January 2003 Newsletter Part 1 from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2007)

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Start of the January 2003 Newsletter


I hope you are all having a good holiday season, so far. I live a rather 
exciting life here in 'America's Finest City.' For my birthday, I went 
to work (The TV newsanchors wished me a happy 50th on the air). After 
work, I donated some blood (you might all consider doing this, as the 
holidays is usually a slow period for blood donations), and had a nice 
dinner at a local deli. WOW! What exciting times! :-) I do want to 
thank those of you who sent me 'pictures' of a new Lexus. One friend 
sent me a picture of a $1 bill as the start of a contribution for a new 
vehicle. I, of course, was joking about someone giving me a new car for 
my birthday. But, I do appreciate your sense of humor.

We have been getting some rain here in San Diego, thanks to El Nino. It 
has been so long since I have seen a good rain, I almost forgot what it 
was like. I remember crossing the Mississippi River on a ferry in New 
Orleans several years ago. It rained so hard, it was hard to tell where 
the sky stopped and the river began. On another occasion, I was at my 
childhood home in Houston, Texas. It once rained in the front yard, but 
not the backyard, for over 10 minutes. I actually timed it. It is nice 
to see the clouds. They should clear up for the Super Bowl later in 
January. I will be getting some overtime because of this event. That 
will help to pay for Christmas...


The January 2003 Link of the Month is: "The Interactive ALR: A 
Searchable Database of Historic Native American Vocabularies." One of 
the most common questions I get is to tell someone the "Indian" name for 
something. This website can help you find translations in many different 
Indian languages. They are slowly expanding the database, too.



This month's treaty is the: TREATY WITH THE DWAMISH, SUQUAMISH, ETC., 
Jan. 22, 1855. | 12 Stat. 927. It covers lots of material and subjects. 
Considering the recent judicial decisions regarding the Samish, this 
treaty seemed appropriate.



Movie of the Month:

This movie 'review' is the first of what will probably become a regular 
part of the newsletter. I hope to look at many of the movies which 
feature American Indians as a significant part of the plot. Please feel 
free to offer your own suggestions, or reviews.

My first review is of the movie "Never Cry Wolf." I realize that this 
movie may not come readily to mind when you think of 'American Indian 
Movies.' It is definitely not Dances With Wolves (even though they both 
feature wolves) or Cheyenne Autumn. There are no cavalry charges or 
visits to the reservation. But, it does look at societal issues which I 
think are interesting and important.

The film version of Never Cry Wolf came out in 1983. It is based on the 
1963 book of the same name by Farley Mowat. The book is Mowat's 
recollection of his trip into the Canadian artic to investigate the 
effect of wolves on the caribou population. The book goes into more 
detail than the movie. In the preface to the latest edition of the book, 
Mowat says: "We have doomed the wolf not for what it is, but for what we 
deliberately and mistakenly perceive it to be--the mythologized epitome 
of a savage, ruthless killer--which is, in reality, no more than the 
reflected image of ourself."

Filmed near Nome, Alaska, Never Cry Wolf won the National Society of 
Film Critics Award for Cinematography. It was nominated for an Academy 
Award in the Best Sound category. The PG rated, 105 minute movie's 
simple description or tagline was: "They Thought He Couldn't Do the Job. 
That's Why They Chose Him." In the movie, the Mowat's character is 
called Tyler. Tyler's purpose is to determine how wolves are harming the 
caribou population. His research proves that the wolves are actually 
helping the herd by culling the sick and old. He also learns that man is 
doing more harm than the wolves.

The movie has a small cast. Charles Martin Smith plays Tyler. You may 
remember Smith from his other roles in the movies American Graffiti, The 
Buddy Holly Story, Starman and The Untouchables. I have always liked 
him. Brian Dennehy plays bush pilot-entrepreneur Rosie. Zachary 
Ittimanangnaq plays an older Inuit named Ootek. Sampson Jorah plays a 
younger Inuit named Mike. 

