January 2004 Newsletter from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2007)

Looking for a good book on North American Indians?
Click on the line below:
Good Books

Start of the January 2004 Newsletter - Part 1


I hope you are having happy holidays, so far. I am looking for some 
"class participation" in this month's newsletter. A few days ago, I 
reminded everyone that DreamKeeper was going to be broadcast. I would 
like to hear your opinions on this program. I will be adding some of 
your responses to the next edition.

More importantly, I would like to have a writing contest for American 
Indian students. I would like your help in deciding on a subject, and 
getting the word out. The plan is to break entries down into three 
catagories: college, high school and junior high school students.

Some suggestions for the title of the paper would be:

"What my tribe's history means to me."
"What I have learned about my tribe's history."
"Why is it important to learn history."
"Maintaining traditions while living in a modern world."
"Why living in the modern world is more important that following 
"How to mix traditions and modernity."

You get the idea....I could even leave the subject up to the entrant.

The top prize for each catagory would be $50 and a signed copy of my 
book. I would also post some of the entries on my website. My hope is to 
motivate some thinking, and to do a small amount of payback to the 

Let me know what you think, please. 


Since I haven’t seen any American Indian movies lately, I decided to 
expand the category a bit. I’ll be looking at two movies this month. One 
involves indigenous people, the other features Indians.

"Whale Rider" came out in 2002. According to legend, the founding 
father, Paikea arrived in Aotearoa (“The Land of The Long White Cloud” 
or New Zealand) riding on the back of a whale. In honor of this feat, 
each tribal chief is given the name Paikea at birth. Some experts say 
the Maori arrived on their island around 1350.

Koro is now the trial chief. He is very traditional. Koro is worried 
about the direction Maori society is taking. His first born son, 
Porourangi, is an artist. Porourangi understands his father’s concerns, 
but, he feels burdened by the weight of the responsibility of having to 
follow in Koro’s footsteps. Porourangi’s wife dies giving birth to their 
twin boy and girl. The boy dies, as well. Koro is so devastated by the 
death of the first-born boy that he has difficulty even acknowledging 
the girl. Porourangi reacts to his father’s scorn by naming his daughter 
Paikea. This affront to tradition drives a wedge between father and son. 
"Whale Rider" is the story of this Maori girl trying to come to grips 
with her destiny. 

Porourangi’s problems with his father, and his sorrow over the loss of 
his wife and son cause him to leave. He becomes a successful artist 
abroad. Paikea grows up living with her grandparents. Koro grows to love 
his granddaughter deeply. Paikea loves her grandfather with a deep 
intensity. She shares his faith in the old ways. 

Paikea wishes to participate fully in Maori society. Unfortunately, many 
of the old ways limit what a woman can do. It is this conflict that is 
the driving force of the story. Koro believes there is a proper place 
for things in his society. Paikea is eleven when Koro learns that his 
son has no plans to give him a grandson. Koro decides to train the other 
first-born young men in the ancient ways. Paikea wants to participate in 
the training. Paikea believes she should be able to do those things 
that she is capable of doing. The spirits within her motivates Paikea, 
and she will not take “No” for an answer. 

This clash is between two people who both honor the old ways. They just 
disagree on how they should be implemented. It is a multi-layer conflict 
involving what both Koro and Paikea want, what they have, and what they 
believe their people need.

This is a beautifully crafted film. You should be moved by the honesty 
of the characters. The acting is excellent. The scenery is gorgeous. The 
movie was shot in the exact spot where the legendary Paikea came 
ashore. Whale Rider’s director Niki Caro said that all of the people in 
the movie who are not lead characters are the descendents of Paikea. 

"Whale Rider" is based on the book of the same name by Maori author Witi 

Anyone who has ever considered the problems that American Indian nations 
face regarding tradition verses modernity, or a culture in transition, 
will find a common theme in this movie.

I highly recommend it. You can find it listed on my store page at 
http://americanindian.net/store.html , on Netflix, and in most good 
video rental stores.


We have all heard the expression that we aren’t Indians, because Indians 
come from India. So, in that vein, I have reviewed a movie made in 
India: "Lagaan: Once Upon A Time In India."

Lagaan means Tax, and the movie revolves around the payment of a tax. 
The story is pretty simple. The time is 1893. The setting is the small 
agricultural village of Champaner. The province is ruled by a native 
Raja (a kind of prince). The British rule India. The British tell the 
Rajas that they will protect them from each other. For this service, 
they require a tax, or Lagaan. The Raja must pass this tax along to the 
farmers in his province as a fixed amount of grain. It is a month into 
the rainy season, and it has not rained, yet. The previous year, the 
crop yield was also bad. In fact, the Raja convinced the British to only 
take half of their usual Lagaan. The local British commander, Captain 
Andrew Russell is an arrogant, prig. He lords his position over the 
Indians whenever he gets the chance. A local man, named Bhuvan, draws 
the Captain’s ire. The Captain decides the Lagaan must be twice its 
normal level because of last year’s reduction. Since the rains have not 
come, the farmers cannot pay such an amount. They appeal to the Raja to 
ask the British for a continued reduction because of the drought. The 
assembled group of farmers tries to see the Raja. They have to wait 
until he is finished watching the British play cricket. The farmers are 
a bit baffled with the game, until one of them reminds them that it is 
similar to a child’s game they once played. Captain Russell overhears 
Bhuvan laughing about how silly the game looks. When the game is over, 
the farmers approach the Raja and the Captain. They plead their case for 
a reduction, instead of a doubling of the tax.. The Captain refuses. 
Seeing Bhuvan, the Captain comes up with a proposal. He will cancel the 
tax for three years, for the entire province, if the farmers can beat 
the British at this “silly game.” However, if the farmers lose, they 
must pay triple the normal tax. The Captain asks Bhuvan if he will 
accept the bet. The farmers ask the Raja to intervene. The Captain tells 
them Bhuvan must decide for them all. Despite the multitude’s pleas to 
the contrary, Bhuvan accepts the bet. The rest of the movie is about how 
Bhuvan tries to get the support of the villagers, create a team, and to 
beat the British. Simple, right?

The 3 hour 44 minute, epic Lagaan is the “Gone With The Wind” of Indian 
cinema. As far as I know, it remains the most expensive movie ever 
produced in India’s prolific Bollywood. The movie is an amazing blend of 
color, sights and sounds. This movie has it all. There are fighting 
neighbors, racial injustice, revenge, treachery, religious conflicts, 
militancy, tradition, arrogance, humility, cowards, heroes, braggers, 
bashfulness, fortune tellers, young lovers, jealousy, class warfare, 
cruelty, kindness, and more...all in this little village. Not only that, 
they all can sing and dance. There are five musical numbers with some 
very catchy tunes.

There is one problem for the average English-speaking viewer. The movie 
is in Hindu. There are English captions, though. 

I first saw this movie about a year ago on cable TV. Otherwise, I might 
never have found it. I jokingly call it "Dances With Wolves” meets Burt 
Reynold’s “The Longest Yard."

I also give this movie a great big thumbs up. You can find it listed on 
my store page at http://americanindian.net/store.html , and on 
Netflix. You will may not be able to find it in many video rental 


That's it for now. I will have the rest of the newsletter in a couple of 

Stay safe until then,

Phil Konstantin

End of the January 2004 Newsletter - Part 1


Start of the January 2004 Newsletter - Part 2


I have a lot of material in this newsletter, so I have broken it into 
two part. Part 3 will be along in a few days.

Many of you have mentioned how much you liked the program DreamKeepers 
that was broadcast a few days ago. I will include a few of your comments 
in part 3 of the newsletter. Several of you have said you would like to 
get a copy of it. I have a link for it on my store page:
http://americanindian.net/store.html . 
The link is in the "Feature Items for this month" section, about a third 
of the way down the page. Here is a direct link to order a DVD copy or 
to get more info: 

It will be released on March 16, 2004. You may order it now and it will 
be shipped to you when it arrives, if you are so inclined.



