allowed the sale, use, or manufacture of alcoholic
beverages in former Indian Reservations that had been
ceded to the United States. The tribes that had ceded
the land were the Chippewa of Lake Superior, Pillager,
Red Lake, Pembina; and the Lake Traverse Sioux. President
Taft also issued Executive Order No. 1299 that stated
that Pillager Chippewa lands in Minnesota ceded to the
United States by the Treaty of August 21, 1847, would
no longer be held in trust as Indian lands.

1922: President Warren Harding issued an executive order
that would “withdraw from settlement, entry, sale or other disposition”
approximately 386.85 acres of Zia Pueblo
Indian lands in New Mexico until March 5, 1924. This
order replaced Executive Order No. 3351, issued on
November 6, 1920.


February 17

1690: While traveling through the area, French explorer
Henri de Tonti visited the Natchitoches Confederation
(near modern Natchitoches, Louisiana).

1792: An addenda was made to the Holston River Treaty.
Payment for ceded land went from $1,000 to $1,500 annually.
The new treaty was signed in Philadelphia by six Cherokees,
including Bloody Fellow. As a part of the ceremony.
President Washington gave Bloody Fellow the new name
of Iskagua (Clear Sky).

1792: Chickamauga Chief Glass attacked settler John
Collingsworth and his family near Nashville, Tennessee.
He killed them all except for an eight-year-old girl.
When he returned to Lookout Town, Glass performed a
scalp dance as a part of his celebration. Dragging
Canoe’s enthusiastic participation in this dance led
to his death on March 1, 1792.

1793: In Pensacola Florida, Creek Chief Alexander
McGillivray died.

1829: Thomas McKenney, head of the Bureau of Indian
Affairs, sent orders to Little Rock, Arkansas, Indian
agent Major Edward DuVal. DuVal was instructed to
prohibit white people from entering or settling on
Indian lands without the Indians’ approval.

1861: The Choctaw Council authorized their principal
chief to appoint delegates to any future intertribal
meeting to decide relations with the United States. If
the United States ever split into two countries, the
Choctaw delegates were authorized to open relations
with the Confederacy. The chief was also instructed to
let the southern governors know the Choctaw were
inclined to support their cause.

1871: President Grant, by executive order, rescinded
the initial boundaries of the Mission Indian Reservations,
primarily in San Diego County, California. They were
reestablished by other acts on December 27, 1875, and
May 15, 1876.

1871: Indians attacked settlements near Fort Bayard in
southwestern New Mexico, killing settlers, burning ranches,
and seizing livestock. Cavalry troops pursued the Indians
into the mountains. The soldiers burned villages and
property. One soldier and fourteen Indians were reported
killed. Two soldiers and twenty Indians were wounded,
according to army reports.

1909: Geronimo (Goyathlay) died at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

1912: Executive Order Nos. 1482 and 1483 modified the
status of certain Indian lands in New Mexico.

1969: The acting assistant commissioner of Indian
affairs authorized an election to amend the constitution
and bylaws of the Kalispel Indian Community of the Kalispel Reservation.
The election would be held on June 18, 1969.


February 18

1837: General Ellis Wool had been assigned the task of
preventing the Cherokees from revolting after the passage
of the New Echota Treaty on December 29, 1835. General
Wool tried to get the Cherokees to acquiesce to the treaty,
but to no avail. He reported opposition to the treaty was
so prevalent that starving Cherokees would not take help
from the government for fear that it might imply their
consent to the treaty.

1861: The Arapaho and Cheyenne signed a treaty (12 Stat.
1163) at Fort Wise in southeastern Colorado. The United
States was represented by Albert Boone and F. B. Culver.
It established a reservation bounded by Sand Creek and
the Arkansas River. The Indians thought it allowed them
the right to hunt freely outside of the reservation, but
the treaty contained no such clause. Only six of the
forty-four Cheyenne chiefs were present to sign, Black
Kettle being one. Other than the Indians who signed on
this date, no others ever signed it. The validity of the
treaty was contested for a long time. The fort was
renamed Fort Lyon.

1865: The second Julesburg, Colorado, skirmish takes place.

1867: The Sac and Fox signed a treaty (15 Stat.495). They
sell much of what remains of their reservation.

1876: Twenty-Fifth Infantry soldiers fought some Indians
in the Carrizo Mountains in Texas. According to army
documents, no casualties were recorded.


February 19

1725: Documents regarding the Delaware Walking Purchase
Treaty were discovered.

1778: Virginia Governor Patrick Henry was upset by the
actions of several white “frontiersmen” against the
Indians. They had killed Shawnee Chief Cornstalk and four
other Shawnees who had lived in peace with their neighbors.
Today Governor Henry wrote a letter to Colonel William
Fleming suggesting that perhaps the murderers were British
agents trying to instigate a fight with the Indians to
divert troops away from the Revolutionary War.

1799: Congress passed “An Act Appropriating a Certain Sum
of Money to Defray the Expense of Holding a Treaty or
Treaties with the Indians.”

1808: Congress passed “An Act Making Appropriations for
Carrying into Effect Certain Indian Treaties.”

1819: Congress passed an appropriation of $10,000 a year
to be used for the education of some Indian tribes.

1867: The negotiations on a treaty (15 Stat. 505) were
concluded. Article 3 set aside land in the North and South
Dakota Lake Traverse Reservation. Eventually, the Sisseton
Wahpeton Sioux Tribe occupied the land.

1877: Scout Colonel Nelson Miles, sent out on February
1, 1877, returned with nineteen chiefs and leading warriors.
They wished to discuss specifics of Miles’s terms of
surrender. The term were the same—unconditional surrender—
and return to designated agencies. The Indians left to
council with their people.

1889: The Quileute Reserve was established by executive

1889: Gabriel Dumont was a Metis chief and actively
participated in Riel’s Rebellion. He received a government
pardon for those actions.

1915: Lands that were set aside for the Arizona militia
by executive order on July 23, 1914, were returned to
Navajo tribal ownership.

1937: The Pawnee Indian Tribe of Oklahoma compiled an
official census.

1968: Robert Kennedy was serving as chairman of the
Senate subcommittee on Indian education. At a hearing
in Twin Oaks, Oklahoma, Kennedy stated the opinion that
cultural differences were a national resource, not a burden.

1976: An amendment to the constitution of the Tuolumne
Band of Me-Wok Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria was
approved by a vote of 25 to 1.

1991: The Salamanca, New York lease expires.


February 20

1755: General Edward Braddock reached Virginia (French
and Indian War).

1832: Northeastern District Choctaw Chief Peter Pitchlynn
and his followers arrived in Fort Smith in western
Arkansas. Floods, cold weather, low rivers, and mud had
delayed their trip considerably.

1863: Cherokee Chief John Ross had been arrested by Union
forces and taken to Washington, D.C. In the interim, Stand
Watie had been elected tribal chief at the First
Confederate Cherokee Conference. At Cow Skin Prairie,
Cherokees loyal to John Ross revoked the treaty with the
South and pledged loyalty to the Union. They removed
Confederates from office, emancipated slaves, and
confirmed John Ross as principal chief.

1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the First Cavalry
near Fossil Creek, Arizona, according to army documents.
Five Indians were killed, and four were captured.

1874: Indians fought with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry
around the Bill Williams Mountains in Arizona. According
to army documents, three Indians were killed during this
engagement, which lasted until April 21.

1893: A congressional act modified the White Mountain–
San Carlos–Camp Apache Reserve in western Arizona
Territory. It was amended further on June 10, 1896. At
its largest, it comprised 2,866 square miles and was
occupied by Arivaipa, Chillion, Chiricahua, Coyotero,
Membreno, Mogollon, Mohave, Pinal, San Carlos, Tonto,
and Yuma Apache Tribes.

1904: The executive order issued on January 25, 1904,
returning a tract of land set aside for the Pine Ridge
School Reservation to the public domain was modified.

1949: The Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin’s Tribal
Council delegated to an executive committee the powers
exercised by the general council in article 4 if their

1973: The deputy assistant secretary of the interior
authorized an election to amend the revised constitution
and bylaws for the Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe of
South Dakota. The election would take place on March
16 and 17, 1973.


February 21

1756: According to some reports, an agreement covering
alliances and fort construction was reached by
representatives of the British in Virginia and the Catawba.

1803: President Thomas Jefferson submitted a treaty
between the United States and the Tuscarora of North
Carolina to the U.S. Senate. The treaty was signed in
Raleigh, North Carolina, on December 4, 1802.

1828: Elias Boudinot (Buck Watie), as editor, established
the Cherokee Phoenix newspaper in New Echota.

1861: The rich members of the Navajo tribe (the so-called
Rico leaders) met with Colonel Edward Canby at the new
Fort Fauntleroy in western New Mexico. The meeting
included such leaders as Manuelito, Delgadito, Armijo,
Barboncito, and Herrero Grande. During the meeting, the
Navajos choose Herrero Grande as the head chief of the
Navajo. The parley led to a “treaty” whereby the Navajos
promised to live in peace with their non-Indian neighbors.
The fort later was renamed Fort Lyon, then Fort Wingate.

1861: Camp Cooper was officially decommissioned and
abandoned. It was located on the Clear Fork of the Brazos
River, not far from Fort Griffin in modern Throckmorton
County, Texas. The camp was established to keep watch
over a nearby Comanche Reservation.

1864: After the battles in the Canyon de Chelly, Herrero
Grande and 300 of his followers turn themselves in to
army authorities. They eventually participate in the
Long Walk to the Bosque Redondo Reservation in New

1876: Forty-six people were trapped in the trading
post at Fort Pease in central Montana by hostile Indians.
On this date, Major James Brisbin, and 221 officers,
soldiers, and volunteers left Fort Ellis, Montana, to
rescue the party (see March 4, 1876).

1911: Comanche Chief Quanah Parker died. He was eventually
buried at Fort Sill in south-central Oklahoma. His
headstone reads, “resting here until day breaks and
darkness disappears is Quanah Parker, the last Chief
of the Comanches. Died Feb.21,1911, age sixty-four
years.” (Also recorded as February 23.)

1931: The Papago Reservation in Sells, Arizona, was

1935: The Inuit of the Mackensie Delta had decided
to raise reindeer as an economic enterprise. A herd
of 2,300 reindeer, herded by Lapps and Eskimos, arrived
at the Mackensie Delta. The effort proved to be very

1940: An election was held on two proposed amendments
to the constitution and bylaws of the Confederated
Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. The
constitution was approved in an election held on December
18, 1937. Amendment 1 was passed 93-68. Amendment 2 was
passed 149-15.

1956: Land ownership on Tulalip Reservation in Washington
was questioned.

1978: The area director of the Sacramento office of the
Bureau of Indian Affairs authorized an election for an
amendment to the constitution of the Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute
Tribe of the Benton Paiute Reservation in California. The
election would be held on May 27, 1978, according to a
government document.


February 22

1637: Lieutenant Lion Gardiner was commander of some
of the forces at Fort Saybrook, Connecticut. He led some
men out to get rid of the undergrowth that might hide
approaching Indians. They were attacked by Pequot. Two of
the settlers were killed in the fighting.

1676: According to some sources, 300 Indians attacked
Medfield, Massachusetts, near Boston. They killed twenty
settlers and took many more captive. Some settlers said
King Philip was involved.

1740: After leaving Fort Assumption (modern Memphis) with
a force of 180 French troops and 400 Choctaws and Iroquois,
French Captain Pierre Celeron finally arrived at one of
the main fortified Chickasaw villages in the region. After
a brief exchange of gunfire by Celeron’s allies and the
Chickasaw, a conference was arranged. Believing Celeron’s
expedition was only the precursor of a major French
expedition, the Chickasaw agreed to return captives,
destroy the bulwarks of their forts, and come to Fort
Assumption for formal peace talks. Celeron’s forces
remained in the Chickasaw villages until March 15th.

1819: The “Treaty of Amity, Settlement, and Limits Between
the United States of America and His Catholic Majesty”
of Spain was signed. It was regarding Florida.

1831: The state of Georgia had seized Cherokee lands.
Cherokee leaders had complained to many federal government
officials. On February 15, the U.S. Senate officially
asked President Andrew Jackson if he was going to live
up to the Indian Trade and Intercourse Act passed in March
1802. Today, President Jackson responded to the Senate’s
inquiry. Unequivocally, Jackson stated he sided with the
state of Georgia and he would not enforce any law giving
precedence to the Cherokees over Georgia.

1838: Mikanopy, King Philip, Coahadjo, Little Cloud, and
almost 220 other Seminoles board a ship in Charleston,
South Carolina, bound for New Orleans and the Indian
Territory (present-day Oklahoma).

1838: Cherokee Chief John Ross presented to Congress a
petition signed by 15,665 Cherokee (there were
approximately 18,000 Cherokees in all) repudiating the
New Echota treaty. They reminded Congress that when a
similar rigged treaty was ratified in 1825 then–President
Adams had it nullified. The Senate did not act on the

1855: The Sandy Lake Indian Reservation was created in
Minnesota as a part of a treaty (10 Stat. 1165). This
treaty was signed in Washington, D.C., by the
“Mississippi, Pillager and Lake Winnebigoshish Bands of
Chippewa Indians.”

1856: Many Rogue River War volunteers were at a party
away from camp when Indians attacked the camp. Twenty-
four whites were killed, including a captain and an
Indian agent. This was the beginning of a series of raids
along the river.

1866: Elements of the Fourteenth Infantry fought some
Indians near Jordan Creek, Oregon. One soldier was killed,
another wounded. Eighteen Indians were killed, and two
were wounded, according to Fourteenth Infantry records.

1872: Indians skirmished with a group of settlers near
Cullumber’s Station, Arizona, according to official army
records. Two settlers were killed.

1876: Second Cavalry and Seventh Infantry soldiers fought
some Indians near Fort Pease, Montana. According to army
documents, six civilians were killed and eight were wounded.
The fighting lasted through March 17.

1877: Settlers fought a group of Indians in the Staked
Plains (Llano Estacado) of northern Texas. According to
army documents, one settler was killed.

1944: Jack C. Montgomery, a Cherokee, was a first
lieutenant with the Forty-fifth Infantry in Italy. For
his solo actions against three different enemy positions,
he would be awarded the Medal of Honor.

1981: The Vietnam-era Veterans Intertribal Associations
held formal meetings.


February 23

1540: According to some sources, the Coronado expedition
began preparations to get under way.

1832: Chickasaw Chief Levi Colbert told President Jackson
the Chickasaw agreed to the removal to Indian Territory
(present-day Oklahoma). He informed the president they
cannot reach an agreement with the Choctaws on sharing
lands, so the provisional treaty of September 1, 1830,
was void.

1833: According to a government report, by this date it
was estimated approximately 6,000 Choctaws had been
removed to the west. Some 1,000 Choctaws had gone on their
own, without having to be removed by the government.

1836: Cherokees in Texas signed a treaty with the local
settlers. It was eventually repudiated by then–Texas
President Mirabeau B. Lamar.

1839: Almost 900 Cherokees under the leadership of fellow
Cherokee Reverend Jesse Bushyhead arrived in Indian
Territory (present-day Oklahoma). They sustain thirty-
eight deaths while on their forced emigration.

1865: Major General G. M. Dodge, in St. Louis, sent the
following message by telegram to Colonel Ford at Fort
Riley: “The military have no authority to treat with Indians.
Our duty is to make them keep the peace by punishing them
for their hostility. Keep posted as to their location, so
that as soon as ready we can strike them. 400 horses
arrived here for you.”

