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January 1, 2000 was NOT the first day of the new millennium.

January 1, 2001 was the first day of the new millennium. Explanations, Quotes from "official" and significant sources, and Links



Regardless of all the "hype" you may have seen and heard, the beginning of the new millenium was on January 1st, 2001. The purpose of this page is to help explain why this is so.

You do not have to just take my word for it, though. At the bottom of this page are quotes from "official" and significant sources which agree with 2001 being the start of the next millennium. There are also links to the official governmental sites in the USA and England, which state the next millennium starts on January 1, 2001.

I have talked with some people who work in major news organizations about the mislabling of 1/1/2000 as the start of the next millennium. Many have told me their organization knew 2001 was the start of the next millennium, but they did not wish to contradict their advertisers who all want to have "Millennium Sales." Some of these companies in the later part of 2000 planned on saying "Oops, we made a mistake. Now lets have a 'real' millennium sale." However, the public's reactions to the exploitation of the millennium sales of 1999 made most companies drop their plans for 'Real Millennium' sales.

Here are some side notes:
1. 1999 and 2000 were in the "20th Century." This was because the last year of that century starts with a 20, instead of a 19. We are now in the 21st Century, because the last year of this century wil be 2100.

2. 1999 was the last year of the 1900s. By definition, the 1900s are years which begin with a 19. 1999 was also the last year of the 1000s. However, to make a millennium, you have to have 1000 years, so 1000 is included with the years 1 through 999 to make 1000 years. The same thing would apply to the second millennium based on the Gregorian calendar.

3. Regardless of when, where, why, or by whom the Gregorian calendar was invented, there is no year Zero in the Gregorian calendar. I challenge anyone who believes there was a year Zero to produce a quote from any significant history book or encyclopedia documenting any event which happened in the year Zero. I have never seen any such listing, and I have researched the subject for years. For the purists among you, the Gregorian calendar was invented in 1582. It was determined that 10 days needed to be removed to bring the calendar back into the correct season. This happened, depending on the country, from around that time into the 1900s. This fact is not reflected in Explanation #5 below. That is designed merely to show how many days there would be in two millennea.

4. Many people have sent me e-mails trying to explain why there should be a year Zero. While I have seen many well-prepared and logical arguments, there is still one major problem. Regardless of how logical a year Zero may be to some people, the Gregorian calendar does not have one. It was designed that way. No amount of explanations can change this simple fact.


Here are five explanations why the year 2000 has to end before the next millennium can begin:



Explanation #1


Were you 1 year old the day you were born? Of course not. You did not become 1 year old until the end of your first year.

The calendar is very similar with one exception, it started with the year 1. There was no year 0. Therefore, the first year has not been completed until the end of the year 1, which would be on December 31, 0001.

A decade is a group of 10 years. The decade is not finished until the end of the 10th year. Therefore, the first decade would have ended on December 31, 0010. The 2nd decade started on January 1, 0011.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
The decade ends after all 10 years have passed.


A century is a group of 100 years. The century is not finished until the end of the 100th year. Therefore, the first century would have ended on December 31, 0100. The 2nd century started on January 1, 0101.

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
The century ends after all 100 years have passed.


A millennium is a group of 1000 years. The millennium is not finished until the end of the 1000th year. Therefore, the first millennium would have ended on December 31, 1000. The 2nd millennium started on January 1, 1001.

991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000
The millennium ends after all 1000 years have passed.


Therefore, the 2nd millennium will end on December 31, 2000. The 3rd millennium will begin on January 1, 2001.

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
The second millennium ends after all 2000 years have passed.



Explanation #2


You go up to an Automated Teller Machine to get $2000 in $1 bills. Each bill is like one year. The machine slowly feeds out each $1 bill, one at a time.

You cannot take a bill until the machine has finished feeding it out. Even though you can see part of it and touch it, you do not have the first bill until the machine has finished rolling it out. This is true for every one of the 2,000 bills.