This month's "Link of The Month" is Terri Jean's website. Terri Jean is 
an author and director of the Red Roots Educational Project. She has 
written many articles, some of which you can find on her site. Her site 
has lots of other interesting information. You can find her site here:


Here is a sample of one of her articles.:

The Native Truth A column dedicated to historical truth and human rights 
activism of the American Indian 
Editor: Terri Jean visit http://www.terrijean.com for more info 

Eradicating the Stereotype 

"A lie would have no sense unless the truth were felt dangerous." ~ 
Alfred Adler ~ 

Native American stereotypes are grossly abundant. Some are slight and 
almost subliminal, while others boldly slap you in the face with their 
dangerous cultural assumptions and bordering-on-fictitious ideologies 
regarding Native people, history and even their spirituality. 

Take the March 11, 1992 commentary by Andy Rooney entitled "Indians Seek 
A Role in Modern US." He opened with his contrary opinion of the Native 
community protesting the usage of racist images and mascots at sporting 
events. "I think it's silly." he wrote, "American Indians have more 
important problems than to worry about sports teams calling themselves 
by Indian nicknames." Following this callous statement, he also made the 
following assertions: 
1. "American Indians were never subjected to the same kind of racial 
bias of blacks." 
2. "In spite of the fact that they surrounded the wagon trains and shot 
flaming arrows into the stagecoach carrying the new schoolmarm, Indians 
were always considered to be brave, strong, stoic, resourceful, true to 
their word and unconquerable." 
3. "While American Indians have a grand past, the impact of their 
culture on the world has been slight. There are no great Indian novels, 
no poetry... and there's no Indian art." 
4. "The time for the way Indians lived is gone and it's doubly sad 
because they refuse to accept it. They hang onto remnants of their 
religion and superstitions that may have been useful to savages 500 
years ago but which are meaningless in 1992." 
5. "No one would force another religion on them." 
6. "Should Indians be preserved on reservations like the redwoods and 
the American eagle, or should they join the mainstream?" 
7. "The phenomenon of Indian alcohol addiction has existed since the 

In this criticism by a well-known commentator who's words reached 
millions, how many stereotypes were delivered to a national audience? 
Before we dissect his comments, let's first define a stereotype: 

Webster's New World Dictionary defines a stereotype as "a fixed or 
conventional notion or conception." This seems a bit obtuse, so let me 
redefine a stereotype according to multicultural education and learning: 

* A stereotype has the following elements: The origin of the stereotype 
stems from a concept in which one individual or group believes they are 
superior over another due to their physical, spiritual, mental, cultural 
or personal attributes. 
* The attribute is exaggerated, misconstrued, generalized and/or 
*The premise for such characterization is a "we" against "them" 
attitude. The stereotypes stem from assumptions of another race, when 
one group refuses to find the truth of another and relies on false 
information, forming their own opinions The Stereotype leads to the 
mistreatment of a person. Common stereotypes for Native Americans 
* All Indians are spiritual environmentalists 
* Indian men are braves, women are squaws, children are papooses and 
leaders are chiefs 
* All tribes wore feathered headdresses, lived in teepees and were great 
horsemen. * Most Indians are poor alcoholics who cant finish school, 
read or keep a job. * Indians are pagan believers who worship 
superstitious notions and have no real religion 
* Indians speak broken language, have no sense of humor, and are 
passive. * All Indians look alike. 
* Real Indians no longer exist. 
* Indians were barbaric, child-stealing villains 
* Native people interfered with the growth of a nation. 
* White civilization did what was best for the Native people. It 
civilized them. 
* If it were not for the European discovery, Native people would still 
be half-naked, wandering the Plains yet today. Examples of Native 
American Stereotypes and what they Manifest: 
* A Cleveland Indian poster hangs in a teachers classroom 
* A child who knows the truth about Thanksgiving watches Pilgrims and 
Indians act out the "First Thanksgiving" during a school play 
* Prison inmates are mocked and prohibited from conducting their 
spiritual ceremonies 
* Local children's groups are playing cowboys and Indians in a regional 
* A festival includes an "authentic" tribal dance - though it is not 
Indian, and not authentic. 
* An Indian bone is attempted to be sold on the Internet *
The school mascot is a non-Native dressed as a stereotypical Indian. 
* Commercials for Squaw Mountain or Eskimo Pies are on television 
* A burial mound is bulldozed 
* A person with an Indian heritage cannot attend a minority conference 
because they do not have a federal identification number 
* Late night talk show hosts crack jokes about mascot protesting 
* Non-Native people advertise sweat lodges and Indian tarot cards - for 
a hefty price 
* Indian dolls are sold in craft stores and malls - complete with 
"authentic" outfit 
* A department store sells a Crazy Horse clothing line though his 
relatives protest and deem the usage of his name as offensive. 
* Native "art" (painted by non-Native artists) sold at tourist shops. 


Recently, a KARN radio DJ from Little Rock, Arkansas engaged in a 
dialogue with others in which the topic was rude people. This DJ, 
voicing his opinion regarding children and parents in public said, 
"...if they didn't act like little Indians there would be no problem!" 
When Native people complained, he told them that is was no big deal. 
(How rude! and ironic..) And when AIM protesters and their supporters at 
the March pre-season exhibition games challenged the justification in 
using Native imagery - especially chief Wahoo of the Cleveland Indians – 

Native people were told to "get a job", "go back to where you came from" 
and were actually shoved and spit upon. 

What causes a society to believe that these acts are appropriate? Why 
doesn't a person automatically KNOW that mocking Native people is 
culturally offensive? An individual who would never use the *n-word* to 
a black person and would think it is brutally offensive to support a 
football team called the Nevada Negros sees nothing wrong with the 
Cleveland Indians, or with the many Indian mascots used today by various 
sporting teams. Why is that? 

Many people today, especially children, maintain a one-dimensional image 
of a Native person. Just as many cartoon, literature and movie 
characters lock Indian figures into 19th century clothing and imagery, 
children often draw upon such images when asked to describe a Native 
American living today. War bonnets, feathered braids, loincloths, and 
tipi's are characteristics generally associated with indigenous people. 
This stereotypical image continues its promotion via Disney movies (such 
as Pocahontas), team mascots (Atlanta Braves, the Washington Redskins, 
etc.), popular literature (Indian in the Cupboard), and the many 
products produced for profit by large companies that market fanciful 
images of Native Americans. This type of misrepresentation of an entire 
culture dehumanizes and exploits the group as a whole, fictionalizing a 
race, and propelling prejudice from one person to the next. 

In response to Mr. Rooney's irresponsible comments, I have the following 
1. American Indians were subjected to the same biases as blacks. 
Segregation, violence, removal from homes, slavery, unjust laws, and a 
denial of human privileges were experienced by both minority groups. 
2. Images of innocent settlers surrounded by vicious Indians are extreme 
stereotypes that Mr. Rooney must still believe in. Anyone who studies 
history of the "Wild West" knows such images are completely 
3. Indian art by prominent artists such as T.C. Cannon, Richard Glazer, 
Peter Jemison, Norval Morrisseau, Leonard Peltier are highly valued. As 
for novels, M. Scott Momaday won the Pulitzer in 1969. 
4. Traditions and ancient religions of the Native people are strongly 
held onto today - and rightly so. 
5. Native people were forced to convert to white religions time and time 
again. For example, children taken from their parents and placed in 
boarding school would be physically punished for attempting to practice 
their own religion. Complete freedom of religion was not granted to the 
Native people until 1978. 
6. Native people are this nations indigenous people - the lands original 
explorers, settlers, landowners and discovers. Not only should their 
culture be preserved, it should be revered. 
7. Alcohol was introduced to Native people. Not all American Indians are 
alcoholics. This is a common stereotype. 

