Washington


        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        The State of Washington was occupied by a great number of Indian
        tribes formerly very populous, particularly those along the
        coast. There are few traditions regarding migrations and those
        which we have apply almost entirely to the interior people. After
        the Whites came it was unlikely that the Indians would move
        eastward in the face of the invasion and impossible for them to
        move westward; hence we do not have to trace various stages of
        long migrations due to displacement by the Whites and the
        overland retreat which followed, so marked in the history of the
        eastern Indians. Contrary to an older view, which held that
        Salishan tribes formerly extended to the lower Columbia and were
        driven north by Shahaptians, pushed forward in turn by Shoshonean
        peoples, it seems that the relative positions of Salishans and
        Shahaptians has been unchanged for an uncertain period of time
        and that, as a matter of fact, the Shoskoneans have been pushed
        southward although this movement was very recent. The Athapascan
        Kwalhioqua must represent a comparatively late invasion although
        that may not have been so recent as their anomalous position
        would lead one to suppose. There is also evidence of a much
        earlier movement when the Salishans came down upon the coast. The
        earliest European to meet any of the peoples of Washington was
        probably Juan de Fuca, a Greek navigator sailing under the
        Spanish flag, who, in 1592, visited the straits which now bear
        his name. Other Spanish explorers followed, and were later
        succeeded by English and Americans. The continual resort of
        trading vessels to Nootka on the west coast of Vancouver Island
        served to distribute European commodities and had a considerable
        influence among the tribes of Washington. In the latter part of
        the eighteenth century traders of the Hudson Bay and Northwest
        Companies made their appearance, but the Washington peoples first
        come squarely out upon the stage of history with the descent of
        the Columbia by Lewis and Clark in 1805-6. These pioneers gave
        the first general description of the region, enumerated the
        aboriginal peoples found in occupancy, and attempted estimates of
        their numbers. For some time afterward the territory was
        dominated by representatives of British companies and the land
        was claimed by England, while the only attempt to exploit it on
        the part of Americans, the settlement of Astoria, was soon
        abandoned. Following upon the acceptance of the 49th parallel of
        latitude as the International Boundary, however, and still more
        the discovery of gold in California and the opening up of the
        "Oregon trail," settlers from the Eastern States began to pour in
        in numbers. It was thereafter inevitable that friction should
        develop between the newcomers and the aborigines. There were wars
        with the Nez Perce, Yakima, and other tribes, but the Indians
        suffered less in this way than from European diseases,
        particularly the smallpox, which began their ravages before Lewis
        and Clark appeared, from spirituous liquors, and from a general
        dislocation of their aboriginal adjustments. The destruction was
        greatest in the Columbia Valley, which as the main artery of
        travel and trade was peculiarly exposed to epidemics, and within
        a few years the greater part of the once teeming populations of
        the lower valley were practically wiped out of existence. Roman
        Catholic missions sprang up at an early date in the eastern part
        of the territory, and were soon followed by those of Protestant
        denominations, notable among which was that conducted among the
        Cayuse by Marcus Whitman (1838-47). As in other parts of the
        United States, the Indians gradually parted with their lands and
        were placed upon reservations, though in most cases they were not
        removed so far from their original homes as in the eastern parts
        of the Union.

             The above sketch will show enough of the history of most of
        the tribes in this area, though some details have been added in
        certain cases (i. e., in connection with the Cayuse,
        Chilluckittequaw, Chimakum, Chinook, Klickitat, and Yakima. (See
        Ray, 1932, and Spier and Sapir, 1930.)

        Cathlamet. Significance unknown. Also called:

             Guasamas, or Guithlamethl, by the Glackamas.
             Kathlamet, own name.
             Kwillu'chini, by the Chinook.

        Connections.- The Cathlamet belonged to the Chinookan stock. The
        dialect to which they have given their name was spoken as far up
        the Columbia River as Ranier.

        Location.- On the south bank of Columbia River near its mouth,
        claiming the territory between Tongue Point and the neighborhood
        of Puget Island, and on the north bank from the mouth of Grays
        Bay to a little east of Oak Point.

                                    Villages

        Ika'naiak, on the north side of the Columbia River at the mouth
        of Coal Creek Slough just east of Oak Point.

        Ilo'humin, on the north side of Columbia River opposite Puget
        Island and near the mouth of Alockman Creek.

        Kathla'amat, on the south side of Columbia River about 4 miles
        below Puget Island.

        Ta'nas ilu', on Tanas Ilahee Island on the south side of the
        Columbia River.

        Wa'kaiyakam, across Alockman Creek opposite Ilo'humin.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated 450 Cathlamet in 1780. In
        1805-6 Lewis and Clark gave 300. In 1849 Lane reported 58. They
        are now extinct as a separate group.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The capital of
        Wahkiakum County, Washington, perpetuates the name of the
        Cathlamet.

        Cathlapotle. Meaning "people of Lewis (Na'polx.) River."

        Connections.- The Cathlapotle belonged to the Chinookan
        linguistic stock and were placed by Spier (1936) in the Clackamas
        division of Upper Chinook but by Berreman (1937) apparently with
        the Multnomah.

        Location.- On the lower part of Lewis River and the southeast
        side of the Columbia River, in Clarke County.


                                  Villages

        The main village of the Cathlapotle was Nahpooitle, at the mouth
        of Lewis River, but to this should perhaps be added Wakanasisi,
        opposite the mouth of Willamette River.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated 1,300 Cathlapotle in 1780;
        Lewis and Clark, 900 in 1806.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Lewis, River was
        once known by the name of Cathlapotle.

        Cayuse. The Cayuse were located about, the heads of Wallawalla,
        Umatilln, and Grande Ronde Rivers, extending from the Blue
        Mountains to Deschutes River, Washington and Oregon.
        (See Oregon.)

        Chehalia. Meaning "sand," the name derived originally, according
        to Gibbs (1877), from a village at the entrance of Grays Harbor.
        Also called:

             Atchixe'lish, Calapooya name.
             Ilga't, Nestucca name.
             Lower Chehalis, name used by Spier (1927).
             Staq-tubc, Puyallup name.

        Connections.- The Chehalis belonged to the coastal division of
        the Salishan linguistic family, being most intimately related to
        the Humptulips, Wynoochee, and Quinault.

        Location.- On the lower course of Chehalis, River, especially on
        the south side, and on the south side of Grays Bay. In later
        times the Chehalis, occupied territory to and about Willapa Bay
        that had formerly been held by the Chinook.

                                   Villages

        Chehalis (Gibbs, 1877), on the south side of Grays Harbor near
        Westport, in country earlier occupied by the Chinook.

        Chiklisilkh (Gibbs), at Point Leadbetter, Willapa Bay, in
        territory earlier occupied by Chinook.

        Hlakwun (Curtis, 1907-9), near Willapa on Willapa River in
        territory earlier occupied by the Chinook.

        Kaulhlak (Curtis), at the head of Palux River, earlier in Chinook
        country.

        Klumaitumsh (Gibbs and Boas personal information), given
        doubtfully as the name of a former band or village on the south
        side of Grays Harbor at its entrance.

        Nai'yasap (Curtis), on Willapa River in territory earlier
        occupied by Chinook.

        Nickomin (Swan 1857 and Boas, personal information), on North
        River which flows into Willapa Bay, in territory earlier occupied
        by the Chinook.

        Noohooultch (Gibbs), on thc south side of Grays, Harbor.

        Noosiatsks (Gibbs), on the south side of Grays Harbor.

        Nooskoh (Gibbs), on a creek opposite Whishkah River.

        Qyan (Gairdner, 1841), on the north point of Grays Harbor.

        Talal (Gibbs), at Ford's Prairie on the Chehalis River near
        Centralia, and therefore far outside of the Chehalis territory
        proper.

        Willapa, on Willapa River and in earlier Chinook country.

        The following villages were originally occupied by Chinook but
        seem to have shifted in population or language or both so se to
        become Chehalis: Hwa'hots, Nutsknrethlso'k, Quela'ptonlilt,
        Quer'quelin, Tske'lsos.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated a population of 1,000 in the
        year 1780 for the Lower and Upper Chehalis, the Cowlitz, the
        Humptulips, and related tribes, but the number had sunk to 170 by
        1907. However, the census of 1910 gives 282 for the same group
        exclusive of the Cowlitz. In 1923 the United States Indian Office
        returned 89, and in 1937, 131.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- A river, county,
        and city in Washington preserve the name of the Chehalis. There
        is a Chehalis in Minnesota but its name probably has no
        connection with that of the Washington tribe.

        Chelan. The name is derived from Chelan Lake.

        Connections.- An interior Salish tribe speaking the Wenachee
        dialect and separated tentatively from that tribe by Spier
        (1927).

        Location.- At the outlet of Lake Chelan.

        Population.- No data.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The name Chelan is
        shared not only by the lake above mentioned but by Chelan Falls,
        a range of mountains, a county, and two post villages, Chelan and
        Chelan Falls.

        Chilluckittequaw. Significance unknown.

        Connections.- The Chilluckittequaw belonged to the Chinookan
        linguistic stock.

        Location.- As reported by Lewis and Clark, the Chilluckittequaw
        lay along the north side of Columbia River, in the present
        Klickitat and Skamania Counties, from about 10 miles below the
        Dalles to the neighborhood of the Cascades. Spier (1936) thinks
        they may have been identical with the White Salmon or Hood River
        group of Indians and perhaps both. In the latter case we must
        suppose that they extended to the south side of the Columbia.

                            Subdivisions and Villages

        Itkilak or Ithlkilak (occupied jointly with Klickitat), at White
        Salmon Landing.

        Nanshuit (occupied jointly with Klickitat), at the present
        Underwood.

        Smackshop, a band of Chilluckittequaw extending from the River

        Labiche (Hood River ?) to the Cascades.

        Tgasgutcu (occupied jointly with Klickitat), said to be about 1/2
        mile west of a long, high mountain opposite Mosier, Oreg.) and at
        the same time about a mile above White Salmon Landing, an
        apparent inconsistency.

        Thlmieksok or Thlmuyaksok, 1/2 mile from the last; in 1905 the
        site of the Burket Ranch.

        Historical Note.- According to Mooney (1928) a remnant of the
        Chilluckittequaw lived near the mouth of the White Salmon River
        until 1880 when they removed to the Cascades, where a few still
        resided in 1895.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated 3,000 for this tribe in
        1780. In 1806 Lewis and Clark placed the figure at 1,400, besides
        800 Smackshop, or a total of 2,200.

        Chimakum. Significance of the name is unknown. Also called:

             Aqokulo, own name.
             Port Townsend Indians, popular name.

        Connections.- The Chimakum, the Quileute, and the Hoh (q. v.)
        together constituted the Chimakuan linguistic stock, which in
        turn was probably connected with the Salishan stock.

        Location.- On the peninsula between Hood's Canal and Port
        Townsend.

        History.- The Chimakum were constantly at war with the Clallam
        and other Salish tribes and, being inferior in numbers, suffered
        very much at their hands. They were included in the
        Point-no-Point Treaty of 1855 and placed on the Skokomish
        Reservation, where they gradually diminished in numbers until, in
        1890, Boas was able to find only three individuals who could
        speak their language, and then but imperfectly.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates 400 Chimakum in 1780, and
        Gibbs (1877), 90 in 1855. The census of 1910 enumerated 3.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Attention was called
        to the Chimakum in early days by their warlike character and the
        uniqueness of their language.

        Chinook. From Tsinuk, their Chehalis name. Also called:

             Ala'dshush, Nestucca name.
             Flatheads, a name shared with a number of other tribes in
        the region from their custom of deforming the head.
             Thlala'h, Clackama name.

        Connections.- The Chinook belonged to the Lower Chinook division
        of the Chinookan family.

        Location.- On the north side of the Columbia River from its mouth
        to Grays Bay (not Grays Harbor), a distance of about 15 miles,
        and north along the seacoast to include Willapa or Shoalwater
        Bay. Ray (1938) makes a separate division to include the
        Shoalwater Chinook but it will be more convenient to treat them
        under one head. It is understood that they differed not at all in
        dialect.