1867: The Quapaw gave up their lands in Kansas and a
large part of their lands in northern Indian Territory
(present-day Oklahoma).

1867: According to army records, members of the First
Cavalry fought with a band of Indians near Meadow Valley,
Arizona. One soldier was reported wounded.

1867: According to a treaty (15 Stat. 513), all members of
the Miami tribe could become citizens of Kansas if they
wished to did so. Those who did not wish to do this had to
move to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).

1875: Indians fought with soldiers from the Fifth Cavalry
and some Indian scouts near Camp Apache, Arizona.
According to army documents, fifteen Indians were killed,
and 122 were captured. This engagement started on
January 2.

1875: Lieutenant Colonel J. W. Davidson’s troops of the
Tenth Cavalry captured sixty-five Kiowa men, and 175
women and children, on the Salt Fork of the Red River in
Texas. Also taken were 300 horses and mules. Among the
captured were Lone Wolf, Red Otter, and Lean Bull,
according to army reports.

1877: Lieutenant J. F. Cummings and Troop C, Third
Cavalry, attacked a group of hostileIndians near Deadwood,
Dakota Territory. One Indian was killed; 624 head of
live stock were recovered.

1878: Army reports say R. W. Barry and Juan Dial were
killed by Indians twenty-three miles from Fort Duncan,
near Eagle Pass, Texas, on the Laredo Road.

1889: Congress approved an agreement signed by Lemhi
Chief Tendoy and several others to move from the Lemhi
Reservation in Idaho to Fort Hall. The agreement was
signed on May 14, 1880. The Lemhi would not actually
move until 1909.

1939: Land acquired on June 16, 1933, under the National
Industrial Recovery Act was transferred from the
jurisdiction of the secretary of the agriculture to the
secretary of the interior, by executive order, as a part
of the Milk River Land Utilization Project on the Fort
Peck Indian Reservation in Montana.

1945: Ira Hayes participated in the flag-raising on
Iwo Jima.

1962: Assistant Secretary of the Interior John A. Carver
Jr. ratified an election that approved an amendment to
the constitution and bylaws for the Pyramid Lake Paiute
Tribe of Nevada. The election was held on December 26, 1961.

1970: The Pueblo of Isleta approved a new constitution
by a vote of 347-29. It would go into affect on April 10, 1970.


February 24

1730: With both sides running out of ammunition, the French
and the Natchez Indians agreed on a peace settlement. The
Natchez release all of their prisoners, and the French
withdraw to the Mississippi River. The French were anxious
to make the agreement because their Choctaw allies
expressed a desire to quit the fight. The prisoners were
released to the Choctaw, who demanded a ransom for their
services. The Natchez eventually escaped into the

1831: The Choctaw Dancing Rabbit Creek Treaty (11 Stat.
537) was ratified by the U.S. Senate. The Choctaw left
Mississippi for Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).
While many Choctaw were opposed to the treaty, they
lacked organization. It was publicly proclaimed on
May 26, 1831.

1848: As a part of the war against the Cayuse who
attacked the Whitman Mission in Oregon Country, a fight
takes place. The Cayuse lost eight men, including Chief
Gray Eagle, and had five warriors wounded. Lieutenant
Colonel Waters and four other soldiers were wounded.

1897: Api-kai-ees (Deerfoot) was a Siksika (Blackfeet)
man known for his ability as a long-distance runner. He
was well known in the Calgary area, where a local freeway
today bears his name. He died on this day.

1954: Starting the day before, and continuing today, an
election was held to approve an amended constitution and
bylaws for the San Carlos Apache Tribe. It would be
approved by a vote of 405-402.

1976: William Finale, area director of the Sacramento
area office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, approved an
election for amendments to the constitution of the Tuolumne
Band of Me-Wok Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria. They
were enacted.


February 25

1643: For the last two years there had been several
incidents sparked by both Indians and settlers that have
led to bloodshed in the area around modern New York City.
The only Indians in the area were some peaceful Indians
seeking refuge from the Mohawks. Through the next day,
New Amsterdam citizens, with the approval of Dutch Director
Kieft and led by Maryn Adriaensen, attacked a peaceful
Wecquaesgeek village at Corlaer’s Hook near the Pavonia
settlements (near modern Jersey City). The Dutch soldiers
killed not only the warriors but all of the eighty Indians
in the camp, including women and children. This fight
became known as the Pavonia Massacre, and it incited
numerous reprisals. Adriaensen was exiled to Holland for
three years as punishment for leading the attack once the
population learned of the fight. He would return, and
receive a land grant from Director Kieft, three years
later. Some accounts say only thirty Indians were killed.
1689: According to some sources, an agreement of alliance
and allegiance was reached between representatives of the
Five Nations and the British in New York.

1779: Indians left Vincennes.

1799: Congress passed “An Act Making Appropriations for
Defraying the Expenses Which May Arise in Carrying into
Effect Certain Treaties Between the United States and
Several Tribes or Nations of Indians.”

1825: Under a Treaty signed today, the United States had
“specific trust responsibilities to protect the property,
persons and lives of the Oglala Sioux people. The United
States agree to receive the Ogallalla Band of Sioux into
their friendship, and under their protection.”

1839: Captain Jacob Burleson and fifty-three other Texas
Rangers fought a group of Comanche near Brushy Creek
(near modern Taylor, Texas). The Indians gained the upper
hand. Later the next day, other Rangers arrived and
pursued the fleeing Indians. Burleson was killed in the

1858: A group of Bannock and a few Shoshone stole some
cattle from the local Mormon settlers near Fort Limhi,
Idaho. This led to a brief battle with a couple of
settlers being killed. The fort would be abandoned on
March 27, 1858.

1871: Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie took over command of
the Fourth Cavalry at Fort Concho (modern San Angelo, Texas).

1875: After the battle of Palo Duro Canyon, Lone Wolf and
his followers head across the plains. But after a
relentless search by the army, on this date Lone Wolf
and 252 Kiowa finally surrendered at Fort Sill in south-
central Oklahoma. Lone Wolf eventually was sent as a
prisoner of war to Fort Marion in St. Augustine, Florida.

1874: Regulations regarding the Skokomish Reserve were

1956: An election to approve an amendment to the
constitution and bylaws of the Tule River Indian Tribe
was held. The vote was 36-11 in favor of Amendment 3.

1983: The state of Virginia officially recognized the
Chickahominy, Eastern Chickahominy, Mattaponi, and
Upper Mattaponi, Monacan, Nansemond, Pamunkey, and
United Rappahanock Tribes.

1987: The legality of Indian bingo was upheld by
courts in California.

1998: The Oglala Sioux Tribal Council declared the
twenty-fifth anniversary of the Wounded Knee occupation
a tribal holiday. It designated the occupation a historic
and cultural event that brought attention to Indian issues.

1998: The U.S. Supreme Court ruled against the Native
Village of Venetie tribal governments, stating there
was no Indian country in Alaska, save one reservation.
This ruling was part of an effort of this tribe to tax
a company in their “territory.”


February 26

1757: Built by Pennsylvania troops at Shamokin on the
Susquehanna River at the juncture of several Indian
trails, Fort Augusta was surrounded and briefly held
under siege by Indians. The Indians left after a few
days but return in a few months.

1860: The Wiyot lived on the upper California coast
between the Little River and the Bear River. An annual
ceremony lasting over a week was held in the village of
Tutulwat on an island in the river in what is now Eureka,
California. By Wiyot tradition, everyone was welcome at
the ceremony, including whites. Tonight, after the
ceremonies were finished, a group of men from Eureka
sneaked into the village and attacked the participants.
Several other nearby villages were also attacked. An
estimated eighty to 100 Indians were killed in the sneak
attack. An annual vigil is now held on a nearby island to
commemorate the event.

1871: Indians attacked a hunter’s camp, stole the stock,
and burned the camp near Grinnell, Kansas.

1872: Indians skirmished with a group of settlers near
Camp Bowie, Arizona, according to official army records.
One settler was killed, and one was wounded.

1873: Indians fought with soldiers from the Eighth Cavalry
near Angostura, New Mexico, according to army documents.
Five Indians were killed, and seven were wounded.

1881: According to Army records, 325 Sioux, believed to
be primarily from Sitting Bull’s camp, surrendered to
Major David Brotherton, Seventh Infantry, at Fort Buford,
near the North Dakota–Montana line. Some 150 horses and
forty guns were turned in by the Indians.

1937: The secretary of the interior approved a constitution
for the Kickapoo Tribe.

1937: The constitution of the Iowa Tribe of Kansas and
Nebraska was approved.


February 27

1699: Fearing an English takeover of the Mississippi
Valley, Frenchman Pierre le Moyne, Sieur d’Iberville,
was granted permission to establish a series of forts
along the lower Mississippi River. He begins his voyage
up the Mississippi. (Also recorded as happening on March 3.)

1754: In a letter to Pennsylvania Governor James Hamilton,
the Pennsylvania assembly assails the European traders
cheating the local Indians. The traders were equated
with the worst of European criminals.

1760: Tonight there was a skirmish at Fort Dobbs
(modern Salisbury, North Carolina). A war party of
Cherokees attacked the fort. Troops led by Captain
Hugh Waddell beat back the attack, killing almost a
dozen warriors. Waddell posted no losses to his force.

1798: Congress passed “An Act Appropriating a Certain
Sum of Money to Defray the Expense of Holding a Treaty
or Treaties with the Indians.”

1803: President Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter to William
Henry Harrison. He expressed his belief that promoting
trading houses among the Indians led to the Indians
incurring greater debts. He felt these debts could lead
to the United States acquiring more lands to pay off
the debts.

1819: The Cherokee signed a treaty (7 Stat.195). The
United States was represented by Secretary of War John
C. Calhoun.

1836: General Edmund Gaines had marched from Tampa Bay
to Fort King in central Florida to put down the Seminole
Uprising. When he arrived in Fort King, he did not find
enough supplies to feed his troops or mounts. Gaines
ordered his 1,100 troops to return to Tampa Bay. While
attempting to cross the Withlacoochee River, Gaines was
attacked by a Seminole force of 1,500 warriors. Gaines
built a stockade and sent for reinforcements during the
battle. After ten days of fighting, both sides agreed
to a truce, with formal peace talks to come later.

1839: Reverend Stephen Foreman and 911 fellow Cherokees
arrived in the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma).
They lost fifty-seven of their group to deaths along the
trail. There were nineteen births during the trip.

1866: President Andrew Johnson issued an executive order
that set aside additional lands for the Santee Sioux
in Nebraska.

1867: An act (15 Stat. 531) was passed regarding the
reservation occupied by the Prairie Band of Potawatomi
Indians. It covered 29.75 square miles of territory in

1867: According to army records, members of a hunting
party from near Fort Reno, Dakota Territory, fought with
some Indians. Three soldiers were reported as wounded.

1869: According to army records, members of the Fourteenth
Infantry fought with a band of Indians near Camp Grant.
Two civilians were killed, and one soldier was wounded.

1885: “That tract of country in the Territory of Dakota,
known as the Old Winnebago Reservation and the Sioux on
Crow Creek Reservation, and lying on the east bank of the
Missouri River” was modified by law.

1925: Laws were enacted affecting Phoenix Indian School
land in Arizona.

1958: Randall Dam and Reservoir Project required
condemnation actions in South Dakota.

1973: The siege of Wounded Knee began. It lasted until
May 8, 1973.

1973: An election to approve a constitution and bylaws
for the Cortina Band of Indians on the Cortina Indian
Rancheria in Colusa County, California, was authorized
by the deputy assistant secretary of the interior. The
election occurred on July 18, 1973.

1979: The area director of the Sacramento office of the
Bureau of Indian Affairs, William Finale, approved an
amendment for the constitution for the Utu Utu Gwaitu
Paiute Tribe of the Benton Paiute Reservation in California.


February 28

1675: The Mission Santa Cruz de Sabacola El Menor was
dedicated. The mission was for the Sawoklis Indians on
the Apalachicola River.

1681: The charter for the Province of Pennsylvania was

1683: According to some sources, a land cession agreement
was reached between representatives of the Wimbee Indians
and South Carolina colonies.

1704: Today and through the next day, in what was the
first American battle in Queen Anne’s War at Deerfield
in central Massachusetts, was attacked by Indians and
French under Major Hertel de Rouville. Of the almost 300
inhabitants, about fifty were killed, and as many as 180
were taken prisoner.

1780: The village of Nashborough (Nashville) was started.

1809: Congress passes “An Act for the Relief of Certain
Alibama and Wyandot Indians.”

1837: A few Creek Indians attacked the Alberson homestead
on the Alabama-Florida border. The Creeks were reported
to have killed the entire family.

1859: By government act, 558 square miles were set aside
for the establishment of the Gila River Reserve in the
Pima Agency south of Phoenix, Arizona. It was occupied
by the Maricopa and Pima Tribes.

1873: After the first battle in the northern California
lava beds, Captain Jack’s cousin, Winema, and some friendly
local whites came to visit him. Winema had married a
white settler. In a council on this night, the white men
told Captain Jack that peace commissioners wanted to met
with them. When asked, they also said that Hooker Jim was
not be tried for his killing raid in Oregon but was to be
sent to a reservation in Oklahoma instead. Captain Jack
agreed to met with the commissioners and to hear what they
had to say.

1877: The Standing Rock Sioux Reservation had been created
by the Treaty of April 29, 1868, and an act of Congress
(19 Stat. 254) in Dakota Territory. It covered 4,176 square
miles and was occupied by “Blackfeet, Hunkpapa, Lower and
Upper Tanktonai Sioux.” Article 8 of the act provided that
each individual Oglala Sioux person “shall be protected
in his rights of property, person and life.”

1929: The Northwestern Shoshone Jurisdictional Act was

1941: According to Federal Register Nos. 6FR01229 and
6FR01230, Executive Order Nos. 8696 and 8670 were issued.
They transferred the jurisdiction of certain Pueblo
Indian lands in New Mexico from the secretary of the
agriculture to the secretary of the interior.


February 29

1704: The battle started the day before at Deerfield,
Massachusetts, continued.

1836: General Edmund Gaines and 1,100 soldiers had been
engaged in a battle with a force of 1,500 Seminoles
under Chief Osceola since February 27. The Americans
built a stockade on February 27. The Seminoles mounted a
major attack on the stockade. Many men were wounded on
both sides during the attack. The fighting continued
until March 6, 1836.

1936: An election was held to approve a constitution and
bylaws for the Santee Sioux Tribe of the Sioux Nation of
the state of Nebraska. The vote was 284-60 in favor.


That's it for now.

Have a great month.

Phil Konstantin

End of Phil Konstantin's February 2008 Newsletter - Part 1
Start of Phil Konstantin's February 2008 Newsletter - Part 2


Here is the rest of this month's newsletter. I told you
there would be much more!

You will notice several items below which include e-mail
address. One of the quirks of this mass e-mail program is
that it tends to blank out some of the letters in an
e-mail address. So, to counteract this, I have put spaces
on either side of the @ in the e-mail address. So, if you
want to contact one the addresses you see in this
newsletter, just copy the entire address and delete the
spaces before and after the @ sign.



Online questions from people who have visited my website:

If you can answer their question, please contact them directly.

Lulu Richards lulunyc @ gmail.com wrote:


I was looking at your website and found it very interesting.

I wonder if you could point me in the right direction. Im
looking for information on Silver Cloud. All I know he
was from the Navajo tribe.

Any help would be greatly appreciated.