Stereotyping of Native culture and people continues to evolve and change 
as society changes. As long as Native history is misreported or omitted 
from history books, the cycle of stereotyping will continue. Turning a 
blind, or unconcerning, eye to such stereotypes allows society to 
perpetrate prejudice to the Native community. 

Past stereotypes promote current ones. If the racist actions of today 
are allowed to continue, what will it lead to tomorrow? 

Terri Jean is the She is the director of the Red Roots Educational 
Project. To learn more about Terri Jean or the Red Roots Educational 
Project visit http://www.terrijean.com You can reach her at 


Here are some interesting websites or news stories:

The Wings of An Eagle: PFC Sheldon Hawk Eagle

Gina passed along this story about Anna Mae Aquash’s murder:
An Indian woman's murder goes to trial--too many years later 

Alaska Struggles With High Suicide Rate 

Tribal building takeover continues 

Kickapoo protestors booted from tribal building, hooded cops storm 

Singer's concert beautiful; Kickapoo traditions preserved 

Kwahup to San Diego's Indian Country

Isleta Pueblo Rejects Longtime Tribe Members 

“Sequoyah student reaches goal, inspires others“
(Konrad Holmes had a 1/2 page feature in the December 22, 2003 issue of 
Sports Illustrated. His article appears in the Starter All-American Teen 
section titled - "50 states, 50 outstanding young men and women".)

Tribes ‘hijacked’ by states demanding revenue

Cherokee National Youth Choir Honored by Harvard

Task force nets artifact looters: Five stole thousands of American 
Indian items from sites in Nevada, California

Sand Creek returned to rightful owners

Ruth Garby Torres sent this along:
DORREEN YELLOW BIRD COLUMN: Indians' 'heart' matters more than their 


Bill LoneFight sent me this:

Saving dying dialects: Sisseton Wahpeton day care immersed in Dakota 
By Jera Stone American News Writer
Linda Obago-Nicolar remembers asking her 4-year-old daughter Felicity to 
pick up a blue cereal box one day.

"She said, 'the TO box?' "

"To," pronounced like "tow," means blue in Dakota Indian language.
It was one of Obago-Nicolar's first memories of Felicity speaking Dakota 
at home after starting the Dakota language immersion program at the 
Siceca Learning Center on the campus of Sisseton Wahpeton College.

"The immersion program grew out of the desire of the Dakota people to do 
something to preserve the Dakota language," said Bill Lonefight, 
president of the college.

He had been discussing a Dakota immersion language program for a year 
with Tammy DeCoteau, field manager of the Association on American Indian 
Affairs' Sisseton chapter.Dakota is the language of the Dakota Sioux 
Tribe, which lives east of the Missouri River, including the 11,000 
Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate tribal members.

"She came to me four months ago and said 'I have $5,000, so can we 
start?' "

The college's day care for children of the staff and students was then 
reformatted around the immersion program, Lonefight said.

Getting immersed: On a snowy day this month, the children's singing 
could be heard outside the center located in a trailer on campus.

Only after opening the door would visitors realize that the melodies of 
the songs might be familiar, but not the words.

Some children and the day-care providers were singing "London Bridge is 
Falling Down" in Dakota as they each crossed under the bridge formed of 
four arms.

In the nearby table, three tribe elders were sipping coffee, watching 
the children and smiling. In another corner, two drummers were showing 
little boys how to beat a large drum with leather-wrapped drumsticks.

On the walls, brightly colored pictures are posted among papers with 
lyrics, words and phrases all in Dakota.

Lonefight smiled as he picked up a little girl who ran over to give him 
a hug.

The Dakota language is in danger of extinction because of years of 
boarding schools and the forced assimilation of tribal members into 
Anglo-American culture, he said.

"Less than 10 percent of tribal population speaks Dakota and most of 
those are over the age of 60," Lonefight said. "Unless we do something, 
we are very close to having it fade." The center has since secured more 
funding, including $325,000 to construct a new building for the day 

However, they still need another $100,000 to complete and furnish the 
building, he said. Language part of identity: Native American tribes are 
looking to preserve their languages for various cultural and historical 
reasons, Lonefight said.

"Some of those (reasons) are fairly pragmatic, like the ability to 
communicate with your grandparents," he said.

The language is also a substantial part of a tribal member's identity.

"The elders repeatedly tell us that some of the solutions for current 
social problems are imbedded in our languages," Lonefight said. "When 
people spoke Dakota, they truly knew how to treat one another. They 
truly understood where they belonged in relation to other people, to the 
natural world (and) to the spiritual world."

Elders help, too: The center has six Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate tribal 
elders who visit regularly. They help the caregivers and the children 
with their pronunciations and translate books and songs into Dakota.

Because the language has different dialects for men and women, three 
elders involved are men and three are women.

Orsen Bernard, one of the six elders, said he got involved because he 
wanted to help keep the language alive.

"Dakota language is so deep it comes from the heart," he said. "Whatever 
I say in Dakota, it has a deeper meaning because that's the way the 
Dakota language is."

It is a language without any swear words, Bernard said.

Improved abilities: Lonefight said another reason the college is getting 
involved is the research is proving that bilingual children have added 
cognitive skills.

"They do better in school. They have increased higher order of thinking 
skills. They are able to make connections."

CAT scans have shown that bilingual people use more areas of their 
brains, he said.

"It's a little odd that at the same time schools were pressing children 
to learn Spanish, French, Japanese and Russian they were pressing the 
other way to extinguish the Dakota, the Cherokee, the Muskogee and 
Lakota (languages)," Lonefight said.

The loss of the tribal languages could also mean the loss of certain 
knowledge that's only recorded in those languages such as traditional 
medicines, he said.

The elders have also said that the Native American languages were the 
way they were taught to talk to God, Lonefight said.

"That doesn't mean there aren't other ways, but they were the ways that 
we were specifically given and (the elders) worry that if we allow our 
languages to fade we might miss something."

The program has been a success in its first three months, Lonefight 

"It's been successful not just in working with the children, but in 
creating an awareness on the reservation that something practical can be 

DeCoteau, the field manager for AAIA, said parents' reactions have been 

"Most people want their children to learn the language," she said. The 
parents receive a copy of the words and phrases the children are 

A voice recording of the words and phrases is in the process of being 
created and the college will offer a course on teaching children Dakota 
next semester.

"We are trying to encourage parents to learn along with them," DeCoteau 
said. "People as adult learners are embarrassed to talk in front of 
somebody who's fluent. But I think people aren't embarrassed to talk to 
their children."

Delbert Pumpkinseed, another visiting tribal elder, said he enjoys 
helping the children learn Dakota. 

"Every morning I get good greetings from them," he said. "They are happy 
to see us. They give us hugs."

Elder Wayne Eastman said he loves seeing the progress children have made 
in the program. 

"You tell them to put something away in Dakota and they do it," he said. 
"They are learning."

Alfred Seaboy, who visits the center once a week with his brother Cody 
to teach the boys to play the traditional drum, said he likes the visits 
and the idea behind them.

"We started playing drums at this age," Alfred said.

Cody said he thinks the immersion program idea is great.

"I kind of wish I was brought up and taught this way and was able to 
speak the language better."

Obago-Nicolar, chief finance officer of the college, said she is 
learning Dakota along with her daughter, Felicity.

"Every day (she) comes home and teaches me something," Linda said. "I 
need to keep learning to keep up with her."

William Harjo LoneFight, Ph.D, President
Sisseton Wahpeton College
Old Agency Box 689 
Agency Village, SD 57262


An interesting story from the Cherokee Nation Newsletter:

Traditional Story: The Ice Man 

The old people tell us that once when the people were burning the woods 
in the fall, the blaze set fire to a poplar tree, which continued to 
burn until the fire went down into the roots and burned a great hole in 
the ground. It burned and burned, and the hole grew constantly larger, 
until the people became frightened and were afraid it would burn the 
whole world. They tried to put out the fire, but it had gone too deep, 
and they did not know what to do. 