                                   Towns
             (As given by Ray (1938), except as otherwise indicated)

        Clamoitomish (Sapir, 1930), in Grays Bay.

        Hwakelsh, at the mouth of Smith Creek on the northeast shore of
        Willapa Bay.

        Hwa'hots, at a former settlement called Bruceport about 3 miles
        north of the mouth of Palix River.

        Ini'sal, on Naselle River where it enters the arm of Willapa Bay.

        Iwa'lhat, at the mouth of Wallicut River, which bears its name in
        a corrupted form.

        Kalawa'uus, on the peninsula At Oysterville Point.

        Killaxthokle (Lewis and Clark, 1905-6), probably on Willapa Bay.

        Kwatsa'mts, on Baker Bay at the mouth of Chinook River, north
        side of the Columbia.

        Lapi'lso, on an island in an arm of Willapa Bay below the mouth
        of Naselle River.

        Ma'hu, at the mouth of Nemah River below the present town of
        Nemah.

        Mo'kwal, at the mouth of Deep River on Grays Bay.

        Nahume'nsh, on the west side of North River at its mouth on the
        north shore of Willapa Bay.

        Namla'iks, at Goose Point.

        Na'mstcats, at a site now called Georgetown between Tokeland and
        North Cove.

        Nokska'itmithls, at Fort Canby on Cape Disappointment.

        No'skwalakuthl, at Ilwaco, named after its last chief.

        Nu'kaunthl, at Tokeland, named after its chief.

        Nu'palstcthl, at the site of Nahcotta, on the peninsula opposite
        the mouth of Nemah River.

        Nutskwethlso'k, on Willapa Bay west of Bay Center.

        Nuwi'lus, on the site of Grayland on the coast.

        Quela'ptonlilt (Swan, 1857), at the mouth of Willapa River.

        Querquelin (Swan), at the mouth of Querquelin River, which flows
        into Palix River from the south near the mouth of the latter.

        Se'akwal, on the north bank of the Columbia a short distance
        below Mo'kwal.

        Tokpi'luks, at the mouth of Palix River.

        Tse'yuk, at Oysterville on the peninsula north of Nahcotta.

        Tske'lsos, on Willapa River between South Bend and Raymond.

        Ya'kamnok, at Sandy Point 3 miles south of Goose Point, the
        extreme north point at Bay Center.

        History.- Though thc Chinook had been known to traders for an
        indefinite period previously, they were first described by Lewis
        and Clark, who visited them in 1805. From their proximity to
        Astoria and their intimate relations with the early traders, they
        soon became well known, and their language formed the chief
        Indian basis for the Chinook jargon, first employed as a trade
        language, which ultimately extended from California to Alaska. In
        the middle of the nineteenth century they became mixed with the
        Chehalis with whom they ultimately fused entirely, dropping their
        own language. The Chinook of later census returns are composed of
        a number of other tribes of the same stock.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 800 of these
        Indians in 1780, "including the Chinook and Killaxthokl." In 1805
        Lewis and Clark gave 400 on Columbia River alone. In 1885 Swan
        states that there were 112. They are now nearly extinct though
        Ray (1938) discovered three old people still living as late as
        1931-36.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name of the
        Chinook tribe became famous (1) because of intimate dealings
        between the Chinook and British and American traders, (2) on
        account of the extension of their name to the related tribes now
        classed in the Chinooks stock, (3) because the name was also
        extended to the Chinook jargon or Oregon Trade Language known
        throughout the entire Northwest, (4) because of its application
        to the Chinook or Pacific wind, and (6) from its application to
        towns in Pacific County, Wash., and Blaine County, Mont.

        Clackamas. Placed on both sides of the Columbia, but I prefer to
        follow Berreman (1937) in limiting the term to groups living on
        the Oregon side. (See Oregon.)

        Clallam. Meaning "strong people." Also spelled Nu-sklaim,
        S'Kal-lam, Tla'lem.

        Connections.- The Clallam were a tribe of the coastal division of
        the Salishan linguistic stock most closely connected with the
        Songish.

        Location in the south side of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, between
        Port Discovery and Hoko River. Later the Clallam occupied the
        Chimakum territory also and a small number lived on the lower end
        of Vancouver Island.

                               Villages

        Elwah, at the mouth of Elwah River.

        Hoko, at the mouth of Hoko Creek.

        Huiauulch, on the site of modern Jamestown, 5 miles east of
        Dungeness.

        Hunnint or Hungi'ngit, on the cast side of Clallam Bay, this town
        and Klatlawas together were called Xainaflt by Erna Gunther
        (1927).

        Kahtai, at Port Townsend, occupied after the destruction of the
        Chimakum.

        Kaquaith (or Skakwiyel), at Port Discovery.

        Klatlawas, the Tlatlawai'is of Curtis (1907-9), on the west side
        of Clallam Bay; see Hunnint.

        Kwahamish, a fishing village on the Lyre River.

        Mekoos, on Beecher Bay, Vancouver Island, B. C.

        Pistchin, on Pysht Bay.

        Sequim or Suktcikwiih, on Sequim Bay or Washington Harbor.

        Sestietl, Upper EIwah.

        Stehtlum, at new Dungeness.

        Tclanuk, on Beecher Bay, Vancouver Island, B. C.

        Tsako, at the former mouth of Dungeness River.

        Tsewhitzen, on Port Angeles Spit, 2 or 3 miles west of the old
        town of Stehtlum.

        Yennis, at Port Angeles or False Dungeness.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated 2,000 Clallam in 1780. In
        1854 Gibbs estimated 800. In 1855, 926 were reported. In 1862
        Eells estimated 1,300 but gave 597 in 1878. In 1881 he reduced
        this to 485. In 1904, 336 were returned. By the census of 1910,
        398 were reported; by the United States Indian Office in 1923,
        535, and in 1937, 764.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The name Clallam is
        perpetuated by its application to a bay, a county, a river, and a
        precinct in the State of Washington.

        Clalskauie. (See Oregon.)

        Columbia or Sinkiuse-Columbia. So called because of their former
        prominent association with Columbia River, where some of the most
        important bands had their homes. Also called:

             Bo'tcaced, by the Nez Perce, probably, meaning "arrows" or
        "arrow people."
             Isle-de-Pierre, a traders' name, perhaps from a place in
        their country or for a band of the tribe.
             Middle Columbia Salish, so called by Teit (1928) and Spier
        (1930 b).
             Papspe'lu, Nez Perce name, meaning "firs," or "fir-tree
        people."
             Sa'ladebc, probably the Snohomish name.
             Sinkiuse, the name applied to themselves and most other
        neighboring Salish tribes, and said to have belonged originally
        and properly to a band which once inhabited Umatilla Valley.
             Suwa'dabe, Snohomish name for all interior Indians, meaning
        "inland people," or "interior people."
             .swa'dab.c, Twana name for all interior Indians, meaning
        "inland people."
             .swa'namc, Nootsak name for all interior Indians, meaning
        "inland people."
             Ti'attluxa, Wasco Chinook name.
             .tskowa'xtsenux or .skowa'xtsenex, applied by themselves,
        meaning has something to do with "main valley."

        Connections.- The Sinkiuse-Columbia belonged to the inland
        division of the Salishan linguistic stock, their nearest
        relatives being the Wenatchee and Methow.

                             Subdivisions or Bands
                           (According to Teit, 1930)


        Stata'ketux, around White Bluffs on the Columbia.

        or Moses Band after a famous chief (Priest's Rapids and
        neighboring country).

        Curtis (1907-9) gives the foliowing: "Near the mouth of the sink
        of Crab Creek were the Sinkumkunatkuh, and above them the
        Slnkolkoluminuh. Then came in succession the Stapi'sknuh, the
        Skukulat'kuh, the Skoahchnuh, the Skihlkintnuh, and, finally, the
        Skultaqchi'mh, a little above the mouth of Wenatchee River."

        Spier (1927) adds that the Sinkowarsin met by Thompson in 1811
        might have been a band of this tribe.

        Location and History.- The Sinkiuse-Columbia lived on the east
        side of Columbia River from Fort Okanogan to the neighborhood of
        Point Eaton. Later a reservation was created for them known as
        Columbia Reservation. In 1870 Winans placed them "on the east and
        south sides of the Columbia Rivor from the Grand Coulee down to
        Priest's Rapids." They are now under the jurisdiction of Colville
        Agency and one band, the Moses-Columbia Band, is in the southern
        part of Colville Reservation.

        Population.- The Sinkiuse-Columbia are estimated by Mooney (1928)
        to have numbered 800 in 1780, but were probably considernbly more
        numerous as Teit (1927) considers that this tribe and the Pisquow
        together must have totaled something like 10,000 before the
        smallpox reached them. In 1905, 355 were reported; in 1908, 299;
        and in 1909, perhaps including some others, 540 were returned.
        The census of 1910 gave 52.

        Colville. The name is derived from Fort Colville, a post of the
        Hudson's Bay Company at Eettle Falls, which was in turn named
        for the London governor of the company at the time when the post
        was founded, i.e., in 1825. Also called:

             Basket People, by Hale (1846).
             Chaudiere, French name derived from the popular term applied
        to them, Kettle Falls Indians.
             Kettle Falls Indians, as above.
             Salsxuyilp, Okanagon name.
             Skuyelpi, by other Salish tribes.
             Whe-el-po, by Lewis and Clark, shortened from above.

        Connections.- The Colville belonged to the inland division of the
        Salishan linguistic stock and to that branch of the latter which
        included the Okanagon, Sanpoil, and Senijextee.

        Location.- On Colville River and that part of the Columbia
        between Kettle Falls and Hunters.

                            Villages and Subdivisions
                                (From Ray, 1932)

        Kakalapia, home of the Skakalapiak (across from the present town
        of Harvey, at the point where the ferry now crosses).

        Kilumaak, home of the Skilumaak (opposite the present town of
        Kettle Falls, about 1 1/2 miles above Nchumutastum).

        Nchaliam, home of the Snchalik (about 1 1/2 miles above the
        present town of Inchelium) .

        Nchumutastum, home of the Snchumutast (about 6 miles above
        Nilamin).

        Nilamin, home of the Snilaminak (about 15 miles above Kakalapia).

        Nkuasiam, home of the Snkuasik (slightly above the present town
        of Daisy, on the opposite side of the river).

        Smichunulau, home of the Smichunulnuk (at the site of the present
        State bridge at Kettle Falls).

        History.- The history of the Colville was similar to that of the
        neighboring tribes except that Kettle Falls was early fixed upon
        as the site of an important post by the Hudson Bay Company and
        brought with it the usual advantages and disadvantages of White
        contact.


        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated the number of the Colville
        at 1,000 as of 1780, but Lewis and Clark placed it at 2,500, a
        figure also fixed upon by Teit (1930). In 1904 there were 321; in
        1907, 334; and in 1937, 322.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The name Colville
        was applied to an important Indian Reservation and later to a
        town, the county seat of Stevens County, Wash., but the original,
        of course was not Indian.

        Copalis. Significance unknown.

        Connections.- The Copalis belonged to the coastal division of the
        Salishan linguistic family.

        Location.- Copalis River and the Pacific Coast between the mouth
        of Joe Creek and Grays Harbor.

        Population.- Lewis and Clark in 1805 estimated a population of
        200 Copalis in 10 houses. The 5 individuals assigned to a
        "Chepalis" tribe in an enumeration given by Olson of the year
        1888 probably refers to them.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The name Copalis is
        perpetuated in that of Copalis River, and in the post villages of
        Copalis Beach and Copalis Crossing, Grays Harbor County, Wash.

        Cowlitz. Significance unknown. Also called:

             Nu-so-lupsh, name given by Indians not on the Sound to Upper
        Cowlitz and Upper Chehalis.

        Connections.- The Cowlitz belonged to the coastal division of the
        Salishan linguistic family, yet shared some peculiarities with
        the inland tribes.

        Location.- Most of the lower and all the middle course of
        Cowlitz River. Later they were divided between Chehalis nnd
        Puyallup Reservations.