Lulu :)


Officer Phil,

I am of American Heritage of the Apache Nation of the
Cherica tribe. However I do not have a number. My
Grandmother (Father's Mother) is of Creole decent and
I have always been told by my Father of my Indian Heritage
and well as the Black,French,English, & Irish. I am so
lost. Wrote to Indian Affairs in Washington D.C. I
NEVER heard anything back from them. Living here in
National City everyone assumes I'm Mexican and I have
to correct them to which they get angry.

Where else can I search and what do I would like to
prove my Heritage. When you look at my children the
Indian shows through. I was not raised as an Indian. My
mother would NOT allow it. She hated the thought that my
father was also black and Indian something she didn't
know until she met my Grandmother AFTER her and my father
were married. She despised that I came out the color I am
and showed it through abuse. I was born in 1954 so there
were no child protective services around then. My other
siblings came out with white skin but than they my
father's children either as my mother lead my Father to
believe(That's another story that doesn't pertain to me)

Have been searching for so long to find my heritage of
American Indian background. I too a proud of who I am
and proud that I am a TRUE AMERICAN.

Thank You for anything you may be able to help me with

Redbonepalmer @ sbcglobal.net


can you please tell me what this name or word means and
what language it may of came from. it may be spelled many ways.

Mekompoa, mehompoa, nekompoa, nehompoa.

Lovleyjadedmoon @ sbcglobal.net


hey y'all

my storyteller/historian friend john paeno over here on
"the islands" has put this really cool theatrical piece about
the calusa indians. i've been asked to do the flute music &
dance component (which will be a blast.)

i'm searching for dances particular to tribes here in s.
fl., as my penobscot indian friend in maine suggests looking
for regional rather than just calusa dance since even the
calusa experts aren't able to find strictly calusa dance info.
(the calusa were wiped out so long ago)

so do any of y'all have any info re: s. fl tribal dance?

also- we'll be writing for a grant to get my penobscot
indian friend down here so we can teach a penobscot dance
arama. (their dances are really fun!)

any particular fl grants (or other grants) y'all think may
make sense.

Annie Wenz
Performing Artist/ Songpoet/ RN/ Educator
Player of Indigenous Flutes & Percussion
Guitar, Piano & Harleys



I write you because i have a very short poem (4 sentences),
already translated in more of 130 languages... even
hieroglyphs and maya by researchers and in some amerindians
languages, cherokee, sioux, mahican etc... i also have
cheyenne but its perhaps cree


I should be very happy to get new amerindians translations
i hope my short poem could give you some emotions and that
you would help me to found new amerindian translations
waiting for your news
thanks from france

Pouemes @ free.fr


Music video:

Redbone - Come & Get You Love


From Josef Graf:

The following article is available for media. Those operating
on a limited budget have full permission to print/post this
and other articles on the Earth Vision site. Also, a link to
the EV site would be very helpful. For all others, a donation
is requested to support the EV project (go to site - click on
"contact" and proceed to donate):

The Earth Vision project has posted the winter environmental
issue, which can be viewed here (also available as an
attachment on this email):

The Return of Bison and Wolf - instigating North America's

The Return of Bison and Wolf is a visionary call for the
re-mapping of Great Plains¢ ecology. In response to
environmental degradation of the region, Earth Vision
promotes a progressive replacement for the debased cattle
industry, in tandem with a seed-point strategy for the
eco-renaissance of North America.

Other environmental issues can be accessed here:
Current Environmental Issues of the Earth Vision project

Issues include:
The disappearing honeybee situation,
Why the Bees are Dying - and how to bring them back
wherein, contrary to the numerous reports in print thus
far, which fail to arrive at the cause, Earth Vision manages
to address the root of the issue.

And the End of Real Estate - and what can take its place

Lastly, a media page leads to several other articles of

Media Page for Earth Vision

Best regards to all supporters of nature and the EV project,
Josef Graf
nature in the light of spiritual ecology


As usual, this is posted FYI only. I do not necessarily
support these events or causes.

Use your own judgment before your do anything.


Drum Making Workshop    
March 1-2 9:30 am Saturday-11 am Sunday

By Yolanda Martinez, Apache Master Drum Maker

Yolanda is an Apache/Hispanic Indian from southern New
Mexico. She has been making drums since 1987 and is considered
to be a Master Drum Maker. She also leads Drumming Circles,
Women Moon Lodge Circles and Spiritual Gatherings. Yolanda
is a NAMMY Winner, a Singer, Performer, and Recording Artist.
She has seven recordings to date.
14” $155.00
16” $175.00
18” $195.00
The price of the drum includes your hide, hoop, sinew,
Workshop Participation Cost is $130 Plus the
Price of Your Custom Drum Kit

Contact: Pam Tinker, phone/fax             703-768-0441   
Workshop includes dormitory style accommodations or tent
camping, All meals and refreshments, hot tub, and evening
fireside gathering.


FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: For more information:
January 4, 2008 Paula Arevalo
Parevalo @ kauffmaninc.com
            (866) 259-0060

Annual event sponsored by the Office of Indian Education
adds new category for writers Entries for the fourth annual
Native American Student Artist Competition, sponsored by the
Office of Indian Education (OIE) of the U.S. Department of
Education, will be accepted online at
www.indianeducation.org/sac through March 14, 2008.

The competition celebrates the values and documents the
successes of education in Indian communities and is open to
American Indian and Alaska Native students in grades Pre-K
through 12. Through this competition, OIE seeks to inspire
students to explore the connection between education and Native
culture. The 2008 competition for the first time will
include a personal narrative category for writers from
grades six through 12.

Entries for the 2008 Native American Student Artist
Competition should relate to the theme Circle of Empowerment: Education,
Language, Culture, Tradition and reflect the
promise and importance of pursuing an education for Native
youth. Submissions will be judged in six grade levels, and
prizes will be awarded to first, second and third place
winners in each category.

Additional information, rules and entry forms are available
at www.indianeducation.org/sac or by contacting competition coordinator
Paula Arevalo at parevalo @ kauffmaninc.com or
(866) 259-0060.

In the 2007 competition, Education: A Gift Without Boundaries,
a total of 1,379 students from 34 states submitted works in a
variety of media that demonstrated the value of culture, the
arts and academic achievement to Native youth. The winning
works were exhibited in Washington, D.C. at the U.S. Department
of Education headquarters, the Smithsonian’s National Museum
of the American Indian and the U.S. Department of Agriculture
headquarters. The 2007 exhibit is now traveling to the Chicago
Children's Museum (Dec. 10, 2007 – Jan. 18, 2008); Trickster
Gallery, American Indian Center, Schaumburg, Ill. (Jan. 21,
2008 – Feb. 26, 2008); Ancient Trader's Gallery, Minneapolis,
Minn. (March 3, 2008 – April 4, 2008); Indian Pueblo Cultural
Center, Albuquerque, N.M. (April 14, 2008 – May 14, 2008);
and Oklahoma History Center, Oklahoma City, Okla. (June 1 –
30, 2008).


The class is free through April 30, 2008

“Working Effectively With Tribal Governments” Training
Program Available

WASHINGTON, D.C. – Working Effectively With Tribal Governments,
a new online training course, is now available to provide
federal workers with better understanding and greater knowledge
of the intricacies and issues involved in working effectively
with Indian tribes. In recent years, the federal government
has put a great deal of emphasis on the importance of public
employees understanding the government to government
relationship that exists with Indian tribes. The training
course provides insights into the legal, historic, and cultural factors
that must be understood in order to create successful collaborative
undertakings among tribes and federal agencies.
The training course was created by an interagency group that prominently
included Monique Fordham, program specialist in
the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation’s (ACHP)
Native American Program.

Other agencies principally involved in the Federal Employee/
Workforce Native Education and Training group development
of the training were the Environmental Protection Agency and
the Department of Justice. Other partners in the effort
included the departments of the Interior, Housing and Urban Development,
Health and Human Services, Energy, Agriculture
(Forest Service), Commerce (Small Business Administration),
and the General Services Administration.

“It was great that the ACHP was able to play a primary role
to create this unprecedented training program,” Fordham said.
“There was no single source available to federal employees for
this essential information.

Before this was created the information had to be found and
assembled piecemeal from other sources, and most people don’t
have the background or the time that allowed them to do that completely
and effectively.”

The training course takes about an hour to complete online
and will be offered free to federal employees and the public
through April 30, 2008. After that date, there will be a cost
to take the training. Visit www.GoLearn.gov. GoLearn is a site
administered by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, which provided
technical assistance and program development oversight
for the course.

The training course was unveiled at a January 31, 2008 event
in the National Press Club in Washington, D.C. that was opened
by Joe Garcia, president of the National Congress of American
Indians, and Carl Artman, Assistant Secretary of Indian
Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior. Also participating
in the session were Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne; Deputy
Assistant to the President and Director of Intergovernmental
Affairs Janet Creighton; ACHP Chairman John L. Nau, III;
Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Steve Johnson;
U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) Deputy Administrator
Jovita Carranza; Acting Assistant Attorney General Jeffry L.
Sedgwick; and, William Largent of SBA, who is the narrator
of the training module and who demonstrated it at the
National Press Club unveiling.


Annual Patty Iron Cloud National Native American Youth


The Association of American Indian Physicians (AAIP) is now
accepting applications for the 11th Annual Patty Iron Cloud
National Native American Youth Initiative which will be held
in Washington D.C. , June 21 - 29, 2008.

American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students,
ages 16- 18, who have an interest in the health careers and/or
biomedical research are encouraged to apply. The NNAYI
scholarship pays for travel, lodging, and most meals during
the program. NNAYI's curriculum is strategically designed to
prepare students for admission to college and professional
schools, as well as for careers in health and biomedical

To accompany the students, AAIP is accepting applications for
counselors, age 21 and older, to serve as role models during
the nine-day program. AI/AN college students and health
professionals are encouraged to apply.

Feel free to share this information with other interested
parties. Deadline for student application is April 18, 2008
and for counselor application is March 21, 2008.
Please visit the NNAYI website:
to obtain detail information and to access the on-line application.

Keirsten C. Hale, Outreach Educator, Four Tribes Women's
Wellness Coalition
841 Central Avenue Horton, KS 66439
(785) 486-2996
Carla J. S. Messinger
Native American Heritage Programs
V: 610.434.6819    F: 610.434.7285
E: palenape @ enter.net   W: www.lenapeprograms.info
1819 1/2 Linden Street Allentown PA 18103-5635 USA

Native American Heritage Programs is recognized by the
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as a Woman/Minority Business
& Certified by the Delaware Office of Minority & Women
Business Enterprise


Fwd: two summer internships open for both grad and undergrad
students; CBO internship for grad students only.

Securities and Exchange Commission summer positions for students

Summer Honors College and Summer Honors Business Program
applications have opened. Below you will find the information
posted on our student

employment web-site at http://www.sec.gov/jobs/jobs_students.shtml.
Please share this with interested students and school contacts.
Summer Honors College Program 
The Securities and Exchange Commission's Summer Honors College Program
introduces undergraduate students pursuing degrees in such areas as
accounting, economics, finance, human resource management and
information technology/information security, among others, to the
regulation of the securities markets and the work of the Commission.
Students have the opportunity to work for ten weeks during the summer at
the Commission's Washington, DC headquarters or in one of its 11
regional offices nationwide.

The application for the Summer Honors College Program is now open.
Applications will be accepted online via the following link:
 . Applications must be submitted via this link by
11:59 pm on March 17, 2008. Please note that applications may not be
sent to the Commission via US Mail, as in previous years, and that
selections are made on a rolling basis. Early submission of materials is

Summer Honors Business Program 

The Securities and Exchange Commission's Summer Honors Business Program
introduces students pursuing MBAs and other graduate degrees in such
areas as accounting, economics, finance, human resource management and
information technology/information security, among others, to the
regulation of the securities markets and the work of the Commission.
Students have the opportunity to work for ten weeks during the summer at
the Commission's Washington, DC headquarters or in one of its 11
regional offices nationwide.

Congressional Budget Office Internships for graduate students CBO
provides the Congress with the objective, timely, and nonpartisan
analyses needed for economic and budgetary decisions. Interns
contribute to CBO s work in program areas such as budget and tax policy,
health care, national defense, the environment, education, retirement
and other income assistance, regulation, and public investment.

Summer internships typically last for 10 weeks and include compensation
based on academic level and work experience.

Ideal candidates are pursuing graduate academic programs in:

          Public policy/Administration
          Health policy
          Financial management

Because the internship are project based, current college junior and
seniors are also eligible to apply in the event that CBO offers projects
based to their skill and experience level.

Information about the internship and the application procedure is
available on CBO's Web site, www.cbo.gov/employment/intern.cfm. The
application period for the 2008 Summer Internship Program is December
17, 2007 through March 3, 2008. Students provide general information
and submit their cover letter, resumes, references, and unofficial
transcripts or course information online. Students who register at
www.cbo.gov/vas_index.cfm will get an e-mail notifying them when CBO
begins accepting applications in future years and when we post new jobs.

Selections will be based on academic achievement, the relevance of
academic work to CBO's responsibilities, and work experience and should
be completed by April 4, 2008.
www.cbo.gov        jobs @ cbo.gov


Subject: Free Tuition Program for Low-Income Families at Harvard

know who wants to attend HARVARD?
FYI Folks!
Subject: Harvard University

Harvard University announced over the weekend that from now on
undergraduate students from low-income families will pay no tuition. In
making the announcement, Harvard's president Lawrence H. Summers said,
'When only 10 percent of the students in Elite higher education come
from families in lower half of the income distribution, we are not doing
enough. We are not doing enough in bringing elite higher education to
the lower half of the income distribution.'

If you know of a family earning less than $60,000 a year with an honor
student graduating from high school soon, Harvard University wants to
pay the tuition. The prestigious university recently announced that from
now on undergraduate students from low-income families can go to Harvard
for free...no tuition and no student loans!

To find out more about Harvard offering free tuition for families making
less than $60,000 a year visit Harvard's financial aid website at:

or call the school's financial aid office at
(617) 495-1581 .


Call for Submissions

"The Next Seven Generations"

We are seeking submissions for the 2008 Children of Many
Colors Powwow program. The topic is what does the future
hold for our next seven generations?

What do you see for the future of Indian people? What do you
see for the future of our Earth? What are you doing about it?

Last year's powwow program was very well received with the
short stories collectively known as "Why We Sing, Why We Dance".
We would like this year's program to include a broad spectrum of people,
view points, ideas, and inspiration.


Your submission will be considered for inclusion in our
annual powwow program. If there are more submissions than we
can fit in the program, we may publish a book. If your
submission is chosen for the program, you will receive a copy
of the program. If we create a book, it will be available for
purchase online at Lulu.com; as a small non profit group, we regretfully
cannot afford to give free copies of the book to
everyone who participates.

Submissions should be two pages or less. Longer submissions
will be considered, particularly from people involved in the
preservation of indigenous cultures and our planet. Photographs
of the author are welcome. Jpeg images and word documents sent
via email are preferred; we will accept typed and written
submissions as well. We will make every effort to return
photographs or stories that are sent through the mail,
although we cannot guarantee their return.

For the powwow program, we generally alter photographs into
black and white line drawings. If we publish a book, we will
have the option of using color or black and white images.
Sending an image or written submission implies your consent
that Redbird uses the image or written submission.

Submissions may be edited for grammar, spelling and length
only. It is our intention to represent the Native American
community with its own voice and through its own people. Any
editing will be for the purpose of improving the clarity of
the submission, and not to alter its ideas or content.