At last, someone said there was a man living in a house of ice far in 
the north who could put out the fire, so messengers were sent, and after 
traveling a long distance they came to the ice house and found the ‘Ice 
Man’ at home. He was a little fellow with long hair hanging down to the 
ground in two plaits. The messengers told him their errand and he at 
once said, “Oh, yes, I can help you,” and began to unplait his hair. 
When it was all unbraided he took it up in one hand and struck it once 
across the other, and the messengers felt a wind blow against their 
cheeks. A second time he struck his hair across his hand, and a light 
rain began to fall. The third time he struck his hair across his open 
hand there was sleet mixed with the raindrops and when he struck the 
fourth time great hailstones fell upon the ground, as if they had come 
our from the ends of his hair. “Go back now,” said the Ice Man, “and I 
shall be there tomorrow.” So the messengers returned to their people, 
whom they found still gathered helplessly about the great burning pit. 

The next day while they were all watching about the fire there came a 
wind from the north, and they were afraid, for they knew that it came 
from the ‘Ice Man.’ But the wind only made the fire blaze up higher. 
Then a light rain began to fall, but the drops seemed only to make the 
fire hotter. Then the shower turned to a heavy rain, with sleet and hail 
that killed the blaze and made clouds of smoke and steam rise from the 
red coals. The people fled to their homes for shelter, and the storm 
rose to a whirlwind that drove the rain into every burning crevice and 
piled great hailstones over the embers, until the fire was dead and even 
the smoke ceased. When at last it was all over and the people returned 
they found a lake where the burning pit had been, and from below the 
water came a sound as of embers still crackling. 

*Note: Cultural information may vary from clan to clan, location to 
location, family to family, and from differing opinions and experiences. 
Information provided here is not 'etched in stone'. 


Humorous stuff:

Ken Pratt sent me this:

I used to eat a lot of natural foods until I learned that most people 
die of natural causes. 

Gardening Rule: When weeding, the best way to make sure you are removing 
a weed and not a valuable plant is to pull on it. If it comes out of the 
ground easily, it is a valuable plant. 

The easiest way to find something lost around the house is to buy a 

Never take life seriously. Nobody gets out alive anyway. 

There are two kinds of pedestrians -- the quick and the dead. 

Life is sexually transmitted. 

An unbreakable toy is useful for breaking other toys.

If quitters never win, and winners never quit, then who is the fool, who 
said, "Quit while you're ahead?" 

Health is merely the slowest possible rate at which one can die. 

The only difference between a rut and a grave is the depth. 

Always get the last word in: Apologize.

Give a person a fish and you feed them for a day; teach that person to 
use the Internet and they won't bother you for weeks. 

Some people are like Slinkies . . . not really good for anything, but 
you still can't help but smile when you see one tumble down the stairs. 

Health nuts are going to feel stupid someday, lying in hospitals, dying 
of nothing. 

Have you noticed since everyone has a camcorder these days no one talks 
about seeing UFOs like they use to? 

Whenever I feel blue, I start breathing again. 

All of us could take a lesson from the weather. It pays no attention to 

Why does a slight tax increase cost you two hundred dollars and a 
substantial tax cut saves you thirty cents? 

In the 60's, people took acid to make the world weird. Now the world is 
weird and people take Prozac to make it normal. 

Politics is supposed to be the second oldest profession. I have come to 
realize that it bears a very close resemblance to the first. 

How is it one careless match can start a forest fire, but it takes a 
whole box to start a campfire? 

AND THE # 1 THOUGHT FOR THE DAY: You read about all these terrorists, 
most of them came here legally, but they hung around on these expired 
visas, some for as long as 10 -15 years. Now, compare that to 
Blockbuster; you are two days late with a video and those people are all 
over you. Let's put Blockbuster in charge of immigration. 


My mother sent me this:

HERE is an exercise program for those of us whose wisdom exceeds our
ambition. The doctor told me "Physical exercise is good for you." I
know that I should do it, but my body is out of shape, so I have worked
out this easy daily program you can do anywhere.

Beat around the bush.
Jump to conclusions.
Climb the walls.
Wade through paperwork.

Drag my heels.
Push my luck.
Make mountains out of molehills.
Hit the nail on the head.

Bend over backwards.
Jump on the bandwagon.
Balance the books.
Run around in circles.

Toot my own horn.
Climb the ladder of success
Pull out the stops.
Add fuel to the fire.

Open a can of worms.
Put my foot in my mouth.
Start the ball rolling.
Go over the edge.

Pick up the pieces.

Whew! What a workout! You are invited to use my program without
charge!! This is the exercise program I am using to get in shape. You
might want to take it easy at first, and then do it faster as you become
more proficient. It may be too strenuous for some.



Joe RedCloud sent this before Christmas, but it is still nice:

Army Christmas Operations Order 03-5689: 

Subject: Christmas 
1. An official visit by MG Santa (NMI) Claus is expected at this 
headquarters 25 December 2003. The following instructions will be in 
effect and govern the activities of all personnel during the visit. 
a. Not a creature will stir without official permission. This will 
include indigenous mice. Special stirring permits for necessary 
administrative actions will be obtained through the C1. Mice stirring 
permits will be processed through the C2 for proper clearances and 
obtained through Veterinary Services, ARCENT-KU. 
b. Personnel will settle their brains for a long winter nap prior to 
2200 hours, 24 December 2003. See MAJ Dickenson for pre-napping medical 
requirements. See MAJ Adams for napping demonstration. Uniform for the 
nap will be: Pajamas, cotton, light, drowsing, with kerchief, general 
purpose, camouflage; and Cap, camouflage w/ear flaps. Equipment should 
have been drawn from homestation CIF prior to deployment. 
c. Personnel will utilize standard Sharq Market sugar plums for visions 
to dance through their heads. Artificially sweetened plums are 
authorized for those in the unit weight control program. Specifications 
for this item will be provided by the servicing dining facility. 
d. Stockings, wool, cushion sole, will be hung by the chimney with care. 
Necessary safety precautions will be taken to avoid fire hazards caused 
by carelessly hung stockings. ARCENT-KU safety officer will submit 
stocking hanging plans to this headquarters prior to 0800 hours, 24 
December 2003, ATTN: MAJ Salada, for approval. 
e. At the first sign of clatter from the lawn, all troops will spring 
from their beds to evaluate noise and cause. Immediate action will be 
taken to tear open the shutters and throw open the window sashes. PMO 
Plan (Saint Nick), Reference LO No. 3, paragraph 6c, this headquarters, 
2 February 2003, will be in effect to facilitate shutter tearing and 
sash throwing. Section OICs will familiarize all personnel with 
procedures and are responsible for ensuring that no shutters are torn 
open nor window sashes thrown open prior to start of official clatter. 
See CPT Donley for hardcopy. 
f. Prior to 2400, 24 December 2003, all personnel will be assigned 
"Wondering Eye" stations. After shutters are thrown open and sashes are 
torn, these stations will be manned. 
g. SSG Bekono will assign one each Sleigh, miniature, M-66, and eight 
(8) deer, rein, tiny, for use of MG Claus' driver who, in accordance 
with current directives and other applicable regulations, must have a 
valid SF56 properly annotated by Driver Testing; be authorized rooftop 
parking and be able to shout "On Dasher, on Dancer, on Prancer and 
Vixen, up Comet, up Cupid, on Donner and Blitzen". 
2. MG Claus will enter quarters through standard chimneys. All units 
without chimneys will draw Chimney Simulator, M-6, for use during 
ceremonies. Chimney simulator units will be requested through SPC Oswalt 
on Job Order Request Form submitted to the Furniture Warehouse prior to 
19 December 2003, and issued on DA Form 3161, Request for Issue or 
3. Personnel will be rehearsed on shouting "Merry Christmas to all and 
to all a good night." See LTC Pride for demonstration. This shout will 
be given on termination of General Claus' visit. Uniformity of shouting 
is the responsibility of section NCOICs. 
Colonel, USA
OIC, Special Services 
Everybody Who Still Believes


Jay Crosby sent this:

Serene Japanese Computer messages

Here are 16 actual error messages reportedly seen on the computer 
screens in Japan, where some are written in Haiku. Aren't these better 
than "your computer has performed an illegal operation"?

