The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton The State of Washington was occupied by a great number of Indian tribes formerly very populous, particularly those along the coast. There are few traditions regarding migrations and those which we have apply almost entirely to the interior people. After the Whites came it was unlikely that the Indians would move eastward in the face of the invasion and impossible for them to move westward; hence we do not have to trace various stages of long migrations due to displacement by the Whites and the overland retreat which followed, so marked in the history of the eastern Indians. Contrary to an older view, which held that Salishan tribes formerly extended to the lower Columbia and were driven north by Shahaptians, pushed forward in turn by Shoshonean peoples, it seems that the relative positions of Salishans and Shahaptians has been unchanged for an uncertain period of time and that, as a matter of fact, the Shoskoneans have been pushed southward although this movement was very recent. The Athapascan Kwalhioqua must represent a comparatively late invasion although that may not have been so recent as their anomalous position would lead one to suppose. There is also evidence of a much earlier movement when the Salishans came down upon the coast. The earliest European to meet any of the peoples of Washington was probably Juan de Fuca, a Greek navigator sailing under the Spanish flag, who, in 1592, visited the straits which now bear his name. Other Spanish explorers followed, and were later succeeded by English and Americans. The continual resort of trading vessels to Nootka on the west coast of Vancouver Island served to distribute European commodities and had a considerable influence among the tribes of Washington. In the latter part of the eighteenth century traders of the Hudson Bay and Northwest Companies made their appearance, but the Washington peoples first come squarely out upon the stage of history with the descent of the Columbia by Lewis and Clark in 1805-6. These pioneers gave the first general description of the region, enumerated the aboriginal peoples found in occupancy, and attempted estimates of their numbers. For some time afterward the territory was dominated by representatives of British companies and the land was claimed by England, while the only attempt to exploit it on the part of Americans, the settlement of Astoria, was soon abandoned. Following upon the acceptance of the 49th parallel of latitude as the International Boundary, however, and still more the discovery of gold in California and the opening up of the "Oregon trail," settlers from the Eastern States began to pour in in numbers. It was thereafter inevitable that friction should develop between the newcomers and the aborigines. There were wars with the Nez Perce, Yakima, and other tribes, but the Indians suffered less in this way than from European diseases, particularly the smallpox, which began their ravages before Lewis and Clark appeared, from spirituous liquors, and from a general dislocation of their aboriginal adjustments. The destruction was greatest in the Columbia Valley, which as the main artery of travel and trade was peculiarly exposed to epidemics, and within a few years the greater part of the once teeming populations of the lower valley were practically wiped out of existence. Roman Catholic missions sprang up at an early date in the eastern part of the territory, and were soon followed by those of Protestant denominations, notable among which was that conducted among the Cayuse by Marcus Whitman (1838-47). As in other parts of the United States, the Indians gradually parted with their lands and were placed upon reservations, though in most cases they were not removed so far from their original homes as in the eastern parts of the Union. The above sketch will show enough of the history of most of the tribes in this area, though some details have been added in certain cases (i. e., in connection with the Cayuse, Chilluckittequaw, Chimakum, Chinook, Klickitat, and Yakima. (See Ray, 1932, and Spier and Sapir, 1930.) Cathlamet. Significance unknown. Also called: Guasamas, or Guithlamethl, by the Glackamas. Kathlamet, own name. Kwillu'chini, by the Chinook. Connections.- The Cathlamet belonged to the Chinookan stock. The dialect to which they have given their name was spoken as far up the Columbia River as Ranier. Location.- On the south bank of Columbia River near its mouth, claiming the territory between Tongue Point and the neighborhood of Puget Island, and on the north bank from the mouth of Grays Bay to a little east of Oak Point. Villages Ika'naiak, on the north side of the Columbia River at the mouth of Coal Creek Slough just east of Oak Point. Ilo'humin, on the north side of Columbia River opposite Puget Island and near the mouth of Alockman Creek. Kathla'amat, on the south side of Columbia River about 4 miles below Puget Island. Ta'nas ilu', on Tanas Ilahee Island on the south side of the Columbia River. Wa'kaiyakam, across Alockman Creek opposite Ilo'humin. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated 450 Cathlamet in 1780. In 1805-6 Lewis and Clark gave 300. In 1849 Lane reported 58. They are now extinct as a separate group. Connection in which they have become noted.- The capital of Wahkiakum County, Washington, perpetuates the name of the Cathlamet. Cathlapotle. Meaning "people of Lewis (Na'polx.) River." Connections.- The Cathlapotle belonged to the Chinookan linguistic stock and were placed by Spier (1936) in the Clackamas division of Upper Chinook but by Berreman (1937) apparently with the Multnomah. Location.- On the lower part of Lewis River and the southeast side of the Columbia River, in Clarke County. Villages The main village of the Cathlapotle was Nahpooitle, at the mouth of Lewis River, but to this should perhaps be added Wakanasisi, opposite the mouth of Willamette River. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated 1,300 Cathlapotle in 1780; Lewis and Clark, 900 in 1806. Connection in which they have become noted.- Lewis, River was once known by the name of Cathlapotle. Cayuse. The Cayuse were located about, the heads of Wallawalla, Umatilln, and Grande Ronde Rivers, extending from the Blue Mountains to Deschutes River, Washington and Oregon. (See Oregon.) Chehalia. Meaning "sand," the name derived originally, according to Gibbs (1877), from a village at the entrance of Grays Harbor. Also called: Atchixe'lish, Calapooya name. Ilga't, Nestucca name. Lower Chehalis, name used by Spier (1927). Staq-tubc, Puyallup name. Connections.- The Chehalis belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family, being most intimately related to the Humptulips, Wynoochee, and Quinault. Location.- On the lower course of Chehalis, River, especially on the south side, and on the south side of Grays Bay. In later times the Chehalis, occupied territory to and about Willapa Bay that had formerly been held by the Chinook. Villages Chehalis (Gibbs, 1877), on the south side of Grays Harbor near Westport, in country earlier occupied by the Chinook. Chiklisilkh (Gibbs), at Point Leadbetter, Willapa Bay, in territory earlier occupied by Chinook. Hlakwun (Curtis, 1907-9), near Willapa on Willapa River in territory earlier occupied by the Chinook. Kaulhlak (Curtis), at the head of Palux River, earlier in Chinook country. Klumaitumsh (Gibbs and Boas personal information), given doubtfully as the name of a former band or village on the south side of Grays Harbor at its entrance. Nai'yasap (Curtis), on Willapa River in territory earlier occupied by Chinook. Nickomin (Swan 1857 and Boas, personal information), on North River which flows into Willapa Bay, in territory earlier occupied by the Chinook. Noohooultch (Gibbs), on thc south side of Grays, Harbor. Noosiatsks (Gibbs), on the south side of Grays Harbor. Nooskoh (Gibbs), on a creek opposite Whishkah River. Qyan (Gairdner, 1841), on the north point of Grays Harbor. Talal (Gibbs), at Ford's Prairie on the Chehalis River near Centralia, and therefore far outside of the Chehalis territory proper. Willapa, on Willapa River and in earlier Chinook country. The following villages were originally occupied by Chinook but seem to have shifted in population or language or both so se to become Chehalis: Hwa'hots, Nutsknrethlso'k, Quela'ptonlilt, Quer'quelin, Tske'lsos. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated a population of 1,000 in the year 1780 for the Lower and Upper Chehalis, the Cowlitz, the Humptulips, and related tribes, but the number had sunk to 170 by 1907. However, the census of 1910 gives 282 for the same group exclusive of the Cowlitz. In 1923 the United States Indian Office returned 89, and in 1937, 131. Connections in which they have become noted.- A river, county, and city in Washington preserve the name of the Chehalis. There is a Chehalis in Minnesota but its name probably has no connection with that of the Washington tribe. Chelan. The name is derived from Chelan Lake. Connections.- An interior Salish tribe speaking the Wenachee dialect and separated tentatively from that tribe by Spier (1927). Location.- At the outlet of Lake Chelan. Population.- No data. Connections in which they have become noted.- The name Chelan is shared not only by the lake above mentioned but by Chelan Falls, a range of mountains, a county, and two post villages, Chelan and Chelan Falls. Chilluckittequaw. Significance unknown. Connections.- The Chilluckittequaw belonged to the Chinookan linguistic stock. Location.- As reported by Lewis and Clark, the Chilluckittequaw lay along the north side of Columbia River, in the present Klickitat and Skamania Counties, from about 10 miles below the Dalles to the neighborhood of the Cascades. Spier (1936) thinks they may have been identical with the White Salmon or Hood River group of Indians and perhaps both. In the latter case we must suppose that they extended to the south side of the Columbia. Subdivisions and Villages Itkilak or Ithlkilak (occupied jointly with Klickitat), at White Salmon Landing. Nanshuit (occupied jointly with Klickitat), at the present Underwood. Smackshop, a band of Chilluckittequaw extending from the River Labiche (Hood River ?) to the Cascades. Tgasgutcu (occupied jointly with Klickitat), said to be about 1/2 mile west of a long, high mountain opposite Mosier, Oreg.) and at the same time about a mile above White Salmon Landing, an apparent inconsistency. Thlmieksok or Thlmuyaksok, 1/2 mile from the last; in 1905 the site of the Burket Ranch. Historical Note.- According to Mooney (1928) a remnant of the Chilluckittequaw lived near the mouth of the White Salmon River until 1880 when they removed to the Cascades, where a few still resided in 1895. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated 3,000 for this tribe in 1780. In 1806 Lewis and Clark placed the figure at 1,400, besides 800 Smackshop, or a total of 2,200. Chimakum. Significance of the name is unknown. Also called: Aqokulo, own name. Port Townsend Indians, popular name. Connections.- The Chimakum, the Quileute, and the Hoh (q. v.) together constituted the Chimakuan linguistic stock, which in turn was probably connected with the Salishan stock. Location.- On the peninsula between Hood's Canal and Port Townsend. History.- The Chimakum were constantly at war with the Clallam and other Salish tribes and, being inferior in numbers, suffered very much at their hands. They were included in the Point-no-Point Treaty of 1855 and placed on the Skokomish Reservation, where they gradually diminished in numbers until, in 1890, Boas was able to find only three individuals who could speak their language, and then but imperfectly. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates 400 Chimakum in 1780, and Gibbs (1877), 90 in 1855. The census of 1910 enumerated 3. Connection in which they have become noted.- Attention was called to the Chimakum in early days by their warlike character and the uniqueness of their language. Chinook. From Tsinuk, their Chehalis name. Also called: Ala'dshush, Nestucca name. Flatheads, a name shared with a number of other tribes in the region from their custom of deforming the head. Thlala'h, Clackama name. Connections.- The Chinook belonged to the Lower Chinook division of the Chinookan family. Location.- On the north side of the Columbia River from its mouth to Grays Bay (not Grays Harbor), a distance of about 15 miles, and north along the seacoast to include Willapa or Shoalwater Bay. Ray (1938) makes a separate division to include the Shoalwater Chinook but it will be more convenient to treat them under one head. It is understood that they differed not at all in dialect. Towns (As given by Ray (1938), except as otherwise indicated) Clamoitomish (Sapir, 1930), in Grays Bay. Hwakelsh, at the mouth of Smith Creek on the northeast shore of Willapa Bay. Hwa'hots, at a former settlement called Bruceport about 3 miles north of the mouth of Palix River. Ini'sal, on Naselle River where it enters the arm of Willapa Bay. Iwa'lhat, at the mouth of Wallicut River, which bears its name in a corrupted form. Kalawa'uus, on the peninsula At Oysterville Point. Killaxthokle (Lewis and Clark, 1905-6), probably on Willapa Bay. Kwatsa'mts, on Baker Bay at the mouth of Chinook River, north side of the Columbia. Lapi'lso, on an island in an arm of Willapa Bay below the mouth of Naselle River. Ma'hu, at the mouth of Nemah River below the present town of Nemah. Mo'kwal, at the mouth of Deep River on Grays Bay. Nahume'nsh, on the west side of North River at its mouth on the north shore of Willapa Bay. Namla'iks, at Goose Point. Na'mstcats, at a site now called Georgetown between Tokeland and North Cove. Nokska'itmithls, at Fort Canby on Cape Disappointment. No'skwalakuthl, at Ilwaco, named after its last chief. Nu'kaunthl, at Tokeland, named after its chief. Nu'palstcthl, at the site of Nahcotta, on the peninsula opposite the mouth of Nemah River. Nutskwethlso'k, on Willapa Bay west of Bay Center. Nuwi'lus, on the site of Grayland on the coast. Quela'ptonlilt (Swan, 1857), at the mouth of Willapa River. Querquelin (Swan), at the mouth of Querquelin River, which flows into Palix River from the south near the mouth of the latter. Se'akwal, on the north bank of the Columbia a short distance below Mo'kwal. Tokpi'luks, at the mouth of Palix River. Tse'yuk, at Oysterville on the peninsula north of Nahcotta. Tske'lsos, on Willapa River between South Bend and Raymond. Ya'kamnok, at Sandy Point 3 miles south of Goose Point, the extreme north point at Bay Center. History.- Though thc Chinook had been known to traders for an indefinite period previously, they were first described by Lewis and Clark, who visited them in 1805. From their proximity to Astoria and their intimate relations with the early traders, they soon became well known, and their language formed the chief Indian basis for the Chinook jargon, first employed as a trade language, which ultimately extended from California to Alaska. In the middle of the nineteenth century they became mixed with the Chehalis with whom they ultimately fused entirely, dropping their own language. The Chinook of later census returns are composed of a number of other tribes of the same stock. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 800 of these Indians in 1780, "including the Chinook and Killaxthokl." In 1805 Lewis and Clark gave 400 on Columbia River alone. In 1885 Swan states that there were 112. They are now nearly extinct though Ray (1938) discovered three old people still living as late as 1931-36. Connection in which they have become noted.- The name of the Chinook tribe became famous (1) because of intimate dealings between the Chinook and British and American traders, (2) on account of the extension of their name to the related tribes now classed in the Chinooks stock, (3) because the name was also extended to the Chinook jargon or Oregon Trade Language known throughout the entire Northwest, (4) because of its application to the Chinook or Pacific wind, and (6) from its application to towns in Pacific County, Wash., and Blaine County, Mont. Clackamas. Placed on both sides of the Columbia, but I prefer to follow Berreman (1937) in limiting the term to groups living on the Oregon side. (See Oregon.) Clallam. Meaning "strong people." Also spelled Nu-sklaim, S'Kal-lam, Tla'lem. Connections.- The Clallam were a tribe of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock most closely connected with the Songish. Location in the south side of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, between Port Discovery and Hoko River. Later the Clallam occupied the Chimakum territory also and a small number lived on the lower end of Vancouver Island. Villages Elwah, at the mouth of Elwah River. Hoko, at the mouth of Hoko Creek. Huiauulch, on the site of modern Jamestown, 5 miles east of Dungeness. Hunnint or Hungi'ngit, on the cast side of Clallam Bay, this town and Klatlawas together were called Xainaflt by Erna Gunther (1927). Kahtai, at Port Townsend, occupied after the destruction of the Chimakum. Kaquaith (or Skakwiyel), at Port Discovery. Klatlawas, the Tlatlawai'is of Curtis (1907-9), on the west side of Clallam Bay; see Hunnint. Kwahamish, a fishing village on the Lyre River. Mekoos, on Beecher Bay, Vancouver Island, B. C. Pistchin, on Pysht Bay. Sequim or Suktcikwiih, on Sequim Bay or Washington Harbor. Sestietl, Upper EIwah. Stehtlum, at new Dungeness. Tclanuk, on Beecher Bay, Vancouver Island, B. C. Tsako, at the former mouth of Dungeness River. Tsewhitzen, on Port Angeles Spit, 2 or 3 miles west of the old town of Stehtlum. Yennis, at Port Angeles or False Dungeness. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated 2,000 Clallam in 1780. In 1854 Gibbs estimated 800. In 1855, 926 were reported. In 1862 Eells estimated 1,300 but gave 597 in 1878. In 1881 he reduced this to 485. In 1904, 336 were returned. By the census of 1910, 398 were reported; by the United States Indian Office in 1923, 535, and in 1937, 764. Connections in which they have become noted.- The name Clallam is perpetuated by its application to a bay, a county, a river, and a precinct in the State of Washington. Clalskauie. (See Oregon.) Columbia or Sinkiuse-Columbia. So called because of their former prominent association with Columbia River, where some of the most important bands had their homes. Also called: Bo'tcaced, by the Nez Perce, probably, meaning "arrows" or "arrow people." Isle-de-Pierre, a traders' name, perhaps from a place in their country or for a band of the tribe. Middle Columbia Salish, so called by Teit (1928) and Spier (1930 b). Papspe'lu, Nez Perce name, meaning "firs," or "fir-tree people." Sa'ladebc, probably the Snohomish name. Sinkiuse, the name applied to themselves and most other neighboring Salish tribes, and said to have belonged originally and properly to a band which once inhabited Umatilla Valley. Suwa'dabe, Snohomish name for all interior Indians, meaning "inland people," or "interior people." .swa'dab.c, Twana name for all interior Indians, meaning "inland people." .swa'namc, Nootsak name for all interior Indians, meaning "inland people." Ti'attluxa, Wasco Chinook name. .tskowa'xtsenux or .skowa'xtsenex, applied by themselves, meaning has something to do with "main valley." Connections.- The Sinkiuse-Columbia belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic stock, their nearest relatives being the Wenatchee and Methow. Subdivisions or Bands (According to Teit, 1930) Stata'ketux, around White Bluffs on the Columbia. or Moses Band after a famous chief (Priest's Rapids and neighboring country). Curtis (1907-9) gives the foliowing: "Near the mouth of the sink of Crab Creek were the Sinkumkunatkuh, and above them the Slnkolkoluminuh. Then came in succession the Stapi'sknuh, the Skukulat'kuh, the Skoahchnuh, the Skihlkintnuh, and, finally, the Skultaqchi'mh, a little above the mouth of Wenatchee River." Spier (1927) adds that the Sinkowarsin met by Thompson in 1811 might have been a band of this tribe. Location and History.- The Sinkiuse-Columbia lived on the east side of Columbia River from Fort Okanogan to the neighborhood of Point Eaton. Later a reservation was created for them known as Columbia Reservation. In 1870 Winans placed them "on the east and south sides of the Columbia Rivor from the Grand Coulee down to Priest's Rapids." They are now under the jurisdiction of Colville Agency and one band, the Moses-Columbia Band, is in the southern part of Colville Reservation. Population.- The Sinkiuse-Columbia are estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 800 in 1780, but were probably considernbly more numerous as Teit (1927) considers that this tribe and the Pisquow together must have totaled something like 10,000 before the smallpox reached them. In 1905, 355 were reported; in 1908, 299; and in 1909, perhaps including some others, 540 were returned. The census of 1910 gave 52. Colville. The name is derived from Fort Colville, a post of the Hudson's Bay Company at Eettle Falls, which was in turn named for the London governor of the company at the time when the post was founded, i.e., in 1825. Also called: Basket People, by Hale (1846). Chaudiere, French name derived from the popular term applied to them, Kettle Falls Indians. Kettle Falls Indians, as above. Salsxuyilp, Okanagon name. Skuyelpi, by other Salish tribes. Whe-el-po, by Lewis and Clark, shortened from above. Connections.- The Colville belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic stock and to that branch of the latter which included the Okanagon, Sanpoil, and Senijextee. Location.- On Colville River and that part of the Columbia between Kettle Falls and Hunters. Villages and Subdivisions (From Ray, 1932) Kakalapia, home of the Skakalapiak (across from the present town of Harvey, at the point where the ferry now crosses). Kilumaak, home of the Skilumaak (opposite the present town of Kettle Falls, about 1 1/2 miles above Nchumutastum). Nchaliam, home of the Snchalik (about 1 1/2 miles above the present town of Inchelium) . Nchumutastum, home of the Snchumutast (about 6 miles above Nilamin). Nilamin, home of the Snilaminak (about 15 miles above Kakalapia). Nkuasiam, home of the Snkuasik (slightly above the present town of Daisy, on the opposite side of the river). Smichunulau, home of the Smichunulnuk (at the site of the present State bridge at Kettle Falls). History.- The history of the Colville was similar to that of the neighboring tribes except that Kettle Falls was early fixed upon as the site of an important post by the Hudson Bay Company and brought with it the usual advantages and disadvantages of White contact. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated the number of the Colville at 1,000 as of 1780, but Lewis and Clark placed it at 2,500, a figure also fixed upon by Teit (1930). In 1904 there were 321; in 1907, 334; and in 1937, 322. Connections in which they have become noted.- The name Colville was applied to an important Indian Reservation and later to a town, the county seat of Stevens County, Wash., but the original, of course was not Indian. Copalis. Significance unknown. Connections.- The Copalis belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Location.- Copalis River and the Pacific Coast between the mouth of Joe Creek and Grays Harbor. Population.- Lewis and Clark in 1805 estimated a population of 200 Copalis in 10 houses. The 5 individuals assigned to a "Chepalis" tribe in an enumeration given by Olson of the year 1888 probably refers to them. Connections in which they have become noted.