                                Towns

        Ray (1932) gives: Awi'mani, at the mouth of Coweman River, south
        of Kelso, and Manse'la, on site of Longiew. (See Curtis, 1907-9.)

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated the number of the Cowlitz,
        along with the Chehalis, Humptulips, and some other tribes, at
        1,000 in 1780. In 1853 Gibbs stated that they and the Upper
        Chehalis counted not more than 165. About 1887 there were 127 on
        Puyallup Reservation. The census of 1910 returned 105. The United
        States Indian Office Report of 1923 gives 490, probably including
        other tribes.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The name Cowlitz is
        perpetuated by Cowlitz River and Cowlitz Pass; by Cowlitz
        Glacier, which radiates from Mount Ranier; and by Cowlitz County,
        Cowlitz Park, Cowlitz Chimney, Cowlitz Cleaver, and some small
        towns in the same region.

        Duwamish. A place name.

        Connections.- The Duwamish belonged to the Nisqually dialectic
        group of the coast division of the Salishan linguistic stock.

                           Subdivisions and Villages
                           (According to Smith, 1940)

        A. The Duwamish River from its mouth up to and including the
        Black and Cedar Rivers, with the following villages:

             Dsidsila'letc, at Yesler Way and Jackson St., Seattle.
             Duwe'kwulsh, at Maple Valley.
             Kati'lbabsh, at the present town of Renton.
             Sakwe'kwewad, on Cedar River about 2 miles from Renton.
             Skwa'lko, where the Black and White Rivers join to form the
        Duwamish.
             Tkwabko', at south end of Lake Washington.
             Tola'ltu, below Duwamish Head, Seattle.
             Tupa'thlteb, at the mouth of the easternmost estuary of the
        Duwamish.
             Tuduwa'bsh, at the mouth of the Duwamish River.

        B. From where the Black River flows into the Duwamish to the
        junction of the White and Green Rivers, including these villages:

             Stak and Tcutupa'lhu, on the east bank of the White River
        between its junction with the Black River and the mouth of the
        Green River.

        C. The Green River villages:

             Ila'lkoabsh, at the junction of the Green and White Rivers.
        Su'sabsh, on Suise Creek.
             Perhaps several groups of houses: (1) on the upper Green
        River, including Tskoka'bid (at the bend now spanned by the
        highway bridge about 4 miles east of Auburn); (2) on the north
        bank of the Robert Wooding Place; (3) on the Du Bois Place, and
        (4) at the mouth of Newaukum Creek.

        D. The White River village, Sbalko'absh (on White River near a
        small stream at the southeast corner of the present Muckleshoot
        Reservation and to the east on Boise Creek).

        E. The Lake Washington people, including the Thluwi'thalbsh (at
        Union Bay), the Sammamith (at the mouth of Sammamish River), and
        the peoples of Salmon Bay. In 1856 they were removed to the
        eastern shore of Bainbridge Island but as the place lacked a
        fishing ground they were shortly afterward taken to Holderness
        Point, on the west side of Eliot Bay, which was already a
        favorite place for fishing. They are now under the Tulalip School
        Superintendency.

        Population.- The Duwamish were estimated by Mooney (1928),
        with the Suquamish and other tribes, at 1,200 in 1780. About 1856
        they are variously given at from 64 to 312 The census of 1910
        returned 20.

        Connetions in which they have become noted.- The Duwamish will be
        remembered mainly as one of the tribes formerly located on the
        site of Seattle, and one of the two of which the Indian who gave
        his name to that city was chief. The name Duwamish itself is
        preserved in Duwamish River and in the name of a small town.

        Hoh. Significance unknown.

        Connections.- The Hoh spoke the Quileute language and were often
        considered part of the same tribe, constituting one division of
        the Chimakuan linguistic stock and more remotely connected with
        the Salishan family.

        Location.- On Hoh River on the west coast of Washington.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates 500 in the Hoh and the
        Quileute together in 1780. In 1905 the Hoh numbered 62.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Hoh is
        preserved in that of the Hoh River.

        Humptulips. Said to signify "chilly region."

        Connections.- The Humptulips belonged to the coastal division
        of the Salishan linguistic stock, being connected most closely
        with the Chehalis.

        Location.- On the Eumptulips River, and part of Grays Harbor,
        including also Hoquiam Creek and Whiskam River.

                                 Villages

        Hli'mumi (Curtis, 1907-9), near North Cove.

        Eloquiam, on Hoquiam Greek.

        Hooshkal (Gibbs), on the north shore of Grays Harbor.

        Kishkallen (Gibbs), on the north shore of Grays Harbor.

        Klimmim (Gibbs), 1877).

        Kplelch (Curtis), at the mouth of North River.

        Kwapks (Curtis, 1907-9), at the mouth of North River.

        Mo'nilumsh (Curtis), at Georgetown.

        Nooachhummik (Gibbs), on the coast north of Grays Harbor.

        Nookalthu (Gibbs), north of Grays Harbor.

        Nu'moihanhl (Curtis), at Tokeland.

        Whishkah, on Whishkah River.

        These are placed under the Humptulips only on account of their
        locations as described.

        Population.- See Chehalis. In 1888 according to Olsen 18
        Humptulips were reported. In 1904 there were 21.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Humptulips River and
        a village in Grays Harbor County preserve the name of the
        Humptulips Indians.

        Kalispel. The Kalispel extended over into the eastern edge of the
        State from Idaho (q. v.).

        Kickitat. From a Chinook term meaning "beyond" and having
        reference to the Cascade Mountains. Also called:

             Awi-adshi, Molala name.
             Luk'-a-tatt, Puyallup name.
             Mahane, Umpqua name.
             Mi-Clauq'-tcu-wun'-ti, Alsea name, meaning "scalpers."
             Mun-an'-ne-qu' tunne, Naltunnetunne name, meaning "inland
        people."
             Qwu'lh-hwai-pum, own name, meaning "prairie people."
             Tlakai'tat, Okanagon name.
             Tse la'kayat amim, Kalapuya name.
             Tiuwanxa-ike, Clatsop name.
             Wahnookt, Cowlitz name.

        Connections.- The Klickitat belonged to the Shahaptian division
        of the Shapwailutan linguistic family.

                            Subdivisions and Villages

        Possibly the Atanum or Atanumlema should be added to the
        Klickitat. Mooney (1928) reports that their language was distinct
        from, though related to, both Klickitat and Yakima.

        The following villages are mentioned:

        Itkilak or Ithlkilak, at White Salmon Landing, which they
        occupied jointly with the Chilluckquittequaw.

        Nanshuit (occupied jointly with the Chilluckquittequaw), at
        Underwood.

        Shgwaliksh, not far below Memaloose Island.

        Tgasgutcu (occupied jointly with the Chilluckquittequnw), said to
        be about 1/2 mile west of a long high mountain opposite Mosier,
        Oreg., and about 1 mile above White Salmon Landing but the exact
        location seems to be in doubt.

        Wiltkun (exact location unknown).

        History.- The original home of the Klickitat was somewhere south
        of the Columbia, and they invaded their later territory after
        them Yakima crossed the river. In 1805 Lewis and Clark found them
        wintering on Yakima and Klickitat Rivers. Taking advantage of the
        weakness of the Willamette tribes following upon an epidemic of
        fever between 1820 and 1830, the Klickitat crossed the Columbia
        and forced their way as far south as the valley of thc Umpqua but
        were soon compelled to retire to their old seats. They were
        active and enterprising traders, profiting by their favorable
        location to become middlemen between the coast tribes and those
        living east of the Cascades. They joined in the Yakima treaty at
        Camp Stevens, June 9, 1855, by which they ceded their lands to
        the United States, and most of them settled upon the Yakimn
        Reservation.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that the Klickitat,
        including the Taitinnpam, numbered 600 in 1780. In 1805 Lewis and
        Clark placed their total population at about 700. The Census of
        1910 returned 405

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The Klickitat were
        early distinguished from other tribes of central Washington owing
        to their propensity for trading. The name is perpetuated in that
        of a small affluent of the Columbia and in the name of the
        county, and a post village in the county.

        Kwaiailk. Meaning unknown. Also called:

             Kwu-teh-ni, Kwalhioqua name.
             Nu-so-lupsh, by Sound Indinns, referring to the rapids of
        their stream.
             Stak-ta-mish, a name for this and other inland tribes,
        meaning "forest people."
             Upper Chehalis, common name.

        Connections.- The Kwaiailk belonged to the coastal division of
        the Salishan linguistic family but a part of them were associated
        with the inland tribes by certain peculiarities of speech. Their
        nearest relatives seem to have been the Cowlitz and Chehalis.

        Location.- On the upper course of Chehalis River.

                            Subdivisions and Villages

        Cloquallum, on Cloquallum River.

        Population.- In 1855, according to Gibbs (1877), the Kwaiailk
        numbered 216 but were becoming amalgamated with the Cowlitz.
        (See Chehalis.)

        Kwalhioqua. From their Chinook designation, meaning "a lonely
        place in the woods." Also called:

             Axwe'lapc, "people of the Willapa," by the Chinook and
        Quinault Indians.
             Gila'qlulawas, from the name of the place where they usually
        lived.
             Owhillapsh or Willapa, applied to this trihe erroneously.
             Tkulhiyogoa'ika, Chinook name.

        Connections.- The Kwalhioqua belonged to the Athapascan
        linguistic stock.

        Location.- On the upper course of Willopah River, and the
        southern and western headwaters of the Chehalis. Gibbs (1877)
        extends their territory eastward of the Cascades, but Boas (1892)
        doubts the, correctness of this.

                               Subdivisions

        Suwal, on headwaters of the Chehalis.

        Wela'pakote'li, on Willapa River.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated 200 in 1780; Hale (1846)
        gives about 100, but in 1850 it is said that only 2 males and
        several females survived, which indicates that an error had been
        made by one or the other.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Kwalhioqua were
        distinguished almost solely by the fact that they belonged to the
        great Athapascan group yet were the only tribe of that stock in
        the State of Washington in historic times, having become entirely
        isolated from their relatives.

        Lummi. Significance unknown. Also spelled Ha-lum-mi, Nuh-lum-mi,
        and Qtlumi. Also called:

             Nukhlesh, by the Skagit, who also included the Clallam in
        the designation.

        Connections.- The Lummi belonged to the coastal district of the
        Salishan linguistic family and spoke, according to Boas (1911),
        the same dialect as the Songish of Vancouver Island.

        Location.- On the upper part of Bellingham Bay and about the
        mouth of Nooksack River. Formerly the Lummi are said to have
        resorted at times to a group of islands east of Vancouver
        Island. They were finally placed on Lummi Reservation.

                                 Villages
                       (According to Stern, 1934)

        Elek, near the upper end of Bellingham Bay.

        Hwetlkiem, near the upper and of Bellingham Bay west of Nooksack
        River.

        Kwakas, on the north side of Nooksack River.

        Momli, near the mouth of Nooksack River.

        Skalisan, north of Point Francis and opposite Lummi Island.

             The following fishing stations are also cited:

        Hoholos, a point on Orcas Island south of Freeman Island.

        Hwitcosang, in Upright Channel south of Shaw Island.

        Hwtcihom or Bec Station, north of Sandy Point.

        Skalekushan or Village Point, on Lummi Island.

        Skolete, on Lopez Island opposite Lopez.

        Tceltenem, Point Roberts.

        Tlkwoloks, on Orcas Island.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Lummi at 1,000
        in 1780, including the Samish and Nooksack. In 1905 there were
        412; according to the census of 1910, 353; according to the
        United States Indian Office Report for 1923, 505; and according
        to that for 1937, 661.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Lummi River,
        Washingtons preserves the name.

        Makah. Meaning "cape people." Also called:

             Ba-qa-o, Puyallup name.
             Cape Flattery Indians, from their location.
             Classet, Nootka name, meaning "outsiders."
             Kwe-net-che-chat, own name, meaning "cape people."
             Tla'asath, Nootka name, meaning "outside people."

        Connections.- The Makah belonged to the Nootka branch of the
        Wakashan linguistic family.

        Location.- About Cape Flattery, claiming the coast east as far
        as Hoko River and south to Flattery Rocks, besides Tatoosh
        Island. Later they were confined to the Makah Reservation.

