South Carolina

        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Catawha. Significance unknown though the name was probably native
        to the tribe. Also called:

             Ani'ta'gua, Cherokee name.
             Iswa or Issa, signifying "river," and specifically the
        Catawba River; originally probably an independent band which
        united early with the Catawba proper.
             Oyadagahroenes, Tadirighrones, Iroquois names.
             Usherys, from iswahere, "river down here"; see Issa.

        Connections.- The Catawba belonged to the Siouan linguistic
        family, but Catawba was the most aberrant of all known Siouan
        languages, though closer to Woccon than any other of which a
        vocabulary has been recorded.

        Loction.- In York and Lancaster Counties mainly but extending
        into the neighboring parts of the State and also into North
        Carolina and Tennessee.


        Two distinct tribes are given by Lawson (1860) and placed on
        early maps, the Catawba and Iswa, the latter deriving their name
        from the native word meaning "river," which was specifically
        applied to Catawba River.


        In early days this tribe had many villages but few names have
        come down to us. In 1728 there were six villages, all on Catawba
        River, the most northerly of which was known as Nauvasa. In 1781
        they had two called in English Newton and Turkey Head, on
        opposite sides of Catawba River.

        History.- The Catawba appear first in history under the name Ysa,
        Issa (Iswa) in Vandera's narratives of Pardo's expedition into
        the interior, made in 1566-67. Lederer (1912) visited them in
        1670 and calls them Ushery. In 1711-13 they assisted the Whites
        in their wars with the Tuscarora, and though they participated in
        the Yamasce uprising in 1715 peace was quickly made and the
        Catawba remained faithful friends of the colonists ever after.
        Meanwhile they declined steadily in numbers from diseases
        introduced by the Whites, the use of liquor, and constant warfare
        with the Iroquois, Shawnee, Delaware, and other tribes. In 1738
        they were decimated by smallpox and in 1759 the same disease
        destroyed nearly half of them. Through the mediation of the
        Whites, peace was made at Albany in 1759 between them and the
        Iroquois, but other tribes continued their attacks, and in 1763 a
        party of Shawnee killed the noted Catawba King Haigler. The year
        before they had left their town in North Carolina and moved into
        South Carolina, where a tract of land 15 miles square had been
        reserved for them. From that time on they sank into relative
        insignificance. They sided with the colonists during the
        revolution and on the approach of the British troops withdrew
        temporarily into Virginia, returning after the battle of Guilford
        Court House. In 1826 nearly the whole of their reservation was
        leased to Whites, and in 1840 they sold all of it to the State of
        South Carolina, which agreed to obtain new territory for them in
        North Carolina. The State refused to part with any land
        for that purpose, however, and most of the Catawba who had gone
        north of the State line were forced to return. Ultimately a
        reservation of 800 acres was set aside for them in South Carolina
        and the main body has lived there ever since few continued in
        North Carolina and others went to the Cherokee, but most of these
        soon came back and the last of those who remained died in 1889. A
        few Catawba intermarried with the Cherokee in later times,
        however, and still live there, and a few others went to the
        Choctaw Nation, in what is now Oklahoma, and settled near
        Scullyville. These also are reported to be extinct. Some families
        established themselves in other parts of Oklahoma, in Arkansas,
        and near Sanford, Colo., where they have gradually been absorbed
        by the Indian and White population. About 1884 several Catawba
        were converted by Mormon missionaries and went to Salt Lake City,
        and in time most of those in South Carolina became members of the
        Mormon Church, although a few are Baptists. Besides the two
        divisions of Catawba proper, the present tribe is supposed to
        include remnants of about 20 smaller tribes, principally Siouan.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Catawba in
        1600, including the Iswa, at 5,000. About 1692 the tribe was
        supposed to contain 1,500 warriors or about 4,600 souls; in 1728,
        400 warriors or about 1,400 souls; and in 1743, after
        incorporating several small tribes, as having less than that
        number of warriors. In 1752 we have an estimate of about 300
        warriors, or about 1,000 people; in 1755, 240 warriors; in 1757,
        about 300 warriors and 700 souls; and in 1759, 250 warriors.
        Although there is an estimate accrediting them with 300 warriors
        in 1761, King Haigler declared that they had been reduced by that
        year, after the smallpox epidemic of 1760, to 60 fighting men. In
        1763 fewer than 50 men were reported, and in 1766 "not more than
        60." In 1773 there was estimated a total population of 400; in
        1780, 490; in 1784, 250: in 1822, 450; in 1826, 110. In 1881
        Gatschet found 85 on the reservation and 35 on adjoining farms, a
        total of 120. The census of 1910 returned 124, and in 1912 there
        were about 100, of whom 60 were attached to the reservation. The
        census of 1930 gave 166, all but 7 in South Carolina Connection
        in which they have become noted.- The Catawba, whether originally
        or by union with the Iswa, early became recognized as the most
        powerful of all the Siouan peoples of Carolina. They are also the
        tribe which preserved its identity longest and from which the
        greatest amount of linguistic information has been obtained. The
        name itself was given to a variety of grape, and has
        become applied, either adopted from the tribe directly or taken
        from that of the grape, to places in Catawba County, N. C.;
        Roanoke County, Va.; Marion County, W. Va.; Bracken County, Ky.;
        Clark County, Ohio; Caldwell County, Mo.; Steuben County, N. Y.;
        Blaine County, Okla.; York County, S. C.; and Price County, Wis.
        It is also borne by an island in Ohio, and by the Catawba River
        of the Carolinas, a branch of the Wateree.

        Cherokee. The extreme northwestern portion of the State was
        occupied by Cherokee Indians. (See Tennessee.)

        Chiaha. A part of this tribe lived in South Carolina at times.
        (See Georgia.)

        Chickasaw. The Chickasaw territory proper was in northern
        Mississippi, at a considerable distance from the State under
        discussion, but about 1753 a body of Chickasaw Indians settled on
        the South Carolina side of Savannah River, to be near the English
        trading posts and to keep in contact with the English, who were
        their allies. Before 1757 most of them moved over to the
        immediate neighborhood of Augusta and remained there until the
        period of the American Revolution. In that war they sided against
        the colonists and their lands were confiscated in 1783. (See

        Congaree. Meaning unknown.

        Connection.- No words of this language have been preserved but
        the form of the name and general associations of the tribe leave
        little doubt that it was a Siouan dialect, related most closely
        to Catawba.

        Location.- On Congaree River, centering in the neighborhood of
        the present State Capital, Columbia.


        The only village mentioned bore the same name as the tribe and
        was sometimes placed on the Congaree opposite Columbia, sometimes
        on the north side of the river.

        History.- The Congaree are mentioned in documents of the seventeenth
        century as one of thc small tribes of the Piedmont region.
        In 1701 Lawson (1860) found them settled on the northeast bank of
        Santee River below the mouth of the Wateree. They took part
        against the Whites in the Yamasec War of 1715, and in 1716 over
        half of them were captured and sent as slaves to the West Indies.
        The remnant appear to have retreated to the Catawba, for Adair
        (1930) mentions their dialect as one of those spoken in the Catawba

        Population.- The Congaree are estimated by Mooney (1928) at 800
        in 1600. A census taken in 1715 gives 22 men and a total
        population of about 40.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Congaree River and a
        railroad station in Richland County, S. C., preserve the name;
        Columbia, the State capital, was originally known as the
        Congarees. Creeks. In the time of De Soto, Cofitachequi, which
        seems to have been either Kasihta or Coweta, and a few other
        Creek towns including perhaps Hilibi and part of the Chiaha
        Indians were in the territory of the present State of South
        Carolina near Savannah River. The Coosa of Coosawhatchie, Edisto,
        and Ashley Rivers may have been Creek in origin, and in Inter
        times Creeks constantly resorted to the provincial settlements in
        this area. (See Alabama.)

        Cusabo. Meaning perhaps "Coosawhatchie River (people)."

        Connections.- There is little doubt that the Cusabo belonged to
        the Muskhogean linguistic family. Their closest connections
        appear to have been with the Indians of the Georgia coast, the

        Location.- In the southern-most part of South Carolina between
        Charleston Harbor and Savannah River and including most of the
        valleys of the Ashley, Edisto, Ashepoo, Combahee, Salkehatchie,
        and Coosawhatchie Rivers.


        These people should be divided first into the Cusabo proper, who
        occupied all of the coast, and the Coosa, who were inland upon
        the rivers above mentioned. The Cusabo proper seem to have
        consisted of a northern group of tribes or subtribes, including
        the Etiwaw (on Wando River), Wando (on Cooper River), Kiawa (on
        the lower course of Ashley River), and perhaps the Stono (about
        Stono Entrance); and a southern group including the Edisto (on
        Edisto Island), Ashepoo (on lower Ashepoo River), Combahee (on
        lower Combahee River) Wimbee (between the latter and the lower
        Coosawhatchie River), Escamacu (between St. Helena Sound and
        Broad River), and perhaps a few others. Sometimes early writers
        erroneously include the Siouan Senee and Santee as Cusabo.


        Ahoys or EIoya, on or near Broad River.

        Ahoyabi, near the preceding.

        Aluste, near Beaufort, possibly a form of Edisto.

        Awendaw, near Awendaw Creek; it may have been Sewee (q. v.).

        Bohicket, near Rockville.

        Cambe, near Beaufort.

        Chatuache, 6-10 leagues north of Beaufort.

        Mayon, probably on Broad River.

        Talapo, probably near Beaufort.

        Touppa, probably on Broad River.

        Yanahume, probably on the south side of Broad River.

        History.- While their country was most likely skirted by earlier
        navigators, the first certain appearance of the Cusabo in history
        is in connection with a slave-hunting expedition sent out by
        Vasques de Ayllon. This reached the mainland in 1521, probably a
        little north of the Cusabo territory and introduced the blessings
        of White civilization to the unsuspecting natives by carrying
        away about 70 of them. One of these Indians was finally taken to
        Spain and furnished the historian Peter Martyr with considerable
        information regarding his country and the names of a number of
        tribes, some of whom were certainly Cusabo. In 1525 Ayllon sent a
        second expedition to the region and in 1526 led a colony thither.
        Dissatisfied with his first landing place, probably near the
        landfall of the expedition of 1521, he moved the colony "40 or 45
        leagues," perhaps to the neighborhood of Savannah River. But it
        did not prosper, Ayllon died, trouble broke out among the
        survivors, and finally they returned to Haiti in the middle of
        the following winter. In 1540 De Soto passed near this country,
        but apparently he did not enter it, and the next European contact
        was brought about by the settlement of Ribault's first colony at
        Port Royal in 1562. The small number of people left by Ribault
        managed to maintain themselves for some time with the assistance
        of friendly natives, but, receiving no relief from France, they
        became discouraged, and built a small vessel in which a few of
        them eventually reached home. In 1564 a Spanish vessel visited
        this coast for the purpose of rooting out the French settlement.
        Later the same year a second Huguenot colony was established on
        St. Johns River, Florida, and communication was maintained with
        the Cusabo Indians. In 1565 this colony was destroyed by the
        Spaniards who visited Port Royal in quest of certain French
        refugees, and the year following Fort San Felipe was built at the
        same place. From this time until 1587 a post was maintained here,
        although with some intermissions due to Indian risings. In 1568-
        70 a vain attempt was made to missionize the Indians. In 1576 a
        formidable Indian uprising compelled the abandonment of the fort,
        but it was soon reoccupied and an Indian town was destroyed in
        1579 by way of reprisal. Next year, however, there was a second
        uprising, making still another abandonment necessary. The fort
        was reoccupied in 1582 but abandoned permanently 5 years later;
        and after that time there was no regular post in the country but
        communication was kept up between the Cusabo and St. Augustine
        and occasional visits seem to have been made by the Franciscan
        Friars. Between 1633 and 1665 we have notice of a new mission in
        Cusabo territory, called Chatuache, but when the English settled
        South Carolina in 1670 there appears to have been no regular
        mission there and certainly no Spanish post. Charleston was
        founded on Cusabo soil, and from the date of its establishment
        onward relations were close between the English and Cusabo. In
        1671 there was a short war between the colonists and the Coosa
        Indians and in 1674 there was further trouble with this people
        and with the Stono. In 1675 the Coosa Indians surrendered to the
        English a large tract of land which constituted Ashley Barony,
        and in 1682 what appears to have been a still more sweeping land
        cession was signed by several of the Cusabo chiefs. In 1693 there
        was another short war, this time between the Whites and the
        Stono. A body of Cusabo accompanied Colonel Barnwell in his
        expedition against the Tuscarora in 1711-12, and this fact may
        have quickened the consciences of the colonists somewhat, because
        in 1712 the Island of Palawana, "near the Island of St. Helena,"
        was granted to them. It appears that most of their plantations
        were already upon it but it had inadvertently been granted to a
        white proprietor. The Cusabo here mentioned were those of the
        southern group; there is reason to think that the Kiawa and Coosa
        were not included. Early in 1720 "King Gilbert and ye Coosaboys"
        took part in Col. John Barnwell's punitive expedition against St.
        Augustine (Barnwell, 1908). In 1743 the Kiawa were given a grant
        of land south of the Combahee River, probably to be near the
        other coast Indians. Part of the Coosa may have retired to the
        Catawba, since Adair (1930) mentions "Coosah" as one of the
        dialects spoken in the "Catawba Nation," but others probably went
        to the Creeks. At least one band of Cusabo may have gone to
        Florida, because, in "A List of New Indian Missions in the
        Vicinity of St. Augustine," dated December 1, 1726, there is
        mention of a mission of San Antonio "of the Cosapuya nation and
        other Indians" containing 43 recently converted Christians and 12
        pagans. Two years later we are informed that "the towns of the
        Casapullas Indians were depopulated," though whether this has
        reference to the ones in Florida or to those in their old country
        is not clear.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the number of southern
        Cusabo, exclusive of the Edisto, at 1,200 in 1600, the Edisto at
        1,000, the Etiwaw at 600, and the Coosa at 600. He classifies the
        Stono with the Westo, thereby falling into a common error. The
        colonial census of 1715 gives the number of southern Cusabo as
        295, including 95 men, in 5 villages, while the Etiwaw (probably
        including the other northern Cusabo) had 1 village, 80 men, and a
        total population of 240. There were thus 535 Cusabo over all. The
        Coosa are nowhere mentioned by name and were probably included
        with one or the other of these. The 55 Indians at the Florida
        mission above mentioned, consisting of individuals of "the
        Cosapuya nation and other Indians," included 24 men, 13 women,
        and 18 children.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The first part of
        the name Coosa is identical in origin with the first part of the
        name of Coosawhatchie River, S. C., and a post village. The
        people themselves are noted in history as the first in eastern
        North America north of Florida among whom European settlements
        were begun. They had an earlier and longer contact with Europeans
        than any other Indians on the Atlantic seaboard except those of
        the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

        Eno. This tribe moved into the northern part of the State after
        1716 and perhaps united ultimately with the Catawba. At some
        prehistoric period they may have lived on Enoree River. (See
        North Carolina.)

        Keyauwee. They settled on the Pee Dee after 1716 and probably
        united with the Catawba. (See North Carolina.)

        Natchez. A band of Indians of this tribe lived for several years
        at a place called Four Hole Springs in South Carolina but left in
        1744 fearing the vengeance of the Catawba because of seven of
        that tribe whom they had killed. (See Mississippi.)

        Pedee. Meaning unknown, but Speck (1935) suggests from Catawba
        pi'ri, "something good," or pi'here, "smart," "expert,"

        Connections.- No words of the language have survived but there is
        every reason to suppose that it was a dialect of the Siouan
        linguistic family.

        Loction.- On Great Pee Dee River, particularly its middle course.


        No village names are known apart from the tribal name, which was
        sometimes applied to specific settlements.

        History.- The Pedee are first mentioned by the colonists of South
        Carolina. In 1716 a place in or near their country called Saukey
        (perhaps Socatee) was suggested as the site for a trading post
        but the proposition to establish one there was given up owing to
        the weakness of the Pedce tribe, who were thought to be unable to
        protect it. In 1744, the Pedee, along with Natchez Indians,
        killed some Catawba and were in consequence driven from their
        lands into the White settlements. Soon afterward most of them
        joined the Catawba, but some remained near the Whites, where they
        are mentioned as late as 1755. In 1808 the Pedee and Cape Fear
        tribes were represented by one half-breed woman.

