. . . ============================================================ Start of Phil Konstantin’s February 2005 Newsletter – part 1 ============================================================ Greetings, Just a few days ago, I finished the 4 day history course offered by the Cherokee Nation. It was an excellent course and I really enjoyed the experience. Principal Chief Chad "Corntassel" Smith was there for the last day. He helped to teach part of the class. When asked what Cherokees in San Diego could do to help the Cherokee Nation, he told us several things. We can support the efforts of the nation through our local congressional representatives. This would easily apply to many of you who are members of other nations. He suggested that if we were involved in any business ventues, to consider bringing some of those jobs to the people in the area around the tribal headquarters in Oklahoma. He also suggested that we promote the concept of the tribe and to mentor our younger tribal members. He quoted the phrase: "the bigotry of low expectations." He suggested that he continue to help the younger generation set goals for excellence. For those of you who are Cherokee, I again recommend taking this course. A few days ago, I finally decided it was time to retire from the California Highway Patrol. May 1, 2005 will be my last day in uniform. I have worked for the CHP for almost 20 years. It has been an interesting and exciting experience; but, it is time to move on. So, now I have to consider what it is I will do from now on. I would like to stay in San Diego. If I do stay here, I will need to get another job. I am looking for something in the local media market. I have also considered moving to Oklahoma to see how I could use my skills and experience to help the Cherokee Nation. I'll keep you posted. Phil =========================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =========================== Link of the Month for February: The "Link of the Month" for February is 1st-hand-history.org . This website specializes in copies of original, historical documents. While it has material on many subject matters, it has a great deal of documents relating to American Indians. The "TOPICAL ARCHIVES INDEX" contains copies of the Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon, "History of Southern Oregon," The Life and Times of General Joseph Lane, and Marcus and Narcissa Whitman - missionaries to the Cayuse tribe. The "LIBRARY Index" has copies of some of the Annual Reports of the U.S. Bureau of Ethnology from 1884 through 1905; The Cheyenne Indians, Their History and Ways of Life, by George Bird Grinnell, published 1923; the Autobiography of Black Hawk; an Index of some of the U.S. Congressional and Executive Documents from 1835 through 1897; and the 1883 Indian Tribes of the United States, by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, just to name a few. This website is an excellent example of one of the way the internet can educate and inform the public. Through its use of original documents, we can see unsanitized versions of the documents, and attitudes which have shaped the United States. I highly recommend this website. I have visited it myself many times. http://www.1st-hand-history.org/index.htm =========================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =========================== The "Treaty of the Month" is the TREATY WITH THE POTAWATOMI, 1837. The treaty covers such issues as: Former treaties sanctioned, Land ceded to the United States, Indians to remove within two years, Payment by the United States, United States to convey certain territory to Indians, and United States to purchase certain reserved land. You can see a transcript of the treaty at this website: http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/pot0488.htm =========================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =========================== Random Historical Events: February 1, 1917: By executive order, the Papago Indian Reservation was established in Sells, Arizona. The act was amended on February 21, 1931, and on October 28, 1932. February 2, 1945: In 1905, the Shoshone and Arapaho Tribes of the Wind River Reservation ceded a large part of their reservation to the United States. According to Federal Register No. 10FR02254, they got a small part of that land back. February 3, 1838: The Oneida signed a treaty (7 Stat. 566) in Washington, D.C. It ceded some of their land. February 4, 1861: John Ward’s stepson, Feliz Tellez, was kidnapped by Indians from his ranch on Sonoita Creek in Arizona. Ward complained to the army, and it sent Second Lieutenant George Bascom and fifty-four soldiers to find him. Today, Chiricahua Apache Chief Cochise was invited to talk with Bascom in Apache Pass in southwestern Arizona. Cochise brought some family with him to the parlay in Bascom’s tent. Cochise was shocked when Bascom accused him of kidnapping the boy. Cochise denied his involvement, but Bascom did not believe him. Bascom then told Cochise he was under arrest. Cochise cut a hole in the tent and escaped. Bascom kept Cochise’s relatives as hostages. Cochise quickly seized several whites as hostages as well. February 5, 1802: Orono was a Penobscot chief. During his life, he was converted to Catholicism. He fought in the French and Indian War against the British settlements in New England. He fought on the American side during the Revolutionary War, and he was believed to have been 108 years old when he died. February 6, 1793: After William Blount gained the promise of Chickamauga chiefs to stop