                                 Villages

        Winter towns:

             Baada, on Neah Bay.
             Neah, on the site of the old Spanish fort, Port Nunez Gaona,
        Neah Bay.
             Waatch, at the mouth of Waatch Greek, 4 miles from Neah Bay.

        Summer villages:

             Ahchawat, at Cape Flattery.
             Kehsidstsoos, location unknown.
             Kiddekubbut, 3 miles from Neah Bay.
             Tatooche, on Tatoosh Island, off Cape Flattery.

        Population.- Together with the Ozette, the Makah were estimated
        by Mooney (1928) to number 2,000 in 1780, a figure evidently
        based on that given by Lewis and Clark in 1805. In 1905 there
        were 435, the census of 1910 gave 360, and the United States
        Indian Office Report for 1923 gave 425, including the people of
        Ozette. In 1937, 407 were returned besides the Ozette Indians.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Makah and the
        Ozette are peculiar as the only tribes of the Nootka group and
        the Wakashan stock in the United States.

        Methow. Meaning unknown. The Battle-le-mule-emauch of Ross
        (1847, p. 290).

        Connections.- The Methow spoke a dialect belonging to the
        interior division of the Salishan linguistic stock.

        Location.- On Methow River. A detached band called Chilowhist
        wintered on the Okanogan River between Sand Point and Malott.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that this band and the
        Columbia Indians, or rather Moses' band of Columbia Indians,
        numbered 800 in 1780. In 1907 there were 324.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Methow River and
        Valley and a post village perpetuate the name of the Methow
        Indians.

        Mical. Significance unreported.

        Connections.- The Mical were a branch of the Shahaptian tribe
        called Pshwanwapam.

        Location.- On the upper course of Nisqually River.

        Population.- No separate data.

        Muckleshoot. From the native word o'kelcul, significance unknown.

        Connections.- The Muckleshoot belonged to thc Nisqually dialectic
        group of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.

        Location.- On White River, their territory extending from Kent
        eastward to the mountains, but it seems also to have included
        Green River.

                             Subdivisions

        The following names appear applied to bands in their territory:

        Sekamish, on White River.

        Skopamish, on upper Green River.

        Smulkarnish, on upper White River

        Smith (1940) adds Dothliuk, at South Prairie below where Cole
        Creek enters South Prairie Creek, an affluent of Carbon River.

        Population.- The Muckleshoot are probably included in the 1,200
        "Nisqually, Puyallup, etc." estimated by Mooney (1928) as in
        existence in 1780. The Skopamish numbered 222 in 1863 and the
        Smulkamish about 183 in 1870. Mooney estimated a total of 780 in
        1907 for the group above given. In 1937 the United States Office
        of Indian Affairs reported 194 Indians of this tribe.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name of the
        Muckleshoot is preserved in that of Muckleshoot Indian
        Reservation.

        Neketemeuk. A supposed Salishan tribe placed by Teit's informants
        at an early period near and above the Dalles. Ray (1932), however
        discredits the existence of an independent tribe of this name.

        Nespelem, a division of the Sanpoil (q. v.).

        Nez Perce. The Nez Perce occupied territory in the extreme
        southeastern part of the state. (See Idaho.)

        Nisqually. From Skwale'absh, the native name of Nisqually River.
        Also spelled Quallyamish, and Skwalliahmish. Also called:

             Askwalli, Calapooya name.
             Ltsxe'ls, Nestucca nnme.
             Suketl'kenuk, Sukotl'kenuk, by Columbia Indians along with
        all other coast people, meaning "people of the other side," with
        reference to the Cascades.
             Tse Skua'lli ami'm, Luckamiut Kalapooian name.

        Connections.- They gave their name to one dialectic division of
        the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock.

        Location.- On Nisqually River above its mouth and on the middle
        and upper courses of Puyallup River.

                           Subdivisions and Villages

        Basha'labsh, on Mashell Creek and neighboring Nisqually River,
        the town on a highland below Eatonville on Mashell Creek.

        Sakwi'absh, Clear Creek and neighboring Nisqually River, the main
        settlement on a hill near the junction of Clear Greek and the
        Nisqually River.

        Sigwa'letcabsh, on Segualitcu River, the main settlement where
        Dupont Creek enters the Sqwunliteu River.

        Tsakwe'kwabsh, on Clarks Creek and neighboring Puyallup River,
        the main settlement where Clarks Creek empties into Puyallup
        River, but seems to have included also Skwa'dabsh, at the mouth
        of n creek entering Wappato Creek above the Wappato Creek
        village.

        Sta'hnbsh, where the Stuck River enters the Puyallup.

        Tsuwa'diabsh, on what is now the Puyallup River above its
        junction with the Carbon, and just below the site of the
        Soldiers' Home.

        Tuwha'khabsh, above Ortig where Vogt Creek enters the Carbon
        River.

        Yishu'ktcabsh, on Nisqually Lake, the principal settlement being
        at the mouth of a sizable creek.

        Yokwa'lsshabsh, on Muck Creek and the neighboring parts of
        Nisqually River, the main settlement located where Muck Creek
        enters Nisqually River, and a division on Clover Greek.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were
        about 3,600 Nisqually of whom, in 1907, between 1,100 and 1,200
        survived. About 1,100 were returned in the census of 1910, but
        the Indian Office Report for 1937 gives only 62, evidently a
        minor tribe which gave its name to the larger body.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The memory of the
        Nisqually tribe, or cluster of bands, has been preserved in the
        name of Nesqually or Nisqually River, and in the post village of
        Nisqually in Thurston County.

        Nooksack. Meaning "mountain men." Also spelled Nooksak and
        Nootsak.

        Connections.- The Nooksack belonged to the coastal division of
        the Salishan linguistic family. Hill-Tout (1902) says they
        separated from the Squawmish of British Columbia and speak the
        same dialect.

        Location.- On Nooksack River, Whatcom County. (See also Canada.)

        Population.- In 1906, 200 Nooksack were officially returned, but
        Hill-Tout (1902) states that in 1902 there were only about 6 true
        male members of the tribe. The census of 1910 gives 85 under this
        name, and the Report of the United States Office of Indian
        Affairs for 1937 returned 239. (See Lummi.)

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Nooksack River and
        Nooksack town in Whatcom County, Washington, preserve the name.

        Ntlakyapsmuk. The southern bands of this tribe hunted over in the
        territory now embraced in Washington. (See Canada.)

        Okanagon. From the native term Okana'qen, Okanaqe'nix, or
        Okina'qen. The name is derived from some place on the Okanogan
        River, near Okanogan Falls at the mouth of the Similkameen, where
        is said to have been the headquarters of a large band of the
        tribe and is even given as the place of origin of the entire
        tribe. Also called:

             Akenuq'la'lam or Kokenu'k'ke, by Kutenai (Chamberlain,
        1892).
             Isonkuafli, own name, meaning "our people."
             Kank.'utla'atlam, Kutenai name, meaning "flatheads" (Boas,,
        1911).
             Kenake'n, by Tobacco Plains Band of Klickitat.
             Otcenake', Otcena.qai'n, or Utcena'.qai'n, by the Salish and
        their allie.
             Soo-wan'-a-mooh, Shuswap name.
             .Soqenaqai'mex, Columbia name.
             Tcutzwa'ut, Tcitxua'ut, Tsawa'nemux, or Okena.qai'n,
        Ntlakyapamuk names.
             Wetc.naqei'n, Skitswish name.


        Connections.- The Okanagon belonged to the interior division of
        the Salishan stock, but their closest relatives were the Sanpoil,
        Colville, and Senijextee.

        Location.- On Okanagan River above the mouth of the Similkameen
        to the Canadian border and in British Columbia along the shores
        of Okanagnn Lake and in the surrounding country; in later times
        they have displaced an Athapascan tribe and part of the
        Ntlakyapamuk from the Similkameen Valley. (See also Canada.)

                         Subdivisions and Villages

        The Similkameen Okanngon were divided into three bands, the
        Okanagon proper into four; with the villages belonging to each,
        they are as follows:

        Upper Similkameen Band:

                 Ntkaihelok (Ntkai'xelox), about 11 miles below Princeton,
        north side of Similkameen River.
                 Snazaist (Snazai'st), on the north shore of Similkameen
        River, a little east of Twenty-mile Creck and the town of Hedley.
                 Tcutcuwiha (Tcutcuwi'xa) or Tcutcawiha (Tcutcawl'xa), on
        the north side of Similkameen River, a little below the
        preceding.

        Ashnola Band:

                 Ashnola (Acnu'lox), on the south side of Similkameen
        River, near the mouth of Ashnola Creek.
                 Nsrepus (Nsre'pus) or Skanek, .sa'nex, a little below
        the Ashnola, but on the north side of Similkameen River.

        Lower Similkameen Band:

                 Kekeremyeaus (Kekeremye'aus), across Similkameen River
        from Keremyeus.
                 Keremycus (Keremye'us), on the north side of Similkameen
        River, near Keremeos.
                 Nkura-elok (Nkurae'lox), on the south side of
        Similkameen River and about 4 miles below Keremyeaus.
                 Ntleuktan (Ntleuxta'n), on the south side of Similkameen
        River, opposite Skemkain.
                 Skemkain (Skemquai'n), a short distance below Nkuraelok.
                 Smelalok (Smela'lox), on the south side of Similkameen
        River, about 10 miles below Nsrepus.

        To the villages listed above must be added the following old
        Similkameen village sites in Washington:

                 Hepulok (Xe'pulox).
                 Konkonetp (Ko'nkonetp), near the mouth of Similkameen
        River.
                 Kwahalos (Kwaxalo's), a little back from Similkameen
        River, below Hepulok.
                 Naslitok (Na.sli'tok), just across the International
        Boundary in Washington.
                 Skwa'nnt, below Kwahalos.
                 Tsakeiskencmuk (Tsakei'sxenemux), on a creek along the
        trail between Keremeous and Penticton.
                 Tseltsalo's, below Kwahalos.

        Douglas Lake Band:

                 Kathlemik (Ka.'lemix), near Guichons, at the mouth of
        the Upper Nicola River, where it falls into Nicola Lake.
                 Komkonatko (Komkona'tko) or Komkenatk (Komkena'tkk), at
        Fish Lake on the headwaters of the Upper Nicola River.
                 Kwiltcana (Kwiltca'na) at the mouth of Quilchene Creek.
                 Spahamen (Spa'xamen) or Spahamen (Spa'xemen), at Douglas
        Lake.

        Komaplix or Head of the Lake Band:

                 Nkamapeleks (Nkama'peleks) or Nkomapeleke
        (Nkoma'peleks), near the head of Okanagan Lake, about 8 miles
        north of Vernon.
                 Nkekemapeleks (Nkekema'peleks), at the head of Long
        Lake, a little over a mile from Vernon.
                 Nkokosten (Nxok.o'sten), a place near Kelowna, and also
        a general name for the district around there and Mission.
                 Skelaunna (Skela'un.na), at Kelowna, near the present
        town.
                 Sntlemukten (Sntlemuxte'n), (Black Town), a little north
        of the head of Okanagan Lake.
                 Stekatelkeneut (Stekatelxene'ut), a little above Mission
        (?) on Long Lake opposite Tselotsus.
                 Tseketku (Tse'ketku), at a small lake a little north of
        Black Town.
                 Tselotsus (Tselo'tsus), at the narrows of Long Lake.
                 Tskelhokem (Tsxelho'qem), near the lower end of Long
        Lake about 19 miles south of Vemon.

        Penticton Band:

                 Penticton (Penti'kten), Penticton, near the foot of
        Okanagan Lake.
                 Stekntkothlkneut (Stekatkolxne'ut) or Stekatethlkeneut
        (Stekatelene'ut), on the opposite side of Long Lake from Mission.

        Nkamip Band:

                 Nkamip (Nkami'p), on the east side of the upper end of
        Osoyoos Lake.
                 Sci'yus, near Haynes or the old customhouse just north
        of the American line.
                 Skohenetk (Sxoxene'tkuu), at the lower end of Dog Lake.