        Population.- Mooney, 1928, estimates the number of Pedee as 600
        in 1600. The census of 1715 does not give them separate mention,
        and they were probably included among the 610 Waccamaw or the 106

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Great and Little
        Pee Dee Rivers and a station in Marion County, S. C., also a post
        village in Anson County, N. C., perpetuate the name of the Pedee.

        Saluda. Meaning unknown.

        Connections.- These are uncertain but circumstantial evidence
        indicates strongly that the Saluda were a band of Shawnee, and
        therefore of the Algonquian stock.

        Location.- On Saluda River.

        History.- Almost all that we know regarding the Saluda is
        contained in a note on George Hunter's map of the Cherokee
        country drawn in 1730 indicating "Saluda town where a nation
        settled 35 years ago, removed 18 years to Conestogo, in
        Pensilvania." As bands of Shawnee were moving into just that
        region from time to time during the period indicated, there is
        reason to think that this was one of them, all the more that a
        "Savana" creek appears on the same map flowing into Congaree
        River just below the Saluda settlement.

        Population.- Unknown.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Saluda is
        preserved by Saluda River and settlements in Saluda County,
        S. C.; Polk County, N. C.; and Middlesex County, Ya.

        Santee. Named according to Speck (1935), from iswan'ti, "the
        river," or "the river is there." Also called:

        Seretee, by Lawson (1860).

        Connections.- No words of the Santee language have come down to
        us, but there is little doubt that they belonged to the Siouan
        linguistic family.

        Location.- On the middle course of Santee River.


        The only name preserved is Hickerau, on a branch of Santee River.

        History.- The Santee were first encountered by the Spaniards
        during the seventeenth century, and in the narrative of his
        second expedition Captain Ecija places them on Santee River. In
        1700 they were visited by John Lawson, who found their
        plantations extending for many miles along the river, and learned
        that they were at war with the coast people (Lawson, 1860). They
        furnished Barnwell (1908) with a contingent for his Tuscarora
        campaign in 1711-12, but are said to have taken part against the
        Whites in the Yamasee War of 1715. In 1716 they were attacked by
        the Etiwaw and Cusabo, acting in the interest of the colonists,
        and the greater part of them were carried away captive and sent
        to the West Indies. The remainder were probably incorporated with
        the Catawba.

        Population.- The number of Santee was estimated by Mooney (1928)
        at 1,000 in 1600. In 1715 an Indian census gave them 43 warriors
        and a total population of 80 to 85 in 2 villages.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Santee has
        been given permanency chiefly by its application to the Santee
        River, S. C., but it has also been applied to a village in
        Orangeburg County, S. C.

        Sewee. Significance: perhaps, as Gatschet suggested, from sawe',

        Connections.- No words of their language have survived, but the
        Sewee are regarded as Siouan on strong circumstantial grounds, in
        spite of the fact that they are sometimes classed with the

        Location.- On the lower course of Santee River and the coast
        westward to the divide of Ashley River about the present Monks
        Corner, Berkeley County.


        Lawson, writing about 1700, mentions a deserted village in Sewee
        Bay called Avendaughbough which may have belonged to them
        (Lawson, 1860). The name seems to be still preserved in the form

        History.- Possibly Xoxi (pronounced Shoshi or Shohi), one of the
        provinces mentioned by Francisco of Chicora, an Indian carried
        from this region by the Spaniards in 1521, is a synonym of Sewee.
        The name is mentioned by Captain Ecija in 1609. They may have
        been the Indians first met by the English expedition which
        founded the colony of South Carolina in 1670, when they were in
        Sewee Bay. They assisted the English against the Spaniards, and
        supplied them with corn. Lawson (1860) states that they were
        formerly a large tribe, but in his time, 1700, were wasted by
        smallpox and indulgence in alcoholic liquors. Moreover, a large
        proportion of the able-bodied men had been lost at sea in an
        attempt to open closer trade relations with England. Just before
        the Yamasee War, they were still living in their old country in a
        single village, but it is probable that the war put an end to
        them as a distinct tribe. The remnant may have united with the

        Population.- Mooney (1928) gives an estimate of 800 Sewee for the
        year 1600. In 1715 there were but 57.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- At an earlier period
        this name was applied to the body of water now called Bulls Bay.
        There is a post hamlet with this designation in Meigs County,
        Tenn., but the name is probably of independent origin.


South Dakota

        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Arapaho. According to tradition, the Arapaho at one time lived in
        the neighborhood of the Black Hills and warriors of the tribe
        often traversed the western parts of this State. (See Wyoming.)

        Arikara. The Arikara lived at various points on the Missouri
        River in South Dakota during their migration northward after
        separating from the Skidi Pawnee. (See North Dakota.)

        Cheyenne. From a Dakota term applied to them meaning "people
        of alien speech," literally, "red talkers." Also called:

             A-was-she-tan-qua, Hidatsa name (Long, 1791).
             Bahakosin, Gaddo name, meaning "striped arrows."
             Dog Indians, so called sometimes owing to a confusion of the
        name with the French word chien.
             Dzitsi'stas, own name.
             Gatsalghi, Kiowa Apache name.
             Hitasi'na or Itasi'na. Arapaho name, meaning "scarred
             I-sonsh'-pu-she, Crow name.
             Itah-Tschipahji, Hidatsa name (Maximilian, 1843).
             I-ta-su-pu-zi, Hidatsa name, meaning "spotted arrow quills."
             Ka'neaheawastsik, Cree name, meaning "people with a language
        somewhat like Cree."
             Nanoniks-kare'niki, Kichai name.
             Niere'rikwats-kuni'ki, Wichita name.
             Paganavo, Shoshoni and Comanche name, meaning "striped
             Sak'o'ta, Kiowa name.
             Scarred Arms, from a misinterpretation of the tribal sign.
             Sha-ho, Pawnee name.

        Connections.- Cheyenne was one of the three most aberrant
        languages of the Algonquian linguistic family, and was shared by
        no other tribe except the Sulaio, whose speech differed only in
        minor points.

        Location.- This tribe moved frequently; in South Dakota they were
        associated with the Cheyenne River and the Black Hills. (See also
        Colorado, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota,
        Oklahoma, and Wyoming.)


        Following are the bands which had a well-recognized place in the
        camp circle, as given by Mooney (1928); Heviqs'-ni''pahs,
        Moiseyu, Wu'tapiu, Havhaita'nio, Oi'vimana, Hisiometa'nio, Sutaio
        (formerly a distinct tribe; see below), Oqtoguna, Ho'nowa,
        Masi'`kota, O'mi'sis. Other band names not commonly recognized
        as divisional names, are these: Moqtavhaita'niu, Na'kuimana,
        Anskowinis, Pi'nutgu', Mahoyum, Woopotsi't, Totoimana (on Tongue
        River), Black Lodges (near Lame Deer), Ree Band, Yellow Wolf
        Band, Half-breed Band.

        History.- Before 1700 the Cheyenne lived in what is now the State
        of Minnesota. There are very definite traditions of a time when
        they were on Minnesota River, from which region the Cheyenne who
        visited La Salle's fort in Illinois in 1680 probably came. A
        little later they seem to have moved to the neighborhood of Lake
        Traverse and still later part of them occupied a stockaded town
        on the Sheyenne River of North Dakota near the present Lisbon, N.
        Dak. Some years before 1799, perhaps in the decade 1780 to 1790,
        this town was surprised by Chippewa Indians and destroyed while
        most of the men were off hunting. The Cheyenne who escaped first
        settled along the Missouri where other bands of Cheyenne seem to
        have preceded them. There were a number of villages belonging to
        the tribe along the Missouri near the point where the boundary
        line between North and South Dakota crosses it until just before
        the time of Lewis and Clark, or, as Grinnell (1923) believes, for
        a number of years after the date of their expedition (1804-1806).
        However, they accustomed themselves more and more to a nomadic
        life and moved on toward the Black Hills whether they had been
        preceded by a cognate tribe known as the Sutaio. It is very
        probable that the Cheyenne had met the Sutaio east of the
        Missouri. At first the attitude of the two people toward each
        other is said to have been hostile, but presently they became
        friendly and finally united. On leaving the Missouri, the
        Cheyenne seem to have given up raising corn and making pottery.
        During the early part of the nineteenth century they moved to the
        headwaters of the Platte. When Bent's Fort was built on the upper
        Arkansas in 1832 a large part decided to establish themselves
        near it but the rest continued to rove about the headwaters of
        the North Platte and the Yellowstone. This separation in the
        tribe was made permanent by the Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1851,
        the two sections being known respectively as Southern Cheyenne
        and Northern Cheyenne. In the meantime they had met and formed an
        alliance with the Arapaho, though there is no memory of the date
        or the circumstances.

        They were at war with the Kiowa from the time of their settlement
        on the upper Arkansas until 1840, but afterward acted with them
        against other tribes and the Whites. In 1849 they suffered
        severely in the cholera epidemic, and later between 1860 and
        1878, in wars with the Whites. The southern division took a
        leading part in the general outbreak of 1874-75, and the Northern
        Cheyenne joined the hostile Dakota in 1876 and shared in the
        Custer massacre. Finally, the Northern Cheyenne were assigned a
        reservation in Montana. The Southern Cheyenne were similarly
        assigned to a reservation in the present Oklahoma in 1867 but
        could not be induced to remain upon it until after the general
        surrender of 1875. In 1901-02 the lands of the Southern Cheyenne
        were allotted in severalty.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) places the number of Cheyenne and
        Sutaio at 3,500 in 1780. In 1904 the number of Southern Cheyenne
        was given as 1,903, and the Northern Cheyenne as 1,409, a total
        of 3,312. The census of 1910 returned 3,055, of whom 1,522 were
        in Oklahoma and 1,346 in Montana, but the United States Indian
        Office Report of 1923 gives 3,248, composed of 1,831 Southern
        Cheyenne, and 1,417 Northern Cheyenne. The census of 1930
        returned 2,695, the Northern Cheyenne being slightly more
        numerous then the Southern division. In 1937 there were 1,561
        Northern Cheyenne and 2,836 Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho

        Connection in which they have become noted.- This Cheyenne tribe
        was one of the most famous of the Plains, and was conspicuous on
        account of the frequent wars which it waged against other tribes,
        as well as against the Whites. It is also noted on account of its
        romantic history, having original]y been a corn-raising tribe in
        southern Minnesota and later having become thoroughly adjusted to
        Plains life. The name is preserved by the State Capital of
        Wyoming; by a river in South Dakota; by counties in Colorado,
        Nebraska, and Kansas; by the Cheyenne Mountains and Canons in
        Colorado; by a river of North Dakota (spelled Sheyenne); and by
        Cheyenne Wells in Colorado, and Sheyenne in Eddy County, N. Dak.
        There is also a place of the name in Roger Mills County, Okla.;
        and another in Winkler County, Tex.

        Dakota. Signifying "allies" in the Santee or eastern dialect; in
        Yankton and in Assiniboin it is Nakota; in Teton, Lakota. They
        are more often known as Sioux, an abbreviation of Nadouessioux,
        the name applied to them by the Chippewa, as transmitted through
        French; it signifies "adders," and by derivation "enemies." Also

             Ab-boin-ug, Boinug or Obwahnug, Wanak, Chippewa name,
        meaning "roasters" from their custom of torturing foes.
             Ba-akush', Caddo name.
             Ba-ra-shhp'-gi-o, Crow name.
             Chah'-ra-rat, Pawnee name.
             Coupe-gorges, French rendering of a name given them in the
        sign language.
             Cut-throats, English equivalent of same.
             Hand Cutters, translation of Ute name.
             Ita ha'tski, Hidatsa name, meaning "long arrows."
             Kaispa, Sarsi name.
             K'odalpa-Kihago, Kiowa name, meaning "necklace people."
             Mar-an-sho-bish-ko, Crow name, meaning "cutthroats."
             Minishupsko, Crow name of opprobrious meaning.
             Nadouessioux, general Algonquian name received through the
             Natni or Natnihina, Arapaho, meaning "cutthroats."
             Na'-to-wo-na, Cheyenne name for easternmost bands of Sioux.
             Nuktusem or Nktusem, Salish name.
             Ocheti shakonin, own name, meaning "the seven council
             O-o'-ho-mo-i'-o, Cheyenne name, meaning "those on the
             Oshahak, Fox name.
             Pambizimina, Shoshoni name, meaning "beheaders."
             Pampe Chyimina, Ute name, meaning "Hand Cutters."
             Papitsinima, Comanche name, meaning "beheaders."
             Plshakulk, Yakima name, meaning "beheaders."
             Poualak or Pouanak, name given in early French records, for
             Shagi, Shawnee name.
             Shahan, Osage, Kansa, and Oto name.
             Shanana, Kiowa Apache name.
             Tsaba'kosh, or Ba-akush', Caddo name, meaning "cutthroats."
             Tuyetchiske, Comanche name, meaning "cutthroats."
             Wa-sa-sa-o-no, Iroquois name.
             Yunssaha, Wyandot name, meaning "birds."

        Connections.- The Dakota belonged to the Siouan linguistic
        family, their closest relations being the Hidatsa.

        Location.- The earliest known home of this tribe was on and near
        the Mississippi in southern Minnesota, northwestern Wisconsin,
        and neighboring parts of Iowa. In 1825, after they had spread
        somewhat farther west, Long (1791) gives their boundaries thus:
        They were bounded by a curved line extending east of north from
        Prairie du Chien on the Mississippi, so as to include all the
        eastern tributaries of the Mississippi, to the first branch of
        Chippewa River; thence by a line running west of north to Spirit
        Lake; thence westwardly to Crow Wing River, Minn., and up that
        stream to its head; thence westwardly to Red River and down that
        stream to Pembina; thence southwestwardly to the eastern bank of
        the Missouri near the Mandan villages; thence down the Missouri
        to a point probably not far from Soldiers River; thence east of
        north to Prairie du Chien. At a later time they occupied less
        territory toward the east but extended much farther westward
        between the Yellowstone and Platte Rivers. (See also Iowa,
        Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota,
        Wisconsin, Wyoming, and Canada.)


        Early explorers usually distinguished an Eastern or Forest and a
        Western or Prairie division, but the following is a more accurate
        classification: Idewkanton, (2) Wahpeton, (3) Wahpekute, (4)
        Sisseton, (5) Yankton, (6) Yanktonai, including (a) Upper
        Yanktonai, and (b) Lower Yantonai or Hunkpatina, from whom also
        the Assiniboin are said to have separated, and (7) Teton,
        including (a) the Brule (Upper and Lower), (b) Hunkpapa, (c)
        Miniconjou, (d) Oglala, (e) Oohenonpa or Two Kettle, (f) San
        Arcs, (g) Sihasapa or Blackfoot. Numbers 1 to 4 constituted the
        Santee or Eastern division.

        Minor Bands, Villages, Etc.

        Black Tiger, near Fort Peck Agency.

        Broken Arrows, possibly the Cazazhita.

        Casarba, 35 leagues up St. Peters River in 1804.

        Cazazhita, probably Tetons and perhaps the same as the

        Chansuushka, unidentified.

        Chasmuna, unidentified.

        Cheokhba, a band of the Hunkpapa Teton.

        Congewichacha, a Dakota division, perhaps Teton.

        Farmers Band, probably a band of the Mdewakanton, below Lake
        Traverse, Minn.

        Fire Lodge, below Lake Traverse.

        Flandreau Indians, a part of the Santee who settled at Flandreau,
        S. Dak.

        Grey Eagle Band, below Lake Traverse, Minn.

        Lake Comedu unidentified.

        Lenn Bear, beiow Lake Traverse, Minn.

        Long Sioux, near Fort Peck.

        Magayuteshni, a Mdewakanton division.

        Menostamenton, unidentified.

        Micacoupsiba, on the upper St. Peters, Minn.

        Minisha, an Oglala band.

        Neecoweegee, unidentified, possibly Minneconjou.

        Nehogatawonahs, near St. Croix River in Minnesota or Wisconsin.

