January 2002 Newsletter from
"On This Date in North American Indian History"
by Phil Konstantin
Copyright © Phil Konstantin (1996-2002)

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                January 2002 Newsleter 
                Phil Konstantin 
  Start of the Newsletter

  Greetings and Happy New Year,

  It has been an eventful year. Don't worry, though. I won't be doing a 
  twenty page retrospective. I am sure you have seen plenty of those. I 
  did more vacation traveling in 2001 than in any previous year. I suspect 
  I will be staying closer to home in 2002, unless I win the lottery, or 
  my book sells several 100,000 copies. 

  For the newer subscribers, my full-time job (which supports my other 
  full-time job of writing these pages, my websites, etc.) is as a 
  California Highway Patrol Officer. I am assigned to do public affairs 
  duties in San Diego. I cannot let this opportunity go by without 
  offering some advise for New Yearís Eve partiers.

  ∑ If you are hosting a party, please have some non-alcoholic beverages 
  ∑ If you think another partier looks like they have had too much to 
  drink, you are almost always right, when it come to the legal limits for 
  alcohol. The vast majority of people are legally "under the influence" 
  long before they think they have had too much to drink. To repeat the 
  phrase I am sure you have heard, "Friends donít let friends drive 
  ∑ A designated driver is always a good idea for a group going to the 
  same party. This does not mean that person should drink less than the 
  others, but that they should not have any alcoholic beverages. When I 
  was still on road patrol, I arrested many designated drivers. Drinking 
  less is no guarantee that you are under the legal limit. The designated 
  driver should also be picked BEFORE the party. 
  ∑ If you have any doubt about your sobriety, donít drive.

  I received several e-mails from people about my Christmas note. Many 
  said they were unaware of my wifeís automobile crash. What happened to 
  her can serve as a warning to others about driving when you are tired. 
  You can read the entire story at this address:

  Someone else asked me about my educational background. They assumed I 
  was a history professor. I ave always loved history. Then again, lots of 
  things interest me. I married young, and had a child the next year. So 
  it was several years after high school before I went to college. History 
  was one of my minors in college, along with Geology. My majors were 
  Political Science, Sociology and Behavioral Sciences. While I attended 
  Rice University, I completed the PoliSci and Sociology requirements. I 
  only needed one more class for the BehSci major. Unfortunately, I ran 
  out of money before I had completed all of the electives I needed to 
  graduate. I quit to go back to work full-time & save more money. 
  Fourteen years later, I finally went back to college. In 1991, I 
  graduated from San Diego State University (twenty years after graduating 
  from high school). I do not recommend this method. It had never occurred 
  to me to have a major in history. My original plan was to be a 
  constitutional attorney defending the oppressed. A degree in history was 
  not recommended as a precursor for law school. So, history was always 
  just for fun, even though I loved it. The CHP might seem like an odd 
  choice for a career. I tried working for some cutting edge companies, in 
  hopes of getting in on the ground floor of a growing company. 
  Unfortunately, none of these high-potential companies lived up to their 
  promise. I also worked in the media: radio, TV and print. On more than 
  one occasion, I was laid off when the station changed formats, or they 
  just wanted all new faces or voices. This became too much of a risk for 
  someone trying to raise a family. My father was in law enforcement for 
  most of his working life. I noticed that this was a very stable job with 
  good pay and benefits (health & retirement). If you kept your nose clean 
  (an old expression which has nothing to do with drugs), you had a job 
  for life. If the economy got so bad that cops were laid off, no job was 
  secure. So, I decided to go that route, and it stuck. I have been with 
  the CHP for over 16 years.