This is an open call for submissions. We are not putting any
restrictions on who may respond. We would like to hear from
members of the Native American community across the western
hemisphere. If you have a tribal affiliation, please state it.
If you are of multi-ethnic heritage, don't be afraid to say so.
If you wish for people to be able to contact you, please
include public contact information.

If you are doing something about the future of the planet
and indigenous people, please, tell us about it. What do you
envision for the generations to come? What struggles and
triumphs do you foresee? How will we keep our cultures alive?
What is your role in doing so?

We would very much like to hear from leaders, decision makers,
and tribal council persons. We would love to hear from children
and elders. We are equally interested in the thoughts and
visions of the rest of the community.

Climate specialists, biologists and others working in the
earth sciences are also welcome to contribute. We would like
to create a work that offers inspiration and encourages
responsible activism to a wide audience. While Redbird is a
Native American and environmental organization, our readership
will be people from all ethnic backgrounds and all walks of life.


Deadline for submissions is June 1, 2008. Please consider
responding before the deadline, so we will have time to read
and review all submissions, and design a powwow program that
is both attractive and informative.

(In order to receive a copy of the powwow program, please
include your mailing address with your submission. We will
notify you after June 1 if your submission is used in the
program, or in a book format. Last year we were able to use
all but two submissions on the topic "Why We Sing, Why We
Dance". As long as your submission is relevant to the topic,
and suitable for a general audience, including youth, your
chances of inclusion are good.)

Where to Send Submissions

By Email: redbirds_vision @ hotmail.com (for email
submissions, word
documents and jpeg images)

By Mail: Redbird, P.O. Box 702, Simi Valley, CA 93062

What is Redbird?

Redbird is a 501(c)(3) non profit association based in
southern California. We are focused on Native American cultural
awareness and environmental activism, as well as meeting the
needs of disadvantaged families and individuals. The Children
of Many Colors Powwow is our signature event. We welcome you
to visit our website at www.RedbirdsVision. org to learn more
about our mission, our history, and our vision for the future.


Online News:

DNA evidence prompts new hypothesis about early migrations
to America.

Nevada reservations make history

Canal signage gives passers-by history

Rampant weeds ruining the Aztec Ruins

Traveling treasures: American Indian objects embark on
2-year tour

My view: Protect sensitive sites from degradation, pollution

National parks robbed of heritage

Following the Trails of our Bylas Apache ancestors

Civic Center excavations: Board clears way for city to rebury artifacts

Drying of the West

UC Berkeley's bones of contention - Native Americans say
Hearst Museum violates a law on returning ancient remains.
Officials say finding rightful recipients isn't easy.

A Native American applauds the tollway decision


Humor, and interesting things not related to American Indians


From Ed Clark:

The 'Middle Wife' by an Anonymous 2nd grade teacher

I've been teaching now for about fifteen years. I have two
kids myself, but the best birth story I know is the one I
saw in my own second grade classroom a few years back.

When I was a kid, I loved show-and-tell. So I always have a
few sessions with my students. It helps them get over shyness
and usually, show-and-tell is pretty tame. Kids bring in pet
turtles, model airplanes, pictures of fish they catch, stuff
like that. And I never, ever place any boundaries or
limitations on them. If they want to lug it in to school and
talk about it, they're welcome.

Well, one day this little girl, Erica, a very bright, very
outgoing kid, takes her turn and waddles up to the front of
the class with a pillow stuffed under her sweater.

She holds up a snapshot of an infant. 'This is Luke, my baby
brother, and I'm going to tell you about his birthday.'

'First, Mom and Dad made him as a symbol of their love, and
then Dad put a seed in my Mom's stomach, and Luke grew in there.
He ate for nine months through an umbrella cord.'

She's standing there with her hands on the pillow, and I'm
trying not to laugh and wishing I had my camcorder with me.
The kids are watching her in amazement.

'Then, about two Saturdays ago, my Mom starts saying and
going, 'Oh, Oh, Oh, Oh!' Erica puts a hand behind her back
and groans. 'She walked around the house for, like an hour,
'Oh, oh, oh!' (Now this kid is doing a hysterical duck walk
and groaning.)

'My Dad called the middle wife. She delivers babies, but she
doesn't have a sign on the car like the Domino's man. They
got my Mom to lie down in bed like this.' (Then Erica lies
down with her back against the wall.)

'And then, pop! My Mom had this bag of water she kept in
there in case he got thirsty, and it just blew up and spilled
all over the bed, like psshhheew!' (This kid has her legs
spread with her little hands miming water flowing away.
It was too much!)

'Then the middle wife starts saying 'push, push,' and 'breathe,
breathe. They started counting, but never even got past ten.
Then, all of a sudden, out comes my brother. He was covered
in yucky stuff that they all said it was from Mom's play-
center, so there must be a lot of toys inside there.'

Then Erica stood up, took a big theatrical bow and returned
to her seat. I'm sure I applauded the loudest. Ever since
then, when it's show-and-tell day, I bring my camcorder, just
in case another 'Middle Wife' comes along.

Live every day as if it is your LAST chance to make someone happy!   


More from Ed:

Here are a few things to think about while you are sitting
there ..if you know the answers to these questions...
pass them to me...
CAN a hearse carrying A CORPSE DRIVE IN the carpool lane ?
(from Phil: not in California!)      

out of a coconut, why can't he fix a SMALL hole in a boat?
WHY DO THEY CALL IT AN asteroid when it's outside the
hemisphere, but call it a hemorroid when it's in your rear?

DID YOU EVER NOTICE that when you blow in a dog's face, he
gets mad at you, but when you take him for a car ride he
sticks his head out the window?


Mrs Hughes comedy video clip.



From my cousin Sally Gill:


Attending a wedding for the first time, a little girl whispered
to her mother, "Why is the bride dressed in white?" "Because
white is the color of happiness, and today is the happiest day
of her life." The child thought about this for a moment, then
said, "So why is the groom wearing black?"


A little girl, dressed in her Sunday best, was running as fast
as she could, trying not to be late for Bible class. As she
ran she prayed, "Dear Lord, please don't let me be late! Dear
Lord, please don't let me be late!" While she was running and
praying, she tripped on a curb and fell, getting her clothes
dirty and tearing her dress. She got up, brushed herself off,
and started running again! in. As she ran she once again began
to pray, Dear Lord, please don't let me be late...But please
don't shove me either!"


Three boys are in the school yard bragging about their fathers.
The first boy says, "My Dad scribbles a few words on a piece
of paper, he calls it a poem, they give him $50."

The second boy says, "That's nothing. My Dad scribbles a few
words on a piece of paper, he calls it a song, they give him

The third boy says, "I got you both beat. My Dad scribbles a
few words on a piece of paper, he calls it a sermon, and it
takes eight people to collect all the money!"


An elderly woman died last month. Having never married, she
requested no male pallbearers. In her handwritten instructions
for her memorial service, she wrote, "They wouldn't take me
out while I was alive, I don't want them to take me out when
I'm dead.


A police recruit was asked during the exam, "What would you
do if you had to arrest your own mother?" He answered "Call
for backup."


A Sunday School teacher asked her class why Joseph and Mary
took Jesus with them to Jerusalem . A small child replied:
"They couldn't get a babysitter."


A Sunday school teacher was discussing the Ten Commandments
with her five and six year olds. After explaining the commandment
to "honor thy father andthy mother," she asked "Is there a
commandment that teaches us how to treat our brothers and
sisters?" Without missing a beat one little boy answered,
"Thou shall not kill."


At Sunday School they were teaching how God created everything,
including human beings. Little Johnny seemed especially intent
when they told him how Eve was created out of one of Adam's
ribs. Later in the week his mother noticed him lying down as
though he were ill, and she said, Johnny, what is the matter?"
Little Johnny responded, "I have pain in my side. I think I'm
going to have a wife."


Two boys were walking home from Sunday school after hearing
a strong preaching on the devil. One said to the other, "What
do you think about all this Satan stuff?"

The other boy replied, "Well, you know how Santa Claus turned

It's probably just your Dad.


You don't stop laughing because you grow old,
You grow old because you stop laughing!


From my brother Milton:

Baby boomer animation:


From my daughter Sarah:
Animator vs Animation video:



From Joe RedCloud

A very interesting explanation of the male and female mind.

Interview with a Boss


From Bev Fox:

Another funny animated video:


More from my brother Milton:

George Carlin's Views on Aging

Do you realize that the only time in our lives when we like
to get old is when we're kids? If you're less than 10 years
old, you're so excited about aging that you think in fractions.

"How old are you?" "I'm four and a half!" You're never
thirty-six and a half. You're four and a half, going on five!
That's the key

You get into your teens, now they can't hold you back. You
jump to the next number, or even a few ahead.

"How old are you?" "I'm gonna be16!" You could be 13, but
hey, you're gonna be 16! And then the greatest day of your life..
You become 21. Even the words sound like a ceremony .

But then you turn 30. Oooohh, what happened there? Makes you
sound like bad milk! He TURNED; we had to throw him out. There's
no fun now, you're Just a sour-dumpling. What's wrong? What's

You BECOME 21, you TURN 30, then you're PUSHING 40. Whoa! Put
on the brakes, it's all slipping away. Before you know it, you
REACH 50 and your dreams are gone.

But wait!!! You MAKE it to 60. You didn't think you would!

So you BECOME 21, TURN 30, PUSH40, REACH 50 and MAKE it to 60.

You've built up so much speed that you HIT 70! After that
it's a day-by-day thing; you HIT Wednesday!

You get into your 80's and every day is a complete cycle;
you HIT lunch; you TURN 4:30 ; you REACH bedtime. And it
doesn't end there. Into the 90s, you start going backwards;
"I Was JUST 92."

Then a strange thing happens. If you make it over 100, you
become a little kid again. "I'm 100 and a half!" May you
all make it to a healthy 100 and a half!!

1.. Throw out nonessential numbers. This includes age,
weight and height. Let the doctors worry about them. That is
why you pay "them."

2. Keep only cheerful friends. The grouches pull you down.

3. Keep learning. Learn more about the computer, crafts,
gardening, whatever. Never let the brain idle. "An idle mind
is the devil's workshop"And the devil's name isAlzheimer's.

4. Enjoy the simple things.

5. Laugh often, long and loud. Laugh until you gasp for breath.

6. The tears happen. Endure, grieve, and move on. The only
person, who is with us our entire life, is ourselves. Be
ALIVE while you are alive.

7. Surround yourself with what you love , whether it's
family, pets, keepsakes, music, plants, hobbies, whatever.
Your home is your refuge.

8. Cherish your health: If it is good, preserve it. If it
is unstable, improve it. If it is beyond what you can improve,
get help.

9. Don't take guilt trips. Take a trip to the mall, even
to the next county; to a foreign country but NOT to where
the guilt is.

10. Tell the people you love that you love them, at every

Life is not measured by the number of breaths we take,
but by the moments that take our breath away.


From Ruth Garby Torres:

This was written by Regina Brett of The Plain Dealer,
Cleveland, Ohio.

To celebrate growing older, I once wrote the 45 lessons
life taught me. It is the most-requested column I've ever
written. My odometer rolls over to 70 in August, so here

1. Life isn't fair, but it's still good.

2. When in doubt, just take the next small step.

3. Life is too short to waste time hating anyone.

4. Don't take yourself so seriously. No one else does.

5. Pay off your credit cards every month.

6. You don't have to win every argument. Agree to disagree.

7. Cry with someone. It's more healing than crying alone.

8. It's OK to get angry with God. He can take it.

9. Save for retirement starting with your first paycheck.

10. When it comes to chocolate, resistance is futile.

11. Make peace with your past so it won't screw up the present.

12. It's OK to let your children see you cry

13. Don't compare your life to others'. You have no idea what
their journey is all about.

14. If a relationship has to be a secret, you shouldn't be in it.

15. Everything can change in the blink of an eye. But don't
worry; God never blinks.

16. Take a deep breath. It calms the mind.

17. Get rid of anything that isn't useful, beautiful or joyful.

18. Whatever doesn't kill you really does make you stronger.

19. It's never too late to have a happy childhood. But the
second one is up to you and no one else.

20. When it comes to going after what you love in life, don't
take no for an answer.

21. Burn the candles, use the nice sheets, wear the fancy
lingerie. Don't save it for a special occasion. Today is

22. Over prepare, then go with the flow.

23. Be eccentric now. Don't wait for old age to wear purple.

24. The most important sex organ is the brain.

25. No one is in charge of your happiness except you.

26. Frame every so-called disaster with these words: "In
five years, will this matter?"

27. Always choose life.

28. Forgive everyone everything.

29. What other people think of you is none of your business.

30. Time heals almost everything. Give time time.

31. However good or bad a situation is, it will change.

32. Your job won't take care of you when you are sick. Your
friends will. Stay in touch.

33. Believe in miracles.

34. God loves you because of who God is, not because of
anything you did or didn't do.

35. Don't audit life. Show up and make the most of it now.

36. Growing old beats the alternative -- dying young.

37. Your children get only one childhood. Make it memorable.

38. All that truly matters in the end is that you loved.

39. Get outside every day. Miracles are waiting everywhere.

40. If we all threw our problems in a pile and saw everyone
else's, we'd grab ours back.

41. Envy is a waste of time. You already have all you need.

42. The best is yet to come.

43. No matter how you feel, get up, dress up and show up.

44. Yield.

45. Life isn't tied with a bow, but it's still a gift.


More from Ed Clark:

This is for all the 50+ people out there

Q: Where can women over the age of 50 find young, sexy men,
who are interested in them?
A: Try a bookstore under fiction

Q: What can a man do while his wife is going through menopause?
A: Keep busy. If you're handy with tools, you can finish the
basement. When you are done you will have a place to live.

Q: How can you increase the heart rate of your 50+ year old
A: Tell him you're pregnant.

Q: How can you avoid spotting a wrinkle every time you walk
by a mirror?
A: The next time you're in front of a mirror, take off your

Q: Why should 50+ year old people use valet parking?
A: Valets don't forget where they park your car.

Q: Is it common for 50+ year olds to have problems with
short term memory storage?
A: Storing memory is not a problem, retrieving it is a problem.

Q: As people age, do they sleep more soundly?
A: Yes, but usually in the afternoon.

Q: Where do 50+ year olds look for fashionable glasses?
A: Their foreheads.

Q: What is the most common remark made by 50+ year olds when
they enter antique stores?
A: "I remember these".


From my niece Marsha:

20 Ways to Maintain a Healthy Level of Insanity

1. At Lunch Time, Sit In Your Parked Car With Sunglasses on
and point a Hair Dryer At Passing Cars. See If They Slow Down.

2. Page Yourself Over The Intercom. Don't Disguise Your

3. Every Time Someone Asks You To Do Something, Ask If They
Want Fries with that.

4. Put Your Garbage Can On Your Desk And Label It "In."

5. Put Decaf In The Coffee Maker For 3 Weeks. Once Everyone
has Gotten Over Their Caffeine Addictions, Switch to Espresso.