        Newastarton, an unidentified band on the Mississippi above the
        St. Peters (Minnesota) River; probably the Mdewakanton.

        Ocatameneton, an eastern Dakota band.

        Ohanhanska, a band of the Magayuteshni division of the
        Mdewakanton on Minnesota River.

        Oughetgeodatons, a village or subdivision of one of the western

        Oujatespouitons, west of the Mississippi.

        Peshlaptechela, an Oglala Teton band.

        Pineshow, a band of Wahpeton, on Minnesota River, 15 miles from
        its mouth.

        Psinchaton, belonging to the Western Dakota in Minnesota.

        Psinoumanitons, a division of the Eastern Dakota, probably in

        Psinoutanhinhintons, a band of Western Dakota in Minnesota.

        Rattling Moccasin Band, a band of Mdewakanton Dnkota on Minnesota
        River below Lake Traverse, Minn.

        Red Leg's Band, n Wahpekute band in Minnesota.

        Redwood, location uncertain.

        Star Band, a band of Mdewakanton.

        Takini, an Upper Yanktonai band.

        Talonapin, a Hunkpapa band.

        Tashunkeota, a Sihasspa band.

        Tateibombu's Band, location uncertain.

        Touchouasintons, a band of the Western Dakota, perhaps the

        Traverse de Sioux, a part of the Sisseton formerly on Minnesota
        River, Minn.

        Waktonila, unidentified.

        Wazikute, a band of Upper Yanktonai.

        White Cap Indians, on the south Saskatchewan River, in
        Assiniboia, Canada.

        White Eagle Band, location unknown.

        Wiattachechah, an unidentified village.

        History.- The first historical mention of the Dakota is in the
        Jesuit Relation for 1640 when they were probably in the eastern
        part of the territory indicated above. Rev. A. L. Riggs, for many
        years a missionary among them, claims that their traditions
        pointed to the northeast as the place of their origin and that
        they once lived about the Lake of the Woods. There are, however,
        strong grounds for believing that they pushed their way up into
        the present Minnesota from the southeast, though there is no
        doubt that the Chippewa forced them back in later times from some
        of the most easternmost lands they occupied and their expulsion
        from Mille Lacs is an historical event. It is thought that few
        Dakota crossed the Missouri before 1750, yet it is claimed that
        some of them reached the Black Hills by 1765. In 1862 the Eastern
        Dakota under Little Crow rose upon the Whites and in the war
        which followed 700 settlers and 100 soldiers were killed, while
        the hostile bands lost all of the rest of their lands in
        Minnesota and were forced to move to Dakota and Nebraska. On the
        discovery of gold in the Black Hills the rush of miners to that
        region became the occasion for a war with the Western Dakota
        rendered famous by the cutting off of General Custer and five
        companies of cavalry on the Little Bighorn, June 25, 1876. An
        incipient rising at Wounded Knee Creek, resulting from the spread
        of the Ghost Dance religion, was the last scene of the struggles
        between the Dakota and the Whites, and the tribe is now allotted
        lands in severalty, principally in South Dakota, but in part in
        North Dakota and Nebraska.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were
        25,000 Dakota of all divisions, exclusive of the Assiniboin
        (q. v. under Montana). In 1904 their distribution on agencies and
        their numbers were as follows: Cheyenne River (Minniconjou, Sans
        Arcs, and Oohenonpa), 2,477; Crow Creek (Lower Yanktonai), 1,025;
        Fort Totten School (Sisseton, Wahpeton, and Yanktonai), 1,013;
        Riggs Institute (Santee), 279; Fort Peck (Yankton), 1,116; Lower
        Brule (Lower Brule), 470; Pine Ridge (Oglala), 6,690; Rosebud
        (Brule, Waglukhe, Lower Brule, Northern, Oohenonpa, and
        Wazkazha), 4,977; Santee (Santee), 1,075; Sisseton (Sisseton and
        Wahpeton), 1,908; Standing Rock (Sihasapa, Hunkpapa, and
        Yanktonai), 3,514; Yankton (Yank-ton), 1,702; under no agency
        (Mdewakanton in Minnesota) 929; total, 27,175. The census of 1930
        returned 25,934, of whom 20,918 were in South Dakota, 2,307 in
        North Dakota, 1,251 in Montana, 690 in Nebraska, and the
        remaindcr in more than 22 other States. The Report of the United
        States Office of Indian Affairs for 1937 gave 33,625, including
        27,733 in South Dakota, 2,797 in North Dakota, 1,292 in Nebraska,
        1,242 in Minnesota, and 561 in Montana.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The Dakota are one
        of the most famous tribes of North America, thanks to their
        numbers and prowess, their various wars with the Whites and the
        spectacular character of one of the last encounters with them,
        the celebrated "Custer massacre," not to mention the conspicuous
        nature of their connection with the Ghost Dance cult and the
        tragic affray at Wounded Knee Creek which grew out of it. The
        name is preserved in two of the States of our Union, North and
        South Dakota; by a river which flows through them; by counties in
        Minnesota and Nebraska; and by places in Stephenson County, Ill.;
        Winona County, Minn.; in Wisconsin and Nebraska; and as Dakota
        City in Humboldt County, Iowa, and Dakota County, Nebr. The other
        popular name for this tribe, Sioux, has been given to Sioux City,
        Iown, and Sioux Falls, S. Dak.; to counties in Iowa and Nebraska;
        and small places in Nebraska, Iowa, and Minnesota; as Sioux in
        Yancey County, N. C.; Sioux Center in Sioux County, Iowa; Sioux
        Rapids in Buena Vista County, Iowa; and Sioux Pass in Richland
        County, Mont. It appears as Lacota (the Teton form of the name)
        in Marion County, Fla., and Van Buren County, Mich., and with the
        spelling Lakota in Kossuth County, Iowa; Nelson County, N. Dak.;
        and Culpeper County, Va. Kiowa. The Kiowa lived in and about the
        Black Hills for a time before they were succeeded by the Sutaio
        and Cheyenne. (See Oklahoma.)

        Mandan. According to tradition, this tribe reached the Missouri
        River near the mouth of White River, and settled at several
        places along the former within the borders of this State before
        passing out of it into North Dakota. (See North Dakota.)

        Omaha. After having been driven from the region of the Pipestone
        Quarry in Minnesota, the Omaha settled on the Missouri in the
        territory of South Dakota and later moved downstream under
        pressure from the Dakota to their later seats in Nebraska. (See

        Ponca. This tribe was with the Omaha when it left the region of
        the Pipestone Quarry, but separated from it on the Missouri and
        went into the Black Hills for a time, after which it retired to
        the Missouri and settled in the present Nebraska. (See Nebraska.)

        Sutaio. Significance uncertain. A Cheyenne informant of Grinnell
        (1923) believed it was derivcd from issuht', "ridge."

        Connection.- The Sutaio belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        stock, their nearest relatives being the Cheyenne.

        Location.- When first brought distinctly to the knowledge of
        Whites, this tribe was west of Missouri River, between it and the
        Black Hills.

        History.- The Sutaio may have been the "Chousa" band of Cheyenne
        of whom Perrin du Lac (1805) heard. At any rate they were
        probably not far distant from the Cheyenne during their
        migrations from Minnesota to the Missouri River and beyond,
        though whether in front of them, or to one side, it is impossible
        to tell. According to Cheyenne trndition as reported by Grinnell
        (1923), the two tribes met three different times. At any rate we
        know that they lived side by side in the region eastward of the
        Black Hills for some time and that they finally united there into
        one body, the Sutaio taking their place as one band in the
        Cheyenne tribal camping circle.

        Population- Unknown. (See Cheyenne.)

        Winnebago. After leaving Minnesota in 1862 and before they took
        refuge with the Omaha, part of this tribe lived for a while on
        the Crow Creek Reservation. (See Wisconsin.)



        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Catawba. For a brief period in their later history the Catawba
        lived among the Cherokee and they may have occupied lands in
        Tennessee at that time. There are indications that they may have
        been in eastern Tennessee at a more remote epoch. (See South

        Cherokee. Meaning unknown, but possibly from Creek tciloki,
        "people of a different speech." The middle and upper dialects
        substitute l for r. Also called:

             Alligewi or Alleghanys, a people appearing in Delaware
        tradition who were perhaps identical with this tribe.
             Ani'-Kitu'hwagi, own name, from one of their most important
        ancient settlements, and extended by Algonquian tribes to the
             Ani'-Yun'-wiya', own name, meaning "real people."
             Baniatho, Arapaho name (Gatschet, MS., B.A.E.).
             Entari ronnon, Wyandot name, meaning "mountain people."
             Manteran Catawba name, meaning "coming out of the ground."
             Ochie'tari-ronnon, a Wyandot name.
             Oyata' ge'ronon, Iroquois name, meaning "inhabitants of the
        cave country."
             Shanaki, Gaddo name.
             Shannakiak, Fox name (Gatschet, Fox MS., B. A. E.).
             Talligewi, Delaware name (in Walam Olum), see Alligewi.
             Tcaike, Tonkawa name.
             Tcerokieco, Wichita name.
             Uwatayo-rono, Wyandot name, meaning "cave people."

        Connections.- The Cherokee language is the most aberrant form of
        speech of the Iroquoian linguistic family.

        Location.- From the earliest times of which we have any certain
        knowledge the Cherokee have occupied the highest districts at the
        southern end of the Appalachian chain, mainly in the States of
        Tennessee and North Carolina, but including also parts of South
        Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Virginia. (See also Arkansas,
        Kansas, Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Texas.)

                            Subdivisions and Villages

        There were anciently three Cherokee dialects which probably
        corresponded in some measure to the three groups of towns into
        which early traders and explorers divided the tribe. These
        groups, with the towns belonging to each according to the Purcell
        map, but following as far as possible the Handbook (Hodge, 1907,
        1910) orthography, are as follows:

        Lower Settlements:

        Estatoee, 2 towns: Old Estatoee on Tugaloo River below the
        junction of Chattanooga and Tuilalah Rivers, in Oconee County, S.
        C.; and Estatoee in the northwestern part of Pickens County.

        Keowee, 2 towns: Old Keowee on Keowee River near Fort George,
        Oconee County, S.C., and New Keowee on the headwaters of
        Twelve-mile Creek in Pickens County, S.C., the latter also
        called probably Little Keowee.

        Kulsetsiyi, 3 towns: (1) on Keowee River, near Fall Creek, Oconee
        County, S.C.; (2) on Sugartown or Cullasagee Creek near Franklin,
        Macon County, N.C.; (3) on Sugartown Creek, near Morganton,
        Fannin County, Ga.

        Oeonee, on Seneca Creek near Walhalla, Oconee County, S.C.

        Qualatchee, 2 towns: (1) on Keowee River, S.C.; (2) on the
        headwaters of Chattahoochee River, Ga.

        Tomassee, 2 towns: on Tomassee Creek of Keowee River, Oconee
        County, S.C.; (2) on Little Tennessee River near the entrance of
        Burningtown Creek, Macon County, S.C.

        Toxaway, on Toxaway Creek, a branch of Keowee River, S.C.

        Tugaloo, on Tugaloo River at the junction of Toccoa Greek,
        Habersham County, Ga.

        Ustanali, several towns so called: (1) on Keowee River below the
        present Fort George, Oconee Gounty, S.C.; (2) probably on the
        waters of Tuckasegee River in western North Carolina; (3) just
        above the junction of Coosawatee and Conasauga Rivers to form the
        Oostanaula River in Gordon County, Ga.; (4) perhaps on
        Eastanollee Creek of Tugaloo River, Franklin County, Ga.; (5)
        perhaps on Eastaunaula Creek flowing into Hiwassee River in
        McMinn County, Tenn.; and (6) possibly another.

        Middle Settlements:

        Cowee, about the mouth of Cowee Creek of Little Tennessee River,
        about 10 miles below Franklin, N.C.

        Coweeshee, probably between the preceding and Yunsawi.

        Ellijay, 4 towns: (1) on the headwaters of Keowee River, S.C.;
        (2) on Ellijay Creek of Little Tennessee River near Franklin, N.
        C.; (3) about Ellijay in Gilmer County, Ga.; and (4) on Ellejoy
        Creek of Little River near Marysville in Blount County, Tenn.

        Itseyi, 3 towns: on Brasstown Creek of Tugaloo River, Oconee
        County, S.C., (2) on Little Tennessee River near Franklin, N,
        G.; and (3) on upper Brasstown Creek of Hiwassoe River, Towns
        County, Ga.

        Jore, on Iola Creek, au upper branch of Little Tennessee River,

        Kituhwa, on Tuckasegee River and extending from above the
        junction of the Oconaluftce nearly to the present Bryson City,
        Swain County, S.C.

        Nucassee, at the present Franklin, N.C.

        Stikayi, 3 towns: on Sticoa Creek, near Clayton, Rabun County,
        Ga.; (2) on Tuckasegee River at the old Thomas homestead just
        above Whittier, Suain County, N.C.; and (3) on Stekoa Creek of
        Little Tennessee River, a few miles below the junction of
        Nantahala, Graham County, N.C.

        Tawsce, on Tugaloo River, Habersham County, Ga.

        Tekanitli, in upper Georgia.

        Tessuntee, on Cowee River, south of Franklin, N.C.

        Tikaleyasuni, on Burningtown Creek, an upper branch of Little
        Tennessee River, western North Carolina.

        Watauga, 2 towns: on Watauga Creek, a branch of Little Tennessee
        River, a few miles below Franklin, N.C.; (2) traditionally
        located at Watauga Old Fields, about Elizabethtown, on Watauga
        River, in Carter County, Tenn.

        Yunsawi, on West Buffalo Creek of Cheowa River, Graham County,

        Over-the-Hills and Valley Settlements, or Overhill Settlements:

        Chatuga, 3 towns: (1) on Chattooga River, on the boundary between
        South Carolina and Georgia; (2) probably on upper Tellico River,
        Monroe County, Tenn.; (3) perhaps on Chattooga River, a tributary
        of the Coosa, in northwest Georgia.

        Chilhowee, on Tellieo River in Monroe County, Tenn., near the
        North Carolina border.

        Cotoeanahut, between Natuhli and Niowe.

        Echota, 5 towns: Great Eehota, on the south side of Little
        Tennessee River, a short distance below Citico Creck, Monroe
        County, Tenn.; (2) Little Echota on Sautee Creek, a head stream
        of the Chattahoochee west of Clarksville, Ga.; (3) New Echota, at
        the junction of Oostanaula and Conasauga Rivers, Gordon County,
        Ga.; (4) the old Macedonian Mission on Soco Creek, of the North
        Carolina Reservation; and (5) at the great Nacooehee mound.
        (See Naguchee below.)

        Hiwassce, 2 towns: (1) Great Hiwassce on the north bank of
        Hiwassee River at the present Savannah Ford, above Columbus, Polk
        County, Tenn.; (2) at the junction of Peaehtree Creek with
        Hiwassee River, above Murphy, N.C., probably the Guasuli of the
        De Soto Chroniclers.

        Natuhli, on Nottely River, a branch of Hiwassee River at or near
        the site of the present Ranger, Cherokee County, N.C.

        Nayuhi, seems to have been the name of four towns: (1) probably
        of the Lower Settlements, on the east bank of Tugaloo River, S.
        C.; (2) on the upper waters of Tennessee River, apparently in
        North Carolina, and (3 and 4) in the same general region, the
        last three being mentioned by Bartram (1792).

        Sitiku, on Little Tennessee River at the entrance of Citico
        Creek, Monroe County, Tenn.

        Tahlasi, on Little Tennessee River about Talassee Ford in Blount
        County, Tenn.

        Tallulah, 2 towns: (1) on the upper Tallulah River, Rabun County,
        Ga.; (2) on Tallulah Creek of Cheowa River in Graham County,

        Tamahli, 2 towns: on Valley River a few miles above Murphy, about
        the present Tomatola, Cherokee County, N.C.; (2) on Little
        Tennessee River about Tomotley Ford, a few miles above Tellico
        River in Monroe County, Tenn.