The Web site you seek cannot be located, but countless more exist.

Chaos reigns within. Reflect, repent, and reboot. Order shall return.

Program aborting: Close all that you have worked on. You ask far too 

Windows 98 or NT crashed. I am the Blue Screen of Death. No one hears 
your screams.

Yesterday it worked. Today it is not working. Windows is like that.

Your file was so big. It might be very useful. But now it is gone.

Stay the patient course. Of little worth is your ire. The network is 

A crash reduces your expensive computer to a simple stone.

Three things are certain: Death, taxes and lost data. Guess which has 

You step in the stream, but the water has moved on. This page is not 

Out of memory. We wish to hold the whole sky, But we never will.

Having been erased, The document you're seeking must now be retyped.

Serious error. All shortcuts have disappeared.

Screen. Mind. Both are blank.


That's it for now. Part 3 will be along in a day or two.

Stay safe,

Phil Konstantin

End of the January 2004 Newsletter - Part 2


Start of the January 2004 Newsletter - Part 3


Here is the rest of this month’s newsletter. 

I am still looking for suggestions for my writing contest. Please feel 
free to let me know your ideas.



The “Treaty of the Month” is the TREATY WITH THE CHOCTAW, 1786. Jan. 3, 
1786. | 7 Stat., 21. The basics are listed in the “Random Historical” 
section below. For more details, go to this website:



This e-mail was from Carol Craig in Washington state:

Phil: Yes, we continually have to deal with the racism problem and 
mascots. I wrote to this school after reading about their decision. I 
always share the latter when I make school visits and students want to 
discuss this issue of racism and mascots. Also the Native American 
Journalist Association released the "Reading Red Report 2003," A call 
for the news media to recognize racism in sports team nicknames and 
mascots prepared for their annual conference last year. I also have a 
niece working at a Seattle High School. She teaches math and planned and 
prepared for her own class on Native issues. She also had the 
opportunity to revise the state social studies curriculum frameworks for 
grades 6 - 12. She did significant work on including tribal peoples' 
perspectives, history, treaties, tribal sovereignty, environmental and 
natural resource preservation and current issues in Grade 7 Washington 
State History, Grade 8 U.S. History, Grade 8 U.S. Civics, and Grade 11 
U.S. History. It's slow going and some day everybody will understand how 
we truly feel. I always mention in history classes that when we were 
placed on this part of Mother Earth-we did not come from anywhere 
else...then I continue and always mention too that non-tribal history 
tells us a completely different story...no one, not even teachers, 
question what I say. 

Carol Craig 

Dear Students of Issauquah High School: 

I read the article about the students walking out of their classrooms 
protesting the recent decision to drop the name “Indians” as a mascot. 
Sometimes it is difficult for non-tribal people to understand why the 
term and use or depiction of tribal people is offensive to them. 

Gradually other states and schools systems are opting for other mascots 
than using tribal people. Here in Washington State the State Board of 
Education passed a resolution in 1993 requesting all school districts to 
review building names, mascots, logos and other symbols to make sure 
they were free from bias. Seven years ago only 134 school districts had 
responded to the Board, according to a state report. The remaining 55 
percent of the state’s district chose not to respond. 

Tribal mascots and logos are said to be tradition of those institutions. 
But this is a tribal tradition, not your tradition. It is disrespectful 
for students to depict a tribal person without understanding the 
cultural significance. You do not take a culture and do what you’ve seen 
in old Hollywood movies without even understanding what you are doing. 

What some schools have as a mascot is suppose to build a sense of 
identity, pride and community. Then you should ask the question, is it 
positive or negative when people hear about it? In most cases, people 
say they don’t mean anything racist by it, but that still doesn’t make 
it acceptable. The problem with the names “Indians,” “Warriors,” 
“Redskins,” for sports teams is that it perpetuates the crippling myth 
that tribal people, their lands, their culture, their sovereign powers, 
their very existence, are relics of the past. That we are not here--we 
are gone. 

By using tribal depictions for sports teams, tribal logos on products 
and tribal symbols as trademarks, the non-tribal public is able to use 
the part of the tribal people they need. That particular part is the 
dead, silent, and “noble” tribal person of the past. You don’t see 
today’s reservation tribal member on any sports logos or products. 
Racist imaging is popularized in the name of fun and games. 

When people make remarks about how tribal people live or look, it smacks 
of racism. Racism is different from racial prejudice, hatred or 
discrimination. Racism involves having the power to carry out systematic 
discriminatory practices through the major institutions of our society. 
The “race problem” is essentially a non-tribal problem because 
non-tribal people developed it by using a tribal mascot or logo, 
perpetuated it by not wanting to change the logo or mascot, and who have 
the power to resolve the issue by having tribal people directly 

Racism is just as dehumanizing for non-tribal people as it is for tribal 
people. Racism of all kinds tends to hurt everyone—those who promote it 
as well as those who become its target. 

This conflict between the non-tribal people and tribal people was and 
still is a war. I question if the non-tribal public ever wonder how 
tribal people have been able to continue to exist in the ongoing process 
of extermination; they don’t spend much time thinking about it—after all 
it seems to be a dead subject. Has anything changed since the State’s 
education board passed the resolution in 1993? 

Bethel High School voted to allow it to retain the Braves as its mascot, 
complete with a depiction of a Plains tribal person with a feather in 
his hair. 

At Federal Way’s middle school, Sacajawea, they decided to keep the 
Warriors mascot but did away with the caricature on the school’s 
volleyball uniform. 

In Enumclaw, the junior high spent a year choosing a new mascot to 
replace the Chieftains. The school mascot is now the Timberwolves. 

At Yakima Valley Community College after listening to tribal students 
that studied the mascot issue carefully for two years the “Indians” 
caricature was dropped and they are now the “Yaks.” It’s too bad other 
schools do not follow the lead. 

Following is a piece I share with schools I visit who question why 
tribal people do not feel ‘honored’ by mascots. 

Equal opportunity racism 

Let’s all be politically incorrect 

Okay, I give up. I’m not going to try to change the racist stereotypes 
that are found in today’s society. Let’s try a different tactic. I opt 
for equal opportunity racism. Let’s get every ethnic and religious group 
in on the action. 

Crazy Horse was a spiritual leader that opposed the use of alcohol so 
Crazy Horse beer is offensive to tribal people. Instead of pulling Crazy 
Horse Ale off the market let’s expand the market with Pope John Paul 
Whiskey and Allah’s Ale. The Sundance line of alcoholic beverages could 
be expanded to include the Holy Spirit and the Mormon Song. 

The Sundance is a sacred tribal ceremony and Plymouth has a line of cars 
called Sundance. Do you think we can convince Ford or GM that to 
effectively compete in today’s automotive market that they need a line 
of cars named after other sacred religious ceremonies? We don’t want to 
ignore the Jews or Catholics so what about the Ford Bar Mitzvah? The GM 
Holy Communion? We have cars named after the sacred Lakota symbol of the 
Thunderbird so let’s develop the Mercury Crucifix, the Lincoln Menorah 
and the Ford Ankh. 

Cherokee clothing is hot in today’s market. Maybe a line of Irish 
apparel designed for bar hopping would sell well. An effective marketing 
slogan could be “the perfect clothing for drinking up and falling down.” 
What about marketing a line of black designer clothing—its sales pitch 
cold be “the perfect clothing for shooting up or gunning down.” Let’s 
design a line of JAP apparel, complete with tiara—“for the princess you 
think you are.” And for the Polish—well it doesn’t matter because they 
are so dumb they can’t read anyway. 

