February 2004 Newsletter from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2007)

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Start of the February 2004 Newsletter - Part 1


I am leaving to go visit my son Ron in Texas in the morning. I have been 
very busy during the last few days, so this newsletter is a bit 
abbreviated. I will include more things when I get back in a few days, 
including the details about my essay contest for students.

This morning my daughter Sarah's car was broken into. They broke out her 
rear window and rifled through the car. She lost most of her CD 
collection, which she kept in the car. Fortunately, they did not do too 
much damage other than the broken window. That does not include the 
psychological damage, of course. We all feel somewhat violated when 
something like this happens. This is just a reminder to take your 
valuables in at night.

Today, two murder suspects, who were at large, were captured in San 
Diego. I was a bit involved in informing the public about both of the 
suspects. One was in a rest area, the other was at a pay phone outside 
of a AAA office. It just goes to show you never know who is sitting next 
to you at a pay phone or a parking lot.


There are three "Link of The Month" sites for February.

MIAMI COLLECTION". It is a exceptional collection of documents and 
information about the Miami tribe. It was prepared by the Glenn Black 
Laboratory of Archaeology and The Trustees of Indiana University. It is 
well worth a view. 

This website is located at:


The second site is "Official website of the Miami Nation of Indians of 
Indiana". This site has lots of detailed information about this tribe. 
It is well worth a view. 

This website is located at:


The third site is "Official website of the Miami Nation of Oklahoma". 
This site also has lots of information about this branch of the tribe. 
It is also well worth a view. 

This website is located at:


I know many of you heard about the MyDoom worm that just came out. I 
received about 20 e-mails containing the virus. I have a good system 
which detected all of them. For those of you who are not sure about the 
status of your computer, here are two FREE sources to check things out.

You can download the free tool from Symantec, the people who make Norton 
Anti-Virus programs, to scan for and fix MyDoom at:

You can also get a virus check here:



If you are thinking about getting a book, CD, DVD, or most other good on 
the internet, please consider going through some of the links on my 
AmericanIndian.Net Store page at:


You get the same price as if you ordered it from the sites I associate 
with, and I get a small referal fee that helps me pay for this site.



Here are some random historical events for February:

February 1, 1876: The Secretary of the Interior advises the Secretary of 
War that any Indians who have not returned to their reservations, now 
are under his jurisdiction. The army can use any means to deal with the 
"hostiles.” This primarily involves the plains Indians.

February 2, 1848: The Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty is signed. It is the 
policy of the United States, in keeping with treaty (9 SAT. 929) 
understanding and long established custom, to provide certain necessary 
services and facilities to Native American Indians.

February 3, 456: Maya King of Tikal (Guatemala) Siyaj Chan K'awill II 
(Stormy Sky) dies according to Maya stele carvings     

February 4, 1829: Mississippi’s House of Representatives passes a law to 
“extend legal process into that part of the state now occupied by the 
Chickasaw and Choctaw tribes of Indians.”

February 5, 1847: The rebel Pueblo Indians, and Mexicans, of Taos 
surrender to General Sterling Price. They hand over rebel leader Pablo 
Montoya. He is tried, and shot on February 7, 1847. 

February 6, 1682: Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, and a force 
of twenty-two French and thirty-one Indians reach the juncture of the 
Illinois and Mississippi Rivers. La Salle then sails down the 
Mississippi to see if it empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The expedition 
contacts many Indian tribes along the way. Based on this expedition, La 
Salle claims the Mississippi Valley, and Louisiana, for the French. La 
Salle reaches the Gulf of Mexico on April 9, 1682.     

February 7, 1778: According to some sources, Daniel Boone is captured by 
Shawnee warriors under Chief Blackfish near the “Blue Licks” in Kentucky 
while making salt.

February 8, 1975: An election for amendments to the Constitution of the 
Papago (Tohono O’odham) is held . Of the 3,251 eligible voters, 1521 for 
the amendments, 690 vote against. 

February 9, 1870: Louis Riel (fil) is elected President of the Metis. 

February 10, 1676: The Narragansetts attack Lancaster, Massachusetts. 
This battle in ‘King Philip's War’ kills fifty settlers. Twenty-four 
whites are taken prisoner. One of the prisoners, Mary Rowlandson, 
escapes. She writes a bestseller about her ordeal. Mary Rowlandson's 
"narrative" is the first in a series of "true-life" stories published by 
Indian captives. Participating in the raid is Chief Quinnapin. 

