The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Bannock. This tribe and the Shoshoni roamed over the northern
        part of Utah as far as the Uintah Mountains, and beyond Great
        Salt Lake. (See Idaho.)

        Gosiute. The Gosiute were a small body of Indians inhabiting the
        region about Great Salt Lake in northern Utah. They were long
        supposed to be a mixture of Ute and Shoshoni but are now known
        to have been connected only with the Shoshoni. They attracted
        particular attention because of their wretched manner of life,
        which reports frequently exaggerated unduly. (See Shoshoni,
        Western, under Idaho.)

        Navaho. This tribe occupied, at least at times, a small part of
        the southeastern section of Utah as far as the San Juan River
        (See New Mexico.)

        Paiute, Southern. The Southern Paiute occupied the southwestern
        part of Utah. (See Nevada.)

        Shoshoni, Western. The Western Shoshoni extended into northern
        Utah; they included the Gosiute, as above stated. (See Idaho.)

        Ute. Significance unknown. Also called:

             Grasshopper Indians, Pattie (1833).
             Iata-go, Kiowa name.
             Ietan, a form of their name used widely for Indians of the
        Shoshonean stoek.
             Mactcihgeha wain, Omaha and Ponca name, signifying "rabbit
        skin robes.'
             Moh-tau-hai'-ta-ni-o, Cheyenne name, signifying "the black
             Nasuia kwe, Zuni name, signifying "deer-hunting men."
             No-oehi or Notch, own name.
             Nota-a, Navaho name.
             Quazula, seems to be the Jemez name for them.
             Sapa wichasha, Dakota name, signifying "black people."
             Ta'hana, Taos name .
             Teingawuptuh, former Hopi name.
             Waatenihts, Atsina name, signifying "black."

        Connections.- The Ute belonged to the Shoshonean division of the
        Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock and were related more closely to the
        true Paiute, Kawaiisu, and Chemehuevi.

        Location.- In central and western Colorado and all of eastern
        Utah, including the eastern part of Salt Lake Valley and Utah
        Valley and extending to the upper drainage area of the San Juan
        River in New Mexico. (See also Nevada and Wyoming.)


        Capote, in the Tierra Amarilla and Chama River country,
        northwestern New Mexico.

        Elk Mountain Ute (perhaps the Sabuaguanos of Esoalante (1882) and
        Tah-bah-was-chi of Beckwith (1882), especially if the initial
        letter in one or the other case has been misread, in the Elk
        Mountains of Colorado.

        Kosunats, on Uintah Reservation in 1873.

        Moache, in southwest Colorado and northwest New Mexico.

        Pahvant, around the lower portion of Sevier Lake and River, Utah.

        Pavogowunsin, on the upper course of the Sevier River, south of
        the Salina River.

        Pikakwanarats, on the Uinta Reservation in 1873.

        Sampits or Sanpet, around Manti on San Pitch Creek but wintering
        on Sevier River, Utah.

        Seuvarits or Sheberetch, in the Castle Valley country and on
        headwaters of San Rafael River, in east central Utah.

        Tabeguache, in southwest Colorado, chiefly about Los Pinos.

        Tumpanogots or Timpaiavats, about Utah Lake, Utah.

        Uinta, in northeastern Utah.

        Wiminuche, in southwest Colorado, chiefly in the valley of the
        San Juan and its northern tributaries.

        Yampa, on and about Green and Colorado Rivers in eastern Utah.

        The Sogup, in or near New Mexico, and Yubuincariri, west of Green

        Utah, are also given as former bands, and a few others of
        uncertain status also appear, such as the Kwiumpus, Nauwanatats,
        and Unkapanukints. In later years the recognized divisions were
        reduced to three: Tabeguache or Uncompahgre, Kaviawach or White
        River, and Yoovte or Uinta.