So many sports teams are named after tribal people that other groups are 
being discriminated against because they don’t receive the same honor. 
In the name of equal opportunity I propose the following changes. The 
Spokane Chiefs could become the Spokane WOP’s with a mob kingpin waving 
a machine gun for a mascot. Let’s call the New England Patriots the 
Boston WASP’s and make their mascot a large bee wearing a pilgrim hat. 
The Atlanta Braves could become the Atlanta Jews. Instead of a man 
dressed in tribal regalia waving a tomahawk their mascot could be a 
Rabbi waving a fistful of money. Let’s name a baseball team the Los 
Angeles SPICS. A catchy slogan for them would be—“We steal home and 
everything else too.” The Washington Redskins could become the 
Washington Chinks with a slant-eyed, half-naked sumo wrester running 
around the stadium waving a samurai sword. Fans can do the samurai 
slash. The Washington Redskins could become the Washington Blackfaces of 
the Crackers. The possibilities are endless. 

It’s not fair to just offend and exploit tribal people—we need to get 
everyone in on the action. Let’s hear it for equal opportunity racism 


From Juliana D. Marez:

"Listen! Or your tongue will make you deaf." A Cherokee saying
"s-ge! a-le ga-nu-ga wi-li o-tlv ni-hi tsu-ne-la" Tsa-la-gi 
Saw this Cherokee proverb on a website thought I'd share it.


Ed Clark, a friend of mine sent me this…

A car company can move its factories to Mexico and claim it's a free 

A toy company can outsource to a Chinese subcontractor and claim it's a 
free market. 

A major bank can incorporate in Bermuda to avoid taxes and claim it's a 
free market. 

We can buy HP printers made in Mexico. 

We can buy shirts made in Bangladesh. 

We can purchase almost anything we want from many different countries 

BUT, heaven help the elderly who dare to buy their prescription drugs 
from a Canadian (or Mexican) pharmacy. That's called un-American! 

And you think the pharmaceutical companies don't have a powerful lobby? 
Think again! 

(Please forward this to every person you know over age 50.) 



See photos of Mars taken by the Spirit rover:

One of the stories mentioned in DreamKeeper was about Tehan, the white 
man living with the Kiowa. Here is a website about this incident:

Hidden From History – The Canadian Holocaust 

Coastal Carolina Indian Center & Association



Author Unknown

When the Lord was creating police officers, he was into his sixth day of 
working overtime when an angel appeared and said, "You sure are doing a 
lot of fiddling around on this one."

And the Lord said, "Have you read the specs on this order?

A police officer has to be able to run five miles through alleys in the 
dark, scale walls, enter homes the health inspector wouldn't touch, and 
not wrinkle his uniform. "He has to be able to sit in an undercover car 
all day on a stakeout, cover a homicide scene that night, canvass the 
neighborhood for witnesses, and testify in court the next day. "He has 
to be in top physical condition at all times, running on black coffee 
and half-eaten meals. And he has to have six pairs of hands."

The angel shook her head slowly and said, "Six pairs of hands... no 

"It's not the hands that are causing me problems," said the Lord, "it's 
the three pairs of eyes an officer has to have."

"That's on the standard model?" asked the angel.

The Lord nodded. One pair that sees through a bulge in a pocket before 
he asks, "May I see what's in there, sir?" (When he already knows and 
wishes he'd taken that accounting job.) "Another pair here in the side 
of his head for his partners' safety. And another pair of eyes here in 
front that can look reassuringly at a Bleeding victim and say, 'You'll 
be all right ma'am, when he knows it isn't so."

"Lord," said the angel, touching his sleeve, "why don't you rest and 
work on this tomorrow."

"I can't," said the Lord, "I already have a model that can talk a 250 
pound drunk into a patrol car without incident and feed a family of five 
on a civil service paycheck."

The angel circled the model of the police officer very slowly, "Can it 
think?" she asked.

"You bet," said the Lord. "It can tell you the elements of a hundred 
crimes; recite Miranda warnings in its sleep; detain, investigate, 
search, and arrest a gang member on the street in less time than it 
takes five learned judges to debate the legality of the stop... and 
still it keeps its sense of humor.

This officer also has phenomenal personal control. He can deal with 
crime scenes painted in hell, coax a confession from a child abuser, 
comfort a murder victim's family, and then read in the daily paper how 
law enforcement isn't sensitive to the rights of criminal suspects."

Finally, the angel bent over and ran her finger across the cheek of the 
police officer. "There's a leak," she pronounced. "I told you that you 
were trying to put too much into this model."

"That's not a leak," said the lord, "it's a tear." "What's the tear 
for?" asked the angel.

"It's for bottled-up emotions, for fallen comrades, for commitment to 
that funny piece of cloth called the American flag, for justice."

"You're a genius," said the angel. 

The Lord looked somberly at the angel and said. "I'm no genius; I didn't 
put the tear in his eye!

Don't worry about the world coming to an end today.

It's already tomorrow in Australia. 



Keeping a voice alive


Billy Frank Jr., American Indian Visionary 2004

American Indian activist sought to smash stereotypes

Trimble: Out-Indianing a Wannabee (funny!)

Chino to be sworn into office Friday

Schwarzenegger seeks revenues from gaming tribes

Fires fuel spirit of giving

Tex Hall to deliver State of Indian Nations address

Heritage tourism: violation or honor?

Supreme Court to hear two Indian cases this month 

American Indian Community House seeks funds to grow


Native films to be screened during Sundance festival 

A digest of First Nations news from Canada

Opinion: Redskins should drop 'offensive' name

Nansemonds tackle heritage project

DORREEN YELLOW BIRD COLUMN: 'DreamKeepers' marks new era in films about 
Native Americans

COLUMNIST DORREEN YELLOW BIRD: December brings thoughts of Sitting 
Bull's death

Young members at odds with tribal government

Mich. tribe files suit over land on Norte Dame campus 

Utes dispute termination

A Place Where Children Die 

Some tribes bring back old punishment of banishment 

Sitting Bull College educates and promotes culture

Reading signs: Maya studies today and tomorrow
http://indiancountry.com/?1071157213 -- Part 1
http://indiancountry.com/?1071691611 -- Part 2

Court upholds status of Indian-run casinos 

News from the Pacific Northwest

Pablo man wins grant for Salish language program 



From Ashley Talley:

I think that the movie Dreamkeeper was awesome. It had all different 
kinds of interesting concepts. I think the parts that I liked the most 
were the stories. 

We (my family and I) are part of a Native American council in Bowling 
Green, Kentucky. My position in the council is storyteller. I have had 
this position for about a year or so. I wanted to become the storyteller 
because all of the different interesting stories, concepts and 
orientations of the stories. Even though all of the nations were spread 
out, many of their stories were similar. 

Watching the movie from this point of view, I found that I actually knew 
quite a few of the stories and seeing them on video being created and 
portrayed made me further enjoy and understand the stories. I also 
believe that the stories also entertained the people who were watching 
them that were not native. I would not mind owning it and adding it to 
my collection. 

Sincerely, Ashley Talley 


From Ken Pratt:

Dreamkeeper was the best "native" film I have seen since little big man! 
true! I want my own copy. very well done is so many ways. swirling 
tradition and incredible modernity. note it was shown on the anniversary 
of wounded knee,eh? 


From Sharon Sky Hawk Reidy:

O'siyo, Phil,
Seasons Greetings!
I am writing in response to your request on what we all thought about
the movie, Dreamkeeper. 

I loved it. It was worth staying up for (I go to bed early and get up
early!) I thought it was well put together and very respectfully done. 
The story was excellent, the actors entirely believable and the
cinematography outstanding.

I love traditional stories and know the importance of passing this
information on to our young people and also importantly, to non natives 
who just don't know anything about any given tribes' rich culture. 

This movie was a vehicle to express something beautiful about the People 
and Rises above the stereotypes and false perceptions that some people 
may have today. 