- The name Copalis is perpetuated in that of Copalis River, and in the post villages of Copalis Beach and Copalis Crossing, Grays Harbor County, Wash. Cowlitz. Significance unknown. Also called: Nu-so-lupsh, name given by Indians not on the Sound to Upper Cowlitz and Upper Chehalis. Connections.- The Cowlitz belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family, yet shared some peculiarities with the inland tribes. Location.- Most of the lower and all the middle course of Cowlitz River. Later they were divided between Chehalis nnd Puyallup Reservations. Towns Ray (1932) gives: Awi'mani, at the mouth of Coweman River, south of Kelso, and Manse'la, on site of Longiew. (See Curtis, 1907-9.) Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated the number of the Cowlitz, along with the Chehalis, Humptulips, and some other tribes, at 1,000 in 1780. In 1853 Gibbs stated that they and the Upper Chehalis counted not more than 165. About 1887 there were 127 on Puyallup Reservation. The census of 1910 returned 105. The United States Indian Office Report of 1923 gives 490, probably including other tribes. Connections in which they have become noted.- The name Cowlitz is perpetuated by Cowlitz River and Cowlitz Pass; by Cowlitz Glacier, which radiates from Mount Ranier; and by Cowlitz County, Cowlitz Park, Cowlitz Chimney, Cowlitz Cleaver, and some small towns in the same region. Duwamish. A place name. Connections.- The Duwamish belonged to the Nisqually dialectic group of the coast division of the Salishan linguistic stock. Subdivisions and Villages (According to Smith, 1940) A. The Duwamish River from its mouth up to and including the Black and Cedar Rivers, with the following villages: Dsidsila'letc, at Yesler Way and Jackson St., Seattle. Duwe'kwulsh, at Maple Valley. Kati'lbabsh, at the present town of Renton. Sakwe'kwewad, on Cedar River about 2 miles from Renton. Skwa'lko, where the Black and White Rivers join to form the Duwamish. Tkwabko', at south end of Lake Washington. Tola'ltu, below Duwamish Head, Seattle. Tupa'thlteb, at the mouth of the easternmost estuary of the Duwamish. Tuduwa'bsh, at the mouth of the Duwamish River. B. From where the Black River flows into the Duwamish to the junction of the White and Green Rivers, including these villages: Stak and Tcutupa'lhu, on the east bank of the White River between its junction with the Black River and the mouth of the Green River. C. The Green River villages: Ila'lkoabsh, at the junction of the Green and White Rivers. Su'sabsh, on Suise Creek. Perhaps several groups of houses: (1) on the upper Green River, including Tskoka'bid (at the bend now spanned by the highway bridge about 4 miles east of Auburn); (2) on the north bank of the Robert Wooding Place; (3) on the Du Bois Place, and (4) at the mouth of Newaukum Creek. D. The White River village, Sbalko'absh (on White River near a small stream at the southeast corner of the present Muckleshoot Reservation and to the east on Boise Creek). E. The Lake Washington people, including the Thluwi'thalbsh (at Union Bay), the Sammamith (at the mouth of Sammamish River), and the peoples of Salmon Bay. In 1856 they were removed to the eastern shore of Bainbridge Island but as the place lacked a fishing ground they were shortly afterward taken to Holderness Point, on the west side of Eliot Bay, which was already a favorite place for fishing. They are now under the Tulalip School Superintendency. Population.- The Duwamish were estimated by Mooney (1928), with the Suquamish and other tribes, at 1,200 in 1780. About 1856 they are variously given at from 64 to 312 The census of 1910 returned 20. Connetions in which they have become noted.- The Duwamish will be remembered mainly as one of the tribes formerly located on the site of Seattle, and one of the two of which the Indian who gave his name to that city was chief. The name Duwamish itself is preserved in Duwamish River and in the name of a small town. Hoh. Significance unknown. Connections.- The Hoh spoke the Quileute language and were often considered part of the same tribe, constituting one division of the Chimakuan linguistic stock and more remotely connected with the Salishan family. Location.- On Hoh River on the west coast of Washington. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates 500 in the Hoh and the Quileute together in 1780. In 1905 the Hoh numbered 62. Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Hoh is preserved in that of the Hoh River. Humptulips. Said to signify "chilly region." Connections.- The Humptulips belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock, being connected most closely with the Chehalis. Location.- On the Eumptulips River, and part of Grays Harbor, including also Hoquiam Creek and Whiskam River. Villages Hli'mumi (Curtis, 1907-9), near North Cove. Eloquiam, on Hoquiam Greek. Hooshkal (Gibbs), on the north shore of Grays Harbor. Kishkallen (Gibbs), on the north shore of Grays Harbor. Klimmim (Gibbs), 1877). Kplelch (Curtis), at the mouth of North River. Kwapks (Curtis, 1907-9), at the mouth of North River. Mo'nilumsh (Curtis), at Georgetown. Nooachhummik (Gibbs), on the coast north of Grays Harbor. Nookalthu (Gibbs), north of Grays Harbor. Nu'moihanhl (Curtis), at Tokeland. Whishkah, on Whishkah River. These are placed under the Humptulips only on account of their locations as described. Population.- See Chehalis. In 1888 according to Olsen 18 Humptulips were reported. In 1904 there were 21. Connection in which they have become noted.- Humptulips River and a village in Grays Harbor County preserve the name of the Humptulips Indians. Kalispel. The Kalispel extended over into the eastern edge of the State from Idaho (q. v.). Kickitat. From a Chinook term meaning "beyond" and having reference to the Cascade Mountains. Also called: Awi-adshi, Molala name. Luk'-a-tatt, Puyallup name. Mahane, Umpqua name. Mi-Clauq'-tcu-wun'-ti, Alsea name, meaning "scalpers." Mun-an'-ne-qu' tunne, Naltunnetunne name, meaning "inland people." Qwu'lh-hwai-pum, own name, meaning "prairie people." Tlakai'tat, Okanagon name. Tse la'kayat amim, Kalapuya name. Tiuwanxa-ike, Clatsop name. Wahnookt, Cowlitz name. Connections.- The Klickitat belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic family. Subdivisions and Villages Possibly the Atanum or Atanumlema should be added to the Klickitat. Mooney (1928) reports that their language was distinct from, though related to, both Klickitat and Yakima. The following villages are mentioned: Itkilak or Ithlkilak, at White Salmon Landing, which they occupied jointly with the Chilluckquittequaw. Nanshuit (occupied jointly with the Chilluckquittequaw), at Underwood. Shgwaliksh, not far below Memaloose Island. Tgasgutcu (occupied jointly with the Chilluckquittequnw), said to be about 1/2 mile west of a long high mountain opposite Mosier, Oreg., and about 1 mile above White Salmon Landing but the exact location seems to be in doubt. Wiltkun (exact location unknown). History.- The original home of the Klickitat was somewhere south of the Columbia, and they invaded their later territory after them Yakima crossed the river. In 1805 Lewis and Clark found them wintering on Yakima and Klickitat Rivers. Taking advantage of the weakness of the Willamette tribes following upon an epidemic of fever between 1820 and 1830, the Klickitat crossed the Columbia and forced their way as far south as the valley of thc Umpqua but were soon compelled to retire to their old seats. They were active and enterprising traders, profiting by their favorable location to become middlemen between the coast tribes and those living east of the Cascades. They joined in the Yakima treaty at Camp Stevens, June 9, 1855, by which they ceded their lands to the United States, and most of them settled upon the Yakimn Reservation. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that the Klickitat, including the Taitinnpam, numbered 600 in 1780. In 1805 Lewis and Clark placed their total population at about 700. The Census of 1910 returned 405 Connections in which they have become noted.- The Klickitat were early distinguished from other tribes of central Washington owing to their propensity for trading. The name is perpetuated in that of a small affluent of the Columbia and in the name of the county, and a post village in the county. Kwaiailk. Meaning unknown. Also called: Kwu-teh-ni, Kwalhioqua name. Nu-so-lupsh, by Sound Indinns, referring to the rapids of their stream. Stak-ta-mish, a name for this and other inland tribes, meaning "forest people." Upper Chehalis, common name. Connections.- The Kwaiailk belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family but a part of them were associated with the inland tribes by certain peculiarities of speech. Their nearest relatives seem to have been the Cowlitz and Chehalis. Location.- On the upper course of Chehalis River. Subdivisions and Villages Cloquallum, on Cloquallum River. Population.- In 1855, according to Gibbs (1877), the Kwaiailk numbered 216 but were becoming amalgamated with the Cowlitz. (See Chehalis.) Kwalhioqua. From their Chinook designation, meaning "a lonely place in the woods." Also called: Axwe'lapc, "people of the Willapa," by the Chinook and Quinault Indians. Gila'qlulawas, from the name of the place where they usually lived. Owhillapsh or Willapa, applied to this trihe erroneously. Tkulhiyogoa'ika, Chinook name. Connections.- The Kwalhioqua belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock. Location.- On the upper course of Willopah River, and the southern and western headwaters of the Chehalis. Gibbs (1877) extends their territory eastward of the Cascades, but Boas (1892) doubts the, correctness of this. Subdivisions Suwal, on headwaters of the Chehalis. Wela'pakote'li, on Willapa River. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated 200 in 1780; Hale (1846) gives about 100, but in 1850 it is said that only 2 males and several females survived, which indicates that an error had been made by one or the other. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Kwalhioqua were distinguished almost solely by the fact that they belonged to the great Athapascan group yet were the only tribe of that stock in the State of Washington in historic times, having become entirely isolated from their relatives. Lummi. Significance unknown. Also spelled Ha-lum-mi, Nuh-lum-mi, and Qtlumi. Also called: Nukhlesh, by the Skagit, who also included the Clallam in the designation. Connections.- The Lummi belonged to the coastal district of the Salishan linguistic family and spoke, according to Boas (1911), the same dialect as the Songish of Vancouver Island. Location.- On the upper part of Bellingham Bay and about the mouth of Nooksack River. Formerly the Lummi are said to have resorted at times to a group of islands east of Vancouver Island. They were finally placed on Lummi Reservation. Villages (According to Stern, 1934) Elek, near the upper end of Bellingham Bay. Hwetlkiem, near the upper and of Bellingham Bay west of Nooksack River. Kwakas, on the north side of Nooksack River. Momli, near the mouth of Nooksack River. Skalisan, north of Point Francis and opposite Lummi Island. The following fishing stations are also cited: Hoholos, a point on Orcas Island south of Freeman Island. Hwitcosang, in Upright Channel south of Shaw Island. Hwtcihom or Bec Station, north of Sandy Point. Skalekushan or Village Point, on Lummi Island. Skolete, on Lopez Island opposite Lopez. Tceltenem, Point Roberts. Tlkwoloks, on Orcas Island. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Lummi at 1,000 in 1780, including the Samish and Nooksack. In 1905 there were 412; according to the census of 1910, 353; according to the United States Indian Office Report for 1923, 505; and according to that for 1937, 661. Connection in which they have become noted.- Lummi River, Washingtons preserves the name. Makah. Meaning "cape people." Also called: Ba-qa-o, Puyallup name. Cape Flattery Indians, from their location. Classet, Nootka name, meaning "outsiders." Kwe-net-che-chat, own name, meaning "cape people." Tla'asath, Nootka name, meaning "outside people." Connections.- The Makah belonged to the Nootka branch of the Wakashan linguistic family. Location.- About Cape Flattery, claiming the coast east as far as Hoko River and south to Flattery Rocks, besides Tatoosh Island. Later they were confined to the Makah Reservation. Villages Winter towns: Baada, on Neah Bay. Neah, on the site of the old Spanish fort, Port Nunez Gaona, Neah Bay. Waatch, at the mouth of Waatch Greek, 4 miles from Neah Bay. Summer villages: Ahchawat, at Cape Flattery. Kehsidstsoos, location unknown. Kiddekubbut, 3 miles from Neah Bay. Tatooche, on Tatoosh Island, off Cape Flattery. Population.- Together with the Ozette, the Makah were estimated by Mooney (1928) to number 2,000 in 1780, a figure evidently based on that given by Lewis and Clark in 1805. In 1905 there were 435, the census of 1910 gave 360, and the United States Indian Office Report for 1923 gave 425, including the people of Ozette. In 1937, 407 were returned besides the Ozette Indians. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Makah and the Ozette are peculiar as the only tribes of the Nootka group and the Wakashan stock in the United States. Methow. Meaning unknown. The Battle-le-mule-emauch of Ross (1847, p. 290). Connections.- The Methow spoke a dialect belonging to the interior division of the Salishan linguistic stock. Location.- On Methow River. A detached band called Chilowhist wintered on the Okanogan River between Sand Point and Malott. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that this band and the Columbia Indians, or rather Moses' band of Columbia Indians, numbered 800 in 1780. In 1907 there were 324. Connection in which they have become noted.- Methow River and Valley and a post village perpetuate the name of the Methow Indians. Mical. Significance unreported. Connections.- The Mical were a branch of the Shahaptian tribe called Pshwanwapam. Location.- On the upper course of Nisqually River. Population.- No separate data. Muckleshoot. From the native word o'kelcul, significance unknown. Connections.- The Muckleshoot belonged to thc Nisqually dialectic group of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Location.- On White River, their territory extending from Kent eastward to the mountains, but it seems also to have included Green River. Subdivisions The following names appear applied to bands in their territory: Sekamish, on White River. Skopamish, on upper Green River. Smulkarnish, on upper White River Smith (1940) adds Dothliuk, at South Prairie below where Cole Creek enters South Prairie Creek, an affluent of Carbon River. Population.- The Muckleshoot are probably included in the 1,200 "Nisqually, Puyallup, etc." estimated by Mooney (1928) as in existence in 1780. The Skopamish numbered 222 in 1863 and the Smulkamish about 183 in 1870. Mooney estimated a total of 780 in 1907 for the group above given. In 1937 the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 194 Indians of this tribe. Connection in which they have become noted.- The name of the Muckleshoot is preserved in that of Muckleshoot Indian Reservation. Neketemeuk. A supposed Salishan tribe placed by Teit's informants at an early period near and above the Dalles. Ray (1932), however discredits the existence of an independent tribe of this name. Nespelem, a division of the Sanpoil (q. v.). Nez Perce. The Nez Perce occupied territory in the extreme southeastern part of the state. (See Idaho.) Nisqually. From Skwale'absh, the native name of Nisqually River. Also spelled Quallyamish, and Skwalliahmish. Also called: Askwalli, Calapooya name. Ltsxe'ls, Nestucca nnme. Suketl'kenuk, Sukotl'kenuk, by Columbia Indians along with all other coast people, meaning "people of the other side," with reference to the Cascades. Tse Skua'lli ami'm, Luckamiut Kalapooian name. Connections.- They gave their name to one dialectic division of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock. Location.- On Nisqually River above its mouth and on the middle and upper courses of Puyallup River. Subdivisions and Villages Basha'labsh, on Mashell Creek and neighboring Nisqually River, the town on a highland below Eatonville on Mashell Creek. Sakwi'absh, Clear Creek and neighboring Nisqually River, the main settlement on a hill near the junction of Clear Greek and the Nisqually River. Sigwa'letcabsh, on Segualitcu River, the main settlement where Dupont Creek enters the Sqwunliteu River. Tsakwe'kwabsh, on Clarks Creek and neighboring Puyallup River, the main settlement where Clarks Creek empties into Puyallup River, but seems to have included also Skwa'dabsh, at the mouth of n creek entering Wappato Creek above the Wappato Creek village. Sta'hnbsh, where the Stuck River enters the Puyallup. Tsuwa'diabsh, on what is now the Puyallup River above its junction with the Carbon, and just below the site of the Soldiers' Home. Tuwha'khabsh, above Ortig where Vogt Creek enters the Carbon River. Yishu'ktcabsh, on Nisqually Lake, the principal settlement being at the mouth of a sizable creek. Yokwa'lsshabsh, on Muck Creek and the neighboring parts of Nisqually River, the main settlement located where Muck Creek enters Nisqually River, and a division on Clover Greek. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were about 3,600 Nisqually of whom, in 1907, between 1,100 and 1,200 survived. About 1,100 were returned in the census of 1910, but the Indian Office Report for 1937 gives only 62, evidently a minor tribe which gave its name to the larger body. Connection in which they have become noted.- The memory of the Nisqually tribe, or cluster of bands, has been preserved in the name of Nesqually or Nisqually River, and in the post village of Nisqually in Thurston County. Nooksack. Meaning "mountain men." Also spelled Nooksak and Nootsak. Connections.- The Nooksack belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Hill-Tout (1902) says they separated from the Squawmish of British Columbia and speak the same dialect. Location.- On Nooksack River, Whatcom County. (See also Canada.) Population.- In 1906, 200 Nooksack were officially returned, but Hill-Tout (1902) states that in 1902 there were only about 6 true male members of the tribe. The census of 1910 gives 85 under this name, and the Report of the United States Office of Indian Affairs for 1937 returned 239. (See Lummi.) Connection in which they have become noted.- Nooksack River and Nooksack town in Whatcom County, Washington, preserve the name. Ntlakyapsmuk. The southern bands of this tribe hunted over in the territory now embraced in Washington. (See Canada.) Okanagon. From the native term Okana'qen, Okanaqe'nix, or Okina'qen. The name is derived from some place on the Okanogan River, near Okanogan Falls at the mouth of the Similkameen, where is said to have been the headquarters of a large band of the tribe and is even given as the place of origin of the entire tribe. Also called: Akenuq'la'lam or Kokenu'k'ke, by Kutenai (Chamberlain, 1892). Isonkuafli, own name, meaning "our people." Kank.'utla'atlam, Kutenai name, meaning "flatheads" (Boas,, 1911). Kenake'n, by Tobacco Plains Band of Klickitat. Otcenake', Otcena.qai'n, or Utcena'.qai'n, by the Salish and their allie. Soo-wan'-a-mooh, Shuswap name. .Soqenaqai'mex, Columbia name. Tcutzwa'ut, Tcitxua'ut, Tsawa'nemux, or Okena.qai'n, Ntlakyapamuk names. Wetc.naqei'n, Skitswish name. Connections.- The Okanagon belonged to the interior division of the Salishan stock, but their closest relatives were the Sanpoil, Colville, and Senijextee. Location.- On Okanagan River above the mouth of the Similkameen to the Canadian border and in British Columbia along the shores of Okanagnn Lake and in the surrounding country; in later times they have displaced an Athapascan tribe and part of the Ntlakyapamuk from the Similkameen Valley. (See also Canada.) Subdivisions and Villages The Similkameen Okanngon were divided into three bands, the Okanagon proper into four; with the villages belonging to each, they are as follows: Upper Similkameen Band: Ntkaihelok (Ntkai'xelox), about 11 miles below Princeton, north side of Similkameen River. Snazaist (Snazai'st), on the north shore of Similkameen River, a little east of Twenty-mile Creck and the town of Hedley. Tcutcuwiha (Tcutcuwi'xa) or Tcutcawiha (Tcutcawl'xa), on the north side of Similkameen River, a little below the preceding. Ashnola Band: Ashnola (Acnu'lox), on the south side of Similkameen River, near the mouth of Ashnola Creek. Nsrepus (Nsre'pus) or Skanek, .sa'nex, a little below the Ashnola, but on the north side of Similkameen River. Lower Similkameen Band: Kekeremyeaus (Kekeremye'aus), across Similkameen River from Keremyeus. Keremycus (Keremye'us), on the north side of Similkameen River, near Keremeos. Nkura-elok (Nkurae'lox), on the south side of Similkameen River and about 4 miles below Keremyeaus. Ntleuktan (Ntleuxta'n), on the south side of Similkameen River, opposite Skemkain. Skemkain (Skemquai'n), a short distance below Nkuraelok. Smelalok (Smela'lox), on the south side of Similkameen River, about 10 miles below Nsrepus. To the villages listed above must be added the following old Similkameen village sites in Washington: Hepulok (Xe'pulox). Konkonetp (Ko'nkonetp), near the mouth of Similkameen River. Kwahalos (Kwaxalo's), a little back from Similkameen River, below Hepulok. Naslitok (Na.sli'tok), just across the International Boundary in Washington. Skwa'nnt, below Kwahalos. Tsakeiskencmuk (Tsakei'sxenemux), on a creek along the trail between Keremeous and Penticton. Tseltsalo's, below Kwahalos. Douglas Lake Band: Kathlemik (Ka.'lemix), near Guichons, at the mouth of the Upper Nicola River, where it falls into Nicola Lake. Komkonatko (Komkona'tko) or Komkenatk (Komkena'tkk), at Fish Lake on the headwaters of the Upper Nicola River. Kwiltcana (Kwiltca'na) at the mouth of Quilchene Creek. Spahamen (Spa'xamen) or Spahamen (Spa'xemen), at Douglas Lake. Komaplix or Head of the Lake Band: Nkamapeleks (Nkama'peleks) or Nkomapeleke (Nkoma'peleks), near the head of Okanagan Lake, about 8 miles north of Vernon. Nkekemapeleks (Nkekema'peleks), at the head of Long Lake, a little over a mile from Vernon. Nkokosten (Nxok.o'sten), a place near Kelowna, and also a general name for the district around there and Mission. Skelaunna (Skela'un.na), at Kelowna, near the present town. Sntlemukten (Sntlemuxte'n), (Black Town), a little north of the head of Okanagan Lake. Stekatelkeneut (Stekatelxene'ut), a little above Mission (?) on Long Lake opposite Tselotsus. Tseketku (Tse'ketku), at a small lake a little north of Black Town. Tselotsus (Tselo'tsus), at the narrows of Long Lake. Tskelhokem (Tsxelho'qem), near the lower end of Long Lake about 19 miles south of Vemon. Penticton Band: Penticton (Penti'kten), Penticton, near the foot of Okanagan Lake. Stekntkothlkneut (Stekatkolxne'ut) or Stekatethlkeneut (Stekatelene'ut), on the opposite side of Long Lake from Mission. Nkamip Band: Nkamip (Nkami'p), on the east side of the upper end of Osoyoos Lake. Sci'yus, near Haynes or the old customhouse just north of the American line. Skohenetk (Sxoxene'tkuu), at the lower end of Dog Lake. To the villages listed above must be added the following names of old village sites on Okanagan River south of the Canadian line: Milkemahituk (Milkemaxi-tuk) or Milkemihituk (Milkemixi'tuk), a general name for the district around the mouth of Similkameen River and of the river itself. Okioaken (Okina'qen), an old name for Sathlilk. Sathlilk (Sah'lxu), near the mouth of Similkameen River. Smelkammin (Smelkammi'n), thought to be the old name of a place at the mouth of Similkameen River. History.