their raids and murdering of European settlers on May 29, 1792, the rampages continued. Blount returned to the Chickamauga at Coyatee with the same request and an offer for the principal chiefs to visit the "great white father" at Philadelphia. The chiefs considered the offer, but within the next few months the village was attacked by Europeans. This hardened the hearts of the Chickamauga and some of their Cherokee neighbors. The attack continued. February 7, 1861: Convinced that they would get better treatment from a southern government than from the one in Washington, D.C., the Choctaw announce their support of the Confederacy. February 8, 1887: The Dawes Severalty Act (24 Stat. 388–389) regarding land allotments took effect. Its official title was "An Act to Provide for the Allotment of Lands in Severalty to Indians on the Various Reservations, and to Extend the Protection of the Laws of the United States and the Territories over the Indians, and for Other Purposes." February 9, 1690: Some 300 Indians and French sneaked into the stockade at Schenectady, New York, during a snowstorm. After posting warriors at each building, a signal was given, and the primarily Dutch occupants were attacked. Sixty settlers were killed, and twenty-seven were captured. Mohawk Indians attempted to rescue some of the captives as they were marched off to Canada, with little success. February 10, 1834: The Western Cherokees did not wish to share their current holdings in the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) with the Cherokees remaining in the east if they decided to emigrate. Western Chiefs Black Coat, John Jolly, and Walter Webber signed a treaty with Indian Agent George Vashon that gave them more land, and larger annual payments, if the Eastern Cherokees did move to the Indian Territory. Federal authorities in the Indian Territory did not pass the treaty along to Washington, D.C. February 11, 1837: The Potawatomi signed a treaty (7 Stat. 532) in Washington, D.C. The treaty agreed to give "to the Pottawatomies of Indiana a tract of country on the Osage River, southwest of the Missouri River, sufficient in extent and adapted to their habits and wanted." February 12, 1599: Of the seventy Acoma tried for battling with Spaniards on December 4, 1598, all seventy were found guilty. Today, Juan de Ońate ordered their punishment. All men over twenty-five years old had one foot cut off and served as slaves for twenty years. Everyone from twelve to twenty-five only had a foot cut off. February 13, 1864: A Civil War battle took place at Middle Boggy Depot in Indian Territory (modern Atoka County, Oklahoma). Union forces under Major Charles Willette surprised Confederate forces under Lieutenant Colonel John Jumper. Jumper commanded members of the Seminole Battalion, Company A, First Choctaw and Chickasaw Cavalry Regiment, and a detachment of the Twentieth Texas Regiment. The bluecoats won the fight. February 14, 1931: Congress passed an act (Public Law No. 667, 71st Congress) that authorized the president to establish the Canyon de Chelly National Monument in the Navajo Indian Reservation in northeastern Arizona. Another act (46 Stat. 1106) was also passed. Its purpose was to "enable the Secretary to accept donations of funds or other property for the advancement of the Indian race. An annual report will be made to Congress on donations received and allocations made from such donations." February 15, 1866: Elements of the Second Cavalry engaged Indians near Guano Valley, Nevada. One soldier was killed, and seven were wounded. Ninety-six Indians were killed, fifteen were wounded, and nineteen were captured, according to army records. February 16, 1863: An act (12 Stat. l652) stated that all treaties between the United States and the "Sisseton, Wahpaton, Medawakanton, and Wahpakoota Bands of Sioux of Dakota are aborgated and annulled" as far as occupancy or obligations in Minnesota were concerned. This act took away their lands in Minnesota because of the Santee Sioux Uprising. February 17, 1690: While traveling through the area, French explorer Henri de Tonti visited the Natchitoches Confederation (near modern Natchitoches, Louisiana). February 18, 1837: General Ellis Wool had been assigned the task of preventing the Cherokees from revolting after the passage of the New Echota Treaty on December 29, 1835. General Wool tried to get the Cherokees to acquiesce to the treaty, but to no avail. He reported opposition to the treaty was so prevalent that starving Cherokees would not take help from the government for fear that it might imply their consent to the treaty. February 19, 1778: Virginia Governor Patrick Henry was upset by the actions of several white "frontiersmen" against the Indians. They had killed Shawnee Chief Cornstalk and four other Shawnees who had lived in peace with their neighbors. Today Governor Henry wrote a letter to Colonel William Fleming suggesting that perhaps the murderers were British agents trying to instigate a fight with the Indians to divert troops away from the Revolutionary War. February 20, 1893: A congressional act modified the White Mountain–San Carlos–Camp Apache Reserve in western Arizona Territory. It was amended further on June 10, 1896. At its largest, it comprised 2,866 square miles and was occupied by Arivaipa, Chillion, Chiricahua, Coyotero, Membreno, Mogollon, Mohave, Pinal, San Carlos, Tonto, and Yuma Apache Tribes. February 21, 1935: The Inuit of the Mackensie Delta had decided to raise reindeer as an economic enterprise. A herd of 2,300 reindeer, herded by Lapps and Eskimos, arrived