The movie, without being too overt about it, reflects on the clash of 
cultures between the Inuit and the non-Indian population. It also looks 
at old traditions vs. modern life. Ootek and Mike are not stereotypical 
"Eskimos," but real people. It touches their culture without being 
mystical about it. The movie, while also being comical, has a nice 
"real" feeling to it. We see the difficulties that the younger Inuit (30 
years old?+/-) faces in a modern world. We also experience what the old 
life was like through Ootek and who I believe is his true-life wife 

The scenery is phenomenal. From mountain peaks to frozen lakes to rocky 
shores to wide open prairies, I love the natural beauty shown in this 
marvelous film. 

Never Cry Wolf is rated PG. The PG rating comes from a few scenes where 
Tyler, who is drying out after a dip into a very cold lake, runs nude 
across the prairie when he is surprised by some caribou. This is a 
Disney film, so the nudity is only from the rear. While I do not know if 
it is intentional, I could see some symbolism on 'naturalism vs. 
materialism' in this scene.

The movie has a slower pace to it than is common nowadays. It also 
features some beautiful minimalistic music (ala Philip Glass).

I highly recommend this movie for anyone who likes beautiful scenery, a 
look at American Indians with a light-touch, a perspective on 'survival 
of the fittest', and a cautionary tale on environmentalism.

There is also something to be said about a Disney movie where the lead 
character actually eats mice. Mickey must be turning in his grave.

Links for teaching the book:   http://www.nt.net/~torino/never.html    

Link for teaching with the movie:   


Here are some links to some interesting websites and news articles I 
have come across recently:

Dee Brown, the author of "Bury My Heart At Wounded Knee" died in the 
early part of December. His book was the first look into the Indian side 
of history for many people. 

Wheel of Misfortune - Indian casinos have fallen far short of benefiting 
the wider Native American population. A TIME special investigation 

For Time Magazine, Diné rejection of casinos a cultural choice

For Time Magazine, Sovereignty 101

NCAI's Hall takes on Indian gaming report 

Shameful report distorts tribal gaming 

Casino backers press on with talks

McCaleb learned about trust 'on the job' 

Guest Opinion: ‘Indian Enron’ case must not be ignored 

Voter fraud charges in South Dakota prove fraudulent

Ahenakew remains under siege after anti-Semitic outburst

Natives pay more for homes, says new Census analysis

THE EYES OF A CHILD by Michael WalkingStick 

Barbara Morgan, former Flathead teacher, to fly in space (Christa 
McAuliffe's backup)

Mushuau Innu move underway

Court stops Makah whale hunt

Makah to challenge whale hunt ruling 

Latest News from the Gray Whale Monitoring 2000 Project

Samish lose bid for treaty rights - Judge affirms ruling against tribe, 
citing finality in litigation as overriding issue

Judge won't restore tribe's treaty rights

More heat falling on ‘Las Vegas Nights' law 

Cave Rock Presidential Page

Nevada: Land and Resource Management Plan Amendment to Protect Cave Rock

The Forest Service To Prohibit Climbing At Cave Rock, NV 

Mille Lacs Indian Museum

Tribes accuse DFYS - CARE: Native children in state custody are 
separated from culture as well as families, lawsuit says. 

United States v. White Mountain Apache Tribe 

United States v. Navajo Nation 

Nez Perce Tribe finally will get memorial to two Idaho warriors Carving 
to Honor Nez Perce Who Died 200 Years Ago

Cherokee to audit tribal enrollment

Key Tribal Sovereignty Case Returns 

Ancient bones found in northern Nevada

Relative of Chief Ouray dies at 86

Lumbees to seek federal recognition

Saving native tongues

Indian Songs 101

Was Maya Pyramid Designed to Chirp Like a Bird? 

Burial mounds at risk

Anniversary is not celebration, tribes say

Nevada Indian cave looter hit with $2.5 million civil penalty

MJC club raises American Indian pride, awareness

Games Indians Play

Tribes, DOE sign Agreement in Principle - Cultural resources, Tribal 
interests will be protected


Here are some random historical events for January:

January 1, 1756: After the attack of the christianized Indian village of 
Gnadenhutten, near modern-day Leighton, Pennsylvania on November 24, 
1755, by other Indians, British troops are sent in to patrol the area. 
Today, 2 groups of DELAWAREs, one led by Chief Tedyuscung, attack the 
troops and farms in the area. Twenty soldiers and several settlers are 
killed, and the village is burned. The Monrovian Missionaries would 
abandon the area. They and many of their Indian converts would move to 
Ohio, and establish another village named Gnadenhutten. 