        History.- The Ute occupied the region above indicated when they
        came to the knowledge of the Spaniards, who were the first
        Europeans to encounter them. Their warlike disposition was early
        accentuated by the introduction of horses among them. Our first
        intimate knowledge of them is derived from the diary of Fray
        Silvestre Velez de Escalante, who penetrated their country in
        1776. For a brief period they were organized into a confederacy
        under a chief named Tabby (Taiwi). The first treaty between the
        United States Government and the Ute was concluded December 30,
        1849. By Executive order of October 3, 1861, Uintah Valley was
        set apart for the Uinta Band, while the remainder of the land
        claimed by them was taken without formal purchase. By a treaty of
        October 7, 1863, a reservation was assigned to the Tabeguache,
        and the remainder of their land was taken without formal
        purchase. On May 5, 1864, various reserves, established in 1856
        and 1859 by Indian agents, were ordered vacated and sold. By a
        treaty of March 2, 1868, a reservation was created in Colorado
        for the Tabeguache, Moache, Capote, Wiminuche, Yampa, Grand
        River, Uinta, and other bands, who relinquished the remainder of
        their lands, but by an agreement of September 13, 1873, a part of
        the reservation was ceded to the United States. When it was found
        that a portion of this last cession was included in the
        Uncompahgre Valley, the part so included was retroceded to the
        Ute by Executive order of August 17, 1876. By Executive order of
        November 22, 1875, the Ute Reservation was enlarged, but this
        additional tract was restored to the public domain by an order of
        August 4, 1882. By Act of June 18, 1878, a portion of the Act of
        May 5, 1864, was repealed, and several tracts included in the
        reservations thereunder established were restored to the public
        domain. Under an agreement of November 9, 1878, the Moache,
        Capote, and Wiminuche ceded their right to the confederated Ute
        Reservation established by the 1868 treaty, the United States
        agreeing to establish a reservation for them on San Juan River, a
        promise which was finally fulfilled by Executive order of
        February 7, 1879. On March 6, 1880, the Southern Ute and the
        Uncompahgre acknowledged an agreement to settle respectively on
        La Plata River and on the Grand River near the mouth of the
        Gunnison, while the White River Ute agreed to move to the Uinta
        Reservation in Utah. Sufficient agricultural land not being found
        at the point designated as the future home of the Uncompahgre,
        the President, by Executive order of January 5, 1882, established
        a reserve for them in Utah, the boundaries of which were defined
        by Executive order of the same date. By Act of May 24, 1888, a
        part of the Uinta Reservation was restored to the public domain.
        The tribe has since been allotted land in severalty.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 4,500 Ute in
        1845, including the Gosiute. In 1870 there were supposed to be
        4,000. The official reports give 3,391 in 1885 and 2,014 in 1909.
        The census of 1910 returned 2,244; the United States Indian
        Office in 1923, 1,922, including some Paiute; and the Indian
        Office in 1937, 2,163.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The Ute shared with
        the Shoshoni the reputation of being the strongest and most
        warlike of the Plateau people. The State of Utah derives its name
        from the Ute. Utah is also the name of a county and a lake in
        this State. There is a place called Utahville in Clearfield
        County, Pa., and localities called Ute in Montrose County, Colo.,
        and Monona County, Iowa, and Ute Park in Colfax County, N. Mex.



 The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Abnaki. An Abnaki band known as the Missiassik was at one time
        settled on Missisquoi River in Franklin County. (See Maine.)
        Mahican. Bands of the Mahican hunted in the southwestern and
        western parts of the State and made temporary settlements from
        time to time. One Mahican village (Winooskeek) is thought to
        have been located at the mouth of Winooski River.
        (See New York.)

        Pennacook. The eastern margins of Vermont were occupied by the
        Pennacook, who must have hunted considerably within its borders.
        (See New Hampshire.)

        Pocomtuc. The northernmost bands of the Pocomtuc extended
        into the southern parts of the State. (See Massachusetts.)



        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Cherokee. This tribe claimed territory in the extreme
        southwestern part of the State. If not actually occupied by them,
        it at least formed part of their hunting territories. (See

        Manahoac. Meaning "They are very merry," according to Tooker
        (1895), but this seems improbable. Also called:

             Mahocks, apparently a shortened form.

        Connections.- The Manahoac belonged to the Siouan linguistic
        family; their nearest connections were probably the Monacan,
        Moneton, and Tutelo.

        Location.- In northern Virginia between the falls of the rivers
        and the mountains east and west and the Potomac and North Anna
        Rivers north and south.


        Subtribes or tribes of the confederacy as far as known were the

        Hassinunga, on the headwaters of the Rappahannock River.

        Manahoac proper, according to Jefferson (1801), in Stafford and
        Spottsylvania Counties.

        Ontponea, in Orange County.

        Shackaconia, on the south bank of the Rappahannock River in
        Spottsylvania County.

        Stegaraki, on the Rapidan River in Orange County.

        Tanxnitania, on the north side of the upper Rappahannock River in
        Fauquier County.

        Tegninateo, in Culpeper County, at the head of the Rappahannock

        Whonkentia, in Fauquier County, near the head of the


        Mahaskahod, on the Rappahannock River, probably near
        Fredericksburg, is the only town known by name.

        History.- Traditional evidence points to an early home of the
        Manahoac people in the Ohio Valley. In 1608 John Smith discovered
        them in the location above given and learned that they were
        allied with the Monacan but at war with the Powhatan Indians and
        the Iroquois (or perhaps rather the Susquehanna). After this they
        suddenly vanish from history under a certainly recognizable name,
        but there is good reason to believe that they were one of those
        tribes which settled near the falls of the James River in 1654 or
        1656 and defeated a combined force of Whites and coast Indians
        who had been sent against them. They seem to have been forced out
        of their old country by the Susquehanna. Probably they remained
        for a time in the neighborhood of the Monacan proper and were in
        fact the Mahock encountered by Lederer (1912) in 1670 at a point
        on James River which Bushnell seems to have identified with the
        site of the old Massinacack town, the fact that a stream entering
        the James at this point is called the Mohawk rendering his case
        rather strong. Perhaps the old inhabitants had withdrawn to the
        lower Monacan town, Mowhemencho. In 1700 the Stegaraki were
        located by Governor Spotswood of Virginia at Fort Christanna, and
        the Mepontsky, also placed there, may have been the Ontponea. We
        hear of the former as late as 1723, and there is good reason to
        believe that they united with the Tutelo and Saponi and followed
        their fortunes, and that under these two names were included all
        remnants of the Manahoac.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 1,500
        Manahoac in 1600 but this is probably rather too high, since
        their numbers and those of the Tutelo together seem to have been
        600-700 in 1654. However, it is possible that these figures cover
        only the Manahoac, while Mooney's include part of the Saponi and

        Meherrin. Meaning unknown.