February 11, 1828: John Tipton, representing the United States, and 
members of the Eel River Band of the Miami Indians sign a treaty (7 
stat. 309). Called the "Treaty of Wyandot Village,” the Indians move to 
a reservation and give up lands along Sugartree Creek. They receive 
$10,000 in supplies. 

February 12, 1848: As a part of the efforts to fight the Cayuse who 
attacked the Whitman Mission in Oregon Country, soldiers and militia 
have been reporting to The Dalles. By today, 537 men have arrived.

February 13, 1684: According to some sources, an agreement is reached by 
representatives of the Cusabu Indians for the South Carolina colonies to 
acquire some land. 

February 14, 1756: Several Delaware attack settlers in Berks County, 
Pennsylvania. A dozen settlers, including six children, are killed. Two 
of the settlers killed are young women, sisters, who had a premonition 
of evil tidings the previous day. One of the sisters dies in her 
father's arms when he finds her in his burned farm. 

February 15, 1805: A Mandan Chief is snowblinded according to Lewis and 

February 16, 1922: President Warren Harding issues an Executive Order 
which will "withdraw from settlement, entry, sale or other disposition" 
approximately 386.85 acres of Zia Pueblo Indian lands in New Mexico, 
until March 5, 1924. This order replaces Order Number 3351 issued on 
November 6, 1920. 

February 17, 1792: An addenda is made to the Holston River Treaty. 
Payment for ceded land go from $1000 to $1500, annually. The new treaty 
is signed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by six Cherokees, including 
Bloody Fellow. As a part of the ceremony. President Washington gives 
Bloody Fellow the new name of Iskagua (Clear Sky). 

February 18, 1861: The Arapaho and Cheyenne sign a treaty (12 stat. 
1163) at Fort Wise in southeastern Colorado. The United States is 
represented by Albert Boone and F.B. Culver. It establishes a 
reservation bounded by Sand Creek and the Arkansas River. The Indians 
think it allows them the right to hunt freely outside of the 
reservation, but the treaty contains no such clause. Only six of the 
forty-four Cheyenne Chiefs are present to sign, Black Kettle being one. 
Other than the Indians who sign on this date, no others ever sign it. 
The validity of the treaty is contested for a long time. The fort is 
renamed Fort Lyon. 

February 19, 1889: Gabriel Dumont is a Metis Chief. He actively 
participates in the Riel Rebellion. He receives a government pardon for 
those actions.

February 20, 1863: Cherokee Chief John Ross has been arrested by Union 
forces and taken to Washington, D.C. In the interim, Stand Watie has 
been elected tribal chief at the First Confederate Cherokee Conference. 
At Cow Skin Prairie, Cherokees loyal to John Ross, revoked the treaty 
with the South and pledged loyalty to the Union. They remove 
Confederates from office, emancipate 

February 21, 1861: The rich members of the Navajo tribe (called the 
"Rico" leaders) meet with Colonel Edward Canby at the new Fort 
Fauntleroy, in western New Mexico. The meeting included such leaders as 
Manuelito, Delgadito, Armijo, Barboncito, and Herrero Grande. During the 
meeting, , the Navajos choose Herrero Grande as the Head Chief of the 
Navajos. The parley leads to a "treaty" where the Navajos promised to 
live in peace with their non-Indian neighbors. The fort later is renamed 
Fort Lyon, and then Fort Wingate. 

February 22, 1637: Lieutenant Lion Gardiner is commander of some of the 
forces at Fort Saybrook, Connecticut. He leads some men out to get rid 
of the undergrowth which might hide approaching Indians. They are 
attacked by Pequots. Two of the settlers are killed in the fighting. 

February 23, 1832: Chickasaw Chief Levi Colbert tells President Jackson 
the Chickasaw are agreed to the removal to Indian Territory (present day 
Oklahoma). He informs the President they cannot reach an agreement with 
the Choctaws on sharing lands, so the provisional treaty of September 1, 
1830 is void. 

February 24, 1831: The Choctaw Dancing Rabbit Creek treaty (11 Stat., 
537) is ratified by the U.S. Senate. The Choctaws leave Mississippi for 
Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). While many Choctaws are opposed 
to the treaty, they lack organization. It is publicly proclaimed on May 
26, 1831. 