January 2, 687: Maya King K'inich Yo'nal Ahk II (Ruler 3) ascends to the 
throne in Piedras Negras, Mexico.
January 3, 1786: A Treaty (7 stat. 21) with the Choctaw is signed by 
Benjamin Hawkins for the United States. The Choctaw agree to release all 
prisoners. They acknowledge the sovereignty of the United States, and no 
other country. New boundaries for their lands are delineated. No U.S. 
citizens are allowed to settle on Choctaw lands, without Choctaw 
permission. Only the U.S. is allowed to regulate trade with the Choctaw. 
Signatories: five Great Medal Chiefs, thirteen small Medal Chiefs, 
twelve Medal and Gorget Captains. It is signed at Hopewell River. 

January 4, 1752: Spanish forces defeat a group of 2,000 Pimas near 

January 5, 1802: According to some sources, William Augustus Bowles, 
self-appointed "Director General and Commander-In-Chief of the Muskogee 
Nation," leads a force of Seminoles (Miccosukees) warriors against the 
Spanish in St. Marks in northern Florida. They give up their attacks and 
siege in a little over a week.

January 6, 1542: On the site of what was once the village of T’ho, 
Spaniard Francisco de Montejo establishes the town of Mérida, in the 
Yucatan of Mexico.

January 7, 1781: The Mission San Pedro Y San Pablo De Bicuner is 
established, in modern Imperial County, California, where the Anza Trail 
crosses the Colorado River. This is on land claimed by the Quechan 
(Yuma) Indians.

January 8, 1865: In Tom Green County, Texas, Captain Cunningham and 
members of the Comanche County Company skirmish with the Kickapoo 
Indians at the “Battle of Dove Creek.”

January 9, 1790: Spanish and Indian forces under Commanding General Juan 
de Ugalde attack a group of 300 Lipan, Lipiyan, and Mescalero Apaches at 
what they called the Arroyo de la Soledad. The Spanish soundly defeat 
the Apache. The Spaniards name the battlegrounds the “Cañón de Ugalde” 
in honor of their commander. Modern Uvalde, Texas gets its name from 
this spot.      

January 10, 1591: Gaspar Castaño de Sosa is traveling through the Tewa 
Pueblo villages. In his journal he notes that he is received well in 
Jacona. He mentions that Tewa villages are small, but heavily populated. 
Jacona was eventually abandoned a little over 100 years later.

January 11, 1851: As a part of the “Mariposa Indian Wars” in California, 
Sheriff James Burney leads a force of settlers against the local 
Indians. The battle is a draw.

January 12, 657: Mayan Calakmul leader Yukukun leads an attack against 
Tikal (Guatemala).

January 13, 1729: Measels are spreading through “New Spain.” It has 
struck the Pima workers at the mission San Ignacio de Caburica. The 
priest, Father Campos, baptizes twenty-two Pimas “in periculo mortis” 
because they are so close to death. This epidemic kills many Indians.

January 14, 1830: The Senate of the United States passes a resolution 
which calls for the government to survey lands west of the Mississippi 
and then “parcel out among the Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw and Chickasaw 
tribes of Indians.” Its intent is for the Indians to move there en 

January 15, 1756: After the Delaware uprising, many settlers move to 
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. A group of settlers, and some friendly Indians 
leave the village in hopes of returning to their farms. A group of 
Delaware attack the party, and kill all but one of the settlers, and 
many of the Indians. 

January 16, 1873: 225 regular army soldiers and 104 California and 
Oregon militia approach the Modoc stronghold in the northeaster 
California lava beds. They visibly set up around Captain Jack's position 
in hopes that the Modocs will not fight in the face of obviously 
superior forces. The Modocs consider surrender, but only a few wish to 
do so, so all stay. 
January 17, 1800: Congress passes “An Act for the Preservation of Peace 
with the Indian Tribes.” One of its provisions was: “That if any citizen 
or other person residing within the United States, or the territory 
thereof, shall send any talk, speech, message or letter to any Indian 
nation, tribe, or chief, with an intent to produce a contravention or 
infraction of any treaty or other law of the United States, or to 
disturb the peace and tranquillity of the United States, he shall 
forfeit a sum not exceeding two thousand dollars, and be imprisoned not 
exceeding two years.”