        Connections.- The Meherrin belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic
        family, their closest connections probably being the Nottaway.

        Location.- Along the river of the same name on the Virginia-North
        Carolina border.

        History.- The tribal name Meherrin first appears in the form
        "Maharineck" in the account of an expedition by Edward Blande and
        others to North Carolina in 1650, and next in an Indian census
        taken in 1669. Later they seem to have adopted a body of
        Conestoga or Susquehanna fleeing from Pennsylvania after their
        dispersal by the Iroquois about 1675. This is the only way to
        account for the fact that they are all said to have been refugee
        Conestoga. They were living on Roanoke River in 1761 with the
        southern bands of Tuscarora and Saponi, and the Machapunga, and
        probably went north in the last Tuscarora removal in 1802. (For
        information regarding another possible band of Meherrin see

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the Meherrin population at
        700 in 1600. In 1669 they are said to have had 50 bowmen, or
        approximately 180 souls. In 1755 they were said to be reduced to
        7 or 8 fighting men, but in 1761 they are reported to have had

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Meherrin River, an
        affluent of the Chowan, running through southern Virginia and
        north-eastern North Carolina, and a Virginia town perpetuate the
        name of the Meherrin.

        Monacan. Possibly from an Algonquian word signifying "digging
        stick," or "spade," but more likely from their own language. Also

             Rahowacah, by Archer, 1607, in Smith (1884).

        Connections.- The Monacan belonged to the Siouan linguistic
        stock. Their nearest connections were the Manahoac, Tutelo, and

        Location.- On the upper waters of James River above the falls at

               (Locations as determined by D. I. Bushnell, Jr.)

        Massinacack, on the right bank of James River about the mouth of
        Mohawk Creek, and a mile or more south of Goochland.

        Mohemencho, later called Monacan Town, on the south bank of James
        River and probably covering some of "the level area bordering the
        stream in the extreme eastern part of the present Powhatan
        County, between Bernards Creek on the east and Jones Creek on the

        Rassawek, at the confluence of the James and Rivanna Rivers and
        probably "on the right bank of the Rivanna, within the angle
        formed by the two streams."

        Two other towns are sometimes added but and they afterward
        appeared as wholly independent tribes, the Saponi and the Tutelo,
        it is probable that their connection with the Monacan was never
        very intimate. They seem to have been classed as Monacan largely
        on the evidence furnished by Smith's map, in which they appear in
        the country of the "Monacans" but Smith's topography, as Bushnell
        has shown, was very much foreshortened toward the mountains and
        the Saponi and Tutelo towns were farther away than he supposed.
        Again, while Massinacack and Mohemencho are specifically referred
        to as Monacan towns and Smith calls Rassawek "the chief
        habitation" of the Monacan, there is no such characterization of
        either of the others.

        History.- Capt. John Smith learned of the Monacan in the course
        of an exploratory trip which he made up James River in May 1607.
        The people themselves were visited by Captain Newport the year
        following, who discovered the two lower towns. The population
        gradually declined and in 1699 some Huguenots took possession of
        the land of Mowhemencho. The greater part of the Monacan had been
        driven away some years before this by Colonel Bornn (Byrd?).
        Those who escaped continued to camp in the region until after
        1702, as we learn from a Swiss traveler named F. L. Michel
        (1916). It is probable that the remnant finally united with their
        relatives the Saponi and Tutelo when they were at Fort Christanna
        and followed their fortunes, but we have no further information
        as to their fate.

        Population.- The number of the Monacan was estimated by Mooney
        (1928) at 1,200 in 1600 including part of the Saponi and Tutelo,
        but they can hardly have comprised over half as many. In 1669
        there were still about 100 true Monacan as they were credited
        with 30 bowmen.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Monacan is
        perpetuated by a small place called Manakin on the north bank of
        James River, in Goochland County, Va.

        Nahyssan. A contraction of Monahassano or Monahassanugh,
        remembered in later times as Yesan.

        Connections,- The Nahyssan belonged to the Siouan linguistic
        stock, their nearest relatives being the Tutelo, Saponi, and
        probably the Monacan and Manahoac.

        Location.- The oldest known location of the Nahyssan has been
        identified by D. I. Bushnell, Jr. (1930), within very narrow
        limits as "probably on the left bank of the James, about 1 1\2
        miles up the stream from Wingina, in Nelson County."