  I mentioned above that I probably wonít be taking as many trips in 2002. 
  I will be going to Baja California in February 2002. I will be returning 
  to San Ignacio Lagoon to visit the gray whales who spend the winter 
  there. It is a 600 mile trip from San Diego. It is an amazing experience 
  to have a 40 ton wild animal swim up to you and let you pet them. This 
  will be my fourth trip there. If you plan on being in the area, I would 
  be happy to show you around. You can see some of the pictures I took on 
  one of my previous trips at this address:
  Here is the address of a picture of me petting one of the whales:

  Former Cherokee Chief Ross Swimmer is the subject of one of the news 
  stories mentioned below. Seeing this article reminded me of when I 
  interviewed him in 1977. He was still chief then, and I was a radio 
  talk-show host in Texas. It was a real kick for me to be able to talk 
  with him. This was many years before my family could "prove" to the BIA 
  that we were really blood relatives of my Cherokee grandfather. We 
  discussed the difficulties of dealing with the BIA and several other 
  subjects during the one hour interview. You can get some idea of my 
  wacky sense of humor by my answer to a question from a listener. The 
  caller agreed that the Cherokees had been cheated out of their lands 
  throughout most of history. He wanted to know what could be done now. I 
  immediately jumped in and said: "You could give us Georgia back!" We all 
  had a good laugh.


  The Link of the Month for January 2002 is Tribal Court Clearinghouse. 
  TCC has a wide variety of resources. You can find an extensive listing 
  of court cases, law review articles, info on treaties, alcohol and 
  substance abuse programs, and many, many more subjects. It also has 
  links to many more sites. I highly recommend a visit to this very well 
  laid out website.


  Some recent news & websites:

  Bush administration plans major BIA restructuring - Appears to be a 
  return to the policies of the Reagan administration

  Ross Swimmer Tapped to Head Implementation Team for New Office of Indian 
  Trust Transition Source:

  Guatemala apology belated but welcome:

  Census Information:

  American Indians By the Numbers From Census 2000

  American Indian Tribes with Populations Greater than 10,000 (1990 U.S. 
  Census figures)


  Treaty of the Month:

  TREATY WITH THE KALAPUYA, ETC., 1855 - Jan. 22, 1855. | 10 Stats., 1143. 
  | Ratified, Mar. 3, 1855. | Proclaimed, Apr. 10, 1855.

  This treaty was signed in Dayton, Oregon Territory on January 22, 1855 
  by the United States and "the confederated bands of Indians residing in 
  the Willamette Valley"



  Random historical events for January:

  January 1, 1877: Colonel Nelson "Bear Coat" Miles, and his forces from 
  Fort Keogh (near modern Miles City, in eastern Montana), are moving up 
  the Tongue River in search of Crazy Horse, and his followers. They have 
  their first skirmish with Indians. According to army reports, there are 
  600 lodges on the Tongue River, which are abandoned as Miles moves 
  through the area.

  January 2, 1848: Peter Skene Ogden arranges for the release of captives 
  during the Cayuse attack on the Whitman Mission.

  January 3, 1895: On November 25, 1894, a group of nineteen Hopi 
  "hostiles" were placed under arrest by the army for interfering with 
  "friendly" Hopi Indian activities on their Arizona reservation. The 
  nineteen prisoners are held in Alcatraz prison in California from 
  January 3, 1895 to August 7, 1895.

  January 4, 605: Palenque Maya Lord Ac - Kan ascends the throne according 
  to the museum at Palenque
  Photo at: http://philkon.tripod.com/mayae.html

  January 5, 1806: Sacajawea tells Lewis and Clark she wants to see a dead 
  whale which has washed up on the beach in Oregon.

  January 6, 1706: The Spanish are trying to improve relations with the 
  Pueblos of modern New Mexico. Governor Francisco Cuervo y Valdez and 
  "Protector General for the Indians" Captain Alfonso Rael de Aguilar meet 
  with leaders of all the nearby tribes. Among the Indians is Don Domingo 
  Romero Yuguaque. Yuguaque is Governor of the Tesuque Pueblo.