Finally, you see the 2000th $1 bill. Even though you can see and touch part of it, you will not have your $2000 until this 2000th bill has completely come out of the machine. Just because the 2000th bill has started coming out, you do not have it in your hands, so you cannot use it.

The end of the millennium is exactly the same. Since all decades, centuries and millennia started in a year ending in 1, they are not finished until the end of the appropriate year ending in 0.

So this millennium will not end until the end of the year 2000 (December 31, 2000, one second after 11:59:59pm).



Explanation #3 (by Jay Bodenstein)


If you have three large baskets of apples, each containing 1,000 apples, and you consumed 1999 of them, ONE of the original "two thousand" apples would remain and the third thousand would still be untouched. The third thousand or the next millennium cannot begin until the last apple of the FIRST two thousand is completely consumed!!



Explanation #4 (suggested by Eric Seddon)


Ever heard of the Indianapolis 500? It is a car race held each year on Memorial Day in the United States. The first vehicle to complete 200 laps around the 2.5 mile track (500 miles), wins. Like the Gregorian Calendar numbering system, the first lap is Lap #1. Simply stated, the race is not over until the end of the 200th lap, not the start of the 200th lap.

To carry the analogy one step further, the Earth runs one lap around the Sun each year. When the Earth completes lap #1, it finishes Year #1. When the Earth completed lap #1000, it finished year #1000. This made a millennium, 1000 years. So, when the Earth finishes lap #2000, it will have completed year #2000, thus completeing another millennium. You complete the 2000th year at the end of the 2000th lap, not the start of that lap.



Explanation #5


Based on the Gregorian Calendar, the day before January 1, 1 A.D., was December 31, 1 B.C.

There are 365 days in each year, except for leap years which have 366 days. So, 100 years would have 36,525 days, comprised of 36,500 regular days, and 25 leap year days, give or take a day (365 1/4 days per year times 100 years). Then, a millennium would have 365,250 days (1000 times 365 1/4 days). Two millenniums (yes, I know there is a different word in latin for plural millennium) would have 730,500 days (365 1/4 days times 2000 years). There is one other minor exception, century years (ex.: 1700, 1800, 1900) which are not evenly divisible by 400, are not have leap years.

The begining of the first decade, century and millennium was on January 1 in the year 1. So if you start adding from that day....