January 18, 1870: From a marker in the Fort Buford (North Dakota) 
cemetery: “He That Kills His Enemies - Indian Scout- January 18, 1870 - 
Died of Wounds ... in a quarrel with a fellow scout on the 5th inst. 
received a penetrating (arrow) wound of the pelvis and abdomen. ... 
Death occured January 18, 1870. An autopsy could not be obtained owing 
to the feelings of the relatives.”

January 19, 1777: A group of Oneida chiefs meet with Colonel Elmore at 
Fort Schuyler. The want the army to tell the Mohawks that the great 
council fire of the Onondagas as been extinguished. 

January 20, 1870: According to some sources, “Buffalo soldier” Troops C, 
D, I and K, Ninth Cavalry battle with Indians on Delaware Creek, in the 
Guadaloupe Mountains in Texas. Two soldiers are killed.

January 21, 1634: Trader Captain John Stone is killed by Pequots. Stone 
is often considered a less than reputable character by both the settlers 
and the Indians. 

January 22, 1813: British Colonel Henry Proctor, with 600 soldiers, and 
600 Indian warriors attack General James Winchester and his 850 
soldiers, in Monroe (called Frenchtown, at the time), Michigan. 
Winchester's forces are split up on both sides of the Raisin River. When 
the British and Indians attacked the forces on the south bank during a 
snow storm, they killed almost 100 American. Winchester is taken 
prisoner. He surrenders his entire force of almost 500 men, today, even 
though his troops on the north side of the river are virtually untouched 
by the fighting. Proctor marches his able-bodied captives to Fort 
Malden, Ontario, Canada. Leaving sixty-four wounded Americans in 
Frenchtown under a limited guard. Angry Indians later attack and kill 
most of the wounded. This attack is called the "Raisin River Massacre,” 
and it becomes a battle cry of the War of 1812. 

January 23, 1837: American forces under Colonel Cawfield surprise a 
group of Seminoles under Chief Osuchee (Cooper) a “Ahapopka Lake” in 
Florida. The Chief and several warriors are killed in the fighting. 

January 24, 1835: The Mexican Governor Figueroa in Monterey, California 
writes a letter to the Alcalde of San José. He warns the local ranchers 
not to mount punative expeditions against the local Indians. Some 
Indians have been raiding ranches to steal the horses. One more than one 
occasion, the Mexicans have killed innocent Tulare Indians in their 
efforts to punish the thieves. 

January 25, 1856: The second half of the Quinault andQuileute treaty (12 
stat. 971) is signed at Olympia, Washington. The first half is signed on 
July 1, 1855. 

January 26, 1836: The “Battle of Hitchity” takes place in Stewart 
County, Georgia. Creek warriors on the Chattahoochee River are attacked 
by the local militia.

January 27, 1730: After the battle of Fort Rosalie (modern Natchez, 
Mississippi), the French are determined to defeat the Natchez Indians. A 
French-Canadian named Jean Paul Le Sueur, who has lived with the local 
Indians for years, volunteers to recruit Indians from other tribes to 
fight the Natchez. With a force of approximately 700 Choctaws, Le Sueur 
arrives at the main Natchez village. Le Sueur's fighters force the 
Natchez to take refuge in two forts they have constructed. They remain 
bottled-up here until the main French force of 200 soldiers arrive in 
February. During the fighting, eighty Natchez warriors are killed. Le 
Sueur's forces rescue 166 prisoners held by the Natchez. 

January 28, 1978: An election for Amendment III to the Constitution for 
the Papago (Tohono O’odham) is held . Of the 5,087 people who could 
vote, 1,622 pulled the lever for it, 408 against it.

January 29, 695: Maya warriors from Naranjo attack forces from Tikal. 
This is as part of a series of attacks on neighboring cities in 

January 30, 1806: Future Principal Chief of the Choctaws, Peter Perkins 
Pitchlynn, is born in Mississippi. 
January 31, 1833: The Mi’kmaq Waycobah First Nation reserve of 
Whycocomagh #2 is established in Nova Scotia, according to the Nova 
Scotia Councils.


That's it for this newsletter. I am sure I have forgotton something, I 
usually do.

Have a great month,


End of the January 2003 Newsletter


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