6. In The Memo Field Of All Your Checks, Write "For Smuggling

7. Finish All Your sentences with "In Accordance With The

8. Don t use any punctuation

9. As Often As Possible, Skip Rather Than Walk.

10. Order a Diet Water whenever you go out to eat with a
serious face.

11. Specify That Your Drive-through Order Is "To Go."

12. Sing Along At The Opera

13. Go To A Poetry Recital And Ask Why The Poems Don't Rhyme

14. Put Mosquito Netting Around Your Work Area And Play
tropical Sounds All Day.

15. Five Days In Advance , Tell Your Friends You Can't
Attend Their Party Because You're Not In The Mood.

16. Have Your Co-workers Address You By Your Wrestling Name,
Rock Bottom.

17. When The Money Comes Out Of The ATM, Scream "I Won!, I Won!"

18. When Leaving The Zoo, Start Running Towards The Parking
lot, Yelling "Run For Your Lives, They're Loose!!"

19. Tell Your Children Over Dinner. "Due To The Economy, We
Are Going To Have To Let One Of You Go."

20. And The Final Way To Keep A Healthy Level Of Insanity.......
Send This E-mail To Someone To Make Them Smile.

It's Called Therapy


From Alan Sconzert:

The next time you hear a politician use the\ word 'billion'
in a casual manner, think about whether you want the
'politicians' spending YOUR tax money. A billion is a
difficult number to comprehend, but one advertising agency
did a good job of putting that figure into some perspective
in one of its releases.

A. A billion seconds ago it was 1959.

B. A billion minutes ago Jesus was alive.

C. A billion hours ago our ancestors were living in the
Stone Age.

D. A billion days ago no-one walked on the earth on two feet.

E. A billion dollars ago was only 8 hours and 20 minutes,
at the rate our government is spending it.

While this thought is still fresh in our brain, let's take a
look at New Orleans It's amazing w hat you can learn with
some simple division . .

Louisiana Senator, Mary Landrieu (D), is presently asking the
Congress for $250 BILLION to rebuildNew Orleans. Interesting
number, what does it mean?

A. Well, if you are one of 484,674 residents of New Orleans
(every man, woman, child), you each get $516,528.

B. Or, if you have one of the 188,251 homes in New Orleans,
your home gets $1,329,787.

C. Or, if you are a family of four, your family gets

Washington, D.C .. HELLO!!! .. Are all your calculators broken??

Tax his land,
Tax his wage,
Tax his bed in which he lays.
Tax his tractor,
Tax his mule,
Teach him taxes is the rule.
Tax his cow,
Tax his goat,
Tax his pants,
Tax his coat.

Tax his ties,
Tax his shirts,
Tax h is work,
Tax his dirt

Tax his tobacco,
Tax his drink,
Tax him if he tries to think.

Tax his booze,
Tax his beers,
If he cries,
Tax his tears.

Tax his bills,
Tax his gas,
Tax his notes,
Tax his cash.

Tax him good and let him know
That after taxes, he has no dough.

If he hollers,
Tax him more,
Tax him until he's good and sore.

Tax his coffin,
Tax his grave,
Tax the sod in which he lays.
Put these words upon his tomb,
'Taxes drove me to my doom!'

And when he's gone,
We won't relax,
We'll still be after the inheritance TAX!!
Accounts Receivable Tax
Building Permit Tax
CDL License Tax
Cigarette Tax
Corporate Income Tax
Dog License Tax
Federa l Income Tax
Federal Unemployment Tax (FUTA)
Fishing License Tax
Food License Tax
Fuel Permit Tax
Gasoline Tax
Hunting License Tax
Inheritance Tax
Inventory Tax
IRS Interest Charges (tax on top of tax),
IRS Penalties (tax on top of tax),
Liquor Tax,
Luxury Tax,
Marriage License Tax,
Medicare Tax,
Property Tax,
Real Estate Tax,
Service charge taxes,
Social Security Tax,
Road Usage Tax (Truckers),
Sales Taxes,
Recreational Vehicle Tax,
School Tax,
State Income Tax,
State Unemployment Tax (SUTA),
Telephone Federal Excise Tax,
Telephone Federal Universal Service Fe e Tax,
Telephone Federal, State and Local Surcharge Tax,
Telephone Minimum Usage Surcharge Tax,
Telephone Recurring and Non-recurring Charges Tax,
Telephone State< /st1:PlaceType> and Local Tax,
Telephone Usage Charge Tax,
Utility Tax,
Vehicle License Registration Tax,
Vehicle Sales Tax,
Watercraft Registration Tax,
Well Permit Tax,
Workers Compensation Tax.

Not one of these taxes existed 100 years ago, and our
nation was the most prosperous in the world. We had
absolutely no national debt, had the largest middle class
in the world, and Mom stayed home to raise the kids.

What happened? Can you spell 'politicians!'

And I still have to 'press 1' for English.

I hope this goes around THE USA at least 100 times

What the heck happened?????


From Aimee Fuller:

Christian One Liners

Many folks want to serve God, but only as advisors.

When you get to your wit's end, you'll find God lives there.

People are funny; they want the front of the bus, the
middle of the road, and the back of the church.

Opportunity may knock once, but temptation bangs on your
front door forever.

Quit griping about your church; if it was perfect, you
couldn't belong.

If the church wants a better pastor, it only needs to pray
for the one it has.

God Himself does not propose to judge a man until he is dead.
So why should you?

Some minds are like concrete thoroughly mixed up and
permanently set.

Peace starts with a smile.

I don't know why some people change churches; what difference
does it make which one you stay home from?

A lot of church members who are singing "Standing on the
Promises" are just sitting on the premises.

We were called to be witnesses, not lawyers or judges.

Be ye fishers of men. You catch them - He'll clean them.

Coincidence is when God chooses to remain anonymous.

Don't put a question mark where God put a period.

Don't wait for 6 strong men to take you to church.

Forbidden fruits create many jams.

God doesn't call the qualified, He qualifies the called.

God grades on the cross, not the curve.

God loves everyone, but probably prefers "fruits of the
spirit" over "religious nuts!"

God promises a safe landing, not a calm passage.

He who angers you, controls you!

If God is your Co-pilot - swap seats!

Prayer: Don't give God instructions -- just report for duty!

The task ahead of us is never as great as the Power behind us.

The Will of God never takes you to where the Grace of God
will not protect you.

We don't change the message, the message changes us.

You can tell how big a person is by what it takes to
discourage him.

The best mathematical equation I have ever seen:
1 cross + 3 nails = 4 given.


I do not have a position on the Leonard Peltier case because
I have not taken the time to look into all of the legal
issues and the evidence presented on both sides. I do know
many of you are interested in this matter. So, here is a
recent notice put out by a Free Leonard Peltier group.

FW'd by Harvey Arden

Free Peltier! A Position
Statement from Carter Camp

Please feel free to pass this around the planet. CC
--- In ndn--@yahoogroups.com

Carter Camp carte-@yahoo.com

Ah-ho My Relations, I have read my friend Bob Robideau's
statement about Anna Mae and his resignation statement as
Leonard Peltier's international spokesperson. In contrast
I have decided to accept Leonard's invitation to join his
Board of Directors at the LPDC.

In my judgment Leonard needs the help of his old friends now
more than ever. I don't know if I can make a difference but
I intend to try help where ever I can. For twenty eight long
years some very good and hard working men and women have
worked for Leonard's freedom and struggled against the might
of the FBI and a justice system that bows to the wishes of
special law enforcement interests. They have made his name
known to millions of people around the world. My presence
on his board is merely to add on to what they have done.
Leonard Peltier has been lucky to have each and every one
of them in his corner. Leonard and I are old friends and
comrades in the movement.

Oklahoma AIM like most AIM chapters was organized by grass
roots community activists who believed in the tenets of AIM
and were willing to fight for the survival of our people.
In the spring of 1972 we gathered in an encampment on the
Pawnee reservation just outside Pawnee Oklahoma. As a series
of actions took place around the state the police in Pawnee
deputized every store owner in town and vigilantes were
arming themselves and patrolling the roads around the AIM
encampment. The question of sovereignty was new and
threatening to official Oklahoma and they reacted with
threats and violence. We reacted with increased demand for
justice and as our movement grew the government became more
aggressive against us. When we needed help Leonard Peltier
and a group of brothers came to stand beside us. Their
support meant a lot to us and Oklahoma AIM became the largest
AIM chapter.

From then on we developed a trust and worked together until
he was falsely imprisoned. Recently the LPDC has gone through
a lot of changes and things slowed down at the Committee so
Leonard asked three Oklahoma AIM friends to help out with the
committee. Along with me he asked that Francis Wise who is an
Oklahoma AIM leader from the Caddo Tribe to join the Board.
And he asked Dave Hill, a Choctaw from the boonies south of
Seminole to join as the new Director. I know both of them
very well, I know their families and have worked with them
on our peoples issues for decades. As part of the FBI smear
campaign against the LPDC, Dave has lately had a strange
bunch of people calling him names and trying to "jacket"
him like they did Anna Mae. But they are mostly internet
voices with no real tie to the Indian community they claim
to speak for, I term them "netskins" and I know Dave has a
thick enough skin to shed their little barbs and do the
work he has been asked to do. Francis Wise is Stan Holder's
(Chief of Security in Wounded Knee) sister and a founding
member of Oklahoma AIM. They both seemed like great choices
to me so I accepted too. We hope to blend in with the
existing board members and the support groups around the
world to seek justice for Leonard Peltier and to remind
America of the Indian wars longest serving political prisoner.

But I'm not writing this about only Leonard Peltier -- we
all agree that Leonard Peltier had nothing to do with the
death of Anna Mae Aquash. I'm writing about how the FBI is
using the investigation of her death as a way to keep
Leonard Peltier in prison and to attack AIM as retribution
for our struggle for sovereignty. It was an armed struggle
and our enemy used deadly tactics against us routinely;
many of our people were killed and a few of theirs. When
KaMook testified that our brothers had killed those
attackers, the Lakota women in the audience should have
"lulu'd" loudly in court to show their pride for a warrior's
victory coup. As I told Bob when he called me from Europe,
we are proud of the stand the warriors made that day at
Jumping Bull's. Three armed fighters died that day--but the
elders and kids were protected from an enemy that has a
long, long history of killing our helpless ones. The agents
who attacked the peaceful encampment had volunteered to
trespass on Lakota land bearing arms and like Custer they
died fighting. The detailed description of their deaths is
unimportant when looked at in the light of FBI/GOON "Reign
of Terror" the Oglala people were enduring at that time.

The real reason it has been brought up is to give the wasicu
an argument to keep Leonard Peltier in a cage. The way the
agents died certainly had no bearing on the death of Anna
Mae- -it was placed on the record for other purposes.

Like Bob, I was in prison when Anna was killed and her body
found. The FBI came to Terre Haute Federal pen,where I was
being held, and asked to speak to me about her. I told them
I would break my long-standing rule of never talking to a
cop and tell them who the killer was if they would go bust
them, as they leaned forward, pencils in hand, I told them
an FBI agent named David Price was responsible for her
death. At that time I knew the name of his partner in crime
and I named him too. I also requested as a citizen that they
go arrest them immediately or that they free me to go make
a citizens arrest. Instead they closed their notebooks and
left, so those particular killers have been loose all this
time. Only an independent U.N. investigation of the "Reign
of Terror" will ever see them indicted and that is exactly
what I think we need. All of us should join to demand a full
investigation of the "Reign of Terror" and the murder of
over sixty Indian people by the FBI and their allies. Anna
Mae's death would play an important part in that investigation
and its findings would be much more credible than what is
going on in ndn country right now. I just witnessed a trial
of an Lakota man accused of killing Anna Mae Aquash in which
the only defense witness called was Anna Mae's nemesis...
FBI Agent David Price himself!

When we had the Peltier month demonstration in Washington
D.C., I had the occasion to meet with Anna Mae's niece who
was very much involved in seeking justice for her relative
Anna Mae Aquash. To me it was the most honorable thing to
do without helping the Americans in their anti-Peltier witch
hunt. Along with me were Edgar Bear Runner and Russell
Loudhawk from Pine Ridge who were key players in the fight
at Jumping Bull's and friends of Anna Mae's. None of us had
any new or pertinent knowledge of what happened to Anna Mae
but all three of us wanted to offer our condolences and tell
the family what we knew. I told her how, in Wounded Knee
Anna's future husband Nogeshick came to me to speak about
a marriage ceremony, we had a nice talk and he took tobacco
to Wallace Black Elk to request him to marry them.

Wallace asked me to assist and he performed a marriage
ceremony for them. It was a very big deal in our small
community for them to get married in a beautiful ceremony
in front of everybody in the Wounded Knee Trading Post. I
was proud when the women of Oklahoma AIM stepped forward
and gave flesh offerings on their behalf and I remember how
good it was to see such a thing at the birth of the Independent
Oglala Nation. I also told her niece that Anna Mae worked
harmoniously with Theda Clark in the encampment kitchen
(and maybe at the office) during our trial at Cedar Rapids,
Iowa, where we heard of the Oglala shoot out. At least to
me things seemed harmonious between them and everyone else
in camp but I was on trial and extremely busy so a dispute
between them could have happened and I didn't hear about it.
At the time I remained the National Chairman of AIM, Stan
Holder was the Security Chief of Wounded Knee and Leonard
Crowdog was the principle Spiritual Leader of Wounded Knee
and AIM, we were being charged for our part at Wounded Knee
as part of the AIM leadership trials.

At the time of the shootout we had already been convicted
but were still in camp pending sentencing and some legal
motions. A large bunch of those from the Lakota Nation were
there supporting Chief Crowdog, and a lot of Oklahoma AIM
people who came for Stan and me made up the encampment. As
long time brothers in the struggle Peltier and I had agreed
to be in daily phone contact with each other mainly because
we recognized what a precarious position they were in out
at Jumping Bull's when a bunch of us were in Iowa. All the
big name AIM leaders had fled the rez and Leonard's encampment
was a sore in the side of the FBI and their GOONs. Upon
hearing the news about the FBI attack everyone broke camp
and headed back to the rez and the rest is history. I have
no remembrance of John Graham but there were a lot of
young men and women in the encampment I don't remember by
name. At the news of the shoot-out we turned our defense office
into a center to call elected officials, lawyers, and to
attempt to have the FBI cordon lifted and to make sure they
knew the world was watching. Some cars and groups left quickly
and by the next day a caravan headed back to Rosebud. I told
her niece that Anna Mae proudly went to South Dakota to stand
with her people, we all did. Edgar Bear Runner and Russell
Loudhawk both knew Anna Mae and explained to her niece what
they could,they also shared fond remembrances they had of
her and said how sorry we all were for her passing. I
acknowledged to her family that the death of Anna Mae is an
ugly blight on the legacy of the American Indian Movement.
The meeting was private and I only bring it up now because
the pig has said we didn't care about her.

As part of that meeting I also told Anna Mae's niece how
Peltier and I, along with many of his supporters think the
death of her Auntie was being used by the FBI and others
against the very people and ideals Anna Mae fought for and
I said I thought the family was being exploited by our
enemies. After seeing the legal lynching of Arlo Looking
Cloud I know damn well the powerful allies of the FBI are
seeing to it that a book is closed in the Anna Mae case and
it is used to its maximum advantage against AIM and Leonard

The two major trials after the incident at Oglala show what
a difference having a strong defense can be. Dino and Bob
were acquitted because they were allowed to present a
vigorous defense that was denied to Leonard Peltier. The
enemy had learned its lesson and fixed the next trial to
make sure Leonard was convicted. What they did to convict
Peltier is an open part of the legal history of the cointelpro
actions the nation's political police, the FBI, took against
all warriors who were subject to their attacks. It was an
act of revenge not justice according to every national and
international investigation that has been made except the
one accepted by the court. The falsified FBI investigation
was given to the jury and they denied Peltier the right to
say he fought in self-defense. But that is the crucial point.
They caused the deaths of over sixty of us Indians but say
the way the two agents were killed is so germane to the case
that rumors and hearsay of it are admitted as evidence? How
about some evidence about who they were killing and who had
been burned out of their homes?