1/1/1    -  12/31/1     =     365  days
1/1/2    -  12/31/2     =     365  days
1/1/3    -  12/31/3     =     365  days
1/1/4    -  12/31/4     =     366  days
1/1/5    -  12/31/5     =     365  days
1/1/6    -  12/31/6     =     365  days
1/1/7    -  12/31/7     =     365  days
1/1/8    -  12/31/8     =     366  days
1/1/9    -  12/31/9     =     365  days
1/1/10   -  12/31/10    =     365  days
1/1/11   -  12/31/11    =     365  days
1/1/12   -  12/31/12    =     366  days
1/1/13   -  12/31/13    =     365  days
1/1/14   -  12/31/14    =     365  days
1/1/15   -  12/31/15    =     365  days
1/1/16   -  12/31/16    =     366  days
1/1/17   -  12/31/17    =     365  days
1/1/18   -  12/31/18    =     365  days
1/1/19   -  12/31/19    =     365  days
1/1/20   -  12/31/20    =     366  days
1/1/21   -  12/31/21    =     365  days
1/1/22   -  12/31/22    =     365  days
1/1/23   -  12/31/23    =     365  days
1/1/24   -  12/31/24    =     366  days
1/1/25   -  12/31/25    =     365  days
1/1/26   -  12/31/26    =     365  days
1/1/27   -  12/31/27    =     365  days
1/1/28   -  12/31/28    =     366  days
1/1/29   -  12/31/29    =     365  days
1/1/20   -  12/31/30    =     365  days
1/1/31   -  12/31/31    =     365  days
1/1/32   -  12/31/32    =     366  days
1/1/33   -  12/31/33    =     365  days
1/1/34   -  12/31/34    =     365  days
1/1/35   -  12/31/35    =     365  days
1/1/36   -  12/31/36    =     366  days
1/1/37   -  12/31/37    =     365  days
1/1/38   -  12/31/38    =     365  days
1/1/39   -  12/31/39    =     365  days
1/1/40   -  12/31/40    =     366  days
1/1/41   -  12/31/41    =     365  days
1/1/42   -  12/31/42    =     365  days
1/1/43   -  12/31/43    =     365  days
1/1/44   -  12/31/44    =     366  days
1/1/45   -  12/31/45    =     365  days
1/1/46   -  12/31/46    =     365  days
1/1/47   -  12/31/47    =     365  days
1/1/48   -  12/31/48    =     366  days
1/1/49   -  12/31/49    =     365  days
1/1/50   -  12/31/50    =     365  days
1/1/51   -  12/31/51    =     365  days
1/1/52   -  12/31/52    =     366  days
1/1/53   -  12/31/53    =     365  days
1/1/54   -  12/31/54    =     365  days
1/1/55   -  12/31/55    =     365  days
1/1/56   -  12/31/56    =     366  days
1/1/57   -  12/31/57    =     365  days
1/1/58   -  12/31/58    =     365  days
1/1/59   -  12/31/59    =     365  days
1/1/60   -  12/31/60    =     366  days
1/1/61   -  12/31/61    =     365  days
1/1/62   -  12/31/62    =     365  days
1/1/63   -  12/31/63    =     365  days
1/1/64   -  12/31/64    =     366  days
1/1/65   -  12/31/65    =     365  days
1/1/66   -  12/31/66    =     365  days
1/1/67   -  12/31/67    =     365  days
1/1/68   -  12/31/68    =     366  days
1/1/69   -  12/31/69    =     365  days
1/1/70   -  12/31/70    =     365  days
1/1/71   -  12/31/71    =     365  days
1/1/72   -  12/31/72    =     366  days
1/1/73   -  12/31/73    =     365  days
1/1/74   -  12/31/74    =     365  days
1/1/75   -  12/31/75    =     365  days
1/1/76   -  12/31/76    =     366  days
1/1/77   -  12/31/77    =     365  days
1/1/78   -  12/31/78    =     365  days
1/1/79   -  12/31/79    =     365  days
1/1/80   -  12/31/80    =     366  days
1/1/81   -  12/31/81    =     365  days
1/1/82   -  12/31/82    =     365  days
1/1/83   -  12/31/83    =     365  days
1/1/84   -  12/31/84    =     366  days
1/1/85   -  12/31/85    =     365  days
1/1/86   -  12/31/86    =     365  days
1/1/87   -  12/31/87    =     365  days
1/1/88   -  12/31/88    =     366  days
1/1/89   -  12/31/89    =     365  days
1/1/90   -  12/31/90    =     365  days
1/1/91   -  12/31/91    =     365  days
1/1/92   -  12/31/92    =     366  days
1/1/93   -  12/31/93    =     365  days
1/1/94   -  12/31/94    =     365  days
1/1/95   -  12/31/95    =     365  days
1/1/96   -  12/31/96    =     366  days
1/1/97   -  12/31/97    =     365  days
1/1/98   -  12/31/98    =     365  days
1/1/99   -  12/31/99    =     365  days
1/1/100  -  12/31/100   =     365  days

Total for 100 years     =  36,525  days

1/1/1 to 12/31/99 would only equal 36,159 days.