        To the villages listed above must be added the following names of
        old village sites on Okanagan River south of the Canadian line:

                 Milkemahituk (Milkemaxi-tuk) or Milkemihituk
        (Milkemixi'tuk), a general name for the district around the mouth
        of Similkameen River and of the river itself.
                 Okioaken (Okina'qen), an old name for Sathlilk.
                 Sathlilk (Sah'lxu), near the mouth of Similkameen River.
                 Smelkammin (Smelkammi'n), thought to be the old name of
        a place at the mouth of Similkameen River.

        History.- The history of the Okanagon differed little from that
        of the Ntlakyapamuk and other neighboring tribes except that they
        were affected by the fact that a part of them were on the south
        side of the International Boundary. During the last two
        centuries, however, there has been a steady movement of the tribe
        northward, where they have displaced the Shuswap, who once hunted
        down to the head of Okanagan Lake and in the hinterland on the
        east side of it down to the latitude of Penticton. They have also
        displaced the Stuwik(?) and the Ntlakyapamuk in the Similkameen
        Valley.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that there were about 2,200
        Okanagon in 1780. Teit (1900) gives the population as between
        2,500 and 3,000. In 1905, according to the Canadian and United
        States Departments of Indian Affairs, there were 1,516 Indians
        belonging to this tribe, including 824 in Canada and 692 in the
        United States. In 1906 the numbers were given as 824 and 527,
        respectively.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The name of the
        Okanagon in the form Okanogan has been given to a county, a town
        in that county, a precinct, and a river in thc State of
        Washington, and in the form Okanagan to a lake and a town in
        British Columbia.

        Ozette. Significance unknown.

        Connections.- The Ozette werc a southern branch of the Makah
        and belonged to the Nootka branch of the Wakashan linguistic
        family.

        Location.- On the Ozette Lake and Ozette River in Clallam County.

                               Villages

        Ozette, at Flattery Rocks.

        Sooes, 4 miles south of the Makah village of Waatch.

        Population.- (See Makah.) A single Ozette Indian was reported in
        1937.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- An island, a lake,
        a river, and a village are named Ozette after them.

        Palouse. Significance unknown. Also called:

                 Pallotepellows, by Lewis and Clark in 1806.
                 .spalu'.sox, so called by Sinkiuse, said to be from a
        place name.

        Connections.- The Palouse belonged to the Shahaptian division of
        the Shapwailutan linguistic stock, and were most closely
        connected with the Nez Perce.

        Location.- In the valley of Palouse River in Washington and Idaho
        and on a small section of Snake River, extending eastward to the
        camas grounds near Moscow, Idaho. The Palouso were included in
        the Yakima treaty of 1865 but have never recognized the treaty
        obligations and have declined to lead a reservation life.

                         Subdivisions and Villages

        Almotu, on the north bank of Snake River about 30 miles nbove the
        mouth of Palouse River.

        Chimnapum, on the northwest side of Columbia River near the mouth
        of Snake River and on lower Yakima River.

        Kasispa, at Ainsworth, at the function of Snake and Columbia
        Rivers, Wash.

        Palus, on the north bank of Snake River just below its junction
        with the Palouse.

        Sokulk or Wanapum, on Columbia River above the mouth of Snake
        River.

        Tasawiks, on the north bank of Snake River, about 15 miles above
        its mouth.

        History.- The Palouse are said to have separated from the Yakima.

        Population.- Estimated by Mooney (1928) at 5,400 in 1780. In 1805
        Lewis and Clark gave 1,600. In 1854 they were said to number 500.
        The census of 1910 returned 82.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Palouse or Pelouse
        River, in Idaho and Washington, and the city of Palouse in
        Whitman County, Washington, preserve the name of the Palouse
        Indians.

        Pshwanwapam. Meaning "the stony ground." Also called Upper
        Yakima.

        Connections.- The Pshwanwapam belonged to the Shahaptian division
        of the Shapwailutan linguistic family and probably were most
        closely connected with the Yakima.

        Location.- On the upper course of Yakima River.

        Puyallup. From Pwiya'lap, the native name of Puyallup River.

        Connections.- The Puyallup belonged to the Nisqually dialectic
        group of the Coastal division of the Salishan linguistic family.

        Location.- At the mouth of Puyallup River and the neighboring
        coast, including Carr Inlet and the southern part of Vashon
        Island.

                          Subdivisions and Villages

        Esha'ktlabsh, on Hylebos Waterway.

        Kalka'lak, at the mouth of Wappato Creek.

        Klbalt, at Glencove.

        Puyallup or Spwiya'laphabsh, on Commencement Bay nnd Puyallup
        River as far up as the mouth of Clarks Creek, including the main
        settlement of the same name at the mouth of Puyallup River.

        Sha'tekad, where Glay Creek empties into the Puyallup River.

        Sko'tlbabsh, on Carr Inlet, including a Sko'tlbabsh settlement on
        Carr Inlet above the town of Minter.

        Skwapa'bsh, on the south part of Vashon Island and the land west
        of the Narrows, including a town of the same name at the mouth of
        a stream at Gig Harbor.

        Skwlo'tsid, at the head of Woilochet Bay.

        Steilacoom, on Steilacoom Creek and the neighboring beach, the
        main village on the present site of Steilacoom.

        Tsugwa'lethl, at Quartermaster Harbor.

        Tule'lakle, at the head of Burley Lagoon, Carr Inlet.

        Twa'debshab, at the mouth of a creek formerly entering
        Commencement Bay and now covered by Tacoma.

        Population.- (See Nisqually.) The report of thc United States
        Office of Indian Affairs for 1937 gave 322 Puyallup.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The name Puyallup
        is preserved by a river, an Indian reservation, a glacier, an
        important town in Pierce County, and in the ridge called Puyallup
        Cleaver.

        Queets or Quaitso. Significance unknown.

        Connections.- The Queets belonged to the Coastal division of the
        Salishan linguistic family and were most intimately related to
        their neighbors to the south, the Quinault.

        Location.- On Queets River and its branches.

        Population.- Lewis and Clark in 1805 estimated that the Queets
        numbered 250. They then occupied 18 houses. Mooney (1928)
        estimated that in 1780 they and the Quinault together numbered
        1,500, but Olson (1936) regards this figure as too high. Olson
        prints an estimate of 82 as their present population, including
        23 males over 18, 32 females over 14, and 16 children between 6
        and 16. In 1909 there were 62.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name of the
        Queets is perpetuated in that of Queets River.

        Quileute. Meaning unknown.

        Connections.- Together with the Hoh and Chimakum, the Quileute
        constituted the Chimakuan linguistic family which is possibly
        more remotely related to Wakashan and Salishan.

        Location.- On Quilayute River, on the west coast of Washington.
        They are now on the Quileute and Makah Reservations.

        Population (including the Hoh).- Mooney (1928) estimates that in
        1780 there were of the Quileute and the Hoh 500 Indians. Olson
        (1936) quotes a figure of 64 in 1888. The census of 1910 returned
        303 and the United States Office of Indian Affairs in 1937 gave
        284.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The town of
        Quillayute in Clallam County, preserves the name of the Quileute
        and it was formerly that of Soleduck River. Otherwise the tribe
        is particularly noted on account of the uniqueness of its
        language, which was spoken by no other known tribes except the
        Hoh and Chimakum (q. v.).

        Quinault. "A corruption of kwi'nail, the name of the largest
        settlement situated at the present site of the village (Taholah)"
        at the mouth of the Quinault River.

        Connections.- The Quinault belonged to the coastal division of
        the Salishan linguistic family.

        Location.- The valley of Quinault River nnd the Pacific coast
        between Raft River and Joe Creek.

                                 Subdivisions

        Lewis and Clark mention a division or associated band called
        Calasthocle.

                                   Towns
                  (Olson's (1936) list modified phonetically)

        A'alatsis, 3 miles below Lake Quinault.

        Djagaka'lmik, 1/2 mile above Nosklako's.

        Djekwe'ls, on the north bank of Quinault River about 400 yards
        above Thlathle'-lap).

        Gutse'lps, 6 miles below Lake Quinault.

        Hagwi'shtap, about 1 1/2 miles above Cook Creek.

        He'shnithl or Kuku'mnithl, on the south bank of Quinault River
        about 500 yards above Pini'lks.

        Kwakwa'h, not far from Hagwi'shtap.

        Kiwaknra'nikatctan, 4 miles below Lake Quinault.

        Kwatai'tamik, 3 miles above Kwakwa'h.

        Kwatai'tumik, on the south bank about 500 yards above Kwi'naithl.

        Kwikwa'la, perhaps 1/2 mile above Sunuksunu'ham.

        Lae'naithl, at present site of Taholah.

        Lae'lshithl, on north bank a mile or less above Heshnithl.

        La'lshithl, perhaps a mile above Djagaka'lmik on Quinault River.

        Ma'atnithl, 1 mile below the fork of upper Quinault River.

        Magwa'ksnithl, 300 yards above Kwikwa'la.

        Me'tsugutsathlan, on south bank of Quinault River at its mouth.

        Nago'olatcan, not far from Nossho'k.

        Negwe'thlan, at the mouth of Cook Creek.

        Nokedja'kt or Thla'a'lgwap, on south bank a few hundred yards
        above Tonans.

        Nomi'lthlostan, just above Kwakwa'h.

        No'omo'thlapsh, at mouth of Moclips River, which bears his name
        in a corrupted form.

        No'omo'thlapshtcu, not far above Magwa'ksnithl.

        No'skathlan, a few miles above Kwi'naithl, on the north bank of
        Quinault River.

        Noskthlako's, on south bank of Quinault River perhaps 1 mile
        above No'skathlan.

        Nossho'k, not far above Nokedja'kt.

        No'sthluk, not far from Djekwe'ls.

        Pina'alathl, located where the upper Quinault River enters Lake
        Quinault.

        Pini'lks, close to La'lshithl.

        Pino'otcan tci'ta, on the upper Quinault below Ma'anithl.

        Po'iks, on the upper Quinault above Finley Creek.

        Pote'lks, 1 mile above Tsimi'sh.

        Sunuksunu'ham, not far from Nomi'lthlostan.

        Tamo'ulgutan, just below No'omo'thlapshtcu.

        Tci'tano'sklakalathl, at the outlet of Lake Quinault.

        Thlathle'lap, at the mouth of Quinault River and on the north
        bank.

        To'nans, less than 1/2 mile above He'shnithl.

        Tsi'i'sh, 2 miles above Magwaksnithl.

        Population. - Lewis and Clark in 1805 estimated 800 Quinault
        proper and 200 Calasthocle. Mooney (1928) estimated 1,500 in 1780
        including the Quaitso, but Olson (1936) suggests 800 and regards
        that as too high if anything. This would reduce Mooney's figure
        considerably since the Quaitso were a much smaller tribe. A
        tabulation recovered by Olson but believed to be from some Indian
        agent gave 95 Quinault in 1888. The Indian Office figure for the
        two tribes in 1907 was 196. The census of 1910, however, returned
        288, presumably including the Quaitso. In 1923 the Indian Office
        returned 719 on the Quinault Reservation, perhaps representing
        several tribes, but that for 1937 gave 1,228 of the Quinault
        alone.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Quinault Lake and
        River and a small town, all in Grays Harbor County, preserve the
        name of the Quinault.

        Sahehwamish. Meaning unknown but evidently that of a locality.

        Connections.- The Sahehwamish belonged to the Nisqually dialectic
        group of the coastal division of the Salishan linguistic stock.


        Location.- On the innermost inlets of Puget Sound as indicated by
        the positions of the subdivisions given below.

                            Subdivisions

        Elo'sedabsh, on Medicine Creek and the lower reaches of Nisqually
        River, including a main settlement at the mouth of Nisqually
        River and Tuda'dab, at the mouth of McAllister or Medicine Creek.

        Sahehwamish or Sahe'wabsh, on Shelton Inlet, including the main
        settlement of Sahe'wabsh, at Arcadia, and a village opposite the
        town of Shelton.

        Skwaysithlhabsh, on Mud Bay or Eld Inlet.