When non-evidence that Kamook had heard a warrior brag he
had shot those agents, was admitted as real evidence, a
hundred Lakota and members of the Independent Oglala Nation
should have been called as rebuttal witnesses to show that
the Nation was reacting in self-defense when those wasicu
soldiers attacked. They were killed in a battle they provoked
and they were fought in self-defense. Leonard Peltier was
denied the right to show self-defense in Montana 28 years
ago and he was denied it again last week in Rapid City,
South Dakota.

During that same month that we met with Anna Mae's niece
Edgar, Russell and I fasted in front of the White House on
Thanksgiving Day. Each of us held a poster of one of the
sixty ndn victims. I held the poster of my brother Buddy
Lamont all that day. He was a vet and an Oglala warrior
who was killed by an FBI sniper in Wounded Knee. He was
also Kamook's beloved Uncle. On the day the FBI sniper
shot him two brothers from the S.L.A. risked their lives
running from their bunker to come inform me he had been
hit. They guided me back to the place and we tried repeatedly
to crawl out to him but the enemy kept up a deadly hail of
bullets and we couldn't get to him. Buddy bled to death
before we finally reached him, it was my worst day in the
Knee and I blame the FBI for deliberately murdering him.
Anna Mae's picture was carried that day too as we mourned
so many victims of the "Reign of Terror". Each and every one
of them deserves a full investigation and the outrage of the
people demanding justice.

Arlo Looking Cloud was lynched in Rapid City last week. His
defense lawyer acted on behalf of the FBI cover-up of Anna
Mae's murder. This convinced me that once again the enemy
is using their old cointelpro tactics against the Movement
and have no intention of seeking justice for any of the
martyred people who died defending the people of Pine Ridge
and the Independent Oglala Nation. But the trial did bring
out the false statements that traitors like Paul Demain and
the cop Robert Ecoffey have been spreading about the death
of Anna Mae. For several years anti-ndn forces have spread
lies on the internet beginning with the lie that Arlo had
immunity and was a snitch. If that were true it would have
been a factor in the trial. They have also spread the lie
that she was raped and that DNA would reveal who her rapist
was,that too turns out to be false. Or else the FBI withheld
information and evidence, it wouldn't be the first time. They
have put out many false stories in their efforts to smear
AIM and keep Peltier in prison, fantastic tales of large
meetings of AIM leaders and lawyers who took part in
condemning Anna Mae, almost everyone associated with AIM
and WKLDOC have been smeared, but according to Arlo's
interrogation tape it's all bullshit and police finger-
pointing. Either Arlo's taped confession was false or
all the people the FBI/Demains have been accusing were
not involved,Arlo said he didn't even know them. According
to the witnesses at Arlo's sham trial the only people
mentioned as participating were the close friends and
relatives of Russ Means, his cousins, brothers,sister-in-
law and close friends were running the office and owned
the house she was alleged to have been taken to, all were
accused of being a part of her tribunal on that fateful
day. But none of them were even called and asked if it was
true! Means is screaming about not being "in the loop"
about her murder and he claims to want justice. He wants
us to believe his closest associates were involved but
kept it all from him for all these years? One has to wonder
if he ever asked them if they ordered her killed at one
of those meetings brought up at Arlo's trial. If he did
ask he should make their answers public, if he did not all
his screaming and finger-pointing sounds false like just
another in a long line of Means' publicity stunts. It makes
it look as if his pardon from the Indian-hating rapist Janklow
was a pay-off for his grand jury testimony. All I'm suggesting
is that Means go ask his folks what happened that day and
respond to what and who Candy Hamilton and the others said
ran the WKLDOC offices and houses where she was supposedly
held captive. Again I'll repeat they are likely innocent.
Before I was imprisoned I help start WKLDOC and it was a very
busy and open place with law student volunteers and attorneys
galore. People slept on the floor and carried on working most
of the night. The diversity and impermanence of all of them
makes holding a woman there captive seem unlikely, so I'd at
least like to hear from the people in charge and everyone
around at that time. Records were kept and logs to keep track
of the legal deadlines and the comings and goings of personnel.
Any decent defense would have subpoenaed the WKLDOC records
and questioned all concerned. In addition the office was kept
under 24/7 surveillance by several state and local law
enforcement departments. Only the prosecution got to examine
those records.

Another falsehood at Arlo's trial was the claim that John
Trudell was an AIM leader in those days. In activist circles
John was respected for being at the Alcatraz take over,
which was an inspiration to all of us who were growing to
an awareness that Indian people had to take direct action
to preserve our sovereignty and Treaty rights. Over the
years John would not join AIM and told me many times (down
in Oklahoma where we worked together) when I personally
asked him to join us, that he didn't want to be a part of
AIM. I assumed that was why he was another no-show at
Wounded Knee like Vernon Bellecourt. However after the Knee
at the AIM national convention at White Oak, Oklahoma when
I was elected the National Chairman of AIM several of the
west coast AIM chapters said they wouldn't follow the
"chickens of the Knee" as the Bellecourts and Means were
known then. They asked that someone from the west coast
that they trusted could be brought into the leadership as
a vice- chair so they would have someone to communicate
with, since I had worked with John and liked him we agreed
that he would fill that position. The fact that every one
of the old leaders had been rejected by the warriors of AIM
rankled in their hearts and they developed quite a hatred
for all of us who were chosen to be the new leadership of AIM.

When the "incident" happened between Clyde and me some
months later they somehow convinced John that while I was
in jail he should name himself Chairman and immediately
abolish the office. So he publicly said, "I'm the new AIM
hair and I hereby abolish the office of Chairman"! So he
was a "leader" for two minutes? In truth John Trudell never
was an AIM leader and back then he never pretended to be,
John never participated in any of our fights and he just
isn't the type to lead warriors. He's a barefoot poet from
Hollywood who makes music, nothing wrong with that I'm a
fan of his,but to think he was ever a leader is silly to
those who were there. It was sad to see John on the stand
working for the pig and testifying about something he knew
nothing about, except rumors put out by the same people
(the FBI) that John claims burned his wife Tina and their
kids to death. How could a man do that? He and Kamook had
no evidence to present about Arlo and only talked about
rumors they had heard. His assertion, really his speculation,
that the three people who are accused of killing Anna Mae
were following orders and not "decision makers" was allowed
as evidence. How does he know? The FBI used a black bag
full of tactics for getting people to act on false information
as a part of their "bad jacketing" program. They were expert
at it and there is evidence they employed it against Anna Mae
before her death. I believe that may have been what she
feared. At the time of Anna Mae's death AIM was already
fractured and in fragments but the FBI wants us to believe
we were some monolithic hierarchy making collective decisions.
Their scenario puts people conspiring together who didn't
trust each other. But John and Kamook were not there to
convict Arlo, they were there to smear AIM and Leonard
Peltier and the men and women who fought at Jumping Bulls.
His Hollywood story of Anna's ring sounds more like a script
than the truth. Would a person in immediate danger use the
mail? Or was it a signal that what HE had ordered had been
carried out?

Remember he claims to have been an AIM leader at the time.
No, in reality I don't think he ordered her hit but if I
were Arlo's lawyer I would have asked, one Hollywood story
is as good as the other. No way in hell I would have ever
guessed I would see my old friend John, who shared my
Sundance camp a few years ago, up on a witness stand throwing
out some blanket smear of everyone on behalf of the FBI.
Can John Trudell be true to his public persona as an Indian
leader and get on the stand for the FBI and give credence
to their anti-AIM rumors? It was a sickening performance.

Most people who know anything about AIM know I have no
feelings for or connection to the Bellecourt brothers or the
stupidity of their claim to own AIM. When they were
rejected by the vote of the people of AIM for their
continuing cowardice they quickly formed the phony "Grand
Governing Council" and made themselves its leaders. I wrote
an essay last year called "Warrior Stories" (see below)
that explains how they and the other "chickens of the Knee"
have falsely lived on the blood, sweat and tears of real
warriors while they made themselves rich. You tell me if
that's worse than leaving you tribe and going to Hollywood.
In fact most warriors see plenty of circumstantial evidence
that one or both of them worked directly for the police.
Like, why were their Wounded Knee charges dropped and how
the hell did they get out of those dope-selling charges
when they were caught red-handed dealing drugs? All of a
sudden they're treating the leader of the most militant
Indian organization in the nation with leniency? So you
all know I would in no way try to protect them in the
murder of a sister like Anna Mae who worked directly with
warriors I know and trust, like Peltier, Dino and Bob. No
way. At the same time I will never work with or help the
police forces of the invader to convict any Indian, not
even if they killed my own relative. Because I know that
there is no justice for Indian people in America and
Indian people can not receive a fair trial in South Dakota
period. I have watched them send too many innocent Indian
people to prison because they did the crime of being Indian
and if they happened to be proud Indians they were given
longer sentences. In America it's well known you get justice
only if you have money. How much more true is that for an
Indian in South Dakota? And then factor in their painting
him as an AIM militant in Rapid City, South Dakota. The
prosecution was able to draw on 30 years of FBI and others
police actions against AIM and Indians in general. They
brought in old retired Agents who are part of the gang of
Agents who take out full page advertisements in major
newspapers against Leonard Peltier. This is a formal and
organized gang of ex-FBI agents dedicated to keeping
Leonard Peltier in prison.

Wasn't their affiliation and anti-AIM efforts worth some
examination? They even have a website. To the FBI this was
a major chance to attack AIM and get revenge for their
failed attack at Jumping Bulls and their 99% loss rate at
the Wounded Knee trials. They have been probing for a
weakness and found it in our division over Anna Mae so they
have poured resources into it. They paid witnesses, paid
for three Grand Juries and (are still paying) for over 30
years of investigations costing millions of dollars into
their anti-AIM efforts. Because AIM is no longer a factor
nationally in Indian affairs they now concentrate mostly on
keeping Peltier in prison, they made that evident through
Kamooks testimony. I remember in every trial we won we put
the FBI and their tactics on trial too, we proved who the
aggressor was, I guess they learned from us because they
put AIM and the Indian resistance on trial. They used
informants to name AIM and WKLDOC committee members but
those same witnesses were never called. Cleo, Candy, Kamook,
all of them named names. Were the Bellecourts giving orders
to Russ Mean's brothers,friends and cousins who were named
as being there when Anna Mae was taken to South Dakota as
he(Means)accuses? They are likely completely innocent all
I'm saying is that they have been pointed out because they
allegedly ran the office. Are they being smeared in this
FBI net too? Unless there is a real trial we'll never know.
But I know one thing as I watch Vern and Clyde against
Russell Means in their twenty-five year old mudslinging
contest... They were comrades for many years and they
know all about each other so when Vernon squeals on Russ
he is probably telling the truth and when Russ squeals on
Vernon and Clyde, he's telling the truth too. So if you
want to know the truth about Russ Means read what Vernon
says and if you want the truth about the Bellecourts
listen to Russ.

But there is another reason I hated to see the railroad job
they did on Arlo Looking Cloud. By railroading him and not
calling the obvious witnesses the true story of Anna Mae's
killer will be covered up forever. I am absolutely sure the
FBI had a hand in her murder but exactly what they did or
how they did it is unclear and will remain unclear if they
are allowed to bury these two guys and claim they have
done their jobs. If Arlo could have had any kind of real
defense the FBI part of the murder could have been explored
and if any AIM leader is on their payroll that could have
been discovered and who the real killers are would have been
known. By denying Arlo and later John Graham justice the
FBI was able to turn the trial into a complete whitewash of
their role in the many murders of our people. They got to
act as if the FBI/GOON "Reign of Terror" never even happened!
They got to pretend the planned attack on the Jumping Bull
compound never happened and that the two agents were
murdered in cold blood. The whole world knows that's a lie.
It should offend even close friends of Anna Mae's to see such
a kangaroo court being put out to the public as justice! In
all my years as an activist the trial of Arlo Looking Cloud
was the very worst miscarriage of justice I have seen.
Leonard Peltiers trial was bad and even when Stan, Crowdog
and I were convicted the evidence was doctored and I became
the only AIM leader sent to prison for Wounded Knee 1973,
but Arlo was just flat out denied even the appearance of a
trial and now the wasicu judge won't let him be represented
by competent legal help for his appeal! This may be the
only chance anyone has to see justice done for Anna Mae but
the FBI is being allowed to cover it all up. I have no
sympathy for him if he did kill her but there are way too
many questions that need to be answered before some dupe
is sent away for life and the FBI gets off scot free! His
only defense witness was the cop who cut off her hands for
christ's sake! The only evidence was an obviously coerced
tape of a drugged up drunk being led into saying whatever
some long time police acquaintances of his told him to say.
Did it take Abe Alonzo and Robert Eccoffy thirty years of
abusing him, brainwashing him, or maybe buying him drugs
and booze to get him to say what he said? We all know
addicts will say most anything for another needle of smack
or even for just another bottle of wine. Apparently he
had been talking to them for a long time, at least since
before the first Grand Jury, where were the tapes of all
the other interrogations he endured over the last thirty
years? Did he deny it until they got this one? Compare
the tremendous governmental resources used against Arlo
and what his lawyer did to him. There were no discovery
motions made for him, there were no motions made to keep
out the prejudicial evidence and there damn sure was no
effective cross examination of prosecution witnesses. They
were allowed to put AIM on trial and smear Leonard Peltier
with impunity. No mention was made of the over sixty
traditional Indian people murdered by the FBI/GOONs and
the FBI cointelpro war against Indian people was never even
mentioned. We know the FBI committed many crimes during
their "Reign of Terror" and they are directly responsible
for many Lakota and AIM deaths. They may have infiltrated
AIM at the highest level and caused Anna Mae's murder but
we may never know because we allowed Arlo to be shafted by
the enemy. Shame on all of us. If our Movement was about
anything it was about Justice for our people and AIM from
1968 until 1973 led the way in that fight. But justice for
Indians in America is still a long struggle away and to me
Arlo Looking Clouds case proves it all the more.

If he would have been given an adequate defense I could
perhaps understand how some movement people can support
bringing John Graham, the other man accused,back to the
U.S. But seeing what I saw it doesn't seem right. I thought
maybe Canadian courts might be better but friends say
Indians get shafted there too. The FBI has convinced some
people to regard this as just another murder trial, the
jury, defense lawyer and Judge tried to pretend it was
but that obviously is not the case. How can there be justice
when a Lakota man stands defenseless in front of an all
white South Dakota jury, an AIM member painted with death
of two FBI agents in this age of terrorism? They allowed
Kamook's statement about Peltier go unchallenged. Kamook
is only one woman saying she heard something but several
hundred have heard him deny it and they were not mad at
an ex-husband. Why weren't they, or Leonard himself, given
a chance to rebut her? Why not at least play a tape of
Leonard defending himself in prison interviews? The FBI
version of the fight at Jumping Bulls and its aftermath is
not the only version and sure as hell isn't the true one.