at the Mackensie Delta. The effort proved to be very successful. February 22, 1831: The state of Georgia had seized Cherokee lands. Cherokee leaders had complained to many federal government officials. On February 15, the U.S. Senate officially asked President Andrew Jackson if he was going to live up to the Indian Trade and Intercourse Act passed in March 1802. Today, President Jackson responded to the Senate’s inquiry. Unequivocally, Jackson stated he sided with the state of Georgia and he would not enforce any law giving precedence to the Cherokees over Georgia. February 23, 1865: Major General G. M. Dodge, in St. Louis, sent the following message by telegram to Colonel Ford at Fort Riley: "The military have no authority to treat with Indians. Our duty is to make them keep the peace by punishing them for their hostility. Keep posted as to their location, so that as soon as ready we can strike them. 400 horses arrived here for you." February 24, 1897: Api-kai-ees (Deerfoot) was a Siksika (Blackfeet) man known for his ability as a long-distance runner. He was well known in the Calgary area, where a local freeway today bears his name. He died on this day. February 25, 1858: A group of Bannock and a few Shoshone stole some cattle from the local Mormon settlers near Fort Limhi, Idaho. This led to a brief battle with a couple of settlers being killed. The fort would be abandoned on March 27, 1858. February 26, 1860: The Wiyot lived on the upper California coast between the Little River and the Bear River. An annual ceremony lasting over a week was held in the village of Tutulwat on an island in the river in what is now Eureka, California. By Wiyot tradition, everyone was welcome at the ceremony, including whites. Tonight, after the ceremonies were finished, a group of men from Eureka sneaked into the village and attacked the participants. Several other nearby villages were also attacked. An estimated eighty to 100 Indians were killed in the sneak attack. An annual vigil is now held on a nearby island to commemorate the event. February 27, 1803: President Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter to William Henry Harrison. He expressed his belief that promoting trading houses among the Indians led to the Indians incurring greater debts. He felt these debts could lead to the United States acquiring more lands to pay off the debts. February 28, 1675: The Mission Santa Cruz de Sabacola El Menor was dedicated. The mission was for the Sawoklis Indians on the Apalachicola River. =========================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =========================== That is it for now. I’ll have more later. Stay safe, Phil ========================================================== End of Phil Konstantin’s February 2005 Newsletter – part 1 ========================================================== . . . . . . . ============================================================ Start of Phil Konstantin’s February 2005 Newsletter – Part 2 ============================================================ Greetings, I know a couple of you have already passed the word along about my essay contest. For that, I thank you. To clarify who is eligible, you just have to be part American Indian and a student in the appropriate grade. You do not have to be an "enrolled" or "official" member of a tribe to be able to submit an essay. The complete rules for the contest are on my website on this page: http://americanindian.net/contest.html ---------------------- My son Ron sent me the follow request. If you would like to respond, please contact him directly. I listed Ron's e-mail address three different ways. Topica sometimes deletes parts of e-mail addresses. Thanks, Phil =========================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =========================== Hey, I was wondering if you could help me with a class project I have for my ethics class. My assignment is to take a position defending the ethical values of affirmative action. I go to Abilene Christian University which is a Church of Christ ultra conservative school. Although I am only a percentage Cherokee and not full blooded, it is the ethnic background I am the proudest of, by far. The majority of students in my classes, are white and in middle to upper class society. When I brought up the limited knowledge I have of the injustices the American Indian has faced, I was greeted with laughter, mockery, and demeaning stereotypical comments about American Indians. I would prefer not to make my arguements out of ignorance, so I need help. I would appreciate subscribers writing me directly expressing their positive, and negative views of affirmative action on their tribe. Please include the name your tribe, the location, if you live on a reservation or not ect... I have too great respect for the American Indian community to speak on their behalf. I trust the honor of ones word I have seen among all tribes I have been exposed to. I thank them in advance. I would suggest a narrow scope that effects affirmative action in responses sent to me. My email address is email@example.com r o n 1 k o n @ h o t m a i l . c o m ron1kon @ hotmail.com Ron Konstantin =========================== X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X+X =========================== That is it for now. I’ll have more later. Stay safe, Phil ========================================================== End of Phil Konstantin’s February 2005 Newsletter – Part 2 ========================================================== . . .
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