        Tellico, 4 towns: (1) Great Tellico, at Tellico Plains on Tellico
        River, Monroe County, Tenn.; (2) Little Tellico, on Tellico Creek
        of Little Tennessee River about 10 miles below Franklin, N.C.;
        (3) (also called Little Tellico at times) on Valley River about 5
        miles above Murphy, N.C.; (4) Tahlequah, capital of the Cherokee
        Nation in what is now Oklahoma.

        Tennessee, 2 towns: on Little Tennessee River a short distance
        above its junction with the main stream in east Tennessee; (2) on
        an extreme head branch of Tuckasegee River, above the present
        Webster, N.C.

        Toquo, on Little Tennessee River about the mouth of Toco Creek,
        Monroe County, Tenn.

        Tsiyahi, 3 towns: on a branch of Keowee River, near the present
        Cheochee, Oconee County, S.C.; (2) a modern settlement on Cheowa
        River about Robbinsville, N.C.; (3) a former settlement in Cades
        Cove, on Cover Creek Blount County, Tenn.

        Ustanali; according to Purcell's map, there was a town of this
        name different from those already given, on the upper waters of
        Cheowa River, Graham County, N.C.

        Besides the above, the following settlements are given by Mooney
        and other writers:

             Amahyaski, location unknown.
             Amkalali, location unknown.
             Amohi, location unknown.
             Anisgayayi, a traditional town on Valley River, Cherokee
        County, N.C.
             Anuyi, location unknown.
             Aquohee, perhaps at the site of Fort Scott, on Nantahala
        River, Macon County, N.C.
             Atsiniyi, location unknown.
             Aumuchee, location unknown.
             Ayahliyi, location unknown.
             Big Island, on Big Island, in Little Tennessee River a short
        distance below the mouth of Tellico River.
             Briertonn, on Nantahala River about the mouth of Briertown
        Creek, Macon County, N.C.
             Broomtown, location unknown.
             Brown's Village, location unknown.
             Buffalo Fish, location unknown.
             Canuga, 2 towns: (1)apparently on Keowee River, S.C.; (2) a
        traditional town on Pigeon River probably near Waynesville,
        Haywood County, N.C.
             Catatoga, on Cartoogaja Creek of Little Tennessee River
        above Franklin, N.C.
             Chagee, near the mouth of Chatooga Creek of Tugaloo River at
        or near Fort Madison, southwest Oconee County, S.C.
             Cheesoheha, on a branch of Savannah River in upper South
             Chewase, on a branch of Tennessee River in East Tennessee.
             Chicherohe, on War Woman Creek in the northwestern part of
        Rabun County, Ga.
             Chickamauga, a temporary settlement on Chickamauga Creek
        near Chattanooga.
             Conisca, on a branch of Tennessee River.
             Conontoroy, an "out town."
             Conoross, on Conoross Creek which enters Keowee or Seneca
        River from the west in Anderson County, S.C.
             Coyatee, on Little Tennessee River about 10 miles below the
        Tellico, about the present Coytee, Loudon County, Tenn.
             Crayfish Town, in upper Georgia.
             Creek Path, with Creeks and Shawnee at Gunker's Landing,
             Crowmocker, on Battle Creek which falls into Tennessee River
        below Chattanooga, Tenn.
             Crow Town, on the left bank of Tennessee River near the
        mouth of Raccoon Creek, Cherokee County, Ala.
             Cuclon, an unidentified town.
             Cusawatee on lower Coosawatee River in Gordon County, Ga.
             Dulastunyi, on Nottely River, Cherokee County, N.C., near
        the Georgia line.
             Dustayalunyi, about the mouth of Shooting Creek, an affluent
        of Hiwassee River, near Hayesville, Clay County, N.C.
             Ecochee, on a head stream of Savannah River in northwest
        South Carolina or northeast Georgia.
             Elakulsi, in northern Georgia.
             Etowah, 2 towns: on Etowah River about the present
        Hightower, Forsyth County, Ga.; (2) a possible settlement on
        Hightower Creek of Hiwassee River, Towns County, Ga.
             Euforsee, location unknown.
             Fightingtown, on Fightingtown Creek, near Morgantown, Fannin
        County, Ga.
             Frogtown, on a creek of the same name, north of Dahlonega,
        Lumpkin County, Ga.
             Guhlaniyi, occupied by Cherokee and Natchez, at the junction
        of Brasstown Creek with Hiwassee River a short distance above
        Murphy, N.C.
             Gusti, traditional, on Tennessee River near Kingston, Roane
        County, Tenn.
             Halfway Town, about halfway between Sitiku and Chilhowee on
        Little Tennessee River about the boundary of Monroe and Loudon
        Counties, Tenn.
             Hemptown, on Hemptown Creek near Morgantown, Fannin County,
             Hickory Log, on Etowah River a short distance above Canton,
        Cherokee County, Ga.
             High Tower Forks, probably one of the places called Etowah.
             Ikatikunahita, on Long Swamp Creek about the boundary of
        Forsyth and Cherokee Counties, Ga.
             Ivy Log, on Ivy Log Creek, Union County, Ga.
             Johnstown, on the upper waters of Chattahoochee River and
        probably in the northern part of Hall County, Ga.
             Kulanunyi, a district or town laid off on the Eastern
        Cherokee Reserve in Swain and Jackson Counties, N.C.
             Kanastunyi, on the headwaters of French Broad River near
        Brevard in Transylvania County, N, C., also possibly a second on
        Hiwassee River.
             Kansaki, 4 towns: (1) on Tuckasegee River a short distance
        above the present Webster in Jackson County, N.C.; (2) on the
        lower course of Canasauga Creek in Polk County, Tenn.; (3) at the
        junction of Conusauga and Coosawatee Rivers, the later site of
        Nen Echota, Gordon County, Ga.; (4) mentioned in the De Soto
        narratives but perhaps identical with No. 2.
             Kanutaluhi, in northern Georgia.
             Kawanunyi, about the present Ducktown, Polk County, Tenn.
             Kuhlahi, in upper Georgia.
             Kulahiy in northeastern Georgia near Currahee Mountain.
             Leatherwood, at or near Leatherwood in the northern part of
        Franklin County, Ga.
             Long Island, at the Long Island in Tennessee River on the
        Tennessee-Georgia line.
             Lookout Mountain Town, at or near the present Trenton, Dade
        County, Ga.
             Naguchee, about the junction of Soquee and Sautee Rivers in
        Nacoochee Valley at the head of Chattahoochce River, Habersham
        County, Ga.
             Nanatlugunvi, traditional, on the site of Jonesboro,
        Washington County, Tenn.
             Nantahala (see Briertown).
             Nickajack, on the south bank of Tennessee River in Marion
        County, Tenn.
             Nununyi, on Oconaluftee River near Cherokee, Swain County,
             Ocoee, on Ocoee River near its junction with the Hiwassee,
        about Benton, Polk County, Tenn.
             Oconaluftee, probably at the present Birdtown, on the
        Eastern Cherokee Reservation.
             Ooltewah, about the present Ooltewah, on Ooltewah Creck,
        James County, Tenn.
             Oothealoga, on Oothealoga (Ougillogy) Creek of Oostannula
        River near Calhoun, Gordon County, Ga.
             Paint Town, on lower Soco Creek, within the reservation in
        Jackson and Swain Counties, N.C.
             Pine Log, on Pine Log Creek in Bartow County, Ga.
             Quacoshatchee, in northwest Pickens County, S.C.
             Qualla, agency of the Eastern Cherokee on a branch of Soco
        River, Jackson County, N.C.
             Quanusee, location unknown.
             Rabbit Trap, in upper Georgia.
             Red Bank, on Etowah River, at or near Ganton, Cherokee
        County, Ga.
             Red Clay, on Oconaluftee River in Swain County, N.C.,
        Eastern Cherokee Reservation.
             Running Water, on the southeast bank of Tennessee River
        below Chattanooga, near the northwestern Georgia line and 4 miles
        above Nickajack.
             Sanderstown, in northeastern Alabama.
             Selikwayi, on Sallacoa Creek probably at or near the present
        Sallacoa, Cherokee County, Ga.
             Seneca, on Keowee River about the mouth of Conneross Creek
        in Oconee County, S.C.
             Setsi, traditional, on the south side of Valley River, about
        3 miles below Valleytown, Cherokee County, N.C.
             Skeinah, on Toccoa River, Fannin County, Ga.
             Soquee, on Soquee River, near Clarksville, Habersham County,
             Spikebuck Town, on Hiwassee River at or near Havesville,
        Clay County, N.C.
             Spring Place, a mission station in Murray County, Ga.
             Standing Peach Tree, on Chattahoochee River, at the mouth of
        Peachtree Creek, northwest of Atlanta, Ga.
             Sutali, on Etowah River, probably in southwestern Cherokee
        County, Ga.
             Sunanee, on Chattahoochee River about the present Suwanee,
        Gwinnett County, Ga.
             Tagwahi, 3 towns: (1) on Toccoa Creek east of Clarkesville,
        Habersham County, Ga.; (2) on Toccoa or Ocoee River about the
        present Toccoa in Fannin County, Ga., (3) perhaps on Persimmon
        Creek which enters Hiwassee River some distance below Murphy,
        Cherokee County. N.C.
             Takwashnaw, a Lower Cherokee town.
             Talahi, location unknown.
             Talaniyi, in upper Georgia.
             Talking Rock, on Talking Rock Creek, an affluent of
        Coosawattee River, Ga.
             Tasetsi, on the extreme head of Hiwassee River in Towns
        Gounty, Ga.
             Taskigi, 3 towns occupied originally by Tuskegee Indians
        (see Alabama): (1) on Little Tennessee River above the junction
        of the Tellico, Monroe County, Tenn.; (2) on the north bank of
        Tennessee River just below Chattanooga, Tenn.; (3) perhaps on
        Tuskegee Creck of Little Tennessee River near Robbinsville,
        Graham County, N.C.
             Tikwalitsi, on Tuckasegee River at Bryson City, Swain
        County, N.C.
             Tlanusiyi, at the junction of Hiwssee and Valley Rivers on
        the site of Murphy, N.C.
             Tocax, location unknown, perhaps connected with Toxaway or
             Torsalla, one of the Keowee towns.
             Tricentee, one of the Keowee towns.
             Tsilaluhi, on a small branch of Brasstown Creek of Hiwassee
        River, just within the lines of Towns County, Ga.
             Tsiskwahi, a district or town in the Eastern Cherokee
        Reservation, Swam County, N, C.
             Tsistetsiyi, on South Mouse Creek, a branch of Hiwassee
        River in Bradley County, Tenn.
             Tistuyi, on the north bank of Hiwassec River at the entrance
        of Chestua Creek, in Polk County, Tenn., at one time occupied by
             Tsudinuntiyi, on lower Nantahala River, in Macon County, N.
        C. Tucharechee, location unknown.
             Tuckasegee, 2 towns: (1) about the junction of the two forks
        of Tuckasegee River, above Webster, Jackson County, N.C.; (2) on
        a branch of Brasstown Creek of Hiwussee River, in Towns County,
             Turkeytown, on the west bank of Coosa River opposite the
        present Center, Cherokee County, Ala.
             Turniptown, on Turniptown Creek above Ellijay, Gilmer
        County, Ga.
             Turtletown, in upper Georgia.
             Tusquittah, on Tusquittee Creek near Hayesville, Clay
        County, N.C.
             Two Runs, on Etowah River at the crossing of the old Indian
        trail between Coosa and Tugaloo Rivers, Bartow County, Ga.
             Ustisti, one of the Lower Towns.
             Valleytown, at Valleytown on Valley River, Cherokee County,
             Wahyahi, on upper Soco Creek on the Eastern Cherokee
        Reservation, Jackson County, N.C.
             Wasasa's Village, on Brown's Creek, a southern affluent of
        Tennessee River in northern Alabama.
             Willstown, on Wills Creek, below Fort Payne, De Kalb County,

        History.- There seems to have been a Cherokee migration legend
        something like that of the Creeks according to which the tribe
        entered their historic seats from some region toward the
        northeast. In 1540 De Soto seems to have passed through only one
        town that has a Cherokee name, but Pardo in 1566 learned of
        another, Tanasqui, which has a Cherokee appearance and may have
        given its name to Tennessee River. Continuous contact between the
        Cherokee and the Whites began after Virginia was settled, when
        traders from that colony commenced to work their way into the
        Appalachian Mountains. Contact became more intimate with the
        founding of the Carolina colonies, and a contingent of 310
        Cherokee joined Moore in his attack on the Tuscarora in 1713. In
        1730 Sir Alexander Cuming staged a personal embassy to the
        Cherokee and afterward took seven of the Indians to England with
        him. In 1738 an enemy more serious even than White men made its
        first appearance in this tribe, namely smallpox, which cut down
        their numbers by nearly 50 percent. In 1755 the Cherokee won a
        great victory over the Abihka Creeks, who forthwith withdrew from
        the Tennessee River. Relations with the Whites were upon the
        whole friendly until 1759 when the Indians refused to accede to
        the demand of the Governor of South Carolina that a number of
        Indians including two leading chiefs be turned over to him for
        execution under the charge that they had killed a White man. He
        had asked also to have 24 other chiefs sent to him merely on
        suspicion that they entertained hostile intentions. War followed,
        and the Indians captured Fort Loudon, a post in the heart of
        their country, August 8, 1760, after having defeated an army
        which came to relieve it. The year following, however, the Indians
        were defeated on June 10, by a larger force under Col. James
        Grant, who laid the, greater number of the Middle Cherokee
        settlements in ashes, and compelled the tribe to make peace. In 1769
        they are said to have suffered a severe defeat at the hands of
        the Chickasaw at the Chickasaw Oldfields. On the outbreak of the
        American Revolution they sided with the British and continued
        hostilities after its close down to 1794. Meanwhile parties of
        Cherokee had pushed down Tennessee River and formed new
        settlements near the present Tennessee-Alabama boundary. Shortly
        after 1800 missionary work was begun among them, and in 1820 they
        adopted a regular form of government modeled on that of the
        United States. In the meantime large numbers of them, wearied of
        the encroachments of the Whites, had crossed the Mississippi and
        settled in the territory now included in the State of Arkansas.
        In 1821 Sequoya, son of a mixed-blood Cherokee woman by a White
        man, submitted a syllabary of his own devising to the chief men
        of the nation, and, on their approval, the Cherokee of all ages
        set about learning it with such zeal that in a few months numbers
        of them were able to read and write by means of it. In 1822
        Sequoya went west to teach his alphabet to the Indians of the
        western division, and he remained among them permanently. The
        pressure of the Whites upon the frontiers of the Eastern Cherokee
        was soon increased by the discovery of gold near the present
        Dahlonega, Ga., and after a few years of fruitless struggle the
        nation bowed to the inevitable and by the treaty of New Echota,
        December 29, 1835, sold all of their territories not previously
        given up and agreed to remove to the other side of the
        Mississippi to lands to be set apart for them. These lands were
        in the northeastern part of the present Oklahoma, and thither the
        greater part of the tribe removed in the winter of 1838-39,
        suffering great hardships and losing nearly one-fourth of their
        number on the way. Before the main migration took place one band
        of Cherokee had established themselves in Texas where they
        obtained a grant of land from the Mexican government, but the
        Texas revolutionists refused to recognize this claim although it
        was supported by Gen. Sam Houston. In consequence, the Cherokee
        chief Bowl was killed in 1839) along with many of his men, and
        the rest were expelled from the State. At the time of the great
        migration, several hundred Cherokee escaped to the mountains
        where they lived as refugees until in 1842, through the efforts
        of William H. Thomas, an influential tender, they received
        permission to remain on lands set apart for their use in western
        North  Carolina, the Qualla Reservation, where their descendants
        still reside. The early years of the reestablished Cherokee
        Nation west of the Mississippi were troubled by differences
        between the faction that had approved removal and that which had
        opposed it. Afterward the tribal life was entirely disrupted for
        a few years by the Civil War. In 1867 and 1870 the Delaware and
        Shawnee were admitted from Kansas and incorporated into the
        nation. March 3, 1906, the Cherokee government came to an end,
        and in time the lands were allotted in severalty, and the
        Cherokee people soon became citizens of the new State of

