January 2005 Part 1 Newsletter from
"This Day in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2007)

Start of Phil Konstantin’s January 2005 Newsletter – Part 1



I will be late in sending out this month's newsletter. My oldest
daughter, Heidi, is in the Intensive Care Unit with double pneumonia. If
things go well, she should be out in a couple of days. We are all hoping
for the best.

Thanks for understanding,



End of Phil Konstantin’s January 2005 Newsletter – Part 1

Start of Phil Konstantin’s January 2005 Newsletter – Part 2




Good news, my daughter Heidi finally got out of the hospital last night.
She had double pneumonia and was in for almost a week. At one point the
doctors thought she might have Lupus (an auto-immune disease that is not
that uncommon in young adult females). The doctors now think she does
not have it. Heidi told me all of the prayers must have worked.

Thank all of you for your good thoughts and prayers.

I'll get back to writing a newsletter in the next few days.

Thanks, again,



End of Phil Konstantin’s January 2005 Newsletter – Part 2

Start of Phil Konstantin's January 2005 Newsletter - Part 3


This newsletter is a bit shorter than normal, as I have been very busy
lately. My oldest daughter Heidi finally came home from the hospital.
She has improved enough to go out and visit friends. Again, thanks to
all of you we sent out good thoughts and prayers for her recovery.

Last weekend, I attended the first two days of a four-day class offered
here in San Diego by the Cherokee Nation. The class covers the history
of the Cherokee, as well as cultural material. The nation has been
offering it to tribal members for a couple of years. In fact, it is a
required class for tribal employees. It is an effort to help people
reconnect with their heritage. I have been very impressed with the
material. I am Cherokee through my mother’s father. He died, or
disappeared, when my mother was seven. My grandmother was white, and did
not know much about the Cherokees. Thus, my mother did not learn about
Cherokee culture from the source. I have learned more about traditional
culture from this course than I have discovered on my own throughout my
entire life. For example, I discovered that under traditional rules, I
am not part of a clan. Clan membership travels through the female side
of the family. Since my grandmother was not Cherokee, neither my mother
nor I are part of any of the seven Cherokee clans.

Julia Coates (PhD) is the instructor. She is doing an excellent job with
the course. I am really looking forward to the rest of the class. Hats
off to Chief Smith, the tribal council, and everyone else who have
facilitated this effort to reach out to the many of us who are not near
the tribal headquarters. For those of you who are Cherokee, I highly
recommend taking this class, if you have the opportunity.



The “Link of the Month” for January 2005.

The Center for California Native Nations website is part of the
University of California in Riverside. The University of California at
Riverside is unique among universities in the United States in that
American Indians Supported UCR's Founding. A Cahuilla man and a
Cherokee woman, Rupert and Jeannette Costo, were responsible for the
campaign to locate a branch of the University of California at
Riverside. The Costos also established the first chair in American
Indian Studies in the United States, the Costo Chair of American Indian
Affairs. They also assembled one of the largest collections of research
materials relating to Native Americans in the nation the Costo Library
of the American Indian and Costo Archive. The Costos founded the
American Indian Historical Society, which served as the foundation for a
Native American book and journal publishing concern, the Indian
Historian Press. The website’s archive section has online versions of
some older magazines which have some interesting articles.

The section of the website which first got my attention asks a question
I have pondered several times:   “Should Andrew Jackson be Removed from
the $20 Bill?”


As a historian, I am aware of the sometime vicious nature of President
Jackson toward many American Indian tribes. As a Cherokee, I am even
more aware of the result of Jackson’s actions and inactions. During his
term in office, Jackson ignored a Supreme Court
ruling which supported the Cherokee Nation in their efforts to enforce
their own laws over Georgia laws in our ancestral lands in Georgia. To
paraphrase his comments about the court’s decision, "The Chief Justice
has made his ruling; now let him enforce it." This attitude led to the
removal of the Cherokees a few years later. While I have actually
considered boycotting the 20 dollar bill, I realize how hard this would
be to accomplish. You can peruse the CCNN’s discussion of the issue on
this website listed above.

Here are some other websites which discuss replacing Jackson on the $20.