- The history of the Okanagon differed little from that of the Ntlakyapamuk and other neighboring tribes except that they were affected by the fact that a part of them were on the south side of the International Boundary. During the last two centuries, however, there has been a steady movement of the tribe northward, where they have displaced the Shuswap, who once hunted down to the head of Okanagan Lake and in the hinterland on the east side of it down to the latitude of Penticton. They have also displaced the Stuwik(?) and the Ntlakyapamuk in the Similkameen Valley. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that there were about 2,200 Okanagon in 1780. Teit (1900) gives the population as between 2,500 and 3,000. In 1905, according to the Canadian and United States Departments of Indian Affairs, there were 1,516 Indians belonging to this tribe, including 824 in Canada and 692 in the United States. In 1906 the numbers were given as 824 and 527, respectively. Connections in which they have become noted.- The name of the Okanagon in the form Okanogan has been given to a county, a town in that county, a precinct, and a river in thc State of Washington, and in the form Okanagan to a lake and a town in British Columbia. Ozette. Significance unknown. Connections.- The Ozette werc a southern branch of the Makah and belonged to the Nootka branch of the Wakashan linguistic family. Location.- On the Ozette Lake and Ozette River in Clallam County. Villages Ozette, at Flattery Rocks. Sooes, 4 miles south of the Makah village of Waatch. Population.- (See Makah.) A single Ozette Indian was reported in 1937. Connections in which they have become noted.- An island, a lake, a river, and a village are named Ozette after them. Palouse. Significance unknown. Also called: Pallotepellows, by Lewis and Clark in 1806. .spalu'.sox, so called by Sinkiuse, said to be from a place name. Connections.- The Palouse belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock, and were most closely connected with the Nez Perce. Location.- In the valley of Palouse River in Washington and Idaho and on a small section of Snake River, extending eastward to the camas grounds near Moscow, Idaho. The Palouso were included in the Yakima treaty of 1865 but have never recognized the treaty obligations and have declined to lead a reservation life. Subdivisions and Villages Almotu, on the north bank of Snake River about 30 miles nbove the mouth of Palouse River. Chimnapum, on the northwest side of Columbia River near the mouth of Snake River and on lower Yakima River. Kasispa, at Ainsworth, at the function of Snake and Columbia Rivers, Wash. Palus, on the north bank of Snake River just below its junction with the Palouse. Sokulk or Wanapum, on Columbia River above the mouth of Snake River. Tasawiks, on the north bank of Snake River, about 15 miles above its mouth. History.- The Palouse are said to have separated from the Yakima. Population.- Estimated by Mooney (1928) at 5,400 in 1780. In 1805 Lewis and Clark gave 1,600. In 1854 they were said to number 500. The census of 1910 returned 82. Connection in which they have become noted.- Palouse or Pelouse River, in Idaho and Washington, and the city of Palouse in Whitman County, Washington, preserve the name of the Palouse Indians. Pshwanwapam. Meaning "the stony ground." Also called Upper Yakima. Connections.- The Pshwanwapam belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic family and probably were most closely connected with the Yakima. Location.- On the upper course of Yakima River. Puyallup. From Pwiya'lap, the native name of Puyallup River. Connections.- The Puyallup belonged to the Nisqually dialectic group of the Coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Location.- At the mouth of Puyallup River and the neighboring coast, including Carr Inlet and the southern part of Vashon Island. Subdivisions and Villages Esha'ktlabsh, on Hylebos Waterway. Kalka'lak, at the mouth of Wappato Creek. Klbalt, at Glencove. Puyallup or Spwiya'laphabsh, on Commencement Bay nnd Puyallup River as far up as the mouth of Clarks Creek, including the main settlement of the same name at the mouth of Puyallup River. Sha'tekad, where Glay Creek empties into the Puyallup River. Sko'tlbabsh, on Carr Inlet, including a Sko'tlbabsh settlement on Carr Inlet above the town of Minter. Skwapa'bsh, on the south part of Vashon Island and the land west of the Narrows, including a town of the same name at the mouth of a stream at Gig Harbor. Skwlo'tsid, at the head of Woilochet Bay. Steilacoom, on Steilacoom Creek and the neighboring beach, the main village on the present site of Steilacoom. Tsugwa'lethl, at Quartermaster Harbor. Tule'lakle, at the head of Burley Lagoon, Carr Inlet. Twa'debshab, at the mouth of a creek formerly entering Commencement Bay and now covered by Tacoma. Population.- (See Nisqually.) The report of thc United States Office of Indian Affairs for 1937 gave 322 Puyallup. Connections in which they have become noted.- The name Puyallup is preserved by a river, an Indian reservation, a glacier, an important town in Pierce County, and in the ridge called Puyallup Cleaver. Queets or Quaitso. Significance unknown. Connections.- The Queets belonged to the Coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family and were most intimately related to their neighbors to the south, the Quinault. Location.- On Queets River and its branches. Population.- Lewis and Clark in 1805 estimated that the Queets numbered 250. They then occupied 18 houses. Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 they and the Quinault together numbered 1,500, but Olson (1936) regards this figure as too high. Olson prints an estimate of 82 as their present population, including 23 males over 18, 32 females over 14, and 16 children between 6 and 16. In 1909 there were 62. Connection in which they have become noted.- The name of the Queets is perpetuated in that of Queets River. Quileute. Meaning unknown. Connections.- Together with the Hoh and Chimakum, the Quileute constituted the Chimakuan linguistic family which is possibly more remotely related to Wakashan and Salishan. Location.- On Quilayute River, on the west coast of Washington. They are now on the Quileute and Makah Reservations. Population (including the Hoh).- Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1780 there were of the Quileute and the Hoh 500 Indians. Olson (1936) quotes a figure of 64 in 1888. The census of 1910 returned 303 and the United States Office of Indian Affairs in 1937 gave 284. Connection in which they have become noted.- The town of Quillayute in Clallam County, preserves the name of the Quileute and it was formerly that of Soleduck River. Otherwise the tribe is particularly noted on account of the uniqueness of its language, which was spoken by no other known tribes except the Hoh and Chimakum (q. v.). Quinault. "A corruption of kwi'nail, the name of the largest settlement situated at the present site of the village (Taholah)" at the mouth of the Quinault River. Connections.- The Quinault belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Location.- The valley of Quinault River nnd the Pacific coast between Raft River and Joe Creek. Subdivisions Lewis and Clark mention a division or associated band called Calasthocle. Towns (Olson's (1936) list modified phonetically) A'alatsis, 3 miles below Lake Quinault. Djagaka'lmik, 1/2 mile above Nosklako's. Djekwe'ls, on the north bank of Quinault River about 400 yards above Thlathle'-lap). Gutse'lps, 6 miles below Lake Quinault. Hagwi'shtap, about 1 1/2 miles above Cook Creek. He'shnithl or Kuku'mnithl, on the south bank of Quinault River about 500 yards above Pini'lks. Kwakwa'h, not far from Hagwi'shtap. Kiwaknra'nikatctan, 4 miles below Lake Quinault. Kwatai'tamik, 3 miles above Kwakwa'h. Kwatai'tumik, on the south bank about 500 yards above Kwi'naithl. Kwikwa'la, perhaps 1/2 mile above Sunuksunu'ham. Lae'naithl, at present site of Taholah. Lae'lshithl, on north bank a mile or less above Heshnithl. La'lshithl, perhaps a mile above Djagaka'lmik on Quinault River. Ma'atnithl, 1 mile below the fork of upper Quinault River. Magwa'ksnithl, 300 yards above Kwikwa'la. Me'tsugutsathlan, on south bank of Quinault River at its mouth. Nago'olatcan, not far from Nossho'k. Negwe'thlan, at the mouth of Cook Creek. Nokedja'kt or Thla'a'lgwap, on south bank a few hundred yards above Tonans. Nomi'lthlostan, just above Kwakwa'h. No'omo'thlapsh, at mouth of Moclips River, which bears his name in a corrupted form. No'omo'thlapshtcu, not far above Magwa'ksnithl. No'skathlan, a few miles above Kwi'naithl, on the north bank of Quinault River. Noskthlako's, on south bank of Quinault River perhaps 1 mile above No'skathlan. Nossho'k, not far above Nokedja'kt. No'sthluk, not far from Djekwe'ls. Pina'alathl, located where the upper Quinault River enters Lake Quinault. Pini'lks, close to La'lshithl. Pino'otcan tci'ta, on the upper Quinault below Ma'anithl. Po'iks, on the upper Quinault above Finley Creek. Pote'lks, 1 mile above Tsimi'sh. Sunuksunu'ham, not far from Nomi'lthlostan. Tamo'ulgutan, just below No'omo'thlapshtcu. Tci'tano'sklakalathl, at the outlet of Lake Quinault. Thlathle'lap, at the mouth of Quinault River and on the north bank. To'nans, less than 1/2 mile above He'shnithl. Tsi'i'sh, 2 miles above Magwaksnithl. Population. - Lewis and Clark in 1805 estimated 800 Quinault proper and 200 Calasthocle. Mooney (1928) estimated 1,500 in 1780 including the Quaitso, but Olson (1936) suggests 800 and regards that as too high if anything. This would reduce Mooney's figure considerably since the Quaitso were a much smaller tribe. A tabulation recovered by Olson but believed to be from some Indian agent gave 95 Quinault in 1888. The Indian Office figure for the two tribes in 1907 was 196. The census of 1910, however, returned 288, presumably including the Quaitso. In 1923 the Indian Office returned 719 on the Quinault Reservation, perhaps representing several tribes, but that for 1937 gave 1,228 of the Quinault alone. Connection in which they have become noted.- Quinault Lake and River and a small town, all in Grays Harbor County, preserve the name of the Quinault. Sahehwamish. Meaning unknown but evidently that of a locality. Connections.- The Sahehwamish belonged to the Nisqually dialectic group of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock. Location.- On the innermost inlets of Puget Sound as indicated by the positions of the subdivisions given below. Subdivisions Elo'sedabsh, on Medicine Creek and the lower reaches of Nisqually River, including a main settlement at the mouth of Nisqually River and Tuda'dab, at the mouth of McAllister or Medicine Creek. Sahehwamish or Sahe'wabsh, on Shelton Inlet, including the main settlement of Sahe'wabsh, at Arcadia, and a village opposite the town of Shelton. Skwaysithlhabsh, on Mud Bay or Eld Inlet. Statca'sabsh, on Budd Inlet, with its principal settlement at Tumwater. Tapi'ksdabsh, with its main settlement on Oyster Bay or Totten Inlet below the town of Oyster Bay. Tutse'tcakl, on South Bay or Henderson Inlet, between the creek at the hend and that on the south. Population.- The group to which this tribe belonged is estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 1,200 in 1780, and he gives 780 for the year 1907. Samish. Signification unknown. Connection.- The Samish belonged to the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family. Location.