        History.- In 1650 Blande and his companions noted a site, 12
        miles south-south vest of the present Petersburg, called "Manks
        Nessoneicks" which was presumably occupied for a time by the
        Nahyssan or a part of them, since "Manks" may be intended for
        "Tanks," the Powhatan adjective signifying "little." In 1654 or
        1666 this tribe and the Manahoac appeared at the falls of James
        River having perhaps been driven from their former homes by the
        Susquehanna. They defeated a force of colonials and Powhatan
        Indians sent against them but did not advance further into the
        settlements. In 1670 Lederer (1912) found two Indian towns on
        Staunton River, one of which he calls Sapon and the other
        Pintahae. Sapon was, of course, the town of the Saponi but it is
        believed that Pintahae was the town of the Nahyssnn Indians,
        though Lederer gives this name to both towns. Pintahae was
        probably the Hanathaskie or Hanahaskie town of which Batts and
        Fallam (1912) speak a year later. About 1675 the Nahyssan settled
        on an island below the Occaneechi at the junction of the Staunton
        and Dan Rivers. Before 1701 all of the Sionan tribes who had
        settled in this neighborhood moved into North Carolina, and it is
        thought that the Nahyssan followed the Saponi and Tutelo to the
        headwaters of the Yadkin and that their subsequent fortunes were
        identical with those of these two. (See Snponi and Tutelo.)

        Population.- (See Saponi and Tutelo.)

        Nottaway. Meaning "adders," in the language of their Algonquian
        neighbors, a common designation for alien tribes by peoples of
        that linguistic stock. Also called:

             Cheroenhaka, their own name, probably signifying "fork of a
             Mangoak, Mengwe, another Algonquian term, signifying
        "stealthy," "treacherous."

        Connections.- The Nottaway belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic
        family, their closest connections probably being the Meherrin,
        Tuscarora, and Susquchanna.

        Location.- On the river of the same name in southeastern

        History.- The Nottaway were found by the Virginia colonists in
        the location given above. Though they were never prominent in
        colonial history, they kept up their organization long after the
        other tribes of thc region were practically extinct. In 1825 they
        are mentioned as living on a reservation in Southampton County
        and ruled over by a "queen." The name of this tribe was also
        applied to a band of Indians which appeared on the northern
        frontiers of South Carolina between 1748 and 1754. They may have
        included those Susquehanna who are sometimes confounded with the
        Meherrin, and are more likely to have included Meherrin than true
        Nottaway although they retained the name of the latter (see
        Swanton, 1946).

        Population.- The number of Nottaway, exclusive of those last
        mentioned, was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 1,500 in the year
        1600. In 1709 Lawson reported one town with 30 fighting men, but
        in 1827 Byrd estimated that there were 300 Nottaway in Virginia.
        In 1825, 47 were reported. The band that made its appearance on
        the frontiers of South Carolina was said to number about 300.

        Connetion in which they have become noted.- The name of the
        Nottaway is preserved by Nottoway River, Nottoway County, and two
        towns, one the county seat of the above, the other in Sussex
        county. There is a Nottawa in St. Joseph County, Mich.

        Occaneechi. Meaning unknown.

        The Botshcnins, or Patshenins, a band associated with the Saponi
        and Tutelo in Ontario, were perhaps identical with this tribe.

        Connections.- The Occaneechi belonged to the Siouan linguistic
        stock; their closest connections were probably the Tutelo and

        Location.- On the middle and largest island in Roanoke River,
        just below the confluence of the Staunton and the Dan, near the
        site of Clarksville, Mecklenburg County, Va. (See also North

        History.- Edward Blande and his companions heard of them in 1650.
        When first met by Lederer in 1670 at the spot above mentioned,
        the Occaneechi were noted throughout the region as traders, and
        their language is said to have been the common speech both of
        trade and religion over a considerable area (Lederer, 1912).
        Between 1670 and 1676 the Occaneechi had been joined by the
        Tutelo and Saponi, who settled upon two neighboring islands. In
        the latter year the Conestoga sought refuge among them and were
        hospitably received, but, attempting to dispossess their
        benefactors, they were driven away. Later, harassed by the
        Iroquois and English, the Occaneechi fled south and in 1701
        Lawson (1860) found them on the Eno River, about the present
        Hillsboro, Orange County, N. C. Later still they united with the
        Tutelo and Saponi and followed their fortunes, having, according
        to Byrd, taken the name of the Saponi.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 1,200
        Occaneechi in the year 1600. There is no later estimate, but in
        1709 this tribe along with the Shakori, Saponi, Tutelo, and
        Keyauwee were about 750.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Occaneechi
        is associated particularly with the Occaneechi Trail or Trading
        Path, which extended southwest through North and South Carolina
        from the neighborhood of Petersburg, Va.

        Powhatan. Said by Gerard to signify "falls in a current of
        water," and applied originally to one tribe but extended by the
        English to its chief Wahunsonacock, and through him to the body
        of tribes which came under his sway. Also called:

             Sachdagugh-roonnw, Iroquois name.

        Connections.- The Powhatan belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        stock, their nearest relatives probably being the Algonquian
        tribes of Carolina and the Conoy.

        Location.- In the tidewater section of Virginia from Potomac
        River to the divide between James River and Albemarle Sound, and
        the territory of the present eastern shore of Virginia. (See also
        Maryland and District of Columbia.)