The “Treaty of the Month” is with the “DWAMISH, SUQUAMISH, ETC., 1855.”
It covers land cessions, reservation boundaries, the keeping of
non-tribal-members off the land and many other items. You can see a
transcript of it here:



Interesting website:

Here is a site which features a short clip of President George W. Bush
addressing the subject of tribal sovereignty:



One part of my job with the California Highway Patrol is to help educate
the public on safety issues. I noticed a criss-cross puzzle one time and
I decided to make one with safety related words. The CHP liked it and
added it to their official coloring book. Please feel free to print the
coloring book, or to give it to your friends, family or students.

CHP CHiP Coloring Book:





Subject: M#544 Phillips Fund for Native American Research

Sponsored Research Information
SDSU Foundation
594-2458; jse-@foundation.sdsu.edu

Date:   12/15/04
Mailout#: 544
Sponsor: American Philosophical Society
Title: Phillips Fund for Native American Research
Restriction: none
Deadline: 3/1

This program provides up to $3,000 over one year for research in
Native American linguistics and ethnohistory in the continental U.S. and
Canada. The program will not support work in archaeology,
ethnography, psycholinguistics, or pedagogy. Funds cover travel, tapes,
and informants' fees, but not general maintenance or equipment purchase.
Preference will be given to young Ph.D. scholars, but applications are
also accepted for support of masters theses or doctoral dissertations.

Application guidelines are available at


I have save several interesting items from the Cherokee Nation

U no lv ta nv
"Month of Snow Spirits in the Wind"
Traditional Story: The Ice Man

The old people tell us that once when the people were burning the woods
in the fall, the blaze set fire to a poplar tree, which continued to
burn until the fire went down into the roots and burned a great hole in
the ground. It burned and burned, and the hole grew constantly larger,
until the people became frightened and were afraid it would burn the
whole world. They tried to put out the fire, but it had gone too deep,
and they did not know what to do.

At last, someone said there was a man living in a house of ice far in
the north who could put out the fire, so messengers were sent, and
after traveling a long distance they came to the ice house and found the
Ice Man at home. He was a little fellow with long hair hanging down to
the ground in two plaits. The messengers told him their errand and he at
once said, “Oh, yes, I can help you,” and began to unplait his hair.
When it was all unbraided he took it up in one hand and struck it once
across the other, and the messengers felt a wind blow against their
cheeks. A second time he struck his hair across his hand, and a light
rain began to fall. The third time he struck his hair across his open
hand there was sleet mixed with the raindrops and when he struck the
fourth time great hailstones fell upon the ground, as if they had come
our from the ends of his hair. “Go back now,” said the Ice Man, “and I
shall be there tomorrow.” So the messengers returned to their people,
whom they found still gathered helplessly about the great burning pit.

The next day while they were all watching about the fire there came a
wind from the north, and they were afraid, for they knew that it came
from the Ice Man. But the wind only made the fire blaze up higher. Then
a light rain began to fall, but the drops seemed only to make the fire
hotter. Then the shower turned to a heavy rain, with sleet and hail that
killed the blaze and made clouds of smoke and steam rise from the red
coals. The people fled to their homes for shelter, and the storm rose to
a whirlwind that drove the rain into every burning crevice and piled
great hailstones over the embers, until the fire was dead and even the
smoke ceased. When at last it was all over and the people returned they
found a lake where the burning pit had been, and from below the water
came a sound as of embers still crackling.


Spiritual Views and Traditions of the Cherokee
As reported by Rev. Buttrick and John Howard Payne in 1835

The world was created at the time of the first new moon in autumn, with
the fruits all ripe. The first new moon in autumn is therefore the great
new moon, or nu-ta-te-qua and with it the year commences, as
regards the feasts of new moons, though the first new moon is spring
begins the year with regard to the feast of first fruites, etc., because
then the fruits begin to come forward.

INFORMANT: Yu-wi-yo-ka

Alexander Longe’s Cherokee informant. in 1725, stated that the Green
Corn Ceremony MUST take place, and MUST observe the sacrifice of the
first fruits, and the priests’ prayer to God, for if we do not remember
him in thanksgiving, he will not remember us.