        Statca'sabsh, on Budd Inlet, with its principal settlement at
        Tumwater.

        Tapi'ksdabsh, with its main settlement on Oyster Bay or Totten
        Inlet below the town of Oyster Bay.

        Tutse'tcakl, on South Bay or Henderson Inlet, between the creek
        at the hend and that on the south.

        Population.- The group to which this tribe belonged is estimated
        by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 1,200 in 1780, and he gives 780
        for the year 1907.

        Samish. Signification unknown.

        Connection.- The Samish belonged to the coastal division of the
        Salishan linguistic family.

        Location.- On Samish Bay and Samish Island, Guemes Island, and
        the northwest portion of Fidalgo Island. The Samish were later
        placed on Lummi Reservation.

                                  Villages

        Atse'ked, on the south side of the slough at Edison on Samish
        Bay.

        Dikwi'bthl.

        Gunguna'la, on Guemes Island facing west toward Cypress Island.

        Hwaibnthl, at Anacortes.

        Kwalo'l, at Summit Park on Fidalgo Bay.

        Nukhwhaiimikhl, on the southwest side of Guemes Island.

        The name of the last village listed above is from Gibbs (1877)
        and may be another name for Gunguna'la, and Gibbs' Aseakum is
        perhaps Atse'ked.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the Samish tribe, together
        with the Lummi and Nooksack, at 1,000 in 1780. No later estimate
        is given.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Samish River,
        Saniish Bay, Samish Island, and a post hamlet on Bellingham Bay
        perpetuate the name of the Samish Indians.

        Sanpoil. A native word in spite of its French aspect; meaning
        unknown. Also called:

             Hai-ai'-nima, by the Yakima.
             Ipoilq, another Yakima name.
             Nesilextci'n, .n.selixtci'n, by Sanpoil, and probably
        meaning "Salish-speaking."
             N'pochle, a shortened form of the name.


        Connections.- The Sanpoil belonged to the inland division of the
        Salishan linguistic stock, and were related most closely to its
        eastern section.

        Location.- On Sanpoil River and Nespelem Creek and on the
        Columbia below Big Bend. They were later placed on Sanpoil and
        Colville Reservations.

                          Subdivisions and Villages

        The Nespelim of Nespelem Creek were often given independent
        status. Ray gives the following villages and camps:

        Nespelim villages:

                 Haimisahun, a summer settlement of the Suspiluk, on the
        north bank of Columbia River about a half mile above the mouth of
        Nespelem River.
                 Masmasalimk, home of the Smasmasalimkuwa, approximately
        a mile and a half above Skik.
                 Nekuktshiptin, home of the Snekuktshiptimuk, at thc site
        of the present Condon's Ferry, on the north side of the river.
                 Nspilem, home of the Snspiluk, on the lower Nespelem
        from the falls to the mouth of the river.
                 Salkuahuwithl, home of the Salkuahuwithlau, across the
        river from the present town of Barry.
                 Skik, home of the Skik, about a mile above Salkuahuwithl
        on the same side of the river.
                 Skthlamchin, fishing grounds of the Salkuahuwithlau,
        across the river from the mouth of the Grand Coulee.

        Sanpoil villages:

                 Enthlukaluk, about a mile and a half north of the mouth
        of the river.
                 Hahsulauk, home of the Shnhsulauhuwa, near Plum.
                 Hulalst, home of the S-hulalstu, at Whitestone, about 8
        miles above Npuiluk.
                 Hwatsam, a winter camp, about 3 miles above Snukeilt.
                 Kakamkam, on the islands in the Sanpoil River a short
        distance above the mouth.
                 Kathlpuspusten, home of the Kathlpuspustenak, about a
        mile above Plum, on the opposite side of the river.
                 Ketapkunulak, on the banks of the Columbia just east of
        the Sanpoil River.
                 Naak, home of the Snaakau, about a mile below Plum but
        on the north side of the river.
                 Nhohogus, fishing grounds of the S-hulalstu.
                 Npokstian, a winter camp, about 2 miles above Hwatsam.
                 Npuiluk, home of the Snpuiluk, at the mouth of Sanpoil
        River, made up of the following camps: Snkethlkukwiliskanan,
        near the present landing of the Keller ferry; a branch of the
        last called by the same name, several hundred yards north of the
        first between the cliff and the Sanpoil River, on the west side;
        Kethltselchin, on the first bench above the Columbia, west of the
        Sanpoil River.
                 Nthlahoitk, a winter camp of the Snpuiluk, about halfway
        between Skthlamchin and Naak.
                 Saamthlk, home of the Saamthlk, on the opposite side of
        the river from Kathlpuspusten.
                 Skekwilk, on the west side of Sanpoil River about a mile
        above the mouth.



        

Wisconsin


        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Chippewa. This tribe pushed its way west in the latter part of the
        seventeenth century as far as the territory lying within the
        present State of Wisconsin, and the trading post established by
        the French at La Pointe became an important Chippewa base. Early
        in the eighteenth century they are said to have driven the Foxes
        out of northern Wisconsin, and they have continued to occupy that
        part of the State until the present time, having two reservations
        there. (See Minnesota.)

        Dakota. In very early times the Dakota occupied a little of the
        northwestern margin of Wisconsin. (See South Dakota.)

        Foxes. A name thought to have been derived from that of the Fox
        clan and to have been applied to the tribe through a
        misunderstanding. Also called:

             Beshde'ke, Dakota name.
             Meshkwa kihugi, own name signifying "red earth people," from
        the kind of earth from which they are supposed to have been
        created.
             O-dug-am-eeg, Chippewa name, meaning "those who live on the
        opposite side."
             Skaxshurunu, Wyandot name, meaning "fox people."
             Skuakfsagi, Shawnee name.
             To-che-wah-coo, probably the Arikara name.
             Wakusheg, Potawatomi name, meaning "foxes."

        Connetions.- The Foxes belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        family and in one group with the Sauk and Kickapoo.

        Location.- In the vicinity of Lake Winnebago or along Fox River.
        (See also Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,
        Nebraska, and Oklahoma.)

        History.- Since the closely related Sauk Indians came to
        Wisconsin from Saginaw Bay, Mich., it is probable that the Foxes
        once lived in that region as well, but it is uncertain. There is
        also a tradition that they were in northern Wisconsin and were
        driven south by the Chippewa. The French missionaries heard of
        them as early as 1640, and in 1670 found them in the location
        above given, where they remained for a long period. They were
        constantly at war with the Chippewa, and though they received aid
        from the Dakota, obtained little advantage in these contests. It
        was on account of assistance rendered the Chippewa by the French
        that the Foxes came to assume a hostile attitude toward the
        latter and finally went to war with them. In 1712 they planned an
        attack on the French fort at Detroit which nearly succeeded.
        Between 1729 and 1733 occurred a bitter war with the French in
        which the Foxes, though assisted by some Sauk, lost heavily.
        Before 1746 they were in the habit of exacting a toll from all
        white traders passing up Fox River, and for this reason they were
        attacked by a band of French, defeated, and driven down Wisconsin
        River, settling on the north bank of that stream about 20 miles
        from its mouth. In 1780, in alliance with the Dakota, they
        attacked the Chippewa at St. Croix Falls and were defeated.
        Shortly before this they had assisted the Sauk in driving the
        Illinois tribes from the northwestern part of the Rock River
        country, and they occupied these territories, but early in the
        nineteenth century they drew away from the Sauk and settled in
        Iowa. In 1842 the Foxes and the Sauk, who had taken refuge with
        them after the Black Hawk War, sold their lands in Iowa and were
        given in exchange a tract across the Missouri in Kansas. About
        1857-59 the Foxes became angered at the Sauk for entering into an
        agreement for the disposition of the lands of the two tribes
        during the absence of the former, and they returned to Iowa
        where a few of their people had always remained. There they bought
        land near Tama City on Iowa River, which they increased by
        purchase until they had more than 3,000 acres. They have remained
        on this reservation down to the present day.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1650 there must
        have been about 3,000 Foxes, but this figure seems to be somewhat
        too high. In 1728 Guignes stated that they had 200 warriors,
        probably an underestimate, but most of the figures before 1850
        fall between 1,500 and 2,500. Michelson (1919) says that the most
        reliable early estimate is that of Lewis and Clark in 1805, which
        gives 1,200. Since that date they have usually been enumerated
        with the Sauk. In 1885 the Indians at Tama, most of whom were
        Foxes, numbered 380. In 1909 the United States Indian Office
        gives 362 (nearly all Foxes) in Iowa, besides the bands in
        Oklahoma and Kansas, most of whom were Sauk. The United States
        Census of 1910 gives only 257 in Iowa, but the Indian Office
        Report of 1923 raises this again to 354. In 1930 there were 887
        Sauk and Fox, and it is assumed that the 344 returned from Iowa
        were nearly all Fox. In 1937, 441 were returned from Iowa. (See
        Sauk.)

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Historically this
        tribe is remarkable (1) as having been almost the only Algonquian
        tribe of consequence to undertake a serious war with the French,
        and (2) from its connection with the Sauk at the time of the
        uprising of the latter under Black Hawk. It has given its name to
        Fox River, Wis., and to a second Fox River, also called Pishtaka,
        which rises in Wisconsin and flows through Illinois, into the
        Illinois River. Some small places have also been named from it.

        Housatonic, see Stockbridges.

        Illinois. At one time Illinois Indians probably occupied some of
        the southern and southwestern sections of Wisconsin. (See
        Illinois.)

        Iowa. A rather pronounced tradition points to the Winnebago as
        the mother tribe of the Iowa, Oto, and Missouri, and the latter
        are supposed to have stopped at certain places within the State
        of Wisconsin during their migration to the southwest. (See Iowa.)

        Iroquois. The Iroquois anciently played an important part in the
        aboriginal history of the Indian tribes of Wisconsin, usually as
        enemies. In very late times the Oneida were given a reservation
        here where their descendants still live. (See New York.)

        Kickapoo. From Kiwegapawa, "he stands about," "he moves about,
        standing non here, now there." Also called:

             A'-uyax, Tonkawa name, meaning "deer eaters."
             Higabu, Omaha and Ponca name.
             I'-ka-du', Osage name.
             Shake-kah-quah, Wichita name.
             Shigapo, Shikapu, Apache name.
             Sik'-a-pu, Comanche name.
             Tekapu, Huron name.
             Yuntara'ye-ru'nu, a second Huron name, meaning "tribe living
        around the lakes."

        Connections.- The Kickapoo belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        stock, and in a special group with the Foxes and Sauk.

                        Subdivisions and Villages

        The villages were: Etnataek (shared with the Foxes), rather a
        fortification than a village, near the Kickapoo village on Sangamon
        River, Ill., and Kickapougowi, on the Wabash River in Crawford
        County, Ill., about opposite the mouth of Turman Creek.

        Location.- For territory occupied in Wisconsin, see History. (See
        also Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, Ohio, and
        Oklahoma.)