        Subtribes constituting this group are as follows:

        Accohanoc, in Accomao and part of Northampton Counties, Va., and
        probably extending slightly into Maryland.

        Accomac, in the southern part of Northampton County, Va.

        Appomattoc, in Chesterfield County.

        Arrohattoc, in Henrico County.

        Chesapeake, in Princess Anne County.

        Chickahominy, on Chickahominy River.

        Chiskiac, in York County.

        Cuttatawomen, in King George County.

        Kecoughtan, in Elizabeth City County.

        Mattapony on Mattapony River.

        Moraughtacund, in Lancaster and Richmond Counties.

        Mummapacune, on York River.

        Nansemond, in Nansemond County.

        Nantaughtacund, in Essex and Caroline Counties.

        Onawmanient, in Westmoreland County.

        Pamunkey, in King William County.

        Paspahegh, in Charles City and James City Counties.

        Pataunck, on Pamunkey River.

        Piankatank, on Piankatank River.

        Pissasee, in King George and Westmoreland Counties.

        Potomac, in Stafford and King George Counties.

        Powhatan, in Henrico County.

        Rappahannock, in Richmond County.

        Secacawoni, in Northumberland County.

        Tauxenent, in Fairfax County.

        Warrasqueoc, in Isle of Wight County.

        Weanoe, in Charles City County.

        Werowcomoco, in Gloucester County.

        Wicocomoco, in Northumberland County.

        Youghtanund, on Pamunkey River.


        Accohanoc, on the river of the same name in Accomac or
        Northampton Counties.

        Accomac, according to Jefferson (1801), about Cheriton, on
        Cherrystone Inlet, Northampton County.

        Acconoe, between Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers, in New Kent

        Accoqueck, on Rappahannock River, above Secobec, in Caroline

        Accossuwinck, on Pamunkey River, King William County.

        Acquack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River, in Caroline

        Appamattoc, on the site of Bermuda Hundred, in Prince George

        Appocant, on the north bank of Chickahominy River, in New Kent

        Arrohattoc, in Henrico County on the James River, 12 miles below
        the falls at Richmond.

        Askakep, near Pamunkey River in New Kent County.

        Assaomeck, near Alexandria.

        Assuweska, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in King George

        Attamtuck, between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers in New
        Kent County.

        Aubomesk, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Richmond

        Aureuapeugh, on Rappahannock River in Essex County.

        Cantaunkack, on York River in Gloucester County.

        Capahowasic, about Cappahosic in Gloucester County.

        Cattachiptico, on Pamunkey River in King William County.

        Cawwontoil, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in
        Richmond County.

        Chawopo, at the mouth of Chipoak Creek, Surry County.

        Checopissowo, on Rappahannock River above Tobacco Greek, in
        Caroline County.

        Chesakawon, above the mouth of Corotoman River, in Lancaster

        Chesapeake, according to Jefferson on Linnhaven River in Princess
        Anne County a small stream flowing north into Chesapeake Bay.

        Chiconessex, about Wiseville, in Accomac County.

        Chincoteague, about Chincoteague Inlet, in Accomac County.

        Chiskiac, on the south side of York River, about 10 miles below
        the junction of the Mattapony and Pamunkey.

        Cinquack, near Smiths Point on the Potomac, in Northumberland

        Cinquoteek, in the fork of Mattapony and Pamunkey Rivers, in King
        William County.

        Cuttatawomen, (1) on the Rappahannock River at Corotoman River in
        Lancaster County; (2) about Lamb Creek on the Rappahannock, in
        King George County.

        Gangasco, near Eastville, in Northampton County.

        Kapawnich, on the north bank of the Rappahannock, about Corotoman
        River in Lancaster County.

        Kerahocak, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in King
        George County.

        Kiequotank, on the eastern shore of Accomac County, north of

        Kupkipcock, on Parnunkey River in King William County.

        Machapunga, (l) in Northampton County; (2) on Potomac River.

        Mamanahunt, on Chickahominy River, in Charles City County.

        Mamanassy, at the junction of Pamunkey and Mattapony Rivers in
        King and Queen County.

        Mangoraca, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Richmond

        Mantoughquemec, on Nansemond River, in Nansemond County.

        Martoughquaunk, on Mattapony River in Caroline County.

        Massawoteck, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King
        George County.

        Matchopick, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in
        Richmond County.

        Matchut, on Pamunkey River, in New Kent County.

        Mathomauk, on the west bank of James River, in Isle of Wight

        Matomkin, about Metomkin Inlet in Accomac County.

        Mattacock, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County.

        Mattacunt, on the south side of Potomac River in King George

        Mattanock, on the west side of Nansemond River, near its mouth,
        in Nansemond County.

        Maysonec, on the north bank of the Chickahominy in New Kent

        Menacupunt, on Pamunkey River, in King William County.

        Menaskunt, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond

        Meyascosic, on the north side of James River in Charles City

        Mohominge, near the falls of James River, in Richmond County.

        Mokete, on Warrasqueoc Creek, in Isle of Wight County.