The Cherokee Game of Stickball

(The Indian Pioneer Papers are the product of a project developed in
1936. The Oklahoma Historical Society teamed with the history
department at the University of Oklahoma to get a Works Progress
Administration (WPA) writers' project grant for an interview program.
The program was headquartered in Muskogee and was led by Grant Foreman.
The writers conducted more than 11,000 interviews and after editing and
typing the work, the results were over 45,000 pages long. The following
excerpt is from the interview of Adam Bean of Stilwell.)

I belonged to an Indian Ball Club and was a member of the Stalk
Shooting Team. The ball game was similar to the present day football.
Usually ten men made a team, but I have played in fames where there were
as many as fifteen men to the team. The members wore no uniforms,
helmets or leg guards; everything was taken off except a garment similar
to shorts. The ball ground was about a hundred yards long and about
eighty yards wide and in the center of this ball ground there was a pole
about thirty feet long driven in the ground, on top of which was placed
some kind of animal head.

The visiting team took the opposite side of this pole, and when the
ball was tossed in the air, every player was ready to get the ball and
try to hit the head that was on top of the pole. Players were not
allowed to use their hands in catching the ball - they had a kind of
wooden spoon that was used. These spoons were about two feet long and
the ball was about two inches in diameter. This ball was not made by
just anybody; some old person usually made it. In matched games the
Indians usually stayed near some creek on the day before the game was to
be held. The Cherokees at that time were strong believers in 'witching'
and had much faith in their medicine men. Early in the morning before
the dame and before the sun came up the medicine man would tell them
which team was going to win. To prepare the players for the game the
medicine man would treat their legs in order to make them strong.

William Wolfe of Stilwell gives an account of a different purpose of
the stickball game:

The "Nighthawk" ball game was the most interesting game of that time.
This game was played just before the Stomp Dance. This was a game
between the men and women. The ball that they used was made of
mushroom, yarn and leather. It was the custom of the old timers that
just everybody did not make this ball. Very few people knew how they
were made.

They used the Stomp Ground for the ball ground. A pole was driven in
the ground about 40 feet high and on top of this a ball about six
inches in diameter was placed. When the ball was tossed in the air, both
sides tried to get it, and whichever side hit the ball on top of the
pole was awarded three points. The women were allowed to catch the ball
with their hands but the men were not allowed to do so. They had to
catch it with spoons they used for that purpose. Mr. Wolfe has seen
teams from other places play. The teams at that time were Stony Point,
Chewey, Sugar Mountain, Redbird and Flute Springs.

Info provided by the Cherokee Nation Cultural Resource Center please
contact cult-@cherokee.org


Spiritual Views and Traditions of the Cherokee As reported by Rev.
Buttrick and John Howard Payne in 1835

An old man, nearly a hundred years old (1835) by the name of Kotiski
says that, when a small boy, he used to listen to the conversation of
two very aged men, who would sometimes sit up and talk nearly the whole
night; and among other things they told were the following: At the
townhouse meetings, the principal men called the people together at an
early hour. No work was done except the women who brought food. The old
men smoked.

At usual breakfast time the victuals were brought by fourteen women
previously appointed, seven of whom waited on the men and seven waited
on the women. The priests sat on their appropriate white seats; other
old men on seats near the middle of the house; other men and boys on
seats to the right and the women and girls at the left. The victuals
were set on the ground in dishes, before the several seats, and then the
waiting women took their seats with the other females. The priest then
arose and told the people that the Creator had given them food, and thay
by partaking it, they would be refreshed and then told them to eat. The
repast being ended, the fourteen women took away the dishes. The leader
of the dances was then called forward. He arranged the company in single
file; the leader followed by his wife, the next principal man and his
wife, and so on, a man and his wife; or if a man had no wife, he was
followed by a single female who was a near relative or of the same clan.
This arrangement might form a number of circles in the house. Being thus
arranged, while standing, the congregation was addressed by four priests
successively. They occupied the white middle seat. The eldest arose and
spoke, holding a white wing of a fowl by the right side of his face.
Together with the various instructions he charged the people to love and
be kind to one another. On concluding, the first took his seat, and
handed the white wing to the one next him, and so on, till all four had
spoken. The white wind was then hung in a sacred place over their heads.
The dance then commenced. Towards evening, all being again seated, the
same women who had provided breakfast now brought forward the dinner
which was served as in the morning and the night wholly spent in
dancing. None must sleep but the small children. On Monday morning,
breakfast was brought and after eating, all retired to their houses.