1/1/1    -  12/31/100   =  36,525  days
1/1/101  -  12/31/200   =  36,525  days
1/1/201  -  12/31/300   =  36,525  days
1/1/301  -  12/31/400   =  36,525  days
1/1/401  -  12/31/500   =  36,525  days
1/1/501  -  12/31/600   =  36,525  days
1/1/601  -  12/31/700   =  36,525  days
1/1/701  -  12/31/800   =  36,525  days
1/1/801  -  12/31/900   =  36,525  days
1/1/901  -  12/31/1000  =  36,525  days

Total for 1000 years    = 365,250  days

1/1/1001 -  12/31/1100  =  36,525  days
1/1/1101 -  12/31/1200  =  36,525  days
1/1/1201 -  12/31/1300  =  36,525  days
1/1/1301 -  12/31/1400  =  36,525  days
1/1/1401 -  12/31/1500  =  36,525  days
1/1/1501 -  12/31/1600  =  36,525  days
1/1/1601 -  12/31/1700  =  36,525  days
1/1/1701 -  12/31/1800  =  36,525  days
1/1/1801 -  12/31/1900  =  36,525  days
1/1/1901 -  12/31/2000  =  36,525  days

Total for 2000 years    = 730,500  days

1/1/1 to 12/31/1999 would only equal 730,134 days.

Add it up yourself and see.....



Simple, isn't it?

I am not opposed to people celebrating the year 2000. The year 2000 is a major milestone for those who use the Gregorian calendar. It was well worth a major celebration. I just prefer to call things by their proper name.

Phil Konstantin
On This Date in North American Indian History
http://americanindian.net



Quotes from "official" and significant sources

There is no need for you to take my word for 2001 being the start of the next millennium. Here are some quotes from several sources. This includes the official timekeepers for some countries.

United States Naval Observatory
(The official timekeeper for the U.S.A.)

"The end of the second millennium and the beginning of the third will be reached on January 1, 2001. This date is based on the now globally recognized Gregorian calendar, the initial epoch of which was established by the sixth-century scholar Dionysius Exiguus, who was compiling a table of dates of Easter. Rather than starting with the year zero, years in this calendar begin with the date January 1, 1 Anno Domini (AD). Consequently, the Third Millennium does not begin until January 1, 2001 AD."

The Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England
(The official timekeeper for England, and the place from where international time is based)

"A millennium is an interval of 1000 years and a century is an interval of 100 years. In the Gregorian Calendar, which we use, there is no year zero and the sequence of years near the start runs as follows;..., 3BC, 2BC, 1BC, 1AD, 2AD, ... Because there is no year zero, the first year of the calendar ends at the end of the year named 1AD. By a similar argument 100 years will only have elapsed at the end of the year 100AD. Since 2000AD is the 2,000th year of the Christian calendar, it will be the last year of the Second Millennium. So the 3rd Millennium and the 21st Century will begin at the same moment, namely zero hours UTC (commonly known as GMT) on January 1st 2001."

Ministère de l'Education Nationale, de la Recherche et de la Technologie - Institut de mécanique céleste et de calcul des éphémérides - Bureau des longitudes Observatoire de Paris - CNRS
(a joint communique from several major French institutions)

A l'approche de l'an 2000, il paraît nécessaire de rappeler les règles officielles régissant le calendrier en usage en France :

- le 21ème siècle et le troisième millénaire commenceront le 1 janvier 2001 par l'application de la définition de la date issue de la norme ISO 8601-1998 publiée par l'AFNOR et qui stipule que le premier jour du mois est désigné 01, le premier mois de l'année est désigné 01 et que les années sont comptées à partir de l'an 1. La date ne représente pas le temps écoulé depuis l'origine du calendrier mais le numéro ordinal du jour en cours, du mois en cours et de l'année en cours. La date et les numéros des siècles et des millénaires utilisent une représentation ordinale commençant à 1.

- l'année 2000 sera bissextile (bien que 1900 ne l'ait pas été) par l'application des règles du calendrier grégorien en vigueur en France depuis le 20 décembre 1582."

Encyclopedia Britanica
(from their website, discussing the Millennium Dome project)

"It was initiated to house an exhibition for the approach of the 21st century and the 3rd millennium AD (the official start of which is January 1, 2001)."

Information Please Almanac
"Although January 1, 2000, has a millennial ring to it, the new age actually begins on a less resounding date: January 1, 2001. Common sense might suggest that the year 2000 is the dawning of the third millennium, but it is in fact the waning of the second.