- On Samish Bay and Samish Island, Guemes Island, and the northwest portion of Fidalgo Island. The Samish were later placed on Lummi Reservation. Villages Atse'ked, on the south side of the slough at Edison on Samish Bay. Dikwi'bthl. Gunguna'la, on Guemes Island facing west toward Cypress Island. Hwaibnthl, at Anacortes. Kwalo'l, at Summit Park on Fidalgo Bay. Nukhwhaiimikhl, on the southwest side of Guemes Island. The name of the last village listed above is from Gibbs (1877) and may be another name for Gunguna'la, and Gibbs' Aseakum is perhaps Atse'ked. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the Samish tribe, together with the Lummi and Nooksack, at 1,000 in 1780. No later estimate is given. Connection in which they have become noted.- Samish River, Saniish Bay, Samish Island, and a post hamlet on Bellingham Bay perpetuate the name of the Samish Indians. Sanpoil. A native word in spite of its French aspect; meaning unknown. Also called: Hai-ai'-nima, by the Yakima. Ipoilq, another Yakima name. Nesilextci'n, .n.selixtci'n, by Sanpoil, and probably meaning "Salish-speaking." N'pochle, a shortened form of the name. Connections.- The Sanpoil belonged to the inland division of the Salishan linguistic stock, and were related most closely to its eastern section. Location.- On Sanpoil River and Nespelem Creek and on the Columbia below Big Bend. They were later placed on Sanpoil and Colville Reservations. Subdivisions and Villages The Nespelim of Nespelem Creek were often given independent status. Ray gives the following villages and camps: Nespelim villages: Haimisahun, a summer settlement of the Suspiluk, on the north bank of Columbia River about a half mile above the mouth of Nespelem River. Masmasalimk, home of the Smasmasalimkuwa, approximately a mile and a half above Skik. Nekuktshiptin, home of the Snekuktshiptimuk, at thc site of the present Condon's Ferry, on the north side of the river. Nspilem, home of the Snspiluk, on the lower Nespelem from the falls to the mouth of the river. Salkuahuwithl, home of the Salkuahuwithlau, across the river from the present town of Barry. Skik, home of the Skik, about a mile above Salkuahuwithl on the same side of the river. Skthlamchin, fishing grounds of the Salkuahuwithlau, across the river from the mouth of the Grand Coulee. Sanpoil villages: Enthlukaluk, about a mile and a half north of the mouth of the river. Hahsulauk, home of the Shnhsulauhuwa, near Plum. Hulalst, home of the S-hulalstu, at Whitestone, about 8 miles above Npuiluk. Hwatsam, a winter camp, about 3 miles above Snukeilt. Kakamkam, on the islands in the Sanpoil River a short distance above the mouth. Kathlpuspusten, home of the Kathlpuspustenak, about a mile above Plum, on the opposite side of the river. Ketapkunulak, on the banks of the Columbia just east of the Sanpoil River. Naak, home of the Snaakau, about a mile below Plum but on the north side of the river. Nhohogus, fishing grounds of the S-hulalstu. Npokstian, a winter camp, about 2 miles above Hwatsam. Npuiluk, home of the Snpuiluk, at the mouth of Sanpoil River, made up of the following camps: Snkethlkukwiliskanan, near the present landing of the Keller ferry; a branch of the last called by the same name, several hundred yards north of the first between the cliff and the Sanpoil River, on the west side; Kethltselchin, on the first bench above the Columbia, west of the Sanpoil River. Nthlahoitk, a winter camp of the Snpuiluk, about halfway between Skthlamchin and Naak. Saamthlk, home of the Saamthlk, on the opposite side of the river from Kathlpuspusten. Skekwilk, on the west side of Sanpoil River about a mile above the mouth.
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Chippewa. This tribe pushed its way west in the latter part of the seventeenth century as far as the territory lying within the present State of Wisconsin, and the trading post established by the French at La Pointe became an important Chippewa base. Early in the eighteenth century they are said to have driven the Foxes out of northern Wisconsin, and they have continued to occupy that part of the State until the present time, having two reservations there. (See Minnesota.) Dakota. In very early times the Dakota occupied a little of the northwestern margin of Wisconsin. (See South Dakota.) Foxes. A name thought to have been derived from that of the Fox clan and to have been applied to the tribe through a misunderstanding. Also called: Beshde'ke, Dakota name. Meshkwa kihugi, own name signifying "red earth people," from the kind of earth from which they are supposed to have been created. O-dug-am-eeg, Chippewa name, meaning "those who live on the opposite side." Skaxshurunu, Wyandot name, meaning "fox people." Skuakfsagi, Shawnee name. To-che-wah-coo, probably the Arikara name. Wakusheg, Potawatomi name, meaning "foxes." Connetions.- The Foxes belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family and in one group with the Sauk and Kickapoo. Location.- In the vicinity of Lake Winnebago or along Fox River. (See also Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, and Oklahoma.) History.- Since the closely related Sauk Indians came to Wisconsin from Saginaw Bay, Mich., it is probable that the Foxes once lived in that region as well, but it is uncertain. There is also a tradition that they were in northern Wisconsin and were driven south by the Chippewa. The French missionaries heard of them as early as 1640, and in 1670 found them in the location above given, where they remained for a long period. They were constantly at war with the Chippewa, and though they received aid from the Dakota, obtained little advantage in these contests. It was on account of assistance rendered the Chippewa by the French that the Foxes came to assume a hostile attitude toward the latter and finally went to war with them. In 1712 they planned an attack on the French fort at Detroit which nearly succeeded. Between 1729 and 1733 occurred a bitter war with the French in which the Foxes, though assisted by some Sauk, lost heavily. Before 1746 they were in the habit of exacting a toll from all white traders passing up Fox River, and for this reason they were attacked by a band of French, defeated, and driven down Wisconsin River, settling on the north bank of that stream about 20 miles from its mouth. In 1780, in alliance with the Dakota, they attacked the Chippewa at St. Croix Falls and were defeated. Shortly before this they had assisted the Sauk in driving the Illinois tribes from the northwestern part of the Rock River country, and they occupied these territories, but early in the nineteenth century they drew away from the Sauk and settled in Iowa. In 1842 the Foxes and the Sauk, who had taken refuge with them after the Black Hawk War, sold their lands in Iowa and were given in exchange a tract across the Missouri in Kansas. About 1857-59 the Foxes became angered at the Sauk for entering into an agreement for the disposition of the lands of the two tribes during the absence of the former, and they returned to Iowa where a few of their people had always remained. There they bought land near Tama City on Iowa River, which they increased by purchase until they had more than 3,000 acres. They have remained on this reservation down to the present day. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1650 there must have been about 3,000 Foxes, but this figure seems to be somewhat too high. In 1728 Guignes stated that they had 200 warriors, probably an underestimate, but most of the figures before 1850 fall between 1,500 and 2,500. Michelson (1919) says that the most reliable early estimate is that of Lewis and Clark in 1805, which gives 1,200. Since that date they have usually been enumerated with the Sauk. In 1885 the Indians at Tama, most of whom were Foxes, numbered 380. In 1909 the United States Indian Office gives 362 (nearly all Foxes) in Iowa, besides the bands in Oklahoma and Kansas, most of whom were Sauk. The United States Census of 1910 gives only 257 in Iowa, but the Indian Office Report of 1923 raises this again to 354. In 1930 there were 887 Sauk and Fox, and it is assumed that the 344 returned from Iowa were nearly all Fox. In 1937, 441 were returned from Iowa. (See Sauk.) Connection in which they have become noted.- Historically this tribe is remarkable (1) as having been almost the only Algonquian tribe of consequence to undertake a serious war with the French, and (2) from its connection with the Sauk at the time of the uprising of the latter under Black Hawk. It has given its name to Fox River, Wis., and to a second Fox River, also called Pishtaka, which rises in Wisconsin and flows through Illinois, into the Illinois River. Some small places have also been named from it. Housatonic, see Stockbridges. Illinois. At one time Illinois Indians probably occupied some of the southern and southwestern sections of Wisconsin. (See Illinois.) Iowa. A rather pronounced tradition points to the Winnebago as the mother tribe of the Iowa, Oto, and Missouri, and the latter are supposed to have stopped at certain places within the State of Wisconsin during their migration to the southwest. (See Iowa.) Iroquois. The Iroquois anciently played an important part in the aboriginal history of the Indian tribes of Wisconsin, usually as enemies. In very late times the Oneida were given a reservation here where their descendants still live. (See New York.) Kickapoo. From Kiwegapawa, "he stands about," "he moves about, standing non here, now there." Also called: A'-uyax, Tonkawa name, meaning "deer eaters." Higabu, Omaha and Ponca name. I'-ka-du', Osage name. Shake-kah-quah, Wichita name. Shigapo, Shikapu, Apache name. Sik'-a-pu, Comanche name. Tekapu, Huron name. Yuntara'ye-ru'nu, a second Huron name, meaning "tribe living around the lakes." Connections.- The Kickapoo belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock, and in a special group with the Foxes and Sauk. Subdivisions and Villages The villages were: Etnataek (shared with the Foxes), rather a fortification than a village, near the Kickapoo village on Sangamon River, Ill., and Kickapougowi, on the Wabash River in Crawford County, Ill., about opposite the mouth of Turman Creek. Location.- For territory occupied in Wisconsin, see History. (See also Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio, and Oklahoma.) History.- As suggested in the case of the Foxes, the Kickapoo may once have lived near the Sauk in the lower peninsula of Michigan but such a residence cannot be proven. If the name Outitchakouk used by the Jesuit missionary Druillettes refers to this tribe, as seems probable, knowledge of them was brought to Europeans in 1658. At any rate they were visited by Allouez about 1667-70 and were then near the portage between Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, perhaps about Alloa, Columbia County, Wis. Early in the eighteenth century a part of them settled somewhere near Milwaukee River, and after the destruction of the Illinois about 1765, they moved still farther south and lived about Peoria. One portion then pushed down to the Sangamon, while another worked east to the Wabash, and made their headquarters on Vermilion River. The former became known as the Prairie band and the latter as the Vermilion band. They took part against the colonists in the War of 1812 and the Black Hawk War, but in 1837 a hundred of them were engaged to assist the United States Government against the Seminole. In 1809 and 1819 they ceded their lands in Illinois and soon removed to Missouri and thence to Kansas. About 1852 a large party of Kickapoo, along with some Potawatomi, went to Texas and thence to Mexico, where they became known as "Mexican Kickapoo." In 1863 another dissatisfied band joined them, and though in 1873 part were induced to return to Indian Territory, and others afterward followed, nearly half the tribe remained and were granted a reservation in the Santa Rosa Mountains of eastern Chihuahua. The remainder are divided between Oklahoma and Kansas. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1650 there were 2,000 Kickapoo. In 1759 they were estimated at 3,000; in 1817, at 2,000; and in 1825, at 2,200. In 1875 those in the United States were officially estimated at 706 and there were supposed to be about 100 more in Mexico. In 1885 those in the United States were estimated at 500 and those in Mexico at 200. In 1905, 247 were reported in Oklahoma and 185 in Eansas, a total of 432, and almost as many more were thought to be in Mexico. The census of 1910 returned 348 in the United States, of whom 211 were in Kansas and 135 in Oklahoma. In 1923 the United States Indian Office gave 277 in Eansas and 200 in Oklahoma, total 477. In 1930 there were 523, half in Kansas and half in Oklahoma. In 1937, 332 were returned from Eansas and 260 from Oklahoma. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Kickapoo have given their name to a river in Wisconsin, creeks in Illinois and Texas, and some small places in these States and Kansas. Mahican, see Stockbridges. Mascouten. A name applied at times to the Prairie band of the Potawatomi, but more often to the Peoria band of Illinois who, in early days, lived with or near the Kickapoo. Menominee. Meaning "Wild Rice Men," because they lived largely upon the wild rice of the lakes in and near their country. Hence the French "Nation de la Folle Avoine," and English "Wild Rice Men." Also called: Addle-Heads, a misinterpretation of Folles Avoines. Omanomini, Chippewa name. White Indians, as given by Long (in Keating, 1824). Connections.- The Menominee belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family and to the same section as the Cree and Foxes. Location.- On and near the Menominee River, Wis. (See also Michigan.) Subdivisions (As given by Skinner, 1921) Kaka'pa'kato' Wini'niwuk, "Barricade Falls people," at Kesbena Falls of Wolf River. Kaka'nikone Tusi'-niniwug, "Portage people," at Portage, Wis. Kipisa'`kia Wini'wiwdk, "River Mouth people," at Prairie du Chien. Mani'towuk Tusi'niniwug, "Manitou Place people," at Manitowoc, Wis. Matc Sua'mako Tusi'niniu, "Great Sand Bar people," on the "and dunes at what is now called Big Suamico, on Green Bay. Minika'ni Wini'niwuk, "Village people," at the mouth of Menominee River. Misi'nimak Kimiko Wini'niwuk, "Michilimackinac People," near the old fort at Maokinac, Mich. Muhwa'o Se'peo Wini'niwuk, "Wolf River people," on the upper reaches of Wolf River. Nama'o Wikito' Tusi'niu, "Sturgeon Bay people," at Sturgeon Bay. Noma'kokon Se'peo Tusi'niniwug, "Beaver River people," near Winneconne, Fond du Lac, and Oshkosh. Oka'to Wini'niwuk, "Pike Place people," at the mouth of the Oconto River. Pa'sa'tiko Wini'niwuk, "Peshtigo River people," at the mouth of Peshtigo River. Powahe'kune Tusi'niniwug, "Rice-gathering-place people," on Lake Poygan. Sua'makosa Tusi'niniu, "Little Sand Dune people," on the sand- hills of Little Suamico. Wi'skos Se'peo Wini'niwuk, "Wisconsin River people"- the name Wisconsin being derived from wi'skos or wi'skons, "muskrat"- on the Mississippi near Wisconsin River. There were other settlements of Menominee at Milwaukee and at Fort Howard in the present city of Green Bay. About the time of the arrival of the Whites the old bands were broken up or renamed after their chiefs, and the following bands of this kind are recorded by Hoffman: Aia'miqta Osh'kosh. Aqka'mot. Pesh'tiko, evidently one of the old local Keshok, or Ke'so. groups. Le Motte. Piwa'qtinet. Ma'nabu'sho Sha'kitok. O'hope'sha Shu'nu' ni'u or Shu'nien. History.- Tradition says that the Menominee were driven into the region later identified with them, from the neighborhood of Michilimackinac, but when they were first known to white men they were already there, and they remained there until 1854, though their villages sometimes extended to Fox River and their later claims reached to the mouth of Milwaukee River on Lake Michigan and on the west side of Green Bay to the headwaters of Menominee and Fox Rivers. Westward they claimed the height of land between Green Bay and Lake Superior. In 1854 they ceded all their lands except a reserve on Wolf River, where they have continued to the present day. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 3,000 Menominee in 1650. The most conservative estimates made during the nineteenth century range from 1,600 to 1,900. In the first decade of the twentieth century their numbers were placed at 1,600, of whom 1,370 were under the Green Bay School superintendency, Wisconsin. The census of 1910 returned 1,422; 1,350 in Wisconsin and the rest scattered over 8 States. The United States Indian Office Report for 1923 gave 1,838. The census of 1930 returned 1,969, and the United States Indian Office Report of 1937, 2,221. Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Menominee has become applied to a county in Michigan and a city of some size in the same State, also to a small place in Illinois. In the form Menomonee, it is given to a considerable river of Wisconsin which flows into Green Bay, and to various other places in Wisconsin. A city in the same State, capital of Dunn County, bears the name Menomonie. Menomonee Falls are in Waukesha County, Wis. There is a place called Menominee in Menominee County, Mich. Miami. This tribe, or at least portions of it, lived in southern Wisconsin when it was first known to French explorers and missionaries but later it moved south entirely out of the State. (See Indiana.) Missouri. (See Iowa.) Munsee. Some Munsee moved into Wisconsin with the Stockbridges (q. v.). Noguet. This tribe may have been related to the Menominee or the Chippewa. At times it probably overlapped the northeastern border of Wisconsin. (See Michigan.) Oneida, see Iroquois. Oto. (See Iowa.) Ottawa. Some Ottawa lived in Wisconsin temporarily after they had been driven from their old homes by the Iroquois. They settled first on the islands at the mouth of Green Bay, and a part of them lived later upon Black River and at Chequamegon Bay before returning to their old country. (See Michigan.) Potawatomi. When first encountered by the French the Potawatomi were on the islands at the mouth of Green Bay. Later they pushed down the coast of Lake Michigan to Milwaukee River and thence to Chicago after which they drew further south into Illinois, Indiana, and southern Michigan. (See Michigan.) Sauk. From Osa'kiwug, meaning "people of the outlet," or "people of the yellow earth." Also called: Hoti'nestakon', Onondaga name. Satoeronnon, Huron name. Quatokeronon, Huron name. Za'-ke, Santee nnd Yankton Dakota name. Connection.- The Sauk belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock and the same subdivision as that embracing the Foxes and Kickapoo. Location.- On the upper part of Green Bay and lower course of Fox River. (See also Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Oklahoma.) History.- The earliest known home of the Sauk was about Saginaw Bay, Mich., which still bears their name. Shortly before the appearance of the Whites they were expelled from this country by the Ottawa and the Neutral Nation, and settled in the region above indicated where they remained for a considerable period. In 1766 Carver (1796) found their chief villages on Wisconsin River. After the destruction of the Illinois they extended their territories over the Rock River district of northwestern Illinois. In 1804 a band of Sauk wintering near St. Louis were induced to enter into a treaty ceding to the United States Government the Sauk territories in Illinois nnd Wisconsin, but this transaction created so much indignation among the rest of the tribe when it became known that the band who made the treaty never returned to the rest and they have received independent recognition as the Missouri River Sauk. As the rest of the Sauk refused to move, other negotiations were entered into which were broken off in 1832 by the Indian outbreak known as the Black Hawk War. As a result of this struggle, the Sauk abandoned their country east of the Mississippi and sought refuge with the Foxes, already established in Iowa. In 1842 the Sauk, with the Foxes, ceded their lands in Iowa also in exchange for a tract in Kansas. About 1857-59, in the absence of the Foxes, the Sauk agreed to take up land in severalty and cede the remainder of this Kansas territory, and tbe Foxes, when they learned of this, returned to Iowa. In 1867 the Sauk ceded their lands in Kansas and removed to the Indian territory, and in 1889 they took up land in severalty and sold their surplus territories to the government. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 3,500 Sauk in 1650. The principal early estimates of the Sauk are: in 1736. 750 persons; in 1759, 1,000; in 1766, 2,000; in 1783, 2,250; in 1810, 2,850; in 1825, 4,800; in 1834, 2,500. Michelson (1919) states, however, that the best was that of Lewis and Clark, which would make them about 2,000 in 1875. In 1885 there were 457 in Indian Territory, including a few Foxes, and 87 in southeastern Nebraska. The Indian Office Report for 1909 gives 536 (chief Sauk) in Oklahoma, and 87 (chiefly Sauk) in Kansas. The census of 1910 gives 347 in Oklahoma nnd 69 in Kansas, Sauk and Fox not being discriminated. It also records a number of individuals of both tribes scattered over nine other States. In 1923 the United States Report on Indian Affairs gave 673 in Oklahoma, and 93 in Kansas; total 766. The census of 1930 returned 887 Sauk and Fox, rather more than two-thirds being Sauk. In 1937 the United States Indian Office reported 126 "Sac and Fox" in Kansas and 861 in Oklahoma, principally Sauk. Connection in which they have become noted.- Whatever prominence the Sauk have attained they owed almost entirely to the war which, under Black Hawk, they sustained against the Whites. Their name is perpetuated in Sauk River, Minn.; Sauk County, Wis.; and places in these two States. In the form Sac, it has been applied to a county and its capital in Iowa, a river in Missouri, and a small place in Tennessee. There is a post village called Sauk in Skagit County, Wash.; a Sauk City in Sauk County, Wis.; a Saukville in Ozaukee County in the same State; Sauk Rapids in Benton County, Minn.; and in the same State but in Stearns County, Sauk Centre which has a reputation all its own. Stockbridges. This name was given to a body of Indians most of whom belonged to the Housatonic and other tribes of the Mahican group, who in 1833 were placed upon n reserve in the neighborhood of Green Bay, along with the Oneida Indians and some Munsee. In 1856 all but a few who desired to become citizens removed to a reservation west of Shawano, Shawano County, Wis., where they still live. (See New York.) Tionontati. Remnants of this tribe were in Wisconsin as part of the Wyandot (q. v.). Winnebago. Signifying in the Fox and the Sauk languages "people of the filthy water," for which reason they were sometimes known to the French as Puants and to the English as Stinkards. Also called: Aweatsiwaenhronon, a form of the Huron name (see below). Banabeouiks, a shortened form of Winnebago. Bay Indians, so called by Lapham, Blossom, and Dousman (1870). Hati'hshi'ru'nu, Huron name, meaning "afraid of sticking in the mire." Hotanka, Dakota name. Hotcangara, own name, signifying "(people of the) big or real speech," but, through a confusion of words, often misinterpreted "fish eaters." Nipegon, so called by Long (in James (1823)). Connections.- The Winnebago belong to the Siouan linguistic family, and to a subdivision comprising also the group called by J. O. Dorsey (1897) Chiwere, which includes also the Iowa, Oto, and Missouri. Location.