Items from subscribers:
From Sharon Reidy:

Dear Phil,

I am hoping you can post this message in your newsletter to help get
the word out about an issue here in Massachusetts. I write to you on
behalf of Chief Eagle of Sagamore, Massachusetts. He is trying to bring
attention to Governor Mitt Romney the need to preserve land on
Sagamore Hill for the purpose of worship and ceremony by Native People.
If you can help, I thank you. Respectfully, Sharon

Here is his letter:

Massachusetts Indians want the right to use Sacred Land for the
purposes of Worship and Ceremonies. As Native American People, we want
continued freedom to worship as our elders did on Sagamore Hill.

Sagamore Hill is Sacred Ground at the area of Scusset State
Reservation. We have been in touch with Governor Mitt Romney's Office
for over a year on this issue-now they refuse to talk with us on this.
Elders and Chiefs can no longer walk near a mile to this Sacred Site.
You would not expect church goers to park a mile away from the church
and still attend services. A locked gate on the Sacred Site forces us to
traverse this land on foot. Elders have great difficulty going short
distances, even then there is no place to rest.

We want to regain our Aboriginal Native American Rights at Sagamore
Hill. The State recognizes this as Ceremonial Land to Indian People.

Under the Freedom of Religion Act we have the right to worship as
Native People. We feel the Freedom of Religion Act is being violated by
the State of Massachusetts. The Federal Law clearly states our
Religious Rights. This information can be accessed on the Federal

We would appreciate any support the People can offer to help re-instate
the Massachuset Indian Rights on Sagamore Hill Reservation.

Please contact the Massachusetts Governor, the Honorable Mitt Romney at
your earliest convienence.

Thank you. Tabotne.
Chief Eagle

Sagamore Wompisik
Massachuset Indian
Old Sagamore Indian Council
36 Gibbs Road
Sagamore Beach, Massachusetts 02562-2809

Contact Information:
Massachusetts State House
Office of the Governor Mitt Romney
Room 360
Boston, MA 02133
Phone: (617) 725-4005
FAX: (617) 727-9725


Random historical events for January:

January 1, 1877: Colonel Nelson "Bear Coat" Miles, and his forces from
Fort Keogh (near modern Miles City, in eastern Montana), are moving up
the Tongue River in search of Crazy Horse, and his followers. They have
their first skirmish with Indians. According to army reports, there are
600 lodges on the Tongue River, which are abandoned as Miles moves
through the area.

January 2, 1848: Peter Skene Ogden arranges for the release of captives
during the Cayuse attack on the Whitman Mission.

January 3, 1895: On November 25, 1894, a group of nineteen Hopi
"hostiles" were placed under arrest by the army for interfering with
"friendly" Hopi Indian activities on their Arizona reservation. The
nineteen prisoners are held in Alcatraz prison in California from
January 3, 1895 to August 7, 1895.

January 4, 605: Palenque Maya Lord Ac - Kan ascends the throne according
to the museum at Palenque

Photo on my website at: http://americanindian.net/mayae.html

January 5, 1806: Sacajawea tells Lewis and Clark she wants to see a dead
whale which has washed up on the beach in Oregon.

January 6, 1706: The Spanish are trying to improve relations with the
Pueblos of modern New Mexico. Governor Francisco Cuervo y Valdez and
"Protector General for the Indians" Captain Alfonso Rael de Aguilar meet
with leaders of all the nearby tribes. Among the Indians is Don Domingo
Romero Yuguaque. Yuguaque is Governor of the Tesuque Pueblo.

January 7, 1781: The Mission San Pedro Y San Pablo De Bicuner is
established, in modern Imperial County, California, where the Anza Trail
crosses the Colorado River. This is on land claimed by the Quechan
(Yuma) Indians.