        Moraughtacund, near the mouth of Moratico River in Richmond

        Mouanast, on the north bank of Rappahannock River, in King George

        Mutchut, on the north bank of the Mattapony River in King and
        Queen County.

        Muttamussinsack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in
        Caroline County.

        Myghtuckpassu, on the south bank of Mattapony River in King
        William County.

        Namassingakent, on the south bank of Potomac River in Fairfax

        Nameroughquena, on the south bank of the Potomac River in
        Alexandria County, opposite Washington, D. C.

        Nansemond, probably about Chuckatuck in Nansemond County.

        Nantapoyac, on the south bank of James River in Surry County.

        Nantaughtacund, on the south side of the Rappahannock River in
        either Essex County or Caroline County.

        Nawacaten, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in
        Richmond County.

        Nawnautough, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in
        Richmond County.

        Nechanicok, on the south bank of the Chickahominy in the lower
        part of Henrico County.

        Nepawtacum, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Lancaster

        Onancock, near Onancock in Accomac County.

        Onawrnanient, probably on Nominy Bay, in Westmoreland County.

        Opiscopank, on the south bank of the Rappahannock River in
        Middlesex County.

        Oquomock, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond

        Orapaks, in New Kent County, between the Chickahominy and
        Pamunkey Rivers.

        Ottachugh, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in
        Lancaster County.

        Ozatawomen, on the south bank of the Potomac River in King George

        Ozenic, on Chickahominy River in New Kent County.

        Pamawauk, perhaps identical with Pamunkey.

        Pamuncoroy, on the south bank of Pamunkey River in New Kent

        Pamunkey, probably near West Point in King William County.

        Papiscone, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in King George

        Pasaugtacock, on the north bank of York River in King and Queen

        Paspahegh, (1) on the south bank of Chickahominy River in Charles
        City County; (2) on the north bank of James River in Charles City

        Passaunkack, on the south bank of Mattapony River in the
        northwestern part of King William County.

        Pastanza, on or near Potomac River, possibly on Aquia Creek, in
        Stafford County.

        Pawcocomac, on the north bank of Rappahannock River at the mouth
        of the Corotoman in Lancaster County.

        Pecearecamek, an Indian settlement reported on the southern
        Virginia border, perhaps mythical.

        Pemacocack, on the west bank of Potomac River in Prince William
        County about 30 miles below Alexandria.

        Piankatank, on Piankatank River in Middlesex County.

        Pissacoac, On the north bank of Rappahannock River above
        Leedstown in Westmoreland County.

        Poruptanck, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County.

        Potaucac, in New Kent County between the Chickahominy and
        Pamunkey Rivers.

        Potomac, about 55 miles in a straight line from Chesapeake Bay,
        on a peninsula in whnt is now Stafford County, formed by Potomac
        River and Potomac Creek.

        Powcomonet, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond

        Powhatan, on the north bank of James River at the falls on ground
        now forming an eastern suburb of Richmond.

        Poyektauk, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond

        Poykemkack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond

        Pungoteque, in Accomac County, probably near Metomkin Inlet.

        Quackcohowaon, on the south bank of the Mattapony in King William

        Quioucohanock, probably on an eminence now called Wharf Bluff
        just east of Upper Chipoak Creek in Surry County.

        Quiyough, on the south bank of Aquia Creek near its mouth, in
        Stafford County.

        Rappahannock, at the mouth of a creek on Rappahannock River in
        Richmond County.

        Rickahake, probably in Norfolk County.

        Righkahauk, on the west bank of Chickahominy River in New Kent

        Ritanoe, probably Powhatan, in Virginia or North Carolina.

        Roscows, in Elizabeth City County.

        Secacawoni, at the mouth of Coan Creek on the south bank of the
        Potomac in Northumberland County.

        Secobeck, on the south bank of Rappahannock River in Caroline

        Shamnpa, on Pamunkey or York River.

        Sockobeck, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George

        Tantucquask, on Rappahannock River in Richmond County.

        Tauxenent, about Mount Vernon in Fairfax County.

        Teracosick, on the west bank of Nansemond River in Nansemond

        Utenstank, on the north bank of Mattapony River in Caroline

        Uttamussac, on the north bank of Pamunkey River in King William

        Uttamussamacoma, on the south bank of Potomac River in
        Westmoreland County.

        Waconiask, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George

        Warrasqueoc, on the south bank of James River at the mouth of

        Warrasqueoc Creek in Isle of Wight County.

        Weanoc, below the mouth of Appamattox River at the present
        Weyanoke in Prince George County.

        Wecuppom, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond

        Werawahon, on the north bank of Chickahominy River in New Kent

        Werowacomoco, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester
        County about opposite the mouth of Queen Creek.