        History.- As suggested in the case of the Foxes, the Kickapoo may
        once have lived near the Sauk in the lower peninsula of Michigan
        but such a residence cannot be proven. If the name Outitchakouk
        used by the Jesuit missionary Druillettes refers to this tribe, as
        seems probable, knowledge of them was brought to Europeans in
        1658. At any rate they were visited by Allouez about 1667-70 and
        were then near the portage between Fox and Wisconsin Rivers,
        perhaps about Alloa, Columbia County, Wis. Early in the eighteenth
        century a part of them settled somewhere near Milwaukee
        River, and after the destruction of the Illinois about 1765, they
        moved still farther south and lived about Peoria. One portion
        then pushed down to the Sangamon, while another worked east to
        the Wabash, and made their headquarters on Vermilion River. The
        former became known as the Prairie band and the latter as the
        Vermilion band. They took part against the colonists in the War
        of 1812 and the Black Hawk War, but in 1837 a hundred of them
        were engaged to assist the United States Government against the
        Seminole. In 1809 and 1819 they ceded their lands in Illinois and
        soon removed to Missouri and thence to Kansas. About 1852 a large
        party of Kickapoo, along with some Potawatomi, went to Texas and
        thence to Mexico, where they became known as "Mexican Kickapoo."
        In 1863 another dissatisfied band joined them, and though in 1873
        part were induced to return to Indian Territory, and others
        afterward followed, nearly half the tribe remained and were
        granted a reservation in the Santa Rosa Mountains of eastern
        Chihuahua. The remainder are divided between Oklahoma and Kansas.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1650 there were 2,000
        Kickapoo. In 1759 they were estimated at 3,000; in 1817, at 2,000;
        and in 1825, at 2,200. In 1875 those in the United States were
        officially estimated at 706 and there were supposed to be about
        100 more in Mexico. In 1885 those in the United States were
        estimated at 500 and those in Mexico at 200. In 1905, 247 were
        reported in Oklahoma and 185 in Eansas, a total of 432, and
        almost as many more were thought to be in Mexico. The census of
        1910 returned 348 in the United States, of whom 211 were in
        Kansas and 135 in Oklahoma. In 1923 the United States Indian
        Office gave 277 in Eansas and 200 in Oklahoma, total 477. In 1930
        there were 523, half in Kansas and half in Oklahoma. In 1937, 332
        were returned from Eansas and 260 from Oklahoma.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Kickapoo have
        given their name to a river in Wisconsin, creeks in Illinois and
        Texas, and some small places in these States and Kansas.

        Mahican, see Stockbridges.

        Mascouten. A name applied at times to the Prairie band of the
        Potawatomi, but more often to the Peoria band of Illinois who, in
        early days, lived with or near the Kickapoo.

        Menominee. Meaning "Wild Rice Men," because they lived largely
        upon the wild rice of the lakes in and near their country. Hence
        the French "Nation de la Folle Avoine," and English "Wild Rice
        Men." Also called:

             Addle-Heads, a misinterpretation of Folles Avoines.
             Omanomini, Chippewa name.
             White Indians, as given by Long (in Keating, 1824).

        Connections.- The Menominee belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        family and to the same section as the Cree and Foxes.

        Location.- On and near the Menominee River, Wis. (See also
        Michigan.)

                              Subdivisions
                       (As given by Skinner, 1921)

        Kaka'pa'kato' Wini'niwuk, "Barricade Falls people," at Kesbena
        Falls of Wolf River.

        Kaka'nikone Tusi'-niniwug, "Portage people," at Portage, Wis.

        Kipisa'`kia Wini'wiwdk, "River Mouth people," at Prairie du
        Chien.

        Mani'towuk Tusi'niniwug, "Manitou Place people," at Manitowoc,
        Wis.

        Matc Sua'mako Tusi'niniu, "Great Sand Bar people," on the "and
        dunes at what is now called Big Suamico, on Green Bay.

        Minika'ni Wini'niwuk, "Village people," at the mouth of Menominee
        River.

        Misi'nimak Kimiko Wini'niwuk, "Michilimackinac People," near the
        old fort at Maokinac, Mich.

        Muhwa'o Se'peo Wini'niwuk, "Wolf River people," on the upper
        reaches of Wolf River.

        Nama'o Wikito' Tusi'niu, "Sturgeon Bay people," at Sturgeon Bay.

        Noma'kokon Se'peo Tusi'niniwug, "Beaver River people," near
        Winneconne, Fond du Lac, and Oshkosh.

        Oka'to Wini'niwuk, "Pike Place people," at the mouth of the
        Oconto River.

        Pa'sa'tiko Wini'niwuk, "Peshtigo River people," at the mouth of
        Peshtigo River.

        Powahe'kune Tusi'niniwug, "Rice-gathering-place people," on Lake
        Poygan.

        Sua'makosa Tusi'niniu, "Little Sand Dune people," on the sand-
        hills of Little Suamico.

        Wi'skos Se'peo Wini'niwuk, "Wisconsin River people"- the name
        Wisconsin being derived from wi'skos or wi'skons, "muskrat"- on
        the Mississippi near Wisconsin River.

        There were other settlements of Menominee at Milwaukee and at
        Fort Howard in the present city of Green Bay.

        About the time of the arrival of the Whites the old bands were
        broken up or renamed after their chiefs, and the following bands
        of this kind are recorded by Hoffman:

        Aia'miqta              Osh'kosh.
        Aqka'mot.              Pesh'tiko, evidently one of the old local
        Keshok, or Ke'so.         groups.
        Le Motte.              Piwa'qtinet.
        Ma'nabu'sho            Sha'kitok.
        O'hope'sha             Shu'nu' ni'u or Shu'nien.

        History.- Tradition says that the Menominee were driven into the
        region later identified with them, from the neighborhood of
        Michilimackinac, but when they were first known to white men they
        were already there, and they remained there until 1854, though
        their villages sometimes extended to Fox River and their later
        claims reached to the mouth of Milwaukee River on Lake Michigan
        and on the west side of Green Bay to the headwaters of Menominee
        and Fox Rivers. Westward they claimed the height of land between
        Green Bay and Lake Superior. In 1854 they ceded all their lands
        except a reserve on Wolf River, where they have continued to the
        present day.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 3,000
        Menominee in 1650. The most conservative estimates made during
        the nineteenth century range from 1,600 to 1,900. In the first
        decade of the twentieth century their numbers were placed at
        1,600, of whom 1,370 were under the Green Bay School
        superintendency, Wisconsin. The census of 1910 returned 1,422;
        1,350 in Wisconsin and the rest scattered over 8 States. The
        United States Indian Office Report for 1923 gave 1,838. The
        census of 1930 returned 1,969, and the United States Indian
        Office Report of 1937, 2,221.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Menominee
        has become applied to a county in Michigan and a city of some size
        in the same State, also to a small place in Illinois. In the form
        Menomonee, it is given to a considerable river of Wisconsin which
        flows into Green Bay, and to various other places in Wisconsin. A
        city in the same State, capital of Dunn County, bears the name
        Menomonie. Menomonee Falls are in Waukesha County, Wis. There is
        a place called Menominee in Menominee County, Mich.

        Miami. This tribe, or at least portions of it, lived in southern
        Wisconsin when it was first known to French explorers and
        missionaries but later it moved south entirely out of the State.
        (See Indiana.)

        Missouri. (See Iowa.)

        Munsee. Some Munsee moved into Wisconsin with the Stockbridges
        (q. v.).

        Noguet. This tribe may have been related to the Menominee or the
        Chippewa. At times it probably overlapped the northeastern
        border of Wisconsin. (See Michigan.)

        Oneida, see Iroquois.

        Oto. (See Iowa.)

        Ottawa. Some Ottawa lived in Wisconsin temporarily after they
        had been driven from their old homes by the Iroquois. They
        settled first on the islands at the mouth of Green Bay, and a part
        of them lived later upon Black River and at Chequamegon Bay
        before returning to their old country. (See Michigan.)

        Potawatomi. When first encountered by the French the Potawatomi
        were on the islands at the mouth of Green Bay. Later they pushed
        down the coast of Lake Michigan to Milwaukee River and thence
        to Chicago after which they drew further south into Illinois,
        Indiana, and southern Michigan. (See Michigan.)

        Sauk. From Osa'kiwug, meaning "people of the outlet," or "people
        of the yellow earth." Also called:

        Hoti'nestakon', Onondaga name.

        Satoeronnon, Huron name.

        Quatokeronon, Huron name.

        Za'-ke, Santee nnd Yankton Dakota name.

        Connection.- The Sauk belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock
        and the same subdivision as that embracing the Foxes and Kickapoo.

        Location.- On the upper part of Green Bay and lower course of
        Fox River. (See also Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota,
        Missouri, and Oklahoma.)

        History.- The earliest known home of the Sauk was about Saginaw
        Bay, Mich., which still bears their name. Shortly before the
        appearance of the Whites they were expelled from this country by
        the Ottawa and the Neutral Nation, and settled in the region
        above indicated where they remained for a considerable period. In
        1766 Carver (1796) found their chief villages on Wisconsin River.
        After the destruction of the Illinois they extended their
        territories over the Rock River district of northwestern
        Illinois. In 1804 a band of Sauk wintering near St. Louis were
        induced to enter into a treaty ceding to the United States
        Government the Sauk territories in Illinois nnd Wisconsin, but
        this transaction created so much indignation among the
        rest of the tribe when it became known that the band who made the
        treaty never returned to the rest and they have received independent
        recognition as the Missouri River Sauk. As the rest of the Sauk
        refused to move, other negotiations were entered into which were
        broken off in 1832 by the Indian outbreak known as the Black Hawk
        War. As a result of this struggle, the Sauk abandoned their
        country east of the Mississippi and sought refuge with the Foxes,
        already established in Iowa. In 1842 the Sauk, with the Foxes,
        ceded their lands in Iowa also in exchange for a tract in Kansas.
        About 1857-59, in the absence of the Foxes, the Sauk agreed to
        take up land in severalty and cede the remainder of this Kansas
        territory, and tbe Foxes, when they learned of this, returned to
        Iowa. In 1867 the Sauk ceded their lands in Kansas and removed to
        the Indian territory, and in 1889 they took up land in severalty
        and sold their surplus territories to the government.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 3,500 Sauk
        in 1650. The principal early estimates of the Sauk are: in 1736.
        750 persons; in 1759, 1,000; in 1766, 2,000; in 1783, 2,250; in
        1810, 2,850; in 1825, 4,800; in 1834, 2,500. Michelson (1919)
        states, however, that the best was that of Lewis and Clark, which
        would make them about 2,000 in 1875. In 1885 there were 457 in
        Indian Territory, including a few Foxes, and 87 in southeastern
        Nebraska. The Indian Office Report for 1909 gives 536 (chief
        Sauk) in Oklahoma, and 87 (chiefly Sauk) in Kansas. The census of
        1910 gives 347 in Oklahoma nnd 69 in Kansas, Sauk and Fox not
        being discriminated. It also records a number of individuals of
        both tribes scattered over nine other States. In 1923 the United
        States Report on Indian Affairs gave 673 in Oklahoma, and 93 in
        Kansas; total 766. The census of 1930 returned 887 Sauk and Fox,
        rather more than two-thirds being Sauk. In 1937 the United States
        Indian Office reported 126 "Sac and Fox" in Kansas and 861 in
        Oklahoma, principally Sauk.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Whatever prominence
        the Sauk have attained they owed almost entirely to the war which,
        under Black Hawk, they sustained against the Whites. Their name
        is perpetuated in Sauk River, Minn.; Sauk County, Wis.; and places
        in these two States. In the form Sac, it has been applied to a
        county and its capital in Iowa, a river in Missouri, and a small
        place in Tennessee. There is a post village called Sauk in Skagit
        County, Wash.; a Sauk City in Sauk County, Wis.; a Saukville in
        Ozaukee County in the same State; Sauk Rapids in Benton County,
        Minn.; and in the same State but in Stearns County, Sauk Centre
        which has a reputation all its own.

        Stockbridges. This name was given to a body of Indians most of
        whom belonged to the Housatonic and other tribes of the Mahican
        group, who in 1833 were placed upon n reserve in the neighborhood
        of Green Bay, along with the Oneida Indians and some Munsee.
        In 1856 all but a few who desired to become citizens removed to
        a reservation west of Shawano, Shawano County, Wis., where
        they still live. (See New York.)

        Tionontati. Remnants of this tribe were in Wisconsin as part of
        the Wyandot (q. v.).

        Winnebago. Signifying in the Fox and the Sauk languages "people of
        the filthy water," for which reason they were sometimes known to
        the French as Puants and to the English as Stinkards. Also
        called:

             Aweatsiwaenhronon, a form of the Huron name (see below).
             Banabeouiks, a shortened form of Winnebago.
             Bay Indians, so called by Lapham, Blossom, and Dousman
        (1870).
             Hati'hshi'ru'nu, Huron name, meaning "afraid of sticking in
        the mire."
             Hotanka, Dakota name.
             Hotcangara, own name, signifying "(people of the) big or
        real speech," but, through a confusion of words, often
        misinterpreted "fish eaters."
             Nipegon, so called by Long (in James (1823)).