The first millennium began in C.E. 1. There is no year zero in our calendar: the sequence of years passes directly from 1 B.C.E. to C.E. 1. Adding a thousand years to the year 1 equals the year 1001, marking the start of the second millennium. Add another thousand to reach the beginning of the third millennium: January 1, 2001."

MINISTERIO DE DEFENSA
Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada -- San Fernando (Cádiz) - España

El Calendario actualmente utilizado por gran parte de la humanidad es el Calendario Gregoriano. Fue establecido por el Papa Gregorio XIII, mediante la promulgación de la Bula Apostólica "Inter gravissimas" fechada el 24 de febrero del año 1582 y que entró en vigor el día 4 de octubre de ese mismo año. A ese día, jueves, le siguió el 15 de octubre, viernes. Este calendario, cuyas principales características son la regulación de la duración del año (el año del calendario gregoriano excede al año trópico en 0.0003 días), mediante la implantación de forma adecuada de los años bisiestos, y la de la fecha de la celebración de la Pascua, no es más que la continuación del calendario Juliano: años de 365 ó 366 días distribuidos en doce meses, y la aceptación formal de la Era Cristiana.

La Era Cristiana no es más que el sistema de contar los años desde el nacimiento de Cristo. Fue propuesta por Dionisio el Exiguo, eclesiástico y astrónomo, en el año 247 de la era de Diocleciano (el nacimiento de Cristo, según Dionisio, fue el año 753 A.U.C. - ad Urbis conditae, desde la fundación de la ciudad de Roma -, la era de Diocleciano, llamada también la de los mártires se inicia, según aquel, el 284 de nuestra era); al desarrollar unas tablas para la determinación de la fecha de la Pascua, en una carta dirigida al Obispo Petronio, dice que como no quiere perpetuar la memoria del Impio perseguidor de la Iglesia (se refiere al Emperador Diocleciano), sino que desea ensalzar a Cristo, prefiere contar los días desde la Encarnación de Cristo, que en aquella época ya estaba fijada su celebración en el 25 de marzo, y que, según sus cálculos, sucedió el año 753 de la fundación de Roma. Esta propuesta que, curiosamente, él nunca siguió, fue poco a poco adaptándose a lo largo de los pueblos cristianos, conviviendo con otros tipos de eras y con distintas variantes en cuanto al establecimiento del origen del año (25 de diciembre, 1 de enero, 6 de enero, 25 de marzo) siendo, en el siglo XVI, de uso generalizado.

Al establecerse el inicio de esta era o modo de contar el tiempo en el primer día del año establecido como el de nacimiento de Cristo (año 1) se inicia en él el computo del tiempo de nuestro actual calendario de tal forma que se contabilizan los cien primeros años el 31 de diciembre del año 100 a las 24 horas (12 de la noche) y, por lo tanto, comienza el siglo II el día 1 de enero del año 101 a las 0h 0m 0s. Asi el siglo XX comenzó el día 1 de enero de 1901 a las 0h 0m 0s y finalizará a las 24h 0m 0s del día 31 de diciembre del año 2000 dando paso inmediatamente al siglo XXI y tercer milenio.

ABC News
"Since the new millennium starts Jan. 1, 2001, will it be millennium mania all over again?"


LINKS

For those of you who want an "official" explanation from the website of the source, here are links to the United States Naval Observatory, the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA), the White House Millennium Council and The Institute for National Measurement Standards (INMS-Canada). The U.S.N.O. is the official timekeeper for the United States of America. The R.O.G. is the official timekeeper for Britain. The I.N.M.S. is Canada's Official Timekeeper.

There are also links to articles in the Encyclopedia Britannica, the World Almanac, Information Please Almanac, World Book Encyclopedia and 100s of other sites. They all agree the next millennium will start on January 1, 2001

I have added so many links, I had to move them to their own page.

Click here to go to the World's largest collection of 2001 Millennium Website Links.



A indicates a recent addition to the list.
Most of the sites are listed alphabetically by their Internet address.

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