With our current US population of 295,685,169, I understand 10 million
People saw the movie. It's a start, anyway! 

Peace to you and all your relations,
Sharon Sky Hawk Reidy
Blackfeet/Western Band Cherokee Heritage



I thought that Dreamkeeper was an excellent film....however, I think it 
would have been easier to follow if the main characters were more 
thoroughly delineated before the story of Eagle Boy was begun. Some 
editing was needed here. For people who are totally unfamiliar with 
Native American traditions, the film could have been rather confusing as 
it was presented. The special effects were excellent and the acting 
superb. I enjoyed it very much. Joan 




From Jay Crosby:

1. A bicycle can't stand alone because it is two-tired.
2. What's the definition of a will? (It's a dead giveaway).
3. Time flies like an arrow. Fruit flies like a banana.
4. A backward poet writes inverse.
5. In democracy it's your vote that counts; in feudalism it's your count 
that votes.
6. She had a boyfriend with a wooden leg, but broke it off.
7. A chicken crossing the road is poultry in motion.
8. If you don't pay your exorcist you get repossessed.
9. With her marriage she got a new name and a dress.
10. Show me a piano falling down a mineshaft and I'll show you 
11. When a clock is hungry it goes back four seconds.
12. The man who fell into an upholstery machine is full recovered.
13. A grenade thrown into a kitchen in France would result in linoleum 
blown apart.
14. You feel stuck with your debt if you can't budge it.
15. Local Area Network in Australia: the LAN down under.
16. He often broke into song because he couldn't find the key.
17. Every calendar's days are numbered.
18. A lot of money is tainted. 'Taint yours and 'taint mine.
19. A boiled egg in the morning is hard to beat.
20. He had a photographic memory which was never developed.
21. A plateau is a high form of flattery.
22. The short fortune teller who escaped from prison was a small medium 
at large.
23. Those who get too big for their britches will be exposed in the end.
24. When you've seen one shopping center you've seen a mall.
25. Those who jump off a Paris bridge are in Seine.
26. When an actress saw her first strands of gray hair she thought she'd 
27. Bakers trade bread recipes on a knead to know basis.
28. Santa's helpers are subordinate Clauses.
29. Acupuncture is a jab well done.
30. Marathon runners with bad footwear suffer the agony of defeat.


My cousin Gene Sims sent this to me:

DEFINITION OF GLOBALZATION (This was sent to me by a Canadian)

QUESTION: What is the truest definition of Globalization?
ANSWER: Princess Diana's death 

QUESTION: How come?
ANSWER: An English princess with an Egyptian boyfriend crashes in a 
French tunnel, driving a German car with a Dutch engine, driven by a 
Belgian who was drunk on Scottish whiskey, followed closely by Italian 
Paparazzi, on Japanese motorcycles, treated by an American doctor, using 
Brazilian medicines! And this is sent to you from an American, using 
Bill Gates' technology, and you're probably reading this on one of the 
IBM clones, that use Taiwanese-made chips, and a Korean-made monitor, 
assembled by Bangladeshi workers in a Singapore plant, transported by 
lorries driven by Indians, hijacked by Indonesians, unloaded by Sicilian 
longshoremen, trucked by Mexican illegals, and finally sold to you. 
That, my friend is Globalization.


Here are some random historical events for the month of January:

January 1, 605: Maya King Aj Ne' Ohl Mat takes the throne in Palenque, 
January 2, 1761: A small force of British soldiers moves into a 
blockhouse which will eventually be called Fort Sandusky, in Ohio. This 
move unsettles the local Indians.

January 3, 1786: A Treaty (7 stat. 21) with the Choctaw is signed by 
Benjamin Hawkins for the United States. The Choctaw agree to release all 
prisoners. They acknowledge the sovereignty of the United States, and no 
other country. New boundaries for their lands are delineated. No U.S. 
citizens are allowed to settle on Choctaw lands, without Choctaw 
permission. Only the U.S. is allowed to regulate trade with the Choctaw. 
Signatories: five Great Medal Chiefs, thirteen small Medal Chiefs, 
twelve Medal and Gorget Captains. It is signed at Hopewell River. 

January 4, 1837: Fourteen Texans, led by George B. Erath, are following 
the trail of a Caddo war party on the Little River, near the Three 
Forks. At sunset they find the camp of 100 Caddo warriors. They attack 

January 5, 1891: According to Frank Leslie’s Illustrated newspaper, as 
an aftermath of Wounded Knee, 100 Indians attack a wagon train between 
Wounded Knee and Rapid City, Dakota. The fighting lasts until the 
cavalry arrived approximately six hours later.

January 6, 1542: On the site of what was once the village of T’ho, 
Spaniard Francisco de Montejo establishes the town of Mérida, in the 
Yucatan of Mexico.

January 7, 1814: Under orders from Andrew Jackson, a force of 600 
Indians, primarily Chickasaws and Choctaws, led by Colonel John McKee, 
set out to attack a " Red Stick" Creek village near the falls of the 
Black Warrior River in Alabama. When they arrive at the village, they 
discover that it has been abandoned. The village is burned to the 
January 8, 1877: General Nelson "Bear Coat" Miles catches up to Crazy 
Horse, Little Big Man, Hump, Two Moons and their followers at Battle 
Butte, in southeastern Montana. Miles' soldiers attack through the 
three-foot deep snow. The war chiefs occupy the soldiers while the women 
and children escape during a blizzard. The weather causes Miles to 
disengage. According to army records, approximately 600 warriors, 
approach the soldiers, and a five-hour battle starts. The second half of 
the battle is fought in a "blinding snow storm.” The army drives the 
Indians through the Wolf Mountains, toward the Big Horn Mountains. The 
army reports three soldiers killed, and eight wounded. They estimate the 
Indians' losses to be high. Captains Edmond Butler and James S. Casey 
and First Lieutenant Robert McDonald, Fifth Infantry, will be awarded 
the Congressional Medal of Honor for their actions in the fighting. The 
troops then return to Fort Keogh at the mouth of the Tongue River in 
east-central Montana.

January 9, 1790: Spanish and Indian forces under Commanding General Juan 
de Ugalde attack a group of 300 Lipan, Lipiyan, and Mescalero Apaches at 
what they called the Arroyo de la Soledad. The Spanish soundly defeat 
the Apache. The Spaniards name the battlegrounds the “Cañón de Ugalde” 
in honor of their commander. Modern Uvalde, Texas gets its name from 
this spot.      

January 10, 1852: According to the Oklahoma Law Enforcement Memorial, 
Chin-Chi-Kee, Captain, Chickasaw Lighthorse, attempts to arrest four 
whiskey smugglers south of Tishomingo, the capitol of the Chickasaw 
Nation. A fight breaks out and Chin-Chi-Kee, armed only with a knife, 
kills three of the men before the fourth, a Seminole Indian named Bill 
Nannubbee, shoots him in the head and kills him.

January 11, 1886: The First Infantry has engaged Apaches in the Sierra 
Madre Mountains near the Aros River in Sonora, Mexico. For his actions 
against "hostiles" under Geronimo and Natchez, First Lieutenant Marion 
Maus will be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. According to army 
documents, Captain Crawford is wounded. The fighting started yesterday.

January 12, 1864: The Navajos have been ordered to move to the Bosque 
Redondo Reservation in New Mexico. Many who decide not to go move to the 
Canyon de Chelly. Kit “Rope Thrower” Carson has been directed to force 
the Navajos to move or to be killed as "hostiles.” Carson and Captain 
Pfeiffer advance to the canyon. On this date, Carson enters the west end 
of the canyon. They encounter a band of Navajos, and kill eleven of 
them. While in the canyon, Carson orders the burning of the Navajos' 
food and cherished peach trees.

January 13, 1729: Measels are spreading through “New Spain.” It has 
struck the Pima workers at the mission San Ignacio de Caburica. The 
priest, Father Campos, baptizes twenty-two Pimas “in periculo mortis” 
because they are so close to death. This epidemic kills many Indians.