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1650 there was a
        total Cherokee population of 22,000. In 1715 a rather careful
        estimate, yet in all probability too low, gave a total of 11,210
        (Lower Cherokee 2,100; Middle 6,350; Upper 2,760), including
        4,000 warriors and distributed among 60 villages. In 1720 two
        estimates were made, of 10,000 and 11,500 respectively, but in
        1729 the estimate jumps to 20,000, with 6,000 warriors,
        distributed in 64 towns. In 1755 a North Carolina estimate gives
        5 divisions of the tribe and a total of 2,590 men. In 1760 we
        find a flat figure of 2,000; in 1761, about 3,000. Even before
        this time the Cherokee are supposed to have lost heavily from
        smallpox, intoxicants, and wars with the colonists, but at the
        time of their forced removal to the west in 1838 those in their
        old country had increased to 16,542. Those already in the west
        were estimated at about 6,000. The Civil War interfered with
        their growth but in 1885 they numbered 19,000, about 17,000 being
        in the west. In 1902 there were officially reported in the west
        28,016 persons of Cherokee blood, including all degrees of
        admixture, but this includes several thousand persons repudiated
        by the tribal courts. The Census of 1910 returned 31,489 Cherokee,
        29,610 of whom were in Oklahoma, 1,406 in North Carolina,
        and the rest scattered in 23 other States. In 1923 the report of
        the United States Indian Office gave 36,432 Cherokee "by blood"
        in Oklahoma, and 2,515 in North Carolina: total 38,947. In 1930,
        45,238 were returned: 40,904 in Oklahoma, 1,963 in North Carolina,
        and the rest in more then 36 other States. In 1937 the number
        of eastern Cherokee was given as 3,327.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Cherokee tribe
        is one of the most famous in all North America, (1) on account of
        its size and strength and the prominent part it played in the
        history of our country, (2) from the fact that the invention of
        the Cherokee alphabet by Sequoya was the only case of the
        adoption of a system of writing without immediate White prompting
        in the annals of our Indians, (3) from the perpetuation of
        numerous place names from Cherokee sources and of the name itself
        in counties in Alabama, Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma, North
        Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas, and places in some of these
        States and California, Kentucky, and Arkansas; in Colbert County,
        Ala.; Cherokee County, Iowa; Crawford County, Kans.; Lawrence
        County, Ky.; and the name of stations in Louisville, Ky.; Swain
        County, N. C.; Alfalfa County, Okla.; and San Saba County, Tex.
        There is a Cherokee City in Benton County, Ark.; Cherokee Dam at
        Jefferson City, Tenn.; and Cherokee Falls in Ckerokee County, S.
        C. Several prominent Americans were descended from this tribe,
        including Senator Robert Owen and Will Rogers.

        Chiaha. A part of this tribe was encountered by De Soto in 1540,
        in the territory now forming this State, probably, as shown by
        Mr. J. Y. Brame, on what is now Burns Island. They are also
        mentioned in connection with the explorations of Juan Pardo in
        1567. (See Georgia.)

        Chickasaw. In historic times the Chickasaw claimed the greater
        part of western Tennessee, and twice drove Shawnee Indians from
        the Cumberland Valley, the first time with the assistance of the
        Cherokee, according to the claim of the latter. At an early date
        they had a settlement on the lower Tennessee River but it is
        doubtful whether this was in Tennessee or Kentucky. (See

        Kaskinampo. Meaning unknown, though -nampo may be the
        Koasati word for "many."

        Connections.- The Kaskinampo were probably closely related to
        the Koasati, and through them to the Alabama, Choctaw, and other
        Muskhogean people.

        Location.- Their best-known historic location was on the lower end
        of an island in the Tennessee River, probably the one now called
        Pine Island. (See also Arkansas.)

        History.- There is every reason to believe that this tribe
        constituted the Casqui, Icasqui, or Casquin "province" which De
        Soto entered immediately after crossing the Mississippi River,
        and it was probably in what is now Phillips County, Ark. We hear
        of the Kaskinampo next in connection with the expeditions of
        Marquette and Joliet but do not learn of their exact location
        until 1701, when they seem to have been on the lower end of the
        present Pine Island. We are informed, however, by one of the
        French explorers that they had previously lived upon Cumberland
        River, and there is evidence that, when they first moved to the
        Tennessee, they may have settled for a short time near its mouth.
        Both the Cumberland and the Tennessee were known by their name,
        and it stuck persistently to the latter stream until well along
        in the eighteenth century. After the early years of the
        eighteenth century we hear little more of them, but there is
        reason to believe that they united with the Koasati.

        Population.- Our only clue to the population of the Kaskinampo is
        in an unpublished report of Bienville, who estimates 150 men, or
        a total population of about 500.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Kaskinampo are
        distinguished only for the prominent part they played in the De
        Soto narratives and for the application of their name for a time
        to Tennessee River.

        Mosopelia. This tribe probably established themselves on
        Cumberland River and at one or two points on the Tennessee shore
        of the Mississippi on their way from Ohio to Mississippi. (See
        Ofo under Mississippi and Ohio.)

        Muskogee. Although we do not have records of any settlement in
        Tennessee by the true Muskogee, it is probable that some of them
        occupied part of its territory in prehistoric times, and at a
        later date their war parties constantly visited it. (See

        Natchez. After being driven from Mississippi and Louisiana, one
        band of Natchez lived among the Cherokee. (See Mississippi.)

        Ofo, see Mosopelia.

        Shawnee. Meaning "southerners," the best-known variants of the
        name being the French form Chaouanons, and that which appears
        in the name of Savannah River. Also called:

        Ani'-Sawanu'gi, by the Cherokee.

        Ontwagnnn, "one who stutters," "one whose speech is
        unintelligible," applied by the Iroquois to this tribe and many

        Oshawanoag, by the Ottawa.

        Shawala, by the Teton Dakota.

        Connections.- The Shawnee belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        stock, their closest relatives being the Fox, Sauk, and Kickapoo.

        Location.- There was scarcely a tribe that divided so often or
        moved so much as the Shawnee, but one of the earliest historic
        seats of the people as a whole was on Cumberland River. (See also
        Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland
        and the District of Columbia, Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma,
        Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia.)

                            Subdivisions and Villages

        There were five subdivisions of long standing, Chillicothe,
        Hathawekela, Kispokotha, Mequachake, and Piqua. The Hathawekela,
        Kispokotha, and Piqun later formed one body known as Absentee
        Shawnee. The following names of villages have been preserved:

        Bulltown, or Mingo, on Little Kanawha River, W. Va.

        Chillicothe, 3 or 4 towns: (1) on Paint Creek on the site of
        Oldtown, near Chillicothe in Ross County, Ohio; (2) on the Little
        Miami about the site of Oldtown in Greene County, Ohio; (3) on
        the Great Miami River at the present Piqua in Miami County; (4)
        probably the native name of Lowertown (see below).

        Conedogwinit, location unknown.

        Cornstalk's Town, on Scippo Creek opposite Squaw Town, Picksway
        County, Ohio.

        Girty's Town, on St. Mary's River, east of Celina Reservoir,
        Auglaize County, Ohio.

        Grenadier Squaw's Town, on Scippo Creek, Pickaway County, Ohio.

        Hog Creek, on a branch of Ottawa River in Allen County, Ohio.

        Kagoughsage, apparently in Ohio or western Pennsylvania.

        Lewistown (and Seneca), near the site of the present Lewistown,
        Logan County, Ohio.

        Lick Town, probably Shawnee, on upper Scioto River, probably near
        Circleville, Ohio.

        Logstown, with Delaware, and Inter Iroquois, on the right bank of
        Ohio River about 14 miles below Pittsburgh, in Allegheny County,

        Long Tail's Settlement, in Johnson County, Kans.

        Lowertown, 2 towns; (1) on Ohio River just below the mouth of the
        Scioto and later built on the opposite side of the river about
        the site of Portsmouth, Ohio; (2) in Ross County, also called

        Mequachake: There were several towns of the name occupied by
        people of this division; they also had villages on the headwaters
        of Mad River, Logan County, Ohio.

        Old Shawnee Town, on Ohio River in Gallia County, Ohio, 3 miles
        above the mouth of the Great Kanawha.

        Peixtan (or Nanticoke), on or near the lower Susquehanna River in
        Dauphin County, Pa., possibly on the site of Paxtonville.

        Pigeon Town, Mequachake division, on Mad River, 3 miles northwest
        of West Liberty, Logan County, Ohio.

        Piqua, 4 towns: (1) Pequea on Susquehanna River at the mouth of
        Pequea Creek, in Lancaster County, Pa.; (2) on the north side of
        Mad River, about 5 miles west of Springfield, Clark Gounty, Ohio;
        (3) Upper Piqua on Miami River 3 miles north of the present Piqua
        in Miami County, Ohio, and (4) Lower Piqua, a smaller village on
        the site of the modern town of that name, Ohio.

        Sawanogi, on the south side of Tallapoosa River in Maeon County,
        Ala; but see Muskogee in Alabama.

        Scoutash's Town (or Mingo), near Lewistown, Logan County, Ohio.

        Shawneetown, on the west bank of Ohio River about the present
        Shawneetown, Gallatin County, Ill.

        Sonnioto, at the mouth of Scioto River, Ohio, perhaps the same as

        Tippecanoe, on the west bank of the Wabash River, just below the
        mouth of Tippecanoe River in Tippecanoe County, Ind.

        Wapakoneta, on the site of the present Wapakoneta, Auglaize
        County, Ohio.

        Will's Town, at the site of Cumberland, Md.

        History.- Tradition and the known linguistic connections of the
        Shawnee indicate that they had migrated to the Cumberland River
        Valley from the north not long previous to the historic period.
        They were on and near the Cumberland when French explorers first
        heard of them, although there are indications that they had been
        in part on the Ohio not long before. Shortly after 1674 the
        Hathawekela or that part of the Shawnee afterward so called,
        settled upon Savannah River, and in 1681 they proved of great
        assistance to the new colony of South Carolina by driving a tribe
        known as Westo, probably part of the Yuchi, from the middle
        Savannah. Early in the following century, or possibly very late
        in the same century, some of these Hathawekela began to move to
        Pennsylvania and continued to do so at intervals until 1731.
        Meanwhile, however, immediately after the Yamasee War, a part had
        retired among the Creeks, settling first on Chattahoochee River
        and later on the Tallapoosa, where they remained until some years
        before the removal of the Creeks to the west. Of the remaining
        bands of Shawnee- those which had stayed upon the Cumberland-
        part of the Piqua moved eastward into Pennsylvania about 1678,
        and more in 1694, so that they were able to welcome their kinsmen
        from the south a few years later. A French trader named
        Charleville established himself at Nashville among the rest of
        the tribe, but soon afterward they were forced out of that region
        by the Cherokee and Chickasaw. They stopped for a time at several
        points in Kentucky, and perhaps at Shawneetown, Ill., but about
        1730, by permission of the Wyandot, collected along the north
        bank of the Ohio between the Allegheny and Scioto Rivers. Shortly
        after the middle of the eighteenth century they were joined by
        their kinsmen who had been living in Pennsylvania. One
        Pennsylvania band continued on south to the Upper Creeks with
        whom they lived for several years before returning north. Their
        return must have occurred soon after 1760, and they are said to
        have settled for a time in the old Shawnee country on the
        Cumberland but were soon ejected by the Chickasaw, this time
        unassisted by the Cherokee. From the beginning of the French and
        Indian War to the treaty of Greenville in 1795, the main body of
        Shawnee were almost constantly fighting with the English or the
        Americans. They were the most active and pertinacious foes of the
        Whites in that section. Driven from the Scioto, they settled upon
        the headwaters of the Miami, and later many of them assisted the
        Cherokee and Creeks in their wars with the Americans. In 1793,
        however, one considerable body, on invitation of the Spanish
        Government, occupied a tract of land near Cape Girardeau, Mo.,
        along with some Delaware. After the treaty of Greenville, the
        Shawnee were obliged to give up their lands on the Miami, and
        part retired to the headwaters of the Auglaize, while the more
        hostile element swelled the numbers of those who had gone to
        Missouri. In 1798 a part of the Shawnee in Ohio settled on White
        River, Ind., by invitation of the Delaware. Shortly afterward a
        Shawnee medicine man named Tenskwatawa, known to the Whites as
        "the Shawnee prophet," began to preach a new doctrine which
        exhorted the Indians to return to the communal life of their
        ancestors, abandoning all customs derived from the Whites. His
        followers increased rapidly in numbers and established themselves
        in a village at the mouth of Tippecanoe River, Ind. Their hostile
        attitude toward the Whites soon becoming evident, they were
        attacked here in 1811 by Gen. W. H. Harrison and totally
        defeated. While this war was going on Tecumseh, Tenskwatawa's
        famous brother, was in the south endeavoring to bring about an
        uprising among the tribes in that section. In the war between the
        Americans and British which broke out in 1812 Tecumseh acted as
        leader of the hostiles and was killed at the battle of the Thames
        in 1814. In 1825 the Shawnee in Missouri, who are said to have
        taken no part in these wars, sold their lands, and most of them
        moved to a reservation in Kansas, but a large part had previously
        gone to Texas, where they remained until expelled by the American
        colonists in 1839. About 1831 the Shawnee still in Ohio joined
        those in Kansas, and about 1845 the Hathawekela, Kispokotha,
        and Piqua moved from Kansas to Oklahoma and established them-
        selves on Canadian River, becoming known later as the Absentee
        Shawnee. In 1867, a band which had been living with the Seneca
        also moved to what is now Oklahoma and came to be known as Eastern
        Shawnee; and still later the main body became incorporated with the
        Cherokee. One band, known as Black Bob's band, at first refused to
        remove from Kansas, but later joined the rest. All have now become
        citizens of Oklahoma.

        Population.- Owing to the number of separate bodies into which
        this tribe became divided, and their complex history, estimates of
        Shawnee population in early times are difficult. Mooney (1928)
        places their entire number at 3,000 in 1650. Estimates made by
        various writers during the eighteenth and early nineteenth
        centuries vary between 1,000 and 2,000, 1,500 being the favorite
        figure. In 1760 the Abihka and Tallapoosa bands numbered 100
        warriors. In 1909 the Eastern Shawnee numbered 107; the Absentee
        Shawnee, 481; and those incorporated with the Cherokee Nation,
        about 1,400. The census of 1910 returned only 1,338. In 1923, 166
        Eastern Shawnee were enumerated and 551 Absentee, but no figures
        were given for that part of the tribe in the Cherokee Nation. The
        census of 1930 gave 1,161, most of whom were in Oklahoma. There
        were 916 in Oklahoma in 1937.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Although prominent
        by virtue of its size, the Shawnee tribe is noteworthy rather on
        account of numerous migrations undertaken by its various branches
        and the number of contacts established by them, involving the
        history of three-quarters of our southern and eastern States. They
        constituted the most formidable opposition to the advance of
        settlements through the Ohio Valley, and under Tecumseh and
        Tenskwatawa attempted an extensive alliance of native tribes to
        oppose the Whites The name Shawnee is preserved in various forms
        in Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Wisconsin, Kansas, New York, Ohio,
        Oklahoma, Missouri, and Illinois, and most conspicuously of all,
        perhaps, in the name of the river Savannah and the city of
        Savannah, Ga. There are places called Shawnee in Park County,
        Colo.; Johnson County, Kans.; Perry County, Ohio; Pottawatomie
        County, Okla.; and Converse County, Wyo.; Shawnee-on-Delaware in
        Monroe County, Pa.; Shawnee in Claiborne County, Tenn.;
        Shawanese in Luzerne County, Pa.; Shawano in Shawano County,
        Wis.; Shawneetown in Gallatin County, Ill., and Cape Girardeau
        County, Mo.

        Tali. A tribe met by De Soto near the great bend of the Tennessee
        and found in the same region by the earliest English and French
        explorers, living in what is now northern Alabama and perhaps
        also in Tennessee. It is probable that they were a part of the
        Creeks (q. v.).

        Tuskegee. One band of Tuskegee formed a settlement or settlements
        in the Cherokee Nation. (See Cherokee, and Tuskegee under

        Yuchi. The greater part of the Yuchi probably lived at one period
        in and near the mountains of eastern Tennessee though one band of
        them was on the Tennessee River just above Muscle Shoals and
        there is evidence for an early occupation of the Hiwassee Valley.
        Some remained with the Cherokee until a very late date. (See



        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Akokisa. The name Akokisa, spelled in various ways, was given by
        the Spaniards to those Atakapa living in southeastern Texas,
        between Trinity Bay and Trinity River and Sabine River. (See
        Atakapa under Louisiana.)