        Wicocomoco, at the mouth of Wicomico River in Northumberland

        Winsack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond

        History.- The Powhatan were visited by some very early explorers,
        including probably the Cabots in 1498. Their territory was well
        known to the Spaniards in the latter part of the sixteenth
        century and a Jesuit mission was established among them in 1570
        though soon extinguished by the Indians. In 1607 the Virginia
        colony was planted on James River and from that time on relations
        between the Whites and Powhatans were of the most intimate
        character, friendly at first, but later disturbed by the
        exactions of the newcomers. Peace was restored for a lime by the
        marriage of Powhatan's daughter Pocahontas to John Rolfe, and
        lasted until Powhatan's death in 1618. In 1622 Powhatan's second
        successor, Opechancanough, led an uprising against the colonists,
        as a result of which all of the White settlements except those
        immediately about Jamestown were destroyed. War continued until
        1636 when exhaustion of both sides led to peace, but in 1644
        Opechnncanough led another uprising as destructive as the first.
        He was captured and was killed the same year. The tribes made
        peace separately, and they were placed upon reservations, where
        they gradually dwindled away. In 1654 or 1656 the Pamunkey
        assisted the English in resisting an invasion of some inland
        people, but the allied army was severely defeated (see Manahoac).
        In 1675 these Indians were accused of having committed certain
        depredations, really caused by the Conestoga, and several
        unauthorized expeditions were led against them by Nathaniel
        Bacon. In August 1676 a great body of them gathered in a fort
        nenr Richmond which was carried by storm, and men, women, and
        children indiscriminately massacred. Peace was made with the
        survivors on condition that an annual tribute be paid by each
        village. In 1722 in a treaty made at Albany between the English
        nnd Iroquois, the latter agreed to cease their attacks upon the
        Powhatan Indians, but the Powhatans already had been greatly
        reduced and they continued to decline. Those on the eastern shore
        of Virginia, who had become very much mixed with Negroes, were
        driven away in 1831 during the excitement caused by the slave
        rising under Nat Turner. In 1785 Jefferson reported the Powhatan
        Indians reduced to two tribes, the Pnmunkey and Mattapony,
        embracing only about 15 men, but he must have overlooked great
        numbers of these Indians, for at the present time there are
        several bands, including the Chickahominy, Nansemond, Pamunkey,
        Mattapony, Upper Mattapony, Rappahannock, Wicocomoco, Potomac,
        Powhatan, and Werowocomoco (Speck, 1925).

        Population.- The Powhatan population was estimated by Mooney
        (1928) as 9,000 in 1600; Smith (1884) allows them 2,400 warriors;
        in 1669 a census gave 528 warriors or about 2,000 population, the
        Wicocomoco being then the largest tribe. In 1705 the Pamunkey by
        themselves numbered 150 souls. Jefferson in 1785 represented the
        two tribes which he mentions as having but 15 men; Mooney,
        however, believed that there must have been a population of
        something like 1,000 because of the number of mixed-bloods still
        surviving. The census of 1910 returned 115 Chickahominy and 85
        Pamunkey. The United States Office of Indian Affairs Report for
        1923 includes still other bands, giving in all a population of
        822, and Speck (1925) gives the names of 10 bands aggregating
        2,118 in 1923. The census of 1930 returned only 203 Indians from
        Virginia but evidently missed nearly all except the Pamunkey.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Powhatan
        Confederacy is famous as embracing those Indians among whom the
        first permanent English settlement in North America was made;
        for the personal character of its chief, Powhatan, who had
        conquered about 24 tribes, in addition to the 6 under him at his
        accession, before the appearance of the Europeans; on account of
        the dealings of the Whites with both Powhatan and his brother
        Opechancanough, as well as the massacre of the settlers by the
        latter in 1622 and again in 1644; and not least from the fame
        attached to Powhatan's daughter, Pocahontas. There are post
        villages named Powhatan in Jefferson County, Ala.; Lawrence
        County, Ark.; Natchitoches Parish, La.; McDowell County, W. Va.;
        a county and county seat of the name in Virginia; Powhatan Point
        in Belmont County, Ohio; and Powhattan in Brown County, Kans.

        Saponi. Evidently a corruption of Monasiccapano or
        Monasukapanough, which, as shown by Bushnell, is probably derived
        in part from a native term "moni-seep" signifying "shallow
        water." Paanese is a corruption and in no way connected with the
        word "Pawnee."

        Connections.- The Saponi belonged to the Siouan linguistic
        family, their nearest relations being the Tutelo.

        Location.- The earliest known location of the Saponi has been
        identified by Bushnell (1930) with high probability with "an
        extensive village site on the banks of the Rivanna, in Albemarle
        County, directly north of the University of Virginia and about
        one-half mile up the river from the bridge of the Southern
        Railway." This was their location when, if ever, they formed a
        part of the Monacan Confederacy. (See also North Carolina,
        Pennsylvania, and New York.)


        The principal Saponi settlement usually bore the same name as the
        tribe or, at least, it has survived to us under that name. In
        1670 Lederer reports another which he visited called Pintahae,
        situated not far from the main Saponi town after it had been
        removed to Otter Creek, southwest of the present Lynchburg
        (Lederer, 1912), but this was probably the Nahyssan town.