  January 7, 1781: The Mission San Pedro Y San Pablo De Bicuner is 
  established, in modern Imperial County, California, where the Anza Trail 
  crosses the Colorado River. This is on land claimed by the Quechan 
  (Yuma) Indians.

  January 8, 1700: Pierre le Moyne, Sieur d'Iberville, establishes a fort 
  and trading post on the Mississippi River a few dozen miles south of 
  present day New Orleans. It is his hope to establish friendly relations 
  with the lower Mississippi valley Indians to keep them from allying 
  with the English or the Spanish.

  January 9, 1790: Spanish and Indian forces under Commanding General Juan 
  de Ugalde attack a group of 300 Lipan, Lipiyan, and Mescalero Apaches at 
  what they called the Arroyo de la Soledad. The Spanish soundly defeat 
  the Apache. The Spaniards name the battlegrounds the "CaŮůn de Ugalde" 
  in honor of their commander. Modern Uvalde, Texas gets its name from 
  this spot.

  January 10, 1839: John Benge, and 1,103 other Cherokees arrive in the 
  Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). They started their trek with 

  January 11, 1851: As a part of the "Mariposa Indian Wars" in California, 
  Sheriff James Burney leads a force of settlers against the local 
  Indians. The battle is a draw.

  January 12, 1880: Major Albert Morrow, and elements of the Ninth Cavalry 
  "buffalo soldiers," find, and attack Victorio, and his Warm Springs 
  Apaches, near the source of the Puerco River, in southern New Mexico. 
  The fighting lasts for about four hours, until sunset, when the Indians 
  escape. One soldier is killed, and one scout is wounded.

  January 13, 1729: Measels are spreading through "New Spain." It has 
  struck the Pima workers at the mission San Ignacio de Caburica. The 
  priest, Father Campos, baptizes twenty-two Pimas "in periculo mortis" 
  because they are so close to death. This epidemic kills many Indians.

  January 14, 1971: An election which adopted of a Constitution and Bylaws 
  for the Chitimacha Tribe of Louisiana is ratified by the Assistant 
  Secretary of the Interior, Harrison Loesch. The election is held on 
  November 7, 1970.

  January 15, 1832: The Chickasaw meet at their council house to discuss 
  the removal proposal of President Jackson. They decide to approve the 
  removal, but they will not cooperate with any efforts to have them share 
  lands with the Choctaws.

  January 16, 1805: The Mandans parlay with the Minnetarrees according to 
  Lewis and Clark. 

  January 17, 1800: Congress passes "An Act for the Preservation of Peace 
  with the Indian Tribes." One of its provisions was: "That if any citizen 
  or other person residing within the United States, or the territory 
  thereof, shall send any talk, speech, message or letter to any Indian 
  nation, tribe, or chief, with an intent to produce a contravention or 
  infraction of any treaty or other law of the United States, or to 
  disturb the peace and tranquillity of the United States, he shall 
  forfeit a sum not exceeding two thousand dollars, and be imprisoned not 
  exceeding two years."

  January 18, 1870: From a marker in the Fort Buford (North Dakota) 
  cemetery: "He That Kills His Enemies - Indian Scout- January 18, 1870 - 
  Died of Wounds ... in a quarrel with a fellow scout on the 5th inst. 
  received a penetrating (arrow) wound of the pelvis and abdomen. ... 
  Death occurred January 18, 1870. An autopsy could not be obtained owing 
  to the feelings of the relatives."

  January 19, 1777: A group of Oneida chiefs meet with Colonel Elmore at 
  Fort Schuyler. They want the army to tell the Mohawks that the great 
  council fire of the Onondagas as been extinguished.