        Alabama. Alabama Indians came to Texas early in the nineteenth
        century, and the largest single body of Alabama still lives there
        on a State reservation in Polk County. (See Alabama.)

        Anadarko. The name of a tribe or band belonging to the Hasinai
        Confederacy (q. v.).

        Apache. The Jicarilla and other Apache tribes raided across the
        boundaries of this State on the northwest and west in early
        times, but the only one of them which may be said to have had its
        headquarters inside for any considerable period was the Lipan
        (q. v.).

        Aranama. The Aranama were associated sometimes with the Karankawa
        in the Franciscan missions but were said to be distinct from
        them. Although a small tribe during all of their known history,
        they held together until comparatively recent times, and Morse
        (1822) gives them a population of 125. They were remembered by
        the Tonkawa, when Dr. A. S. Gatschet visited the latter, and he
        obtained two words of their language, but they are said to have
        been extinct as a tribe by 1843. While their affiliations are not
        certainly known, they were undoubtedly with one of thc three
        stocks, Karankawan, Tonkawan, or Coahuiltecan, probably the last
        mentioned, and will be enumerated provisionally with them. (See
        Coahuiltecan Tribes.)

        Atakapa, see Akokisa above and under Louisiana.

        Bidai. Perhaps from a Caddo word signifying "brushwood," and
        having reference to the Big Thicket near the lower Trinity River
        about which they lived. Also called:

             Quasmigdo, given as their own name by Ker (1816).
             Spring Creeks, the name given hy Foote (1841).

        Connections.- From the mission records it appears that the Bidai
        were of the Atakapan linguistic stock.

        Location.- On the middle course of Trinity River about Bidai
        Creek and to the westward and southwestward.

        History.- The Bidai were living in the region above given when
        first known to the Europeans and claimed to be aborigines of that
        territory. The Franciscan mission of San Ildefonso was founded
        for them and the Akokisa, Deadose, and Patiri. In the latter part
        of the eighteenth century they are said to have been chief
        intermediaries between the Spaniards and Apache in the sale of
        firearms. The attempt to missionize them was soon abandoned. In
        1776-77 an epidemic carried away nearly half their number, but
        they maintained separate existence down to the middle of the
        nineteenth century, when they were in a village 12 miles from
        Montgomery. They have now entirely disappeared.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates for them a population of 500
        in 1690. In 1805 there were reported to be about 100.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name is
        perpetuated in that of a small creek flowing into Trinity River
        from the west and in a village known as Bedias or Bedais in
        Grimes County, Tex.

        Biloxi. Some Biloxi entered Texas before 1825. In 1846 a band was
        camped on Little River, a tributary of the Brazos. Afterward they
        occupied a village on Biloxi Bayou in the present Angelina
        County, but later either returned to Louisiana or passed north to
        the present Oklahoma. (See Mississippi.)

        Caddo Tribes. Under this head are included the Adai and the
        Natchitoches Confederacy (see Louisiana); and the Eyeish, the
        Hasinai Confederacy, and the Kadohadacho Confederacy in Texas.

        Cherokee. A band of Cherokee under a chief named Bowl settled in
        Texas early in the nineteenth century, but they were driven out
        by the Texans in 1839 and their chief killed. (See Tennessee.)

        Choctaw. Morse (1822) reported 1,200 Choctaw on the Sabine and
        Neches Rivers, and some bands continued to live for a while in
        eastern Texas. One band in particular, the Yowani Choctaw, was
        admitted among the Caddo there. All the Choctaw finally removed
        to Oklahoma. (See Mississippi.)

        Coahuiltecan Tribes. The name was derived from that of the
        Mexican State of Coahuila, the tribes of this group having
        extended over the eastern part of that province as well as a
        portion of Texas. Also called:

             Tejano, an alternative name for the group.

        Connections.- As Coahuiltecan are included all of the tribes
        known to have belonged to the Coahuiltecan linguistic family and
        some supposed on circumstantial evidence to be a part of it. It
        is probable that most of the so-called Tamaulipecan family of
        Mexico were really related to this, and that the Karankawan and
        Tonkawan groups were connected as well, though more remotely.

        Location.- The Coahuiltecan tribes were spread over the eastern
        part of Coahuila, Mexico, and almost all of Texas west of San
        Antonio River and Cibolo Creek. The tribes of the lower Rio
        Grande may have belonged to a distinct family, that called by
        Orozco y Berra (1864) Tamaulipecan, but the Coahuiltecans reached
        the Gulf coast at the mouth of the Nueces. Northeast of that
        point they were succeeded by Karankawan tribes. Toward the north
        it is probable that the Coahuiltecans originally extended for a
        long distance before they were displaced by the Apache and
        Comanche. (See also Mexico.)


        In considering the Coahuiltecan stock it has been found necessary
        to change the original plan of giving separate consideration to
        rich tribe because we are here confronted by an enormous number
        of small tribal or band names, of many of which we do not know
        even the location. In lieu of subdivisions, therefore, we shall
        give as complete a list as possible of these small tribes or
        bands, as far as they are known. They are as follows:

        Aguastayas.                   Asan.
        Alasapas.                     Atajah
        Andacaminos.                  Atastagonies.
        Annas.                        Borrados.
        Apayxam.                      Cabia.
        Aranama (see above).          Cacafes.

        Caohopostales.                Mazapes.
        Camai.                        Menenquen.
        Cantunas.                     Mescales.
        Casas Chiquitas.              Mesquites.
        Casastles.                    Milijaes.
        Chaguantapam.                 Morbanas.
        Chagustapa.                   Mulatos.
        Chapamaco.                    Murusm (perhaps Tonkawan).
        Chemoco.                      Narices.
        Choyapin (perhaps Tonkawan).  Natao.
        Chuapas.                      Nazas.
        Cimataguo.                    Necpacha.
        Cluetau.                      Nigco (probably meant for Sinicu).
        Cocomeioje.                   Nonapho (perhaps Tonkswan).
        Comecrudo.                    Obozi
        Cotonam.                      Ocana.
        Cupdan.                       Odoesmades.
        Escaba.                       Ohaguames.
        Espopolames.                  Orejones.
        Gabilan.                      Oydican.
        Geies.                        Paac.
        Guanipas.                     Paachiqui.
        Gueiquesales.                 Pabor.
        Guerjuatida.                  Pacaruja (given by Uhde, 1861).
        Guisoles.                     Pachal.
        Hueser.                       Pachalaque.
        Hapes.                        Pachaloco.
        Harames.                      Pachaquen.
        Heniocane.                    Pachaug.
        Hiabu.                        Pacpul.
        Hihames.                      Pacuaches.
        Huacacasa.                    Pacuachiam.
        Huanes.                       Paguan.
        Hume.                         Paguanan.
        Juamaca.                      Pajalat.
        Jueinzum.                     Pajarito.
        Juncatas.                     Pakawa.
        Junced.                       Pamaque.
        Macapao.                      Pamaya.
        Macocoma.                     Pamoranos.
        Mallopeme.                    Pampopas.
        Mamuqui.                      Papanac.
        Manam.                        Paquuche.
        Manico.                       Parantones.
        Manos Colorados.              Parchaque.
        Manos de Perro.               Parchinas.
        Manos Prietas.                Pasalves.
        Maquems.                      Pasnacanes.
        Maraquites.                   Pasqual.
        Matucar.                      Pastaloca.
        Matuime.                      Pastancoyas.
        Maubedan.                     Pasteal.
        Mauyga.                       Patague.

        Patan.                            Suanas.
        Patanium.                         Sulujame.
        Pataquilla (perhaps Karankawan).  Taeame.
        Patou.                            Taimamares.
        Patzau.                           Tamoan (?).
        Pauganes.                         Tamfque (?).
        Pausaqui.                         Tanpacuazes.
        Pausay.                           Tarequano.
        Payaya.                           Teana.
        Payuguan.                         Tecahuistes.
        Peana.                            Tejones.
        Pelones.                          Teneinamar.
        Pescado (?).                      Tenicapeme.
        Piedras Blancas.                  Tepachuaches.
        Piquique.                         Tepemaca.
        Pinanaca.                         Terocodame.
        Piniquu.                          Tet.
        Pintos.                           Tctanauoica.
        Pita.                             Tetecores.
        Pitahay.                          Tetzino (perhaps Tonkawan).
        Pomuluma.                         Tilijaes.
        Prietos.                          Tinapihuayas.
        Psaupsau.                         Tiopane (perhaps Karankawan).
        Pulacuam (perhaps Tonkawan).      Tiopines.
        Putaay.                           Tishim. (perhaps Tonkawan).
        Quanataguo.                       Tocas.
        Quems.                            Tonzaumacagua.
        Quepanos.                         Tripas Blancas.
        Quesal.                           Tuancas.
        Quide (?).                        Tumamar.
        Quioborique (?).                  Tumpzi.
        Quisabas (?).                     Tusanes.
        Quitacas.                         Tusonid.
        Quivi (?).                        Tuteneiboica.
        Salapaque (?).                    Unojita (?).
        Salinas (?).                      Uracha.
        Samampac.                         Utaca (?).
        Sampanal.                         Venados.
        Sanipao.                          Vande Flechas.
        Saracuam (?).                     Viayam.
        Secmoco.                          Viddaquimamar.
        Semonan (?).                      Xarame.
        Senisos.                          Xiabu.
        Siaguan.                          Yacdossa.
        Siansi.                           Ybdacas.
        Siiame (perhaps Tonkawan).        Yeme.
        Silianguayas.                     Yman.
        Simaomo (perhaps Tonkawan).       Ymic.
        Sinicu.                           Yoricas.
        Siupam.                           Ysbupue.
        Sonaque.                          Yue.
        Sonayan.                          Yurguimes.
        Suahuaches (?).                   Zorquan.

        As indicated, some of there were perhaps Tonkawan, Karankawan, or
        of other affiliations. Some were represented by single
        individuails and no doubt many of the names are synonyms or have
        become distorted in the process of recording. The exact nature of
        these groups can now never be known. The above list does not
        include a great many names given only by Cabeza de Vaca or La
        Salle and his companions in the same region. The multiplicity of
        tribes and confusion in names is not so serious in any other
        region north of Mexico.

        History.- The Coahuiltecan tribes were first encountered by
        Cabeza de Vaca and his companions who passed through the heart of
        their country, nnd by the Spaniards when they invaded Coahuila
        and founded Parral. From the early part of the seventcenth
        century onward, their country was traversed repeatedly. In 1675
        the Coahuiltecan country on both sides of the Rio Grande was
        invaded by Fernando del Bosque, and in 1689 and 1690 the Texas
        portion was again traversed by De Leon and Manzanet. In 1677 a
        Franciscan mission for Coahuiltecan tribes was established at
        Nadadores and before the end of the century others were started
        along the Rio Grande and near San Antonio. Great numbers of
        Indians were gathered into these missions during the first part
        of the eighteenth century but the change of life entailed upon
        roving people, disease, and the attacks of hostile tribes from
        the north reduced their numbers rapidly. Today none of these
        Indians are known to survive in Texas. In 1886 Dr. A. S. Gatschet
        found remnants of two or three tribes on the south side of the
        Rio Grande and some of their descendants, survive, but they are
        no longer able to speak their ancient language.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1690 the
        Coahuiltecan peoples totaled 15,000; no figures embracing all of
        them occur in the various narratives.

        Comanche. Significance unknown. Also called:

             Allebome, given by Lewis and Clark as the French name.
             Bald Heads, so called by Long (1823).
             Bo'dalk' inago, Kiowa name, meaning "reptile people," "snake
             Ca'-tha, Arapaho name, meaning "having many horses."
             Cintu-aluka, Teton Dakota name.
             Datse-an, Kiowa Apache name (Gatschet, MS, BAE).
             Gyai'-ko, Kiowa name, meaning "enemies."
             Idahi, Kiowa Apache name (Mooney, 1896).
             Inda, Jicarilla name.
             La Plais, French traders' name, perhaps corrupted from Tete
             La'-ri'hta, Pawnee name.
             Los Mecos, Mexican name.
             Mahan, Isleta name.
             Mahana, Taos name.
             Na'`lani, Navaho name, meaning "many aliens," or "many
        enemies" (collective for Plains tribe).
             Na'nita, Kichai name.
             Nar-a-tah, Waco name.
             Na'taa, Wichita name, meaning "snakes," i. e., "enemies."
             Ne'me ne, or Nimenim, own name, or Numa, meaning "people."
             Padouca, common early name, evidently from the name of the
        Penateka band.
             Sanko, obsolete Kiowa name.
             Sau'hto, Caddo name.
             Selakampom, Comecrudo name for all warlike tribes but
        especially for the Comanche.
             Shishinowutz-hita'neo, Cbeyenne name meaning "snake people."
             Snake Indians, common name.
             Tete Pelee, French traders' name, identification somewhat
             Yampah or Ya'mpaini, Shoshoni name, meaning "Yampa people,"
        or "Yampa eaters."

        Connections.- The Comanche belonged to the Shoshonean linguistic
        family, a branch of Uto-Aztecan, its tongue being almost
        identical with that of the Shoshoni.

        Location.- In northwestern Texas and the region beyond as far as
        Arkansas River. (See also Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico,
        Oklahoma, and Wyoming.)


        The following are the names of Comanche bands so far as these are

        Detsanayuka or Nokoni.           Pagatsu.
        Ditsakana, Widyu, Yapa           Penateka or Penande.
           or Yamparika.
        Kewatsana.                       Pohoi (adopted Shoshoni).
        Kotsai.                          Tanima, Tenawa or Tenahwit.
        Kotsoteka, Kwahari               Waaih.
           or Kwahadi.

        Various writers also mention the following:

        Guage-johe.                      Muvinabore.
        Ketahto.                         Nauniem.
        Kwashi.                          Parkeenaum.

        History.- Although differing today in physical type, on account
        of their close linguistic relationship it is supposed that the
        original Comanche must have separated from the Shoshoni in the
        neighborhood of eastern Wyoming. The North Platte was known as
        Padouca Fork as late as 1805. In 1719, however, the Comanche are
        placed by early writers in southwestern Kansas. For a long time
        the Arkansas River was their southern boundary, but finally they
        moved below it attracted by opportunities to obtain horses from
        the Mexicans and pushed on by other peoplcs. The Apache, who were
        in the country invaded, attacked them but were defeated. In this
        movement the Penateka Comanche were in advance and from the name
        of this band comes Padouca, one of the old terms applied to the
        entire people. For a long time the Comanche were at war with the
        Spaniards and the Apache, and later with the Americans. Texas
        suffered so much from their depredations that the famous Texas
        Rangers were organized as a protection against them and proved
        extremely effective. In 1854, by permission of the State of
        Texas, the Federal Government established two reservations upon
        Brazos River and some of the Comanche and Kiowa were placed upon
        the upper reserve. Friction with the settlers, however, continued
        and compelled the abandonment of these reserves in 1859 and the
        removal of the Indians to the territory embraced in the present
        State of Oklahoma. By a treaty concluded October 18, 1865, a
        reservation was set apart for the Comanche and Kiowa consisting
        of the Panhandle of Texas and all of Oklahoma west of Cimarron
        River and the 98th meridian of west longitude. By a treaty
        concluded October 21, 1867, they surrendered all of this except a
        tract of land in southwestern Oklahoma between the 98th meridian,
        Red River, the North Fork of Red River, and Washita River. They
        did not settle finally upon this land, however, until after the
        last outbreak of the southern prairie tribes in 1874-75. Their
        descendants continue to live in the same territory.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that there must have been
        7,000 Comanche about 1690. The census of 1904 gives 1,400; the
        census of 1910, 1,171; and the United States Indian Office Report
        for 1923 shows a total of 1,697. The census of 1930 returned
        1,423. In 1937 the figure given is 2,213.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Comanche were
        one of the most famous tribes of the Plains, particularly the
        southern Plains. They were remarkable (1) for their numbers,
        horsemanship, and warlike character; (2) for the frequent clashes
        between them and the White expeditions or bodies of emigrants;
        (3) as largely instrumental in introducing horses to the Indians
        of the northern Plains. They gave place names to counties in
        Kansas and Texas; a mountain in Texas; and places in Yellowstone
        County, Mont.; Comanche County, Tex.; and Stephens County, Okla.