January 14, 1846: A treaty is made and concluded at the "Methodist 
Mission in the Kansas country" . Representing the United States are 
Commissioners Richard Cummins, and Thomas Harvey. It is signed by the 
Woods and Mission Band of the Potawatomies.

January 15, 378: Maya King Chak Tok Ich'aak I (Great Burning Claw) of 
Tikal, Guatemala, dies. His death is one of the earliest recorded dates 
for a Maya ruler.

January 16, 1805: The Mandans parlay with the Minnetarrees according to 
Lewis and Clark.

January 17, 1893: American settlers overthrow the royal government of 
Queen Lydia Paki Kamekeha Liliuokalani in Hawaii. They established a 
provisional government under the leadership of Judge Sanford Dole.

January 18, 1870: From a marker in the Fort Buford (North Dakota) 
cemetery: “He That Kills His Enemies - Indian Scout- January 18, 1870 - 
Died of Wounds ... in a quarrel with a fellow scout on the 5th inst. 
received a penetrating (arrow) wound of the pelvis and abdomen. ... 
Death occured January 18, 1870. An autopsy could not be obtained owing 
to the feelings of the relatives.”

January 19, 1777: A group of Oneida chiefs meet with Colonel Elmore at 
Fort Schuyler. The want the army to tell the Mohawks that the great 
council fire of the Onondagas as been extinguished. 

January 20, 1984: The Jicarilla Apache Tribal Council enacts Ordinance 
No. 84-0-235, the "Jicarilla Apache Environmental Protection Ordinance." 
The purpose of this Ordinance is “to insure that proper and meaningful 
consideration of environmental, cultural, historical, and ecological 
factors is made by any person, the BIA or the Tribal Council prior to 
its approval of activities on the Jicarilla Apache Reservation which may 
significantly affect that environment in whole or in part.” It will 
become effective on April 13th, 1984.

January 21, 1634: Trader Captain John Stone is killed by Pequots. Stone 
is often considered a less than reputable character by both the settlers 
and the Indians.

January 22, 1813: British Colonel Henry Proctor, with 600 soldiers, and 
600 Indian warriors attack General James Winchester and his 850 
soldiers, in Monroe (called Frenchtown, at the time), Michigan. 
Winchester's forces are split up on both sides of the Raisin River. When 
the British and Indians attacked the forces on the south bank during a 
snow storm, they killed almost 100 American. Winchester is taken 
prisoner. He surrenders his entire force of almost 500 men, today, even 
though his troops on the north side of the river are virtually untouched 
by the fighting. Proctor marches his able-bodied captives to Fort 
Malden, Ontario, Canada. Leaving sixty-four wounded Americans in 
Frenchtown under a limited guard. Angry Indians later attack and kill 
most of the wounded. This attack is called the "Raisin River Massacre,” 
and it becomes a battle cry of the War of 1812.

January 23, 1838: In Saginaw, Michigan, Henry Schoolcraft negotiates a 
treaty (7 stat. 565) with the Chippewas. The treaty works out the 
misunderstandings from previous treaties regarding the sales of Indian 
lands. Six Indians sign the document.

January 24, 1835: The Mexican Governor Figueroa in Monterey, California 
writes a letter to the Alcalde of San José. He warns the local ranchers 
not to mount punative expeditions against the local Indians. Some 
Indians have been raiding ranches to steal the horses. One more than one 
occasion, the Mexicans have killed innocent Tulare Indians in their 
efforts to punish the thieves.

January 25, 1968: The United States Indian Claims Commission, decrees 
that the Mescalero Apaches of New Mexico should receive $8,500,000 for 
lands taken from them in the 1800s. The Mescaleros refuse the largesse 
because, by law, they cannot share the money with the Lipan, and 
Chiricahua Apaches. A future ruling allows this. 
January 26, 1855: The Jamestown Klallam Tribe of Indians sign the Point 
No Point treaty (12 Stat., 933). 
January 27, 1730: After the battle of Fort Rosalie (modern Natchez, 
Mississippi), the French are determined to defeat the Natchez Indians. A 
French-Canadian named Jean Paul Le Sueur, who has lived with the local 
Indians for years, volunteers to recruit Indians from other tribes to 
fight the Natchez. With a force of approximately 700 Choctaws, Le Sueur 
arrives at the main Natchez village. Le Sueur's fighters force the 
Natchez to take refuge in two forts they have constructed. They remain 
bottled-up here until the main French force of 200 soldiers arrive in 
February. During the fighting, eighty Natchez warriors are killed. Le 
Sueur's forces rescue 166 prisoners held by the Natchez.

January 28, 1978: An election for Amendment III to the Constitution for 
the Papago (Tohono O’odham) is held . Of the 5,087 people who could 
vote, 1,622 pulled the lever for it, 408 against it.

January 29, 1863: General Patrick Connor, and almost 300 California 
volunteers fight Bear Hunter's Northern Shoshone on Bear River, north of 
the Idaho-Utah boundary. The soldiers report 224 of the warriors are 
killed in the fighting, including Bear Hunter. Other sources put the 
number nearer to 400, including many women and children. Connor is 
called "Star Chief" by the Indians. This is called the "Battle of Bear 
River" by the army. Others call it “The Bear River Massacre.” Some 
sources says this happens on January 27, 1863.

January 30, 1980: An election for a proposed Amendment III to the 
Constitution and Bylaws of the Hopi Tribe is held . Of the 977 people 
eligible to vote, 607 voted for the amendment and 64 voted against.

January 31, 1833: The Mi’kmaq Waycobah First Nation reserve of 
Whycocomagh #2 is established in Nova Scotia, according to the Nova 
Scotia Councils.


That’s all for now. I am sure I will remember something else I wanted to 
add as soon as I send this.

Stay safe,


End of the January 2004 Newsletter - Part 3


Start of the January 2004 Newsletter - Part 4


This is just a short note for those of you who have access to the 
History Channel. They will be running the 2 hour program: "The Little 
Big Horn: The Untold Story" on January 17th. Check you local listings 
for the time in your area.

I have not seen the program, but it proports to talk about the "Battle 
of the Greasy Grass" from the American Indian perspective.

Here is the listing from the History Channel's website:

Next Airing: Saturday, Jan 17 @ 8pm ET/PT 

The Little Big Horn: The Untold Story

We'll look with fresh eyes at the infamous battle, using over 2 decades 
of research by Dr. Herman J. Viola, Curator Emeritus at the Smithsonian 
Institution, whose close friendship with Dr. Joseph Medicine Crow, 
grandson of one of Custer's 6 Crow scouts, afforded him unique access to 
the Native-American community's insights. TV G 


An e-mail friend of mine will be a guest on a NativeAmericaCalling 
program on Friday. If you have internet access, you might enjoy hearing 
the program.

Here is Ron's e-mail describing the program...

Best wishes,



Here’s the announcement for the radio program I will participate in this 
Friday. Btw, tomorrow morning I’ll receive the Board of Supervisor’s 
award for being Marin County Employee of the Year for 2003.

The web site for the radio program is: 

Friday, January 31 - Drug Courts & Traditional Justice:
Many crimes in Indian Country are triggered by drug and gang activity. 
The malicious actions of offenders are destabilizing reservation 
security. Tribal drug courts are trying to deal with the onslaught, but 
some feel that those convicted and sentenced are not taking full 
responsibility for their actions. There are those who want to 
incorporate traditional means of justice, including banishment, as part 
of their punishment. How are drug related criminal activities affecting 
Native communities? Is traditional justice an answer to the lawlessness? 
Guests include Ron Eagleye Johnny, Marin County Drug Court Coordinator 
and Pine Ridge BIA tribal officer John Mousseau.

To participate call
that's 1-800-99NATIV

End of the January 2004 Newsletter - Part 4


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