  January 20, 1830: Red Jacket (Sagoyewatha) is a Seneca Chief born around 
  1779. While he is often called a coward in war, he is respected as a 
  great speaker, and for his refusal to adopt white ways. Following the 
  way of many before him, he eventually becomes an alcoholic. He dies 

  January 21, 1731: Natchez Indians, led by Chief Farine, have built a 
  fort in Louisiana near the Red River. French and Tunica forces, led by 
  the governor of Louisiana Etienne de Perier, attack the fort. The 
  fighting lasts for three days. While the Natchez kill many of the allied 
  forces, they are at a disadvantage because the French have a cannon. 
  After three days of fighting, the Natchez promise to surrender the next 
  morning. Many of the Natchez escape during the night, including Chief 

  January 22, 1855: The Treaty of Point Elliot (12 Stat. 927) is signed . 
  The Tulalip, the Kalapuya, the Swinomish, and the Snoqualnoo Tribe of 
  Whidbey Island, Washington are among the signers.
  See the "Treaty of the Month section above for a copy of the treaty.

  January 23, 1689: Saco, in southwestern Maine is attacked by Abenaki 
  Indians, one in a series of attacks on the settlement. Nine settlers are 
  killed in the fighting.

  January 24, 1835: The Mexican Governor Figueroa in Monterey, California 
  writes a letter to the Alcalde of San Josť. He warns the local ranchers 
  not to mount punative expeditions against the local Indians. Some 
  Indians have been raiding ranches to steal the horses. One more than one 
  occasion, the Mexicans have killed innocent Tulare Indians in their 
  efforts to punish the thieves.

  January 25, 1968: The United States Indian Claims Commission, decrees 
  that the Mescalero Apaches of New Mexico should receive $8,500,000 for 
  lands taken from them in the 1800s. The Mescaleros refuse the largesse 
  because, by law, they cannot share the money with the Lipan, and 
  Chiricahua Apaches. A future ruling allows this.

  January 26, 1716: Cherokee Chief Caesar has told the English in South 
  Carolina that he will never fight them. He also tells the Europeans they 
  have nothing to fear from the Creeks, because they want peace, too. He 
  offers to arrange for leading Creeks to go to Charles Town to arrange a 
  peace. Today, sixteen Creek and Yamassee representatives arrive at the 
  Cherokee village of Tugaloo in northeastern Georgia. The Creeks and the 
  Yamassee know of the Cherokee's desire to remain neutral, or at peace. 
  Rather than talking about peace, the representatives urge the Cherokees 
  to join them in their plan to attack the South Carolina settlements. 
  This so angers the Cherokees that the representatives are killed.

  January 27, 1863: General Patrick Connor, and almost 300 California 
  volunteers fight Bear Hunter's Northern Shoshone on Bear River, north of 
  the Idaho-Utah boundary. The soldiers report 224 of the warriors are 
  killed in the fighting, including Bear Hunter. Other sources put the 
  number nearer to 400, including many women and children. Connor is 
  called "Star Chief" by the Indians. This is called the "Battle of Bear 
  River" by the army. Others call it "The Bear River Massacre." Most 
  sources says this happens on January 29, 1863.

  January 28, 1908: As listed in Executive Order Number 744, the lands set 
  aside for the Navajo Indians in New Mexico conflict with the lands set 
  aside for the Jicarilla Apaches by Executive Order on November 11, 1907. 
  This will be corrected.

  January 29, 1881: The Eight lodges of Iron Dog and sixty-three of his 
  followers surrender to Major George Ilges' forces near the Poplar River 
  in Montana. Thirteen horses, and five guns are seized by the troops. The 
  weather remains bitterly cold.

  January 30, 1838: Seminole Chief Osceola dies at Fort Moultrie, in 
  Charleston, South Carolina. It is believe he has some sort of throat 
  disease, others say malaria, other say he dies of a broken heart.

  January 31, 1833: The Miíkmaq Waycobah First Nation reserve of 
  Whycocomagh #2 is established in Nova Scotia, according to the Nova 
  Scotia Councils.


  I am sure I have forgotten something, but that is it for now. Have a 
  great and safe New Year,


  End of the January 2002 Newsletter

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