Leonard Peltier first called for Indians to seek their own
justice in the death of Anna Mae and now I see Robert
Robideau also has called for a tribunal of good and true
AIM people to be convened. I join my two brothers in that
call and I will attend and testify to all I know if it is
convened. I admit that Bob, Norman Brown and Dino Butler
know more than me about Anna Mae and they were closer
friends of hers. I don't argue with their conclusions. I
was an Oklahoma leader and we generally kept our distance
from the happenings up north, but like them I and my
Oklahoma AIM friends would like to know the truth about
her death and how the FBI engineered it. The AIM I knew,
served, and loved, did not do things like murder, we fought
back when attacked and we resisted the oppressors of our
people but we did not kill our own. No AIM leader could
tell a warrior to go murder another Indian person even a
snitch. I know if I had told one of my Oklahoma AIM
brothers or sisters to go kill somebody they would have
said, "You got a gun, kill them yourself." Oklahoma AIM
was a circle of concerned tribal people and our leaders
led, not ordered. Always it was the enemy and
particularly the FBI who committed mayhem and murder,
they did drive- by shootings, set up GOON roadblocks to
catch and beat our traditional people and they paid
people to do these things. They subverted justice and
corrupted the system in order to win false convictions
of any Indian who stood against them. Anna Mae stood
against them and spit in their face, for that they hated
her and wanted her dead. She was AIM and very proud of
it. This is why I will have to see real proof before I
point my finger at anyone in AIM for the death of Anna
Mae, not rumors and accusations by running dogs or finger-
pointing by sick little ex-friends of Arlo's trying to
make a name for themselves. Therefore I will join Bob
Robideau, Leonard Peltier and members of the American
Indian Movement whenever a tribunal is convened to seek
justice for Anna Mae. I hope Pine Ridge is chosen as
the site for the tribunal so all the families who
suffered during the FBI "Reign of Terror" can come seek
justice for their loved ones.

In the meantime I will continue to work to right the
wrongs done to Leonard Peltier and to try to win his
freedom. I invite all of you to join us once more and
I urge you not to turn your back on our brother, we can
not leave him sitting unjustly in a cage any longer, it
is time to Free Peltier! Free him NOW!

Carter Camp, Ponca, LPDC

War Stories and Wounded Knee 1973

Many of our people have forgotten the traditional way
"War Stories" are used and respected in the sacred
ceremonies of the people of the Sundance and Pipe, we
who have always lived in the center of our turtle
island. Long ago our wise ancestors understood that a
powerful moment in time existed when a warrior
performed a great deed and tested himself to the
ultimate. In english we call them war stories but in
our own languages the story and the person chosen to
tell it have names with far more meaning. War stories
are actually "Warrior Stories" because they are told
individually by the warrior who is bringing his
actions into the circle. They are told in front of
witnesses who can attest to their truth because the
story must exemplify the great virtues of a warrior...
honor, truth, courage, fortitude, strength and
selflessness give the 'war story' a power that can
serve the needs of the ceremony. War stories were
always brought out during the special dances and
ceremonies of our Clans, our Societies and our
Sundance where they have a special place and use. The
leaders of the ceremony took particular care in
selecting the warrior chosen to stand up in front of
all the Nation and recite the actions he had taken on
behalf of his people... a song is made, every step,
every gesture, and every word must be given as a
sacrament into the circle of the People. In a time
without lies, a Nations heart could swell with pride
and power as he gifted his words to them and a oneness
could encircle them as he spoke. It could be the
leader of the battle or it could be a first time coup
by a young warrior on his initial experience but each
war story was backed by the presence of his
comrades-in-arms, verified and strengthened by their
assent, their love and their respect. In modern times
where war stories are told they are told by the
veterans of service in Americas wars, where our
warriors were sent to fight on foreign lands. We can
still hear them with pride and in this way the
tradition lives on. It has been this way because it
has been generations since our warriors rose to fight
an enemy while standing on the dust of our ancestors.
That last happened at Wounded Knee, in
1890. We lost that day, our children were exposed to
the ravening dogs, but even then warriors stood up,
men and women became spirits standing back to back in
defense of their generations... courage, fortitude,
strength, honor blessed the lands, given life as the
eternal blood sacrament was given freely to Mother
Earth. And in the days that followed warriors fought
from a Stronghold to avenge their relatives as a mass
grave held the truth. New and glorious war stories
were born among the carnage and strongheart songs
mingled with the wails of the mourning. A Nation lived
on with the virtues given her by a hundred generations
of warriors and their stories, it took immense
fortitude and courage to survive for eighty-three
years until warriors rose again, but the ceremonies
continued and the songs of those days were sung. In
1973 another battle happened on sacred lands along the
Wounded Knee creek. Once again warriors were forced to
rise up in defense of their people and stand on
hollowed ground and fight. Once again warriors blood
was sacrificed and lives were freely given to revive
the heartbeat of a Nation, brave deeds and selfless
actions became the measure of a society called the
"Independent Oglala Nation". To the people there it
was called "the Knee" and two thousand and more, women
and men, stood back to back with honor, with courage
and fortitude once more in red hearts. Eagle feathers
were earned there and an amazing number of worthy
actions were taken daily for seventy- three days in
1973. A community was born to live once more a
traditional way of the circle of our grandfathers.
Powerful medicine men and elders guided our paths as
"Warrior Stories" were once again gifted to the circle
in the old way as honor and truth were revived to
bring power in Inipi, Yuwipi and Ghost Dance. Led by
Viet Nam vets like Stan Holder, Craig Camp, Russ
Redner, Buddy Lamont, Luke Tenfingers... Rich,Tiger,
Lance, Angel and a hundred others, warriors from
sixteen to sixty yrs old formed an encircling wall of
protection around our lands and dared any invader to
enter. Each of the Oyate inside the circle performed
warrior duties too and each faced the danger as one,
cooks were shot by the wasicu as were the veterans in
the bunkers, medics were sniped while bandaging
wounded and even our mailman was attacked while
delivering mail... his war story added to the whole.
Wounded Knee was a community of warriors empowered by
stories held in the land since
1890, warriors of many Nations united by the selfless
actions of their comrades-in-arms fighting by their
side. But traditional, true, honorable "War Stories"
are no longer told about the last great battle at
Wounded Knee in 1973. For the first time in the
history of our Societies honorable and truthful
warriors have put away their braveheart stories and
the songs of their deeds are silent. This has happened
because for the first time in the memory of all the
Red generations past, the leaders of the battle ran
away and left their community while under attack.
Because they were self-chosen leaders they had not
been tested. They lacked the virtues of a warrior,
their honor was locked in the wasicu cities and jails
they came from and they could not rise above it. To
the warriors they left inside they were called "the
chickens of the knee" in jest and much worse in
earnest. We listened to stories of Russ Means enjoying
the fruits of his celebrity while drinking and
partying down in Oklahoma where I'm from and ending up
being busted out in California after one of his
notorious mega-sized parties out there. Since 1973 he
has renewed his betrayals of the principles of AIM
each decade without stop. Recently he betrayed every
warrior of AIM when he knelt before the subhuman
Janklow to beg a pardon! Yes, the same Janklow who
brags about personally keeping Leonard Peltier in a
cage, Janklow, the rapist of Jancita Eagledeer and the
thief of Lakota lands in South Dakota. None of the ION
warriors really noticed when Clyde Bellecourt slinked
out of the Knee, he wouldn't carry a gun and we never
saw him outside his warm trailer anyway, but we did
notice when he began frantically fundraising in our
name while we had no ammo to fight with or tobacco to
smoke, or food for the kids. For security purposes
Clyde and his crew had not been told we were
liberating the Knee that first night, so he was very
surprised to end up there in a caravan he thought was
going to a powwow! The warriors had a good laugh when
we noticed he had his own cameraman in tow. Even the
cops knew he was worthless, all his charges were
dropped as real warriors went to prison. Vernon
Bellecourt refused to even consider sacrificing his
luxury and comfort to come fight alongside us, he was
"Mr.Vernon" the hairdresser to AIM warriors, he did
fundraising for Clyde and hung around the leadership
but he was more a joke than a leader. We heard about
it when he went to the French Riviera during a
blizzard in the Knee and we joked about the hash-hish
we knew he was enjoying over there on our money. AIM
died long before he claimed to be a warrior, after the
rest of us were in jail or being chased throughout ndn
country he stepped out of his closet into the
limelight. Vernon never set foot inside Wounded Knee
in 1973 but to his eternal shame in ndn country, he
stands-up when ION veterans are honored as if he were
a veteran of our Nation. How low will a man crawl for
money? The Independent Oglala Nation didn't miss them
when they left, others were already doing the work of
the nation, fighting the battles, supplying the needs
of the people and protecting our elders and children
from the ravening wolves shooting at us from the
hills. Each night pack trains of supplies were carried
in under fire by dedicated warriors, timed to arrive
at daybreak to feed the nation and gift their stories
to us, each day the warriors worked hard to strengthen
their perimeter and fortify their bunkers in
preparation for the coming battles. Each day the
community lived the life of freedom they were fighting
for and each day we grew closer together in our
ceremonies and sharing. Every day was a war story and
every warrior had stories to tell of honor, truth and
generosity, enough perhaps to help our people survive
another eighty-three years in ceremony and song.
Despite those who ran, the nation lived and the
stories continued until peace was made by the Oglala
Council of the ION. AIM as an ndn society may have
died there in those sacred ravines when the leaders
failed in dishonor, but the pride of a Red Nation was
reborn with the "Warrior Stories" we lived there among
the spirits of those murdered in 1890. AIM too became
a spirit, it's blood drained into the earth at Wounded
Knee, but that spirit lives on just as the spirits of
Frank Clearwater and Buddy Lamont dwell today with the
spirits of Yellowbird, Bigfoot and the others who
nourish that sacred ground. Today every aspect of ndn
country has been touched by the proud legacy of the
American Indian Movement and the warriors stand at
Wounded Knee. Sovereignty has a renewed meaning to
friend and foe alike and all Indian people are unified
in its protection. During the brief life of AIM as a
warrior society, we blew on the dying embers of our
traditional fires and helped them flare back to life.
I remember well the final week of Wounded Knee 73
after my brother Buddy Lamont had been killed by a
wasicu sniper. The Oglala Council had decided to
stand-down the armed struggle and to continue the
fight for their treaty rights in the wasicu courts. It
was a hard decision for them and a blow to the
warriors' dreams, but it was their land and their
decision to make, so we prepared to obey. I began to
have meetings with the bunker leaders and squads, to
plan for their evacuation and to send them out with
the best weapons. By the last four days, unknown to
any but the warriors involved, Wounded Knee lay almost
unarmed and unprotected by our veterans. In order to
fool the wasicu gunners around us and the government
negotiators inside we devised a plan to have the dozen
or so warriors (who decided to stay for the funeral)
work in the open around the bunkers during daylight
hours and we had people carrying fake weapons and
supplies from place to place to add to the confusion.
At night we had four lookouts stationed on the
cardinal points and some patrols, but most of the
bunkers were empty and the way was open to the
invaders. Each minute I lived in fear that I had made
a terrible mistake and the ravening dogs would once
more consume my helpless ones. As the night wore on I
would make a patrol across ground I now knew like an
eagle knows his nest, alone I would creep out into the
night and stealthily enter a bunker in secret. Once
inside I would light a cigarette(I don't smoke) build
a fire and turn on an old radio I had stashed. I would
talk and joke inside and walk around the top as if we
were reinforcing or changing the guard, after an half
hour or so I would sneak out into the night to repeat
my performance at another empty bunker on the other
side of the Knee an hour later. In between, I would
walk around the village and visit the kitchens,
laughing with the people in the few places with light,
to be seen before I ducked into another ravine to
begin my crawl once more. In those final dark and
lonely nights I had a lot of time to pray and cry for
the end of our Tribe and the final days of the Knee,
it was hard because each empty bunker and squad room I
visited held reminders of the warrior stories that had
been born there and the brave comrades who fought
there. Sometimes I would stand in a deserted bunker
and loudly sing the AIM song or a Ponca He'thuska
warrior song and I would face the enemy with pride,
anger and defiance, but I knew we had to leave.
Wounded Knee was over and all that we had left was our
"war stories" to tell in the old way and to give away
in the circle of our people. We never imagined that
even our traditional "War Stories" would be stolen and
dishonored by old, greed-driven AIM leaders, we never
thought they would do the unimaginable and claim a
warriors honors when they earned none. In the old way
of the warrior an Akicita would strike them with their
whips and drive them crying from the circle. Now
thirty years later some people are having an
"anniversary" celebration to honor the memory of
Wounded Knee 1973 but it has to be a non-ndn
celebration like a rock concert because in another sad
first for ndn country the "chickens of the knee" are
being "honored"! Honored? Not really, I guess they are
being "publicized" or something but it's not honor in
the way a true "war story" is an honor. Men without
honor will stand up and accept false honors that
belong to others because for thirty years the warriors
of the ION have been silent. No media noticed the
warriors turn their backs on the cowards and leave AIM
after the Knee, but that is the traditional way we
vote for our leaders, no press conferences or
tribunals just a traditional shunning. After the
warriors left AIM(the organization) it became a wasicu
fundraising tool and they used it to become very rich
old men. Now Vernon will waddle out of his mansion,
squeeze into his cadillac with AIM-1 license tags, and
show up burdened by jewlery to look down on all us
raggedy-ass ndn warriors who fought at the Knee. Go
look at him and see the truth of my words, he has
turned white in dishonor. For this reason, to protect
the traditional honor of the the "War Story" of
Wounded Knee 1973 and the ION, I rise to denounce those who
falsely claim the honors of a warrior of Wounded Knee and the
Independant Oglala Nation.

While this charade of fools goes on for them, this
weekend another occasion will happen to mark the
founding of the ION and the liberation of Wounded Knee
in 1973. All around the Nation, a thousand warriors
and more will turn to face "the Knee" with their Pipe
in their hands and their traditional "Warrior Stories"
held in their hearts, ready to gift them to the sacred
circle in the old way when the People call their
names. Me, I will take my Pipe down to Frank
Clearwater's grave, (we have him close to the Sundance
grounds) put out a little tobacco and tell my sons and
nephews to sit down while I tell them a true story...
it happened back in 1973 my boys, and it was a hellofa
fight.... Mitakuye Oyasin, I am Carter Camp, Ponca
Nation, Founder Oklahoma AIM, National Chairman AIM,
Warrior Citizen of the Independent Oglala Nation.


Contact Carter at cartercamp @ yahoo.com


That's it for now.

Have a great month.

Phil Konstantin

End of Phil Konstantin's February 2008 Newsletter - Part 2
Start of Phil Konstantin's February 2008 Newsletter - Part 3


As I mentioned in the previous newsletter, I am trying to
make up for not having a January newsletter. So, here are
a few more notices, news stories, etc.

I have also added some new things to the store section of
my website. I have found photos of various American Indians
or nature scenes that are around 100 years old. I have put
these photos (and some of my personal photos) on t-shirts,
mouse pads and other items. Each of these items is made one
at a time. I'll be adding more items as time goes by. Perhaps,
the best way to see all of the photos, designs and quotes is
to visit the store and then choose "Gift" is the menu. This
will show you the various items all displayed on mouse pads.
If you see something you like, then you can look for it in
the rest of the website. So far, there are almost 400 items
there. I'll be adding more all the time. This project is
being handled by a company called Spreadshirt. You could also
set up a store there, too.

Anything you buy here also to support this website:

You can find a link this specialized store near the top of
my main store page. Here is the direct link.