        History.- As first pointed out by Mooney (1895), the Saponi tribe
        is identical with the Monasukapanough which appears on Smith's
        map as though it were a town of the Monacan and may in fact have
        been such. Before 1670, and probably between 1650 and 1660, they
        moved to the southwest and probably settled on Otter Creek, as
        above indicated. In 1670 they were visited by Lederer in their
        new home and by Thomas Batts (1912) a year later. Not long
        afterward they and the Tutelo moved to the junction of the
        Staunton and Dan Rivers, where each occupied an island in Roanoke
        River in Mecklenburg County. This movement was to enable them to
        escape the attacks of the Iroquois, and for the same reason they
        again moved south before 1701, when Lawson (1860) found them on
        Yadkin River near the present site of Salisbury, N. C. Soon
        afterward they left this place and gravitated toward the White
        settlements in Virginia. They evidently crossed Roanoke River
        before the Tuscarora War of 1711, establishing themselves a short
        distance east of it and 15 miles west of the present Windsor,
        Bertie County, N. C. A little later they, along with the Tutelo
        and some other tribes, were placed by Governor Spotswood near
        Fort Christanna, 10 miles north of Roanoke River about the
        present Gholsonville, Brunswick County. The name of Sappony Creek
        in Dinwiddie County, dating back to 1733 at least, indicates that
        they sometimes extended their excursions north of Nottoway River.
        By the treaty of Albany (1722) the Iroquois agreed to stop
        incursions on the Virginia Indians and, probably about 1740, the
        greater part of the Saponi and the Tutelo moved north stopping
        for a time at Shamokin, Pa., about the site of Sunbury. One band,
        however, remained in the south, in Granville County, N. C., until
        at least 1756, when they comprised 14 men and 14 women. In 1753
        the Cayuga Iroquois formally adopted this tribe and the Tutelo.
        Some of them remained on the upper waters of the Susquehanna in
        Pennsylvania until 1778, but in 1771 the principal section had
        their village in the territory of the Cayuga, about 2 miles south
        of Ithaca, N. Y. They are said to have separated from the Tutelo
        in 1779 at Niagara, when the latter fled to Canada, and to have
        become lost, but a portion, at least, were living with the Cayuga
        on Seneca River in Seneca County, N. Y., in 1780. Besides the
        Person County Indians, a band of Saponi Indians remained behind
        in North Carolina which seems to have fused with the Tuscarora,
        Meherrin, and Machapunga and gone north with them in 1802.

        Population.- The Saponi and the Tutelo are identified by Mooney
        (1928) as remnants of the Mannhoac and Monacan with an estimated
        population of 2,700 in 1600. In 1716 the Huguenot Fontaine found
        200 Saponi, Manaboac, and Tutelo at Fort Christanna. In 1765,
        when they were living on the upper Susquehanna, the Saponi are
        said to have had 30 warriors. The main North Carolina band
        counted 20 warriors in 1761, and those in Person County, 14 men
        and 14 women in 1755.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- A small place called
        Sapona, in Davidson County, N. C., east of the Yadkin River,
        preserves the name of the Saponi.

        Shakori. They seem to have lived in the State at one time. (See
        North Carolina.)

        Shawnee. Indians of this tribe were settled for a time in the
        Shenandoah Valley. (See Tennessee.)

        Tutelo. Significance unknown but used by the Iroquois, who seem
        to have taken it from some southern tongue. Also called:

             Kattera, another form of Tutelo.
             Shateras, a third form of the name.

        Connections.- The Tutelo belonged to the Siouan linguistic
        family, their nearest connections being thc Saponi and probably
        the Monacan.

        Location.- The oldest known town site of the Tutelo was near
        Salem, Va., though the Big Sandy River at one time bore their
        name and may have been an earlier seat. (See also North Carolina,
        New York, and Pennsylvania.)

        History.- In 1671 Fallam and Batts (1912) visited the town above
        mentioned. Some years later the Tutelo moved to an island in
        Roanoke River just above the Occaneechi, but in 1701 Lawson found
        them still farther southwest, probably about the headwaters of
        the Yadkin (Lawson, 1860). From that time forward they
        accompanied the Saponi until the latter tribe separated from
        them at Niagara as above noted. In 1771 they were settled on the
        east side of Cayuga Inlet about 3 miles from the south end of the
        lake. This village was destroyed by Sullivan in 1779, but the
        Tutelo continued to live among the Cayuga sufficiently apart to
        retain their own language until 1898, when the last individual
        who could speak it fluently died. A certain amount of Tutelo
        blood flows in the veins of some of the Iroquois. (For further
        information, see Swanton (1937).)

        Population.- (See Saponi.) In 1701-9, according to Lawson (1860),
        the Tutelo, Saponi, Keyauwee, Occaneechi, and Shakori numbered
        together about 750. In 1715 Governor Spotswood reported that the
        Indians at Fort Christanna, including the Tutelo, Saponi,
        Occancechi, and Manahoac, numbered 300. In 1763 the Tutelo,
        Saponi, Nanticoke, and Conoy had 200 men, probably less than
        1,000 souls.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Tutelo are note-
        worthy chiefly as the principal body of Siouan Indians from
        Virginia to retain their integrity and preserve a knowledge of
        their language late enough for a permanent record of it to be

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