- The most ancient known habitat of this tribe was on the south side of Green Bay extending inland as far as Lake Winnebago. (See also Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and South Dakota.) Villages Those that are known by name are: Prairie la Crose, in southeastern Wisconsin. Sarrochau, on the site of Taycheeday, Fond du Lac County, Wis. Spotted Arm's Village, near Exeter, Green County, Wi. Village du Puant, on Wildcat Creek about a mile above its junction with the Wabash, above Lafayette, in Tippecanoe County, Ind. Wuckan, on Lake Poygan, Winnebago County, Wis. Yellow Thunder, at Yellow Banks, Green Lake County, Wis. History.- The Winnebago were occupants of the territory above mentioned from the earliest times of which we have any record. During the eighteenth century they spread up Fox River and still later extended their villages to Wisconsin and Rock Rivers. It is reported that they were nearly destroyed by the Illinois some time before 1671 but, if so, they soon recovered entirely from this shock. They managed to remain on better terms with the surrounding tribes than most of their neighbors. By treaties made in 1825 and 1832 they ceded all of their lands south of Wisconsin and Fox Rivers to the United States Government in return for a reservation on the west side of the Mississippi above upper Iowa River. In 1836 they suffered severely from the smallpox. In 1837 they relinquished the title to their old country east of the Mississippi, and in 1840 they removed to the Neutral Ground in the territory of Iowa. Many, however, remained in their old lands. In 1848 the rest surrendered their reservation for one in Minnesota north of Minnesota River, and in 1848 removed to Long Prairie Reservation, bounded by Crow Wing, Watab, Mississippi, and Long Prairie Reservations, Minn. In 1853 they removed to Crow River and in 1856 to Blue Earth, Minn., where they remained until the Dakota outbreak of 1862, when the Whites in the section demanded their removal. In consequence they were taken to Crow Creek Reservation, S. Dak., but suffered so much from sickness, and in other ways, that they escaped to the Omaha for protection. There a new reservation was assigned to them on the Omaha lands, where they have since been allotted land in severalty. Some however, remained in Minnesota when the tribe was removed from that State and a larger number did not leave Wisconsin. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 3,800 individuals belonging to the Winnebago tribe in 1650. The following figures have been given from time to time: In 1806, 1,760; in 1820, 5,800; in 1837 and 1843, 4,500; in 1867, 1,750 in Nebraska and 700 in Wisconsin. In 1876 there were 1,463 on the Nebraska Reservation and 860 in Wisconsin, but 204 of the latter removed to Nebraska in 1877. In 1886 there were 1,222 in Nebraska and 930 in Wisconsin. In 1910 the United States Indian Office gave 1,063 in Nebraska and 1,270 in Wisconsin, but the United States Census of the same date gave a total Winnebago population of 1,820, of whom 1,007 were in Nebraska, 735 in Wisconsin, and the remainder scattered among 10 other States. In 1923 the Report of the United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs gave 1,096 in Nebraska. In 1930 the figure was 1,446, of whom 937 were in Wisconsin and 423 in Nebraska. In 1937 the United States Indian Office reported 1,456 in Wisconsin, and 1,212 in Nebraska. total, 2,668. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Winnebago tribe is noted for the unique position it occupied, as a Siouan tribe surrounded by Algonquian peoples, probably having been left behind in the general Siouan movement west, and its reputation as one of the mother tribes of the Siouan stock. Its name is perpetuated in that of Winnebago Lake, Wis.; the names of counties in Iowa, Illinois, and Wisconsin; and places in Winnebago County, Ill.; Faribault County, Minn.; Winnebago County, Wis.; and Thurston County, Nebr. Wyandot. After being driven out of Ontario by the Iroquois, part of the Wyandot, along with some Ottawa, went to Michilimackinac and from there to Green Bay, after which they lived successively at several different points within the boundaries of the present State of Wisconsin until they finally removed to Detroit. (See Ohio.)
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Moneton. Meaning "Big Water" people. Connections.- The Moneton belonged to the Siouan linguistic family; their nearest connections were probably the Manahoac and Monacan of Virginia and perhaps the Ofo of Ohio and Mississippi. Location.- Probably on the lower course of Kanawha River. History.- The Moneton were first mentioned by Thomas Batts in 1671. (See Alvord and Bidgood, 1912.) Three years later they were visited by Gabriel Arthur, an indentured servant of the trader Abraham Wood, and this is the last we hear of them as an independent tribe. They probably united with the Siouan people in the Piedmont region of Virginia. Population.- Unknown. Arthur calls the principal Moneton settlement "a great town." Cherokee (see Tennessee), Conoy (see Maryland), Delaware (see New Jersey), Honniasont and Susquehanna (see Pennsylvania), and Shawnee (see Tennessee) settled in various parts of West Virginia from time to time, but none of them was established there at an early date for an appreciable period except perhaps the Conoy, whose name appears to be perpetuated in that of the Kanawha River. There is no information regarding the Moneton residence there other than the preservation of their name.
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Arapaho, possibly from the Pawnee tirapihu or larapihu, signifying "trader." Also called: Ahya'to, Kiowa name. Ano's-anyotskano, Kiohai name. Betidee, Kiowa Apache name. Detseka'yaa, Caddo name, signifying "dog eaters." Dog Eaters. E-tah-leh, Hidatsa name, signifying "bison path Indians." Hithnwo'iv, Cheyenne name, signifying "cloud men" or "sky men." Inuna-ina, own name, signifying "our people." Ita-Iddi, Hidatsa name (Maximilian). Kaninahoish, Chippewa name. Komseka-Ki'nahyup, former Kiowa name, signifying "men of the worn-out leggings." Kun na-nar-wesh or Gens des Vach[es], by Lewis and Clark (1804). Mahplyato, Dakota name, signifying "blue cloud." Nia'rhari's-kurikiwa'ahuski, Wichita name. Saretlka, Comanche and Shoshoni name, signifying "dog eaters"; the Pawnee, Wichita, and Ute names were forms of this. Connections.- Together with their near relatives, the Atsina, the Arapaho constitute the most aberrant group of the Algonquian linguistic stock. Location.- The Arapaho have occupied a number of different regions in the historic period, but after they crossed the Missouri they became most closely identified with northeastern Wyoming, where the main or northern part of the tribe resided for a long period and where they were finally given a reservation. (See also Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Canada.) Subdivisions The Arapaho recognized five main divisions, which were evidently originally distinct tribes. Mooney (1928) calls these: (1) Nakasine'na, Baachinena, or Northern Arapaho; (2) Nawunena, or Southern Arapaho; (3) Aa'ninena, Hitunena, Atsina, or Gros Ventres of the Prairie, today usually reckoned as a distinct tribe (see Montana); (4) Basawunena, principally with the Northern Arapaho; and (5) Hanahawunena, or Aanu'nhawa, later incorporated with the Northern Arapaho. The corresponding names given by Kroeber (1902 b) are: Hinanae'inan (Arapaho proper), Nanwacinaha'anan (evidently Southern Arapaho), Hitoune'nan (Gros Ventres), Baasanwuune'nan, and Hananaxawuune'nan. Kroeber also states that four more divisions recognized in the tribe were evidently in reality divisions of the Hinanae'inan. These are Wanxue'ici ("ugly people"), about Cantonment, Okla.; Haxaancine'nan ("ridiculous men"), on the South Canadian, Okla., Baantciine'nan ("red-willow men"), in Wyoming; and a fourth whose name has been forgotten. The following are relatively modern loral bands of the Arapaho: Forks-of-the-River Men, Bad Pipes, Greasy Faces, Waquithi, Aqathine'na, Gawunena, Haqihana, Sasabaithi, of which the first three were among the Northern Arapaho. History.- According to tradition, the Arapaho were once sedentary and seem to have lived in the Red River Valley, whence they moved southwest across the Missouri at some time prior to the passage of that stream by the Cheyenne. Sometime afterward the Atsina separated from the rest, possibly cut off from the main body by the Crow, and moved off to the north; and within the last century the rest of the tribe have slowly divided into a northern and a southern branch, the Northern Arapaho living along the edges of the mountains at the headwaters of the Platte, while the Southern Arapaho continued on toward the Arkansas. About 1840 they made peace with the Dakota, Kiowa, and Comanche but were at war with the Shoshoni, Ute, and Pawnee until they were confined to reservations. By the treaty of Medicine Lodge in 1867 the Southern Arapaho were placed upon a reservation in Oklahoma along with the Southern Cheyenne; this was thrown open to white settlement and the Indian lands were allotted in severalty in 1892. The Northern Arapaho were assigned to a reservation on Wind River, Wyo., after having made peace with the Shoshoni who occupied the same reserve. The Atsina were associated with the Assiniboin on Fort Belknap Reservation, Mont. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 3,000 Arapaho in 1780 and the same number of Atsina. In 1894 there were 2,638 of the two tribes together; in 1904 there were 889 Northern Arapaho and 859 Southern Arapaho, a total of 1,748. The census of 1910 reported 1,419 Arapaho, while the United States Indian Office Report for 1923 gives 921 Arapaho in Wyoming and 833 in Oklahoma, a total of 1,754. The 1930 census reported 1,241, of whom 867 belonged to the northern division. In 1937 there were 1,164 Northern Arapaho and 2,836 Southern Arapaho and Cheyenne together. Connections in which they have become noted.- The Arapaho were one of the famous raiding tribes of the Plains; their name appears frequently coupled with that of the Cheyenne. The name Arapahoe has been given to a county and a mountain in Colorado and to localities in Furnas County, Nebr.; Pamlico County, N. C.; Cheyenne County, Colo.; and Fremont County, Wyo.; and the name Arapaho to the county seat of Custer County, Okla. Bannock. Some Bannock ranged into western Wyoming. (See Idaho.) Cheyenne. The Cheyenne hunted and warred to some extent in the eastern part of Wyoming; were long allied with the Arapaho. (See South Dnkota.) Comanche. Before separating from the Shoshoni the Comanche probably occupied territory in Wyoming, afterward moving southward. (See Texas.) Crows. The Crows occupied in Wyoming the valleys of Powder, Wind, and Big Horn Rivers and ranged as far south as Laramie. (See Montana.) Dakota. Dakota hunting and war parties frequently reached the territory of Wyoming, but the tribe had no permanent settlements there. In 1876 they participated with the Northern Arapaho and Northern Cheyenne in the cession of the northeastern territory of Wyoming. (See South Dakota.) Kiowa. According to tradition, a tradition reinforced by other evidence, the Kiowa lived for a time in or near the Black Hills before moving south. (See Oklahoma.) Kiowa Apache. This tribe lived in close conjunction with the Kiowa. (See Oklahoma.) Pawnee. The Pawnee were known to Wyoming only as hunters and warriors. (See Nebraska.) Shoshoni. The Northern Shoshoni formerly occupied the western part of Wyoming. (See Idaho.) Ute. The Ute were just south of the present Wyoming and entered its territory at times to hunt or fight. (See Utah.)