        There is a Comanche River in Colorado.

        Creeks, see Muskogee, under Alabama.

        Deadose. An Atakapa tribe or subtribe in south central Texas.
        (See Louisiana.)

        Eyeish, or Haish. Meaning unknown. Also called Aays, Aix, Aliche,
        Yayecha, etc.

        Connections.- The Eyeish belonged to the Caddoan linguistic
        stock, their closest relatives probably being the Adai, and next
        to them the peoples of the Kadohadacho and Hasinai Confederacies,
        with which, in fact, Lesser and Weltfish (1932) classify them.

        Location.- On Ayish Creek, northeastern Texas, between the Sabine
        and Neches Rivers.

        History- In 1542 the Eyeish were visited by the Spaniards under
        Moscoso, De Soto's successor. They are next noted in 1686-87 by
        the companions of La Salle. In 1716 the mission of Nuestra Senora
        de los Dolores was established among them by the Franciscans,
        abandoned in 1719, reestablished in 1721, and finally given up in
        1773, the success of thc mission having been very small. Their
        proximity to the road between the French post at Natchitoches and
        the Spanish post at Nacogdoches seems to have contributed to
        their general demoralization. Sibley (1832) reported only 20
        individuals in the tribe in 1805 but in 1828 there were said to
        be 160 families. Soon afterward they joined the other Caddo
        tribes and followed their fortunes, and they must have declined
        very rapidly for only a bare memory of them is preserved.

        Population.- In 1779, 20 families were reported; in 1785, a total
        population of 300; in 1805, 20 individuals; in 1828, 160
        families. (See Caddo Confederacy, under Louisiana.)

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Ayish Bayou, a
        tributary of the Angelina River on which they formerly lived,
        perpetuates the name of the Eyeish.

        Guasco. A tribe or band which attained some prominence from the
        importance attached to it in the narratives of the De Soto
        expedition. (See Hasinai Confederacy.)

        Hinai. An important band of the Hasinai Confederacy (q. v.).

        Hasinni Confederacy. Hasinai signifies "our own folk." The name
        often occurs in the forms Assinay or Cenis.

        Connections.- The Hasinai Confederacy constituted one of the
        major divisions of the Caddo, the others being the Kadohadacho
        Confederacy, the Natehitoches Confederacy, and the Adai and
        Eyeish, the two last probably connected but not confederated. All
        belonged to the Caddoan linguistic stock.

        Location.- In northeastern Texas between the headwaters of the
        Neches and Trinity Rivers.


        The following tribes or bands were included:

        Anadarko, northwest of Nacogdoches in the present Rusk County.

        Guasco, position unknown.

        Hainai, 3 leagues west of Nacogdoches.

        Nabedache, 3 to 4 leagues west of Neches River and near Arroyo
        San Pedro, at a site close to the old San Antonio road, which
        became known as San Pedro.

        Nacachau, just north of the Neches tribe and on the east side of
        Neches River.

        Nacanish, north of the Hainai.

        Naco, probably part of the Nacanish.

        Nacogdoche, at the present Nacogdoches.

        Nacano, southeast of the Neches and Nabedache and 5 leagues from
        the former.

        Namidish or Nabiti, on Angelina River north of the Hainai.

        Nasoni, two towns: bout 27 miles north of Nacogdoches near the
        Anadarko (2) in the Kadohadacho Confederacy.

        Nechaui, southeast of the Nabednche, half a league from the
        Nacono, and 5 leagues from the crossing of the Neches at the
        Neches village.

        Neches, the main village 1 league or more east of Neches River,
        nearly west of the present Nacogdoches and near the mounds
        southwest of Alto, Cherokee County.

        The following names may belong to other allied tribes but next to
        nothing is known of them:

        Naansi.             Nadamin.               Neihshat.
        Nabeyeyxa.          Natsshostanno.         Tadiva.

        Lesser and Weltfish (1932) speak of a tribe called Knyamaici, but
        this was probably a local group on Kiamichi River.


        As recorded by our authorities, these almost always bore the
        names of the tribes occupying them.

        History.- On their way west in 1542 after the death of De Soto,
        in an endeavor to reach Mexico overland, the Spaniards who had
        followed him passed through the Caddo country, and the names of
        the Nabedache, Nasoni, Anadarko, and Nacanish seem to be
        recognizable. In 1686-87 La Salle and his companions spent some
        time in their villages, and it was near one of them that La Salle
        was murdered by his own people. In 1690 the Spaniards entered
        their country and opened the first mission among them at the
        Nabedache village in May of that year. A number of missions were
        established in the other villages. All were abandoned in 1719 in
        expectation of a French attack, but they were reestablished in
        1721. They did not prove successful, however, and were gradually
        removed to the neighborhood of San Antonio. Early in the
        nineteenth century the Hasinai were joined by the Louisiana
        Caddo, and all were placed upon a reservation on the Brazos River
        in 1855. Threatened with massacre by some of their White
        neighbors, they fled to Oklahoma 4 years later, were granted new
        lands near the present Anadarko, and finally allotted land in

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1690 the entire
        Caddo population, including the Hasinai, the Kadohndacho and
        Natchitoches Confederacies, and the Adai and Eyeish tribes,
        amount to 8,500, 700 more than the number I arrived at. He does
        not give figures for the Hasinai by themselves, but it is
        probable that he would have allowed between 4,000 and 5,000. The
        former figure is the one I suggested (see Swanton, 1942).

        Referring to earlier estimates, we are told that a Canadian who
        had lived for several years among the Hasinai stated in 1699 that
        they had between 600 and 700 warriors, which would indicate a
        population of 2,500-3,000. In 1716 Don Diego Ramon, under whom
        the missions were established, gave it as his opinion that they
        were serving a population of 4,000-6,000. When Aguayo
        reestablished them in 1721 he distributed presents to the
        inhabitants of the principal towns. His figures are evidently
        incomplete, but even so they suggest some falling off in the 5
        years that had elapsed. At any rate it is evident that these
        Indians lost very heavily during the eighteenth century and that
        their numbers did not exceed 1,000 at the opening of the
        nineteenth century. A rather careful estimate by Jesse Stem in
        1851 would indicate a population of about 350. In 1864 the United
        States Indian Office reported 150, and in 1876 and subsequent
        years still smaller figures appear which are evidently
        incomplete. The first seemingly accurate census taken by the
        Indian Office was in 1880, when the figure for the united Caddo
        people was given as 538. It varied little from this until after
        1910 when it showed steady gains. In 1937, 967 Caddo were

        Connection in which they haue become noted.- The Hasinai are
        noted as the Indians among whom La Salle came to his untimely
        end, and along with the Kadohadacho and Natchitoches as makers of
        the beautiful Caddo pottery. (See Kadohadacho Confederacy.)

        Texas, a common name applied to them, was adopted as the
        designation of a Republic and later State of the American Union.
        It has been given to places in Washington County, Ky., and
        Baltimore County, Md.; to Tcxas City, Galveston County, Tex.;
        Texas Creek, Fremont County, Colo.; and in the combined form
        Texarkana to a city on the boundary line between Texas and
        Arkansas, entering also into Texhoma, Texas County, Okla., and
        Sherman County, Tex.

        Isleta del Sur, see Pueblos under New Mexico.

        Jicarills. The Jicarilla ranged into this State (Texas) at times.
        (See Colorado.)

        Kadohadacho Confederacy. The word Kadohadacho signifies in the
        native language "real chiefs," kadi being the word for "chief,"
        and it is from an abbreviation of this term that we get the word
        Caddo. They were also called:

             At'-ta-wits, by the Comanche, according to Ten Kate (1907).
             Da'sha-i, or Tashash, by the Wichita.
             Erawika, by the Pawnee.
             'H'-doum-dei-kih, by the Riowa.
             Ka-lox-la'-tce, by the Choctaw.
             Kalu-xnadshu or Kasseye'i, by the Tonkawa.
             Kul-hul-atsl, by the Creeks.
             Ma'-seip'-kin, by the Kiowa, signifying "pierced noses."
             Ni'ris-hari's-ki'riki, another Wichita name.
             Ota's-ita'niuw', Cheyenne name, signifying "pierced nose
        people" for Utaseta).
             Su'-dee, hy the Quapaw.
             Tani'banen, by the Arapaho, signifying "pierced nose
             Witune, by the Comanche, according to Gatschet (M.S., B.A.E.).

        Connections.- The Kadohadacho belonged to the Caddo division of
        the Caddoan linguistic stock, thc other members being the closely
        related Hasinai (q. v.) and Natchitoches (see under Louisiana),
        and the more remotely connected Adai of Louisiana and Eyeish of

        Location.- The Kadohadacho lived in northeastern Texas and
        southwestern Arkansas at the Great Bend of Red River, though they
        are usually associated with the region around Caddo Lake which
        they occupied at a later period. (See also Arkansas and


        Cahinnio, near Ouachita River, Ark.

        Kadohadacho, on the north side of Red River near the point where
        the present Arkansas-Texas boundary line reaches it.

        Nanatsoho, on the south side of Red River not far from the point
        reached by the present Arkansas-Oklahoma State line.

        Upper Nasoni, on the south side of Red River nearly opposite the
        present Ogden.

        Upper Natchitoches, on the south side of Red River between the
        Nanatsoho and Nasoni.

        Upper Yatasi, a part of the Yatasi which joined them in very late

        History.- In October 1541, De Soto and his army entered a
        province called Tula believed to be the country of the Indians
        later known as Cahinnio, a tribe for whose bravery the Spaniards
        came to have a wholesome respect. The next encounter between
        these people and white men was in the summer of 1687 when, after
        the murder of the Sieur de la Salle, six survivors of his
        expedition, including Joutel and Father Anastasius Donay, passed
        through the Kadohadacho towns on their way to the Mississippi,
        visiting the Nasoni, Kadohadacho, and Cahinnio. Tonti visited
        them also 4 years later. In November and December 1691, Domingo
        Teran (Castaneda, 1936) spent a miserable week in this country
        exploring it and taking soundings of Red River, and we owe to him
        the first map of the region. In 1700 Bienville undertook to reach
        them but got no farther than the Yatasi village halfway between
        thc Natchitoches and Kadohadacho. In 1719 the French officer
        Bernard de la Harpe (1831) spent some time among them and
        established a trading post which endured for a considerable
        period. French traders quickly monopolized the Kadohadacho trade,
        the principal trading point being Natchitoches, but no missions
        were established. This group of tribes proved to be a strong
        bulwark against the warlike northern Indians, particularly the
        Osage, but they suffered much in consequence, and late in the
        eighteenth century the Kadohadacho or a part of them moved to
        another location some miles below their ancient village. The town
        established in the new location, however, was also attacked by
        the Osages, who inflicted such losses upon its inhabitants that
        they removed again about 1800 and established themselves on Sodo
        Creek northwest of the present Shreveport. In 1824 a treaty was
        signed between the United States Government and the Quapaw
        Indians by which the latter agreed to give up their lands on the
        Arkansas and remove to the country of the Caddo Indians. The
        Quapaw removed the year following but suffered such losses on
        account of floods in Red River that in 1833 they surrendered
        these lands and removed to Oklahoma. Two years later the
        Kadohadacho and their allies also subscribed to a treaty by which
        they surrendered all of their lands within the territory of the
        United States. In consequence, they removed to Texas and settled
        near their Hasinai kindred, whose fortunes they afterward
        followed although the two parties remained distinct for a
        considerable period. Some united themselves for a time with the
        Cherokee under Chief Bowl. Some also took up their residence with
        the Chickasaw in the Indian Territory. Those who remained in
        Texas were fellow victims with the Hasinai of the increasing
        friction with their white neighbors embittered by Comanche and
        Apache depredations for which they were in no way responsible. We
        may now call these united peoples by the simple term "Caddo." In
        an endeavor to end these difficulties a reservation was set apart
        for the Caddo on Brazos River in 1852 but trouble arose again of
        such a violent character that in 1859 the Caddo abandoned Texas
        and were assigned a new reservation in the southwestern part of
        the present State of Oklahoma, where their descendants still
        live, most of the scattered bands having been gathered into one
        section. Most of the Caddo sided with the Federal Government
        during the Civil War and went to Kansas, where they remained
        until it was over, though experiencing many hardships in
        consequence and losing many of their people in epidemics. They
        took considerable interest in the Ghost Dance Religion and still
        more in the Peyote Cult, John Wilson, a mixed-blood Caddo and
        Delaware, being one of the prominent leaders. The fact that they
        had always cultivated the ground has made their adjustment to the
        new economic system fairly easy. In 1902 they were allotted land
        in severalty.

        Population.- My estimate for the Kadohadacho division of the
        Caddo before White contact is 2,000. Bienville and La Harpe place
        it in 1700-1709 between 2,000 and 2,500. In 1718, however,
        Bienville asserts that it had fallen to 200 warriors, which would
        mean about 800 people, and Sibley (1832) indicates the same
        figures as late as 1805. In 1829 Porter (in Schoolcraft, vol. 3)
        gives an estimate of 450, and in 1851 Stem (1851) who is likely
        to be reliable, places it at 476. In 1857 Neighbors returns a
        partial enumeration of 235, and in 1876, the last time they were
        returned separately from the Hasinai, the Indian Office reported
        467. It is evident, however, that this also includes part of the
        Hasinai and all of the Adai and Eyeish besides the remnants of
        the Natchitoches group. After this date the population of the
        united Caddo group remained around 500, but during the present
        century it has been steadily increasing and in 1937, 967 were

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Kadohadacho
        group is noted as containing the tribe which ultimately gave the
        name Caddo to the linguistic family of which it is a part. The
        name Caddo has been applied to a parish and lake in Louisiana; a
        county in Oklahoma; a creek and gap in Arkansas; to the village
        of Caddo Gap, Montgomery County, Ark.; and to villages in Bryan
        County, Okla., and Stephens County, Tex.; and in Hunt County,
        Tex., is Caddo Mills.

        Karankawan Tribes. The name Karankawa is derived from one of the
        constituent tribes, but the significance is unknown.

        Nda kun-dadehe, Lipan name, meaning "people walking in the

        Quelancouchis, Clamcoets, names given by the French.

        Yakokon kapai, Tonkawa, meaning "without moccasin," but this name
        includes the coast Coahuiltecan tribes.

        Connections.- The Karankawan tribes are placed in an independent
        linguistic stock, which was connected most closely, it would
        seem, with the Coahuiltecan group.

        Location.- On the coast of the Gulf of Mexico between Trinity and
        Arkansas Bays.


        Five principal tribes constituted the Karankawan stock. They were
        as follows.

             Coaque or Coco, on Galveston Island and at the mouth of
        Brazos River.
             Karankawa, on Matagorda Bay.
             Kohani, near the mouth of Colorado River.
             Kopano, on Copano Bay.

        To these should perhaps be added the Tiopane and Tups, and
        perhaps also the Pataquilla, and the Quilotes mentioned by Cabeza
        de Vaca (1851).

        History.- The Karankawan coast was skirted by a number of early
        voyagers but the first contact with its inhabitants worth noting
        was by Cabeza de Vaca and other shipwrecked members of Pamphilo
        de Narvaez's expedition. There is little doubt that the people
        among whom Cabeza de Vaca was cast away in 1528 were the Coaque
        or Coco. In 1685 La Salle landed in their country supposing that
        he was near the mouth of the Mississippi, and he built a fort
        (Fort St. Louis) in which the French maintained themselves for 2
        years. In 1689 the region was visited by a Spanish expedition
        under De Leon intent upon driving the Frenchmen out of the
        country. Shortly afterward the Spaniards began to colonize Texas
        and, though few settlements were made near the coast, missions
        were established from time to time to gather in the Karankawan
        Indians. The neophytes could never be induced to remain long at
        these missions, however, and continued during the Spanish period
        in about the same condition of savagery in which they had been
        found, though they decreased steadily in numbers. After the
        American settlements and begun, the coast tribes annoyed them by
        constant pilfering, and the reprisals which the Karankawans
        suffered finally destroyed them entirely. The last are said to
        have perished shortly before the Civil War. The only Karankawan
        vocabulary of undoubted purity was recorded in 1720 by the French
        Captain Beranger. In 1891 Dr. A. S. Gatschet published two
        others, one obtained from Tonkawa Indians and the other, much
        longer, from a white woman named Oliver who had lived near the
        last band of Karankawa in her girlhood and had learned a
        considerable number of words. But this band is said to have been
        much mixed with Coahuiltecan, a contention which an examination
        of the material seems to confirm.