January 8, 1700: Pierre le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville, establishes a fort
and trading post on the Mississippi River a few dozen miles south of
present day New Orleans. It is his hope to establish friendly relations
with the lower Mississippi valley Indians to keep them from allying with
the English or the Spanish.

January 9, 1790: Spanish and Indian forces under Commanding General Juan
de Ugalde attack a group of 300 Lipan, Lipiyan, and Mescalero Apaches at
what they called the Arroyo de la Soledad. The Spanish soundly defeat
the Apache. The Spaniards name the battlegrounds the "Cañón de Ugalde"
in honor of their commander. Modern Uvalde, Texas gets its name from
this spot.

January 10, 1839: John Benge, and 1,103 other Cherokees arrive in the
Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). They started their trek with

January 11, 1851: As a part of the "Mariposa Indian Wars" in California,
Sheriff James Burney leads a force of settlers against the local
Indians. The battle is a draw.

January 12, 1880: Major Albert Morrow, and elements of the Ninth Cavalry
"buffalo soldiers," find, and attack Victorio, and his Warm Springs
Apaches, near the source of the Puerco River, in southern New Mexico.
The fighting lasts for about four hours, until sunset, when the Indians
escape. One soldier is killed, and one scout is wounded.

January 13, 1729: Measels are spreading through "New Spain." It has
struck the Pima workers at the mission San Ignacio de Caburica. The
priest, Father Campos, baptizes twenty-two Pimas "in periculo mortis"
because they are so close to death. This epidemic kills many Indians.

January 14, 1971: An election which adopted of a Constitution and Bylaws
for the Chitimacha Tribe of Louisiana is ratified by the Assistant
Secretary of the Interior, Harrison Loesch. The election is held on
November 7, 1970.

January 15, 1832: The Chickasaw meet at their council house to discuss
the removal proposal of President Jackson. They decide to approve the
removal, but they will not cooperate with any efforts to have them share
lands with the Choctaws.

January 16, 1805: The Mandans parlay with the Minnetarrees according to
Lewis and Clark.

January 17, 1800: Congress passes "An Act for the Preservation of Peace
with the Indian Tribes." One of its provisions was: "That if any citizen
or other person residing within the United States, or the territory
thereof, shall send any talk, speech, message or letter to any Indian
nation, tribe, or chief, with an intent to produce a contravention or
infraction of any treaty or other law of the United States, or to
disturb the peace and tranquillity of the United States, he shall
forfeit a sum not exceeding two thousand dollars, and be imprisoned not
exceeding two years."

January 18, 1870: From a marker in the Fort Buford (North Dakota)
cemetery: "He That Kills His Enemies - Indian Scout- January 18, 1870 -
Died of Wounds ... in a quarrel with a fellow scout on the 5th inst.
received a penetrating (arrow) wound of the pelvis and abdomen. ...
Death occurred January 18, 1870. An autopsy could not be obtained owing
to the feelings of the relatives."

Photo on my website at: http://americanindian.net/2003u.html

January 19, 1777: A group of Oneida chiefs meet with Colonel Elmore at
Fort Schuyler. They want the army to tell the Mohawks that the great
council fire of the Onondagas as been extinguished.

January 20, 1830: Red Jacket (Sagoyewatha) is a Seneca Chief born around
1779. While he is often called a coward in war, he is respected as a
great speaker, and for his refusal to adopt white ways. Following the
way of many before him, he eventually becomes an alcoholic. He dies

January 21, 1731: Natchez Indians, led by Chief Farine, have built a
fort in Louisiana near the Red River. French and Tunica forces, led by
the governor of Louisiana Etienne de Perier, attack the fort. The
fighting lasts for three days. While the Natchez kill many of the allied
forces, they are at a disadvantage because the French have a cannon.
After three days of fighting, the Natchez promise to surrender the next
morning. Many of the Natchez escape during the night, including Chief

January 22, 1855: The Treaty of Point Elliot (12 Stat. 927) is signed .
The Tulalip, the Kalapuya, the Swinomish, and the Snoqualnoo Tribe of
Whidbey Island, Washington are among the signers.
See the "Treaty of the Month section above for a copy of the treaty.