        Connections.- The Winnebago belong to the Siouan linguistic
        family, and to a subdivision comprising also the group called by
        J. O. Dorsey (1897) Chiwere, which includes also the Iowa, Oto,
        and Missouri.

        Location.- The most ancient known habitat of this tribe was on
        the south side of Green Bay extending inland as far as Lake
        Winnebago. (See also Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and South
        Dakota.)

                                 Villages

        Those that are known by name are:

             Prairie la Crose, in southeastern Wisconsin.
             Sarrochau, on the site of Taycheeday, Fond du Lac County,
        Wis.
             Spotted Arm's Village, near Exeter, Green County, Wi.
             Village du Puant, on Wildcat Creek about a mile above its
        junction with the Wabash, above Lafayette, in Tippecanoe County,
        Ind.
             Wuckan, on Lake Poygan, Winnebago County, Wis.
             Yellow Thunder, at Yellow Banks, Green Lake County, Wis.

        History.- The Winnebago were occupants of the territory above
        mentioned from the earliest times of which we have any record.
        During the eighteenth century they spread up Fox River and still
        later extended their villages to Wisconsin and Rock Rivers. It is
        reported that they were nearly destroyed by the Illinois some
        time before 1671 but, if so, they soon recovered entirely from
        this shock. They managed to remain on better terms with the
        surrounding tribes than most of their neighbors. By treaties made
        in 1825 and 1832 they ceded all of their lands south of Wisconsin
        and Fox Rivers to the United States Government in return for a
        reservation on the west side of the Mississippi above upper Iowa
        River. In 1836 they suffered severely from the smallpox. In 1837
        they relinquished the title to their old country east of the
        Mississippi, and in 1840 they removed to the Neutral Ground in
        the territory of Iowa. Many, however, remained in their old
        lands. In 1848 the rest surrendered their reservation for one in
        Minnesota north of Minnesota River, and in 1848 removed to Long
        Prairie Reservation, bounded by Crow Wing, Watab, Mississippi,
        and Long Prairie Reservations, Minn. In 1853 they removed to Crow
        River and in 1856 to Blue Earth, Minn., where they remained until
        the Dakota outbreak of 1862, when the Whites in the section
        demanded their removal. In consequence they were taken to Crow
        Creek Reservation, S. Dak., but suffered so much from sickness,
        and in other ways, that they escaped to the Omaha for protection.
        There a new reservation was assigned to them on the Omaha lands,
        where they have since been allotted land in severalty.
        Some however, remained in Minnesota when the tribe was removed
        from that State and a larger number did not leave Wisconsin.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 3,800
        individuals belonging to the Winnebago tribe in 1650. The
        following figures have been given from time to time: In 1806,
        1,760; in 1820, 5,800; in 1837 and 1843, 4,500; in 1867, 1,750 in
        Nebraska and 700 in Wisconsin. In 1876 there were 1,463 on the
        Nebraska Reservation and 860 in Wisconsin, but 204 of the latter
        removed to Nebraska in 1877. In 1886 there were 1,222 in Nebraska
        and 930 in Wisconsin. In 1910 the United States Indian Office
        gave 1,063 in Nebraska and 1,270 in Wisconsin, but the United
        States Census of the same date gave a total Winnebago population
        of 1,820, of whom 1,007 were in Nebraska, 735 in Wisconsin, and
        the remainder scattered among 10 other States. In 1923 the Report
        of the United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs gave 1,096 in
        Nebraska. In 1930 the figure was 1,446, of whom 937 were in
        Wisconsin and 423 in Nebraska. In 1937 the United States Indian
        Office reported 1,456 in Wisconsin, and 1,212 in Nebraska. total,
        2,668.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Winnebago tribe
        is noted for the unique position it occupied, as a Siouan tribe
        surrounded by Algonquian peoples, probably having been left
        behind in the general Siouan movement west, and its reputation as
        one of the mother tribes of the Siouan stock. Its name is perpetuated
        in that of Winnebago Lake, Wis.; the names of counties in
        Iowa, Illinois, and Wisconsin; and places in Winnebago County,
        Ill.; Faribault County, Minn.; Winnebago County, Wis.; and
        Thurston County, Nebr.

        Wyandot. After being driven out of Ontario by the Iroquois, part
        of the Wyandot, along with some Ottawa, went to Michilimackinac
        and from there to Green Bay, after which they lived successively
        at several different points within the boundaries of the present
        State of Wisconsin until they finally removed to Detroit. (See
        Ohio.)



        

West Virginia


        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Moneton. Meaning "Big Water" people.

        Connections.- The Moneton belonged to the Siouan linguistic
        family; their nearest connections were probably the Manahoac and
        Monacan of Virginia and perhaps the Ofo of Ohio and Mississippi.

        Location.- Probably on the lower course of Kanawha River.

        History.- The Moneton were first mentioned by Thomas Batts in
        1671. (See Alvord and Bidgood, 1912.) Three years later they were
        visited by Gabriel Arthur, an indentured servant of the trader
        Abraham Wood, and this is the last we hear of them as an
        independent tribe. They probably united with the Siouan people in
        the Piedmont region of Virginia.

        Population.- Unknown. Arthur calls the principal Moneton
        settlement "a great town."

        Cherokee (see Tennessee), Conoy (see Maryland), Delaware
        (see New Jersey), Honniasont and Susquehanna (see Pennsylvania),
        and Shawnee (see Tennessee) settled in various parts of West
        Virginia from time to time, but none of them was established
        there at an early date for an appreciable period except perhaps
        the Conoy, whose name appears to be perpetuated in that of the
        Kanawha River. There is no information regarding the Moneton
        residence there other than the preservation of their name.




        

Wyoming

 The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Arapaho, possibly from the Pawnee tirapihu or larapihu,
        signifying "trader." Also called:

             Ahya'to, Kiowa name.
             Ano's-anyotskano, Kiohai name.
             Betidee, Kiowa Apache name.
             Detseka'yaa, Caddo name, signifying "dog eaters."
             Dog Eaters.
             E-tah-leh, Hidatsa name, signifying "bison path Indians."
             Hithnwo'iv, Cheyenne name, signifying "cloud men" or "sky
        men."
             Inuna-ina, own name, signifying "our people."
             Ita-Iddi, Hidatsa name (Maximilian).
             Kaninahoish, Chippewa name.
             Komseka-Ki'nahyup, former Kiowa name, signifying "men of the
        worn-out leggings."
             Kun na-nar-wesh or Gens des Vach[es], by Lewis and Clark
        (1804).
             Mahplyato, Dakota name, signifying "blue cloud."
             Nia'rhari's-kurikiwa'ahuski, Wichita name.
             Saretlka, Comanche and Shoshoni name, signifying "dog
        eaters"; the Pawnee, Wichita, and Ute names were forms of this.

        Connections.- Together with their near relatives, the Atsina, the
        Arapaho constitute the most aberrant group of the Algonquian
        linguistic stock.

        Location.- The Arapaho have occupied a number of different
        regions in the historic period, but after they crossed the
        Missouri they became most closely identified with northeastern
        Wyoming, where the main or northern part of the tribe resided for
        a long period and where they were finally given a reservation.
        (See also Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota,
        Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Canada.)

                               Subdivisions

        The Arapaho recognized five main divisions, which were evidently
        originally distinct tribes. Mooney (1928) calls these: (1)
        Nakasine'na, Baachinena, or Northern Arapaho; (2) Nawunena, or
        Southern Arapaho; (3) Aa'ninena, Hitunena, Atsina, or Gros
        Ventres of the Prairie, today usually reckoned as a distinct
        tribe (see Montana); (4) Basawunena, principally with the
        Northern Arapaho; and (5) Hanahawunena, or Aanu'nhawa, later
        incorporated with the Northern Arapaho. The corresponding names
        given by Kroeber (1902 b) are: Hinanae'inan (Arapaho proper),
        Nanwacinaha'anan (evidently Southern Arapaho), Hitoune'nan (Gros
        Ventres), Baasanwuune'nan, and Hananaxawuune'nan. Kroeber also
        states that four more divisions recognized in the tribe were
        evidently in reality divisions of the Hinanae'inan. These are
        Wanxue'ici ("ugly people"), about Cantonment, Okla.;
        Haxaancine'nan ("ridiculous men"), on the South Canadian, Okla.,
        Baantciine'nan ("red-willow men"), in Wyoming; and a fourth whose
        name has been forgotten.

        The following are relatively modern loral bands of the Arapaho:

             Forks-of-the-River Men, Bad Pipes, Greasy Faces, Waquithi,
        Aqathine'na, Gawunena, Haqihana, Sasabaithi, of which the first
        three were among the Northern Arapaho.

        History.- According to tradition, the Arapaho were once sedentary
        and seem to have lived in the Red River Valley, whence they moved
        southwest across the Missouri at some time prior to the passage
        of that stream by the Cheyenne. Sometime afterward the Atsina
        separated from the rest, possibly cut off from the main body by
        the Crow, and moved off to the north; and within the last century
        the rest of the tribe have slowly divided into a northern and a
        southern branch, the Northern Arapaho living along the edges of
        the mountains at the headwaters of the Platte, while the Southern
        Arapaho continued on toward the Arkansas. About 1840 they made
        peace with the Dakota, Kiowa, and Comanche but were at war with
        the Shoshoni, Ute, and Pawnee until they were confined to
        reservations. By the treaty of Medicine Lodge in 1867 the
        Southern Arapaho were placed upon a reservation in Oklahoma along
        with the Southern Cheyenne; this was thrown open to white
        settlement and the Indian lands were allotted in severalty in
        1892. The Northern Arapaho were assigned to a reservation on Wind
        River, Wyo., after having made peace with the Shoshoni who
        occupied the same reserve. The Atsina were associated with the
        Assiniboin on Fort Belknap Reservation, Mont.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 3,000
        Arapaho in 1780 and the same number of Atsina. In 1894 there were
        2,638 of the two tribes together; in 1904 there were 889 Northern
        Arapaho and 859 Southern Arapaho, a total of 1,748. The census of
        1910 reported 1,419 Arapaho, while the United States Indian
        Office Report for 1923 gives 921 Arapaho in Wyoming and 833 in
        Oklahoma, a total of 1,754. The 1930 census reported 1,241, of
        whom 867 belonged to the northern division. In 1937 there were
        1,164 Northern Arapaho and 2,836 Southern Arapaho and Cheyenne
        together.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The Arapaho were
        one of the famous raiding tribes of the Plains; their name
        appears frequently coupled with that of the Cheyenne. The name
        Arapahoe has been given to a county and a mountain in Colorado
        and to localities in Furnas County, Nebr.; Pamlico County, N. C.;
        Cheyenne County, Colo.; and Fremont County, Wyo.; and the name
        Arapaho to the county seat of Custer County, Okla.

        Bannock. Some Bannock ranged into western Wyoming. (See Idaho.)

        Cheyenne. The Cheyenne hunted and warred to some extent in the
        eastern part of Wyoming; were long allied with the Arapaho. (See
        South Dnkota.)

        Comanche. Before separating from the Shoshoni the Comanche
        probably occupied territory in Wyoming, afterward moving
        southward. (See Texas.)

        Crows. The Crows occupied in Wyoming the valleys of Powder, Wind,
        and Big Horn Rivers and ranged as far south as Laramie. (See
        Montana.)

        Dakota. Dakota hunting and war parties frequently reached the
        territory of Wyoming, but the tribe had no permanent settlements
        there. In 1876 they participated with the Northern Arapaho and
        Northern Cheyenne in the cession of the northeastern territory of
        Wyoming. (See South Dakota.)

        Kiowa. According to tradition, a tradition reinforced by other
        evidence, the Kiowa lived for a time in or near the Black Hills
        before moving south. (See Oklahoma.)

        Kiowa Apache. This tribe lived in close conjunction with the
        Kiowa. (See Oklahoma.)

        Pawnee. The Pawnee were known to Wyoming only as hunters and
        warriors. (See Nebraska.)

        Shoshoni. The Northern Shoshoni formerly occupied the western
        part of Wyoming. (See Idaho.)

        Ute. The Ute were just south of the present Wyoming and entered
        its territory at times to hunt or fight. (See Utah.)




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