        Population.- Mooney's (1928) estimate of 2,800 for the Karankawan
        tribes in 1690 appears to me decidedly too high, but there are
        practically no data upon which to make a satisfactory

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Karankawan
        tribes will be longest remembered as those among which Cabeza de
        Vaca and his companions were cast away in 1528, and where La
        Salle's colony was established in 1685. The name of one
        Karankawan tribe (Kopano) is preserved by Copano Bay.

        Kichai or (more phonetically) Kitsei. Their own name and said to
        mean "going in wet sand," but the Pawnee translate their
        rendering of it as "water turtle." Also called:

             Gits'aji, Kansa name.
             Ki-ci'-tcac, Omaha name
             Kietsash, Wichita name.
             Ki-tchesh, Caddo name.
             Quiehais, Spanish variant.
             Quidehais, from French sources (La Harpe, 1831).

        Connections.- The Kichai were a tribe of the Caddoan stock whose
        language lay midway between Wichita and Pawnee.

        Location.- On the upper waters of Trinity River, and between that
        stream and Red River. (See also Oklahoma.)

        History.- It is probable that in the prehistoric period the
        Kichai lived north of Red River but they had gotten south of it
        by 1701 when the French penetrated that country and they
        continued in the same general region until 1855. They were then
        assigned to a small reservation on Brazos River, along with
        several other small tribes.

             In 1858, however, alarmed at threats of extermination on the
        part of the neighboring Whites, they fled to the present
        Oklahoma, where they joined the Wichita. They have remained with
        them ever since.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates a total Kichai population of
        500 in 1690. In 1772 the main Kichai village contained 30 houses
        and there were estimated in it 80 warriors, most of whom were
        young. In 1778 the number of Kichai fighting men was estimated at
        100. The census of 1910 returned a total population of only 10,
        and that of 1930 included them with the Wichita, the figure for
        the two tribes, nearly all Wichita however, being 300.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Their name Kichai is
        perpetuated in the Keeche Hills, Okla.; Keechi Creek, Tex.; a
        branch of the Trinity, Keechi; a post hamlet of Leon County,
        Tex.; and perhaps Kechi, a post township of Sedgwick County,

        Kiowa. This tribe hunted in and raided across northern Texas.
        (See Kansas.)

        Koasati. Early in thc nineteenth century bands of Koasati had
        worked over from Louisiana into Texas, settling first on the
        Sabine and later on the Neches and the Trinity. In 1850 the bulk
        of the entire tribe was in Texas but later, partly it is said on
        account of a pestilence, they suffered heavy losses and most of
        the survivors returned to Louisiana, where the largest single
        body of Koasati is living. Among the Alabama in Polk County,
        Tex., there were in 1912 about 10 of this tribe. (See Alabama
        and Louisiana.)

        Lipan. Adapted from Ipa-n'de, apparently a personal name; n'de
        meaning "people." Also called:

             A-tagui, Kiowa name, meaning "timber Apache"; used also for
             Cances, Caddo name, meaning "deceivers."
             Hu-ta'-ci, Comanche name, meaning "forest Apache" (Ten
        Ka,te, 1884, in
             Hodge, 1907.
             Huxul, Tonkawa name. (See Uxul)
             Na-izha'n, own name, meaning "ours," "our kind."
             Navone, Comanche name (Gatschet, MS., B.A.E.).
             Shi'lni, former Mescalero name, meaning "summer people"(?).
             Tu-tssn-nde, Mescalero name, meaning "great water people."
             Uxul, Tonkawa name, meaning a spiral shell and applied to
        this tribe because of their coiled hair.
             Yabipai Lipan, so called by Garces in 1776.

        Connections.- This is one of the tribes of the Athapascan
        linguistic stock to which the general name Apache was applied.
        Their closest relations politically were with the Jicarilla, with
        whom their formed one linguistic group.

        Location.- The Lipan formerly ranged from the Rio Grande in New
        Mexico over the eastern part of the latter State and western
        Texas southeastward as far as the Gulf of Mexico. (See also New
        Mexico and Oklahoma.)


        The Lipan were reported during the early part of the nineteenth
        century to consist of three bands, probably the same which Orozco
        y Berra (1864) calls Lipanjenne, Lipanes de Arriba, and Lipanes

        History.- The position of the Lipan prior to the eighteenth
        century is somewhat obscure, but during that century and the
        early part of the nineteenth they ranged over the region just
        indicated. In 1757 the San Saba mission was established for them,
        but it was broken up by their enemies, the Comanche and Wichita.
        In 1761-62 the missions of San Lorenzo and Candelaria were
        organized for the same purpose but met a similar fate in 1767. In
        1839 the Lipan sided with the Texans against the Comanche but
        suffered severely from the Whites between 1845, and 1856, when
        most of them were driven into Coahuila, Mexico. They remained in
        Coahuila until October 1903, when the 19 survivors were taken to
        northwest Chihauhua, and remained there until 1905. In that year
        they were brought to the United States and placed on the
        Mescalero Reservation, N. Mex., where they now live. A few Lipan
        were also incorporated with the Tonkawa and the Kiowa Apache.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that the Lipan numbered 500
        in 1690. In 1805 the three bands were reported to number 300,
        350, and 100 men respectively, which would seem to be a too
        liberal allowance. The census of 1910 returned 28.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Lipan were noted
        as persistent raiders into Texas, New Mexico, and Mexico. Their
        name has been given to a post village in Hood County, Tex.

        Muskogee. A few Muskogee came to Texas in the nineteenth century,
        most belonging to the Pakana division. Two or three individuals
        lived until recently near Livingston, Tex. (See Alabama.)

        Nabedache, Nacschau, Nacanish, Nacogdoche, Nadaco, Namidish,
        Nechaui, Neches, and one section of the Nasoni. Small tribes or
        bands belonging to the Hnsinai Confederacy (q. v.).

        Nanatsoho, Nasoni (Upper). Small tribes or bands connected with
        the Kadohadacho Confederacy (q. v.).

        Pakana. A Muskogee division. (See Muskogee above and also under

        Pascagoula. Bands belonging to the Pascagoula, entered Texas from
        Louisiana early in the nineteenth century, and one band lived on
        Biloxi Bayou, a branch of the Neches, for a considerable period,
        together with some Biloxi Indians. All had disappeared in 1912
        except two Indinns, only half Pascagoula, living with the Alabama
        in Polk County. (See Mississippi).

        Patiri. A tribe associated with the Akokisa, Bidai, and Deadose
        in the mission of San Ildefonso west of Trinity River. Since
        related tribes are said to have been put in the same mission in
        that period (1748-49), it is believed that the Patiri spoke an
        Atakapan language. Their former home is thought to have been
        along Caney Creek.

        Pueblos. There were two late settlements of Pueblo Indians,
        Isleta del Sur and Senecu del Sur, near El Paso, Tex., composed
        principally of Indians brought back by Governor Otermin in 1681
        after an unsuccessful attempt to subdue the Pueblo Indinns of the
        Rio Grande. Senecu del Sur was, however, actually in Chihuahua,
        Mexico. The people of these pueblos are now almost completely
        Mexicanized. (See New Mexico.)

        Quapaw. Between 1823 and 1833 the Quapaw lived with the Caddo
        Indians in northwestern Louisiana and northeastern Texas, and one
        band of them known as Imaha were reckoned as a constituent
        element of the Caddo Confederacy. (See Arkansas.)

        Senecu del Sur. (See Pueblos above.)

        Shawnee. A band of Shawnee entered eastern Texas for a brief
        period during the middle of the nineteenth century. They were
        afterward moved to Oklahoma. (See Tennessee.)

        Shuman. More often known as Jumano or Humano, significance
        unknown. Also called:

             Borrados, from Spanish sources, "striped" (?).
             Chouman, French form of name.
             Humanas, Jumanas, Xumanas, Spanish forms of name.
             Ipataraguites, from Mota-Padilla, probably intended for this
             Patarabueyes, given by Espejo in 1582.
             Sumn, sometimes regarded as a separate tribe but considered
        by Sauermerely as a synonym.

        Connections.- The eastern division of the Shuman, that to which
        the name Jumano is oftentimes applied, was once thought to have
        belonged to the Caddoan stock but Sauer (1934) appears to have
        shown that in all probability it was Uto-Aztecan. The western
        section, often called Suma, has been classed, erroneously of
        course, as Tanoan.

        Location.- In early times most of thc Shuman lived along the Rio
        Grande between the mouth of the Concho and the present El Paso
        but extending westward as far as the Casas Grandes in Chihunhua.
        Later a part of them entered the Plains in western Texas and
        eastern New Mexico. (See also New Mexico.)

                          Subdivisions and Villages

        Besides the two main divisions to which the names Shuman or
        Jumano and Suma have been applied respectively, the Suma later
        became separated into two groups, one about El Paso and the other
        in the region of the Casas Grandes. The only villages named are:

             Atripuy, Genobey, Quelotetrey, and Pataotrey.

        History.- The Shuman were first met by Cabeza de Vaca and his
        companions about the beginning of the year 1536 although De Vaca
        does not mention them by name. In 1582 they were visited by
        Antonio de Espejo and in 1598 by Juan de Oriate. At the latter
        date a part of them at least were near the Salinas, east of the
        Rio Grande in what is now New Mexico. About 1622 they were
        visited by the Franciscan missionary of the Pueblo of Isleta, and
        in 1829 an independent mission was established for them. By this
        time, the eastem section of the tribe had gotten as far east as
        the Conchos, a headstream of the Nueces. About 1670 there were
        Shuman not far from Pecos River, and from that lime through the
        eighteenth century they seem to have resided principally in the
        region indicated. As late as the middle of the nineteenth century
        they are mentioned in connection with the Kiowa, and again as
        living near Lampazas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Possibly they were the
        tribe later known as Waco. The name of the western Shuman appears
        in the form Suma as early as 1630 when it was used by Benavides,
        and in 1659 some of the northern Suma were at San Lorenzo. During
        the Pueblo revolt of 1680 they became hostile and united with the
        Manso and Jano in an outbreak in 1684, but they were reduced 2
        years later and formed into several settlements about El Paso,
        San Lorenzo being the only one to endure. They declined steadily
        in numbers until in 1897 only one was known to be living, at
        Senecu. The mission of Casas Grandes was established among the
        southern branch of the Suma in 1664. Then and for some years
        afterward they were allied with the Apache and Jocome in raids
        against the Piman tribes west of them, particularly the Opata,
        but are supposed to have been destroyed ultimately by the Apache.

        Population.- In 1582 Espejo believed that the Shuman numbered
        10,000, probably an overestimate. Mooney (1928) does not give
        them separate entry in his estimates, of population. In 1744 the
        northern branch of that part of the tribe called Suma had become
        reduced to 50 families; in 1765 there were only 21 families; and
        in 1897 only one individual was supposed to be left.

        Soacatino, or Xacatin. A tribe met by the companions of De Soto
        in northwestern Louisiana or northeastern Texas. It Was
        undoubtedly Caddo but has not been identified satisfactorily with
        any known Caddo tribe.

        Tawakoni. The Tawakoni were a subdivision of the Wichita, or at
        least a tribe closely affiliated with them. (See Oklahoma.)

        Tonkawan Tribes. The name derived from the most important and
        only surviving tribe of the family. Gatschet (1891 a) says that
        Tonkawa is a Waco word, Tonkaweya, meaning "they all stay
        together." The synonyms are not to be confounded with those of
        the Tawakoni. Also called:

             Kadiko, Kiowa name, probably a corruption of Kuikogo, "maneating
        men" (Gatschet, MS., B.A.E.).
             Kariko, Comanche name, from above.
             K'inahi-piako, Kiowa name, meaning "maneaters" (Mooney,
             Konkone or Komkome, early French name.
             Maneaters, common translation of some of above synonyms.
             Miuxsen, Cheyenne name.
             Nemerexka, Comanche name (Gatschet, MS., B. A. E.).
             Titskan watitch, own name.

        Connections.- The Tonkawan tribes constitute a distinct
        linguistic family but with affinities for the Coahuiltecan and
        probably Karankawan and Tunican groups.

        Location.- In central Texas from Cibolo Creek on the southwest to
        within a few miles of Trinity River on the northeast. (See also


        The tribes or bands certainly included under this head were the
        Tonkawa Yojuane, Mayeye, and Ervipiame, but there should probably
        be added the Sana, Emet, Cava, Toho, Tohaha, Quiutcanuaha, Tenu,
        Tetzino, Tishin, Tusolivi, and Ujuiap, and perhaps also the
        Nonapho, Sijame, Sirnaomo, Muruam, Pulncuam, and Choyapin, though
        the last three at least were probably Coahuiltecan.

        History.- Tribes of Tonkawan stock were undoubtedly encountered
        by Cabeza de Vaca early in the sixteenth century; certainly so if
        the Muruam were Tonkawan for they are evidently his Mariames. In
        1691 the Tonkawa and Yojuane are mentioned by Francisco Casanas
        de Jesus Maria as enemies of the Hasinai (Swanton, 1942, p. 251),
        and in 1714 the Yojuane destroyed the main fire temple of the
        Hasinai. Between 1746 and 1749 the Tonkawa were gathered into
        missions on San Xavier (San Gabriel) River but these were given
        up in 1756, and 2 years later the Tonkawa assisted in the
        destruction of the San Saba Mission established for the Apache.
        From that time until well into the nineteenth century the tribe
        continued to reside in the same section, rarely settling down for
        any considerable period. In 1855 they and several other Texas
        tribes were gathered by the United States Government on two small
        reservations on Brazos River. In 1859 however, the threatening
        attitude of their white neighbors resulted in their removal to
        Washita River in what is now Oklahoma. On the night of October
        25, 1862, the Tonkawa camp there was fallen upon by a body of
        Delaware, Shawnee, and Caddo Indians desiring to pay off old
        scores but pretending that the Tonkawa and their agent were in
        sympathy with the Southern Confederacy. Out of about 300 Tonkawa
        137 were massacred, and the survivors, after some years of
        miserable wandering, were gathered into Fort Griffin, Tex., where
        they might be protected from their enemies,. In 1884 all that
        were left were given a small reservation in northern Oklahoma,
        near the Ponca, where their descendants still live.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1690 there were
        about 1,600 Tonkawa. A Spanish estimate of 1778 gives 300
        warriors but the following year, after an epidemic of smallpox,
        this is cut in half. In 1782, 600 were said to have attended a
        certain meeting and this was only a portion of the tribe. Sibley
        (1832) estimated that in 1805 they had 200 men. In 1809 there
        were said to be 250 families and in 1828, 80. In 1847 the
        official estimate was 150 men Before the massacre of 1862 there
        were supposed to be about 300 all told, but when they were placed
        on their reservation in 1884 there were only 92. In 1908 there
        were 48 including a few intermarried Lipan; the census of 1910
        gave 42, but that of 1930 restores the figure to 48, and in 1937
        there were said to be 51.

        Connection in which they have become noted- The Tonkawan tribes
        have the following claims to remembrance (1) On account of the
        uniqueness of their language, (2) for their reputed addiction to
        cannibalism, (3) on account of the massacre perpetrated upon them
        partly in consequence of this reputation, as above described. The
        city of Tonkawa in Kay County, Okla., perpetuates the name.

        Waco. The Waco were a subtribe or tribe of the Wichita group
        which lived near the present Waco for a limited period before
        removal to Oklahoma (q. v.).

        Wichita. The Wichita ,lived for a time along both sides of Red
        River in northern Texas. (See Oklahoma.)

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