January 23, 1689: Saco, in southwestern Maine is attacked by Abenaki
Indians, one in a series of attacks on the settlement. Nine settlers are
killed in the fighting.

January 24, 1835: The Mexican Governor Figueroa in Monterey, California
writes a letter to the Alcalde of San José. He warns the local ranchers
not to mount punative expeditions against the local Indians. Some
Indians have been raiding ranches to steal the horses. One more than one
occasion, the Mexicans have killed innocent Tulare Indians in their
efforts to punish the thieves.

January 25, 1968: The United States Indian Claims Commission, decrees
that the Mescalero Apaches of New Mexico should receive $8,500,000 for
lands taken from them in the 1800s. The Mescaleros refuse the largesse
because, by law, they cannot share the money with the Lipan, and
Chiricahua Apaches. A future ruling allows this.

January 26, 1716: Cherokee Chief Caesar has told the English in South
Carolina that he will never fight them. He also tells the Europeans they
have nothing to fear from the Creeks, because they want peace, too. He
offers to arrange for leading Creeks to go to Charles Town to arrange a
peace. Today, sixteen Creek and Yamassee representatives arrive at the
Cherokee village of Tugaloo in northeastern Georgia. The Creeks and the
Yamassee know of the Cherokee's desire to remain neutral, or at peace.
Rather than talking about peace, the representatives urge the Cherokees
to join them in their plan to attack the South Carolina settlements.
This so angers the Cherokees that the representatives are killed.

January 27, 1863: General Patrick Connor, and almost 300 California
volunteers fight Bear Hunter's Northern Shoshone on Bear River, north of
the Idaho-Utah boundary. The soldiers report 224 of the warriors are
killed in the fighting, including Bear Hunter. Other sources put the
number nearer to 400, including many women and children. Connor is
called "Star Chief" by the Indians. This is called the "Battle of Bear
River" by the army. Others call it "The Bear River Massacre." Most
sources says this happens on January 29, 1863.

January 28, 1908: As listed in Executive Order Number 744, the lands set
aside for the Navajo Indians in New Mexico conflict with the lands set
aside for the Jicarilla Apaches by Executive Order on November 11, 1907.
This will be corrected.

January 29, 1881: The Eight lodges of Iron Dog and sixty-three of his
followers surrender to Major George Ilges' forces near the Poplar River
in Montana. Thirteen horses, and five guns are seized by the troops. The
weather remains bitterly cold.

January 30, 1838: Seminole Chief Osceola dies at Fort Moultrie, in
Charleston, South Carolina. It is believe he has some sort of throat
disease, others say malaria, other say he dies of a broken heart.

January 31, 1833: The Mi’kmaq Waycobah First Nation reserve of
Whycocomagh #2 is established in Nova Scotia, according to the Nova
Scotia Councils.


That’s it for now. Stay safe,


End of Phil Konstantin's January 2005 Newsletter - Part 3

Start of Phil Konstantin's January 2005 Newsletter - Part 4



Cherokee Nation Chief Chad "Corntassle" Smith will be in San Diego,
California on Sunday, January 30th. He would like to meet with the
Cherokee people who live in the area, or who can come by.

The Chief is in town for the last day of the Cherokee Nation's excellent
history course. He will be having a "meet and greet" diner at a local
restaurant on Sunday at 6:30pm. You are welcome to come by and meet the
Chief, and many other Cherokees (Tribal membership is not required to
come by).

We will be meeting at the following location:

Sizzler Restaurant
3755 Murphy Canyon
San Diego, Ca

The directions to the meeting are as follows.

On Interstate 15, exit to the west on Aero Drive. Turn right on Murphy
Canyon Rd. The restaurant is a couple of hundred feet north on the right
side of the road. Aero Drive is two exits north of Interstate 8, and a
couple of exits south of State Route 52, near Qualcomm Stadium.

The following link is a map to the restaurant:


I hope to see you there,

Phil Konstantin


End of Phil Konstantin's January 2005 Newsletter - Part 4


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