ALPINE, CA 91903-0908

MARCH 12, 2008

4:00 PM CLOSED SESSION to discuss litigation in the case
of NAHC vs. Foothill/Eastern Transportation Corridor Agency
per Govt. Code 11126(e)

   1. Welcome – Chairman Mungary
   2. Traditional Opening
   3. Introduction of Commissioners

   1. Carmen Lucas and Kumeyaay Cultural Repatriation
Committee request to investigate and hold a hearing and
determine Commission responsibilities and findings under
PRC 5097.94 (g) and 5097.97 (proposed action by a public
agency that may cause severe or irreparable harm to a
Native American sanctified cemetery, place of worship,
religious or ceremonial site or sacred shrine located on
public property, possible mitigation procedures, and
possible referral to Attorney General) in regards to UC
San Diego Chancellor’s House project. Larry Myers -







*The Native American Heritage Commission complies with the
Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA). If you need additional
information or assistance, please contact the Commission at
(916) 653-4082. Our email address is: nahc @ pacbell.net.
Our web site address is: www.nahc.ca.gov


The State of California, Native American Heritage Commission,
will conduct a closed session per Government Code Section
11126(e) on Wednesday, March 12, 2008, Viejas Reservation,
Viejas Tribal Government Office, Tribal Hall, 1 Viejas
Grade Road, Alpine, California 91903-0908, phone 619-445-3810.

The Public meeting will begin at 4:30pm. Public comments
will be accepted at the close of the Public Session, time

Directions to Viejas Rancheria from San Diego Airport:
Interstate 5 North to Interstate 8 East to Alpine to
Willows Road exit to Viejas Grade Road


*The Native American Heritage Commission complies with
the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA). If you need
additional information or assistance, please contact the
Commission at (916) 653-4082. Our email address is:
nahc @ pacbell.net. Our web site address is: www.nahc.ca.gov


Montgomery College – Rockville Campus Feb 23-24
Montgomery College – Rockville Campus
Music Building
51 Mannakee Street, Rockville
Tickets: Prices vary upon attraction
703.338.2756 or www.potomacflutecircle.net

2 pm registration for workshops
3 pm workshops commence
7:30 pm Concert: Autumn’s Child featuring Mark Holland

Saturday:        9 am-3 pm workshops
                        1 pm Concert: Jan Seiden & Jim Morehouse
                        7:30 pm Concert: R. Carlos Nakai
Sunday:           9 am-3 pm workshops
                        3 pm Festival closes

This is a great festival weekend to take in the Native
American spirit of the flute! Enjoy the exhibits,
concerts and several workshops held throughout the day.


We are now accepting applications for the Native American
Astronomy Immersion Experience (NAAIE). This is a five
day observation experience open to any Native undergraduate
interested in astronomy and/or physics. This mainly an
introduction to what astronomy research is about and also
introducing a cultural component that connects our lives
to what the traditional teachings has to offer about the
night sky. A Navajo elder will spend a day with the
students telling them our teachings that are in the stars.
In this way, the Native student may find that connection
that is missing in the normal setting of a classroom.

Here is the link:


If you have any further questions about anything, please
feel free to contact me. Thank you so much for you assistance.

Dennis Lamenti
Department of Astronomy
Indiana University-Bloomington
727 E. 3rd St. Swain West 319
Bloomington, Indiana-47405, USA.
(812) 856-0584 Office
(812) 339-0402 Home
dlamenti @ astro.indiana.edu


The Longest Walk 2, walking 4,400 miles from SF to DC
(Walking from Feb 11 to July 11, 2008)

Poster Notes: The Longest Walk 2, is the 30th Anniversary
of the 1978 Longest Walk. Native American Indians will walk
from Alcatraz in San Francisco, 4,400 miles to Washington DC.
The Longest W alk officially begins symbolically at Alcatraz
Island in San Francisco on December 11.   Walkers leave DQ
on December 12, 2007, and after five months on crossing the
United States, visiting Sacred Sites along the way, will
arrive in Washington D.C. on July 11, 2008. The route is
a more Southern route than taken in 1978, and the walkers
will be passing through the Inland Empire during the last
few days in February and the first two weeks of March 2008
on this walk.

Why the Longest Walk 2? Reasons are many it seems. Indians
will be walking to protect Sacred Sites, to protect Mother
Earth and for the Seventh Generation. Included below are
statements by Dennis Banks and a Statement of the
International Council of Thirteen Indigenous Grandmothers

A number of people will walk the entire 4,400 mile walk.
Others will join in on the walk when it comes to their area.
Inland Empire residents may fly to the SF Bay Area if they
want to walk the entire 4,400 miles, or join the walk as it
passes through our area. But for many people their
participation may be to join the walkers for an hour, day,
or weekend when they pass through the Inland Empire area.
Plenty of advance notice from the local news media will
give local residents a chance to plan their participation
in this historical walk, whether it is just to drive by
and see and cheer the walkers or to walk a few steps or many.
For those planning to join the walk for the long haul
across the United States or some portion of it, please see
the Longest Walk 2 website information about items you will
need to bring, rules, and more. The event is a no drugs
and no alcohol event. But you can bring your dog, see the

The Longest Walk 2 organizers and walkers are in need of
varying kinds of support of this walk including sponsors,
in-kind donations, volunteers, cash donations, wish list
items, water, food, socks and more. See the website for
information on these and also to contact State coordinators
for The Longest Walk.

The Cities and Counties of Riverside and San Bernardino,
may wish to become in-kind sponsors. For example walkers
need water along the way, and may be picking up trash
along the way. So in-kind services of picking up filled
trash bags along the side of the road could be arranged in
advance with The Longest Walk organizers.. I don't know
the arrangement for ?facilities? along the way, but that
is something the two Counties may consider providing
in-kind as well.   I don?t know the rules about filming
the Walk, but if it is allowed it might be good to get
some clips of this historic Walk passing though the Inland
Empire's highways that are eligible to be designated
Scenic Highways. This is a prime opportunity to share
parts of our two Counties that are not often seen with
the World.

If you go out to visit the walkers at one of their stops,
you could also personally deliver items for walkers as
such as new socks, or even envelopes, paper and stamps
so walkers can write home. Check the website for information.

TV, Radio, Cable, and Print media would do a great service
by carrying the story to area residentst. Today, December
24 there is only a little more than a month till this walk
begins. Therefore immediate notice is critical to give
help give people a chance to plan and organize their
participation in this walk. I know a few people from
the San Francisco Bay Area that will be walking the
entire 4,400 miles, including two Indian men and an Indian
mother and her young son.

Look forward to seeing some of the Inland Empire?s over
4 million residents, families and children joining the
walkers, sharing the experience of this historical walk,
walking for Sacred Sites, Walking for Mother Earth,
Walking for the Seventh Generation.

Background on The Longest Walk 2, on the first Longest
Walk in 1978, the Houma near New Orleans in Louisiana
which will be a stop of this walk

From ancient times, runs and walks were a living tradition
among Native people. As the centuries went by, the tradition
virtually disappeared. At the 1977 gathering of the Elders'
Circle, comprised of Native spiritual leaders -- Chiefs,
Clan Mothers, and Headsmen -- a statement was issued
concerning the unique balance that exists between Humankind
and our Mother the Earth; that this balance was in grave
danger! The statement called upon traditional people in
the Four Directions to strengthen the healing ceremonies
and asked people to heed the warnings of Mother Earth.
The Elders' Circle asked that this Message be taken to all
native villages and communities. It is this Message that
The Longest Walk has carried since its beginning in 1978.

The first Longest Walk trekked over 18 mountain ranges,
walked through tornado weather, 110-degree heat, rainstorms,
snowstorms. There were 100-mile running events and 24-hour
marathons. When the walkers reached Washington, D.C., they
numbered in the thousands. People of all races, Elders of
many tribes came to Washington, D.C. with the walkers.
Respected elders like Chief Shenandoa of the Six Nations,
Oren Lyons, faith keeper of the Onondaga Nation, David
Monague, Hopi, and Philip Deere, Muscogee Creek. Other
supporters included Marlon Brando, Muhammad Ali, Willie
Nelson, Stevie Wonder, Ken Norton, Buffy St. Marie, Floyd
Red Crow Westerman, Max Gail, Nichidatsu Fujii Gruji of
Nipponzan Myo Hoji sect.

Since 1978, beginning with The Longest Walk, runners and
walkers have traveled over 38,000 miles across the United
States, Japan, Europe, Australia & New Zealand, the Soviet
Union, Canada, and other countries around the world. Our
main purpose is to carry the message of the sacredness
of all life; of our relationship to all living species;
and of the need to maintain the delicate balance that
exists between humankind and Mother Earth. Walkers and
runners have crossed the U.S. in 1978, 1984, 1992
(Fairbanks to Santa Fe, possibly the longest sacred run),
in 1996, and again in 2006 -- San Francisco to Washington,

In 2006, we visited the United Houma Nation just west of
New Orleans, where we found a proud group of American
Indians fighting to keep their culture alive. Hurricane
Katrina hit the Houma Nation on August 29, 2005. It
devastated many of the small Houma settlements, leaving
over 1,000 tribal member?s homeless due to the total
destruction of their homes. As the tribe struggled with
this disaster, Hurricane Rita hit the heart of the Houma
Nation. This storm ruined the homes of 4,000 more Houma
tribal members. FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency)
did not provide assistance to the Houma ? no water, no
food, no shelter, and no supplies from the federal

Recovery for the Houma will take years. The Longest Walk
2 will visit, support, and focus attention on the Houma,
and make sure the Houma are not forgotten.

On February 11, 2008, The Longest Walk 2 will begin a
4,400-mile 5-month walk to raise awareness of global
warming and to the state of the environment. Join us on
November 3, 2007 at The Fillmore in San Francisco for
our benefit concert. Contact [name and phone deleted by
poster] or www.redhotpromotion s.com for information on
how you can help.

July 7, 2007
Palace Hotel, Cass Lake, MN

July 12, 2007
Sedona Hilton, AZ

Nov! . 3, 200 7
Fillmore Auditorium
San Francisco, CA

To be scheduled leading up to and throughout the walk

Feb 11, 2008, leaves San Francisco (Kick off concert to
be announced)

Each evening a cultural exchange program is presented
during which our walkers perform their different tribal
songs and dances. The local community is invited to share
their heritage and culture in return.

Each day begins with the burning of tobacco and cedar.
Walkers carry a Sacred Staff and every mile, every
kilometer is filled with prayers for all living species,
every plant, tree, and flower. We pray for our relations:
the four-legged, the winged-ones, the insects. We give
thanks to the Great Spirit for all that is given us and
pay daily respect to the Moon, the Stars, the Sun, and to
the sacredness of the Earth?s Peoples. Every evening we
gather in a circle and offer tobacco in a ceremonial way.
Purification ceremonies are conducted along the way. It
is a Walk for our young generations, a time to respect
our Elders, and to prepare the direction for the Seventh

July 11, 2008, arrives Washington D.C.

To see official The Longest Walk 2 itineraries for each
State, click here
http://longestwalk. org/index.

Peace on Mother Earth as this year ends and the New
Year Begins.                 twodogkd @ yahoo. com


Subject: Rendevous- knap-in at Illahee




The dry creek store is 2 miles away & has gas,
groceries & small deli.


OR bbb7707 @ yahoo.com

The Rendezvous is a label applied to annual gatherings in
North America. These are events where teachers and students
gather to teach, learn and share information about their
areas of interest. Analogous to conferences held in the
out-of-doors about things having to do with the out-of-doors.

"Rendezvous" was the name used for the annual meeting of
mountain men and fur buyers during the Western fur trade
era, where trappers would exchange beaver skins for supplies
and goods they wanted. These events occurred between the
early 1820s and the 1840s, coming to an end when the price
of beaver skins fell due to changes in fashion. It is now
used for any gathering in the buckskinning historical
re-enactment hobby.

Juliana Marez
American Indian Education Title VII
Homeless and Runaway Youth Services
Roseburg Public Schools


A Womens' Symposium: Honoring American Indian Women of
Distinction You Are Invited - Join Us When We Honor
Join us when we honor Tonita Largo-Glover and Dorothy Ramon
at our Third Annual A Womens' Symposium:
Honoring American Indian Women of Distinction

830 AM to 2 PM
Breakfast & Lunch Served
The Performing Arts Center
Crafton Hills College
11711 Sand Canyon Road
Yucaipa, Calif.

Tickets are $45 and $30 On Sale Now
And Remember Frances Morongo, Katherine Kitchen &
Lela Arenas Madrigal


News articles & Videos:

‘Grandmother’ of Indian country’s newest collection
wins national award

Navajo Code Talker dead at age 82

Win-River hires local companies

Onondaga Nation woman gets UN post

Institutional racism is still with us

Federal agents accuse smuggler of stealing N.M. artifacts

Following the trails of our Apache ancestors

Native American tribe seeks new resting place for
ancestors with help from Playa Vista

A dust-up over energy development

Southwestern treasures

Last fluent speaker of Wichita tribal language preserves
what’s left. In the end, one woman passes on what’s left

From Julia Marez:
This is beautiful!! check this out, it will make your
day! Lila-waste na Nina waste!!



That's it for now.

Have a great month.

Phil Konstantin

End of Phil Konstantin's February 2008 Newsletter - Part 3

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This Day in North American Indian History
This Day in North American Indian History is a one-of-a-kind, vastly entertaining and informative book covering over 5000 years of North American Indian history, culture, and lore. Wide-ranging, it covers over 4,000 important events involving the native peoples of North America in a unique day-by-day format.

The thousands of entries in This Day in North American Indian History weave a compelling and comprehensive mosaic of North American Indian history spanning more than five millennia-every entry an exciting opening into the fascinating but little- known history of American Indians.

Over 100 photographs and illustrations - This book has 480 pages, weighs 2.2 pounds and is 8" by 9.5" in size. The Dates, Names and "Moons" section of these pages are based on the book.

This is the cover to my 4th book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info.
This is the cover to my 4th book. Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info."

Native American History For Dummies

I wrote six of the twenty-four chapters in this book. I am credited with being the technical editor. Book Description:
Native American History For Dummies introduces readers to the thousand-year-plus history of the first inhabitants of North America and explains their influence on the European settlement of the continent. Covering the history and customs of the scores of tribes that once populated the land, this friendly guide features vivid studies of the lives of such icons as Pocahontas, Sitting Bull, and Sacagawea; discusses warfare and famous battles, offering new perspectives from both battle lines; and includes new archaeological and forensic evidence, as well as oral histories that show events from the perspective of these indigenous peoples. The authors worked in concert with Native American authorities, institutions, and historical experts to provide a wide range of insight and information.
This is the cover to my 3rd book. 
Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info.
This is the cover to my 3rd book. Click here to got more info, or to order a copy or to get more info
Treaties With American Indians I wrote an article and several appendix items for this book.
Clips from a review on Amazon.com: *Starred Review* In the 93 years from 1778 until 1871, there were more than 400 treaties negotiated by Indian agents and government officials. Editor Fixico and more than 150 contributors have crafted a three volume comprehensive tool that will soon become essential for anyone interested in the topic. A resource section with lists of ?Alternate Tribal Names and Spellings,? ?Tribal Name Meanings,? (<---- I wrote this part) Treaties by Tribe,? and ?Common Treaty Names? and a bibliography and comprehensive index are repeated in each volume. This impressive set has a place in any academic library that supports a Native American studies or American history curriculum. It is the most comprehensive source of information on Canadian-Indian treaties and U.S.-Indian treaties. Also available as an e-book.

"The Wacky World of Laws"
It was just released in May 2009.
The Wacky World of Laws. Click on the cover to order a copy or to get more info.

The Wacky World of Laws is a compilation of U.S. and International Laws that are out of the ordinary. With the U.S. churning out 500,000 new laws every year and 2 million regulations annually, this book is the ideal go-to book fro everyone who wants a good laugh at the expense of our legal system. Law so often can be boring! Now with The Wacky World of Laws, you can be the hit of any water cooler conversation, and amaze your friends with precious legal nuggets.

I wrote most of this book. It is my fifth book.

(copyright, © Phil Konstantin, 2010)

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since September 4, 2005