February 25, 1643: For the last two years there have been several 
incidents sparked by both Indians and settlers which have led to 
bloodshed in the area around modern New York City. Presently, the only 
Indians in the area are some peaceful Indians seeking refuge from the 
Mohawks. Through tomorrow, New Amsterdam citizens, with the approval of 
Dutch Director Kieft, and led by Maryn Adriaensen, attack a peaceful 
Wecquaesgeek village at Corlaer's Hook near the Pavonia settlements 
(near modern Jersey City). The Dutch soldiers kill not only the 
warriors, but all of the eighty Indians in the camp, including women and 
children. This fight becomes known as the "Pavonia Massacre," and it 
incites numerous reprisals. Adriaensen is exiled to Holland for three 
years as punishment for leading the attack when the population learns of 
the fight. He will return, and receive a land grant from Director Kieft, 
three years later. Some accounts say only thirty Indians are killed. 

February 26, 1881: According to Army records, 325 Sioux, believed to be 
primarily from Sitting Bull's camp, surrender to Major David Brotherton, 
Seventh infantry, at Fort Buford, near the North Dakota-Montana line. 
150 horses, and forty guns are turned in by the Indians. 

February 27, 1754: In a letter to Pennsylvania Governor James Hamilton, 
the Pennsylvania Assembly assails the European traders cheating the 
local Indians. The traders are equated with the worst of European 

February 28, 1704: Today, through tomorrow, in what is the first 
American battle in "Queen Anne's War,” Deerfield, in central 
Massachusetts, is attacked by Indians and French under Major Hertel de 
Rouville. Of the almost 300 inhabitants, different historical accounts 
show between forty-seven and fifty-six are killed, and as many as 180 
people taken prisoner.   


End of the February 2004 Newsletter - Part 1

Start of the February 2004 Newsletter - Part 2

I am back from my short trip to Texas to visit my son Ron and his 
significant other, Christi. 


I have mentioned my plan to have an essay contest in previous 
newsletters. I would like to thank everyone who made suggestions on how 
it should be run. One of my newsletters' readers, who wishes to remain 
anonymous, has even contributed some extra money for the prizes.

The section below contains the rules, subject matter and the awards for 
the winners and the runners-up.

I would appreciate your assistance in getting this information out to 
anyone you think might be interested in participatings. Please feel free 
to pass it along to others, add it to your newsletters, newsgroups, 
websites, etc. 

Please be sure to include the rules, when you pass this along to others.




Phil Konstantin's "This Day in North American Indian History" Essay 

There are a couple of reasons for this contest. It is my hope that these 
essays will help raise the participant's awareness in the subject 
matter. Sharing the information will help to educate the public, as 
well. Finally, this is a way for me to help pay back the community who 
has supported my efforts through my websites, newsletters and book 
("This Day in North American Indian History").

This is an essay contest for North American Indian students. Anyone who 
is a member of any tribe between the North Pole and Panama is eligible 
to enter. When the word "tribe" is used is the rules, it is meant to 
include the concept of "nation" or "native village," as well.

There are three subjects: one for elementary/junior high school 
students, one for high school students, and one for college students.

While I am the judge and final arbitor of the contest, I might ask 
others for their opinions or assistance.

I will post some of the essays on my website and in my newsletters.



Elementary and Junior High School students:
What everyone needs to know about my tribe.

High school students:
How my tribe's history guides my life.

College students:
What does tribal sovereignty mean to my tribe.



There will be a total of three first place winners: one for each of the 
different grade levels.

There will be a total of six runners-up: two for each of the different 
grade levels.

All nine first place and runners-up essays will be posted on my website, 
and included in my newsletter.

First Place Prize:
$50.00 (U.S.)
A signed copy of my book

Runner-up Prize
$10.00 (U.S.)
A signed copy of my book


1. The essay should be under 500 words in length.

2. Entrants should be a member of a tribal group, or attend a tribal-run 

3. Entries should be mailed or e-mailed to the addresses below.

4. All essays become the property of Phil Konstantin. They will not be 

5. Essays may be posted on Phil Konstantin's website, newsletters or 
other publications. By submitting an entry, you agree to these terms.

6. Phil Konstantin is the final judge and arbitor for the contest.


Submitting entries:

E-mail is the prefered method. Please submit each entry in an 
individual e-mail. Written entries may be submitted as a group (i.e. if 
everyone in a class writes an essay, they can all be mailed in the same 

Please include the student's name & mailing address on their essay.

Regular mail:

Phil Konstantin
Essay Contest
P.O. Box 17515
San Diego, CA, USA 92177-7515

"Essay Contest" should be in the subject line
p h i l k o n @ r o c k e t m a i l . c o m   or
p a g e s @ a m e r i c a n i n d i a n . n e t


In case you cannot read this, or it is easier to refer people to a 
website, a copy of this notice will be placed on my website at:


If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me.

Best wishes and good luck,

Phil Konstantin

End of the February 2004 Newsletter - Part 2


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