The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Catawha. Significance unknown though the name was probably native to the tribe. Also called: Ani'ta'gua, Cherokee name. Iswa or Issa, signifying "river," and specifically the Catawba River; originally probably an independent band which united early with the Catawba proper. Oyadagahroenes, Tadirighrones, Iroquois names. Usherys, from iswahere, "river down here"; see Issa. Connections.- The Catawba belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, but Catawba was the most aberrant of all known Siouan languages, though closer to Woccon than any other of which a vocabulary has been recorded. Loction.- In York and Lancaster Counties mainly but extending into the neighboring parts of the State and also into North Carolina and Tennessee. Subdivisions Two distinct tribes are given by Lawson (1860) and placed on early maps, the Catawba and Iswa, the latter deriving their name from the native word meaning "river," which was specifically applied to Catawba River. Villages In early days this tribe had many villages but few names have come down to us. In 1728 there were six villages, all on Catawba River, the most northerly of which was known as Nauvasa. In 1781 they had two called in English Newton and Turkey Head, on opposite sides of Catawba River. History.- The Catawba appear first in history under the name Ysa, Issa (Iswa) in Vandera's narratives of Pardo's expedition into the interior, made in 1566-67. Lederer (1912) visited them in 1670 and calls them Ushery. In 1711-13 they assisted the Whites in their wars with the Tuscarora, and though they participated in the Yamasce uprising in 1715 peace was quickly made and the Catawba remained faithful friends of the colonists ever after. Meanwhile they declined steadily in numbers from diseases introduced by the Whites, the use of liquor, and constant warfare with the Iroquois, Shawnee, Delaware, and other tribes. In 1738 they were decimated by smallpox and in 1759 the same disease destroyed nearly half of them. Through the mediation of the Whites, peace was made at Albany in 1759 between them and the Iroquois, but other tribes continued their attacks, and in 1763 a party of Shawnee killed the noted Catawba King Haigler. The year before they had left their town in North Carolina and moved into South Carolina, where a tract of land 15 miles square had been reserved for them. From that time on they sank into relative insignificance. They sided with the colonists during the revolution and on the approach of the British troops withdrew temporarily into Virginia, returning after the battle of Guilford Court House. In 1826 nearly the whole of their reservation was leased to Whites, and in 1840 they sold all of it to the State of South Carolina, which agreed to obtain new territory for them in North Carolina. The State refused to part with any land for that purpose, however, and most of the Catawba who had gone north of the State line were forced to return. Ultimately a reservation of 800 acres was set aside for them in South Carolina and the main body has lived there ever since few continued in North Carolina and others went to the Cherokee, but most of these soon came back and the last of those who remained died in 1889. A few Catawba intermarried with the Cherokee in later times, however, and still live there, and a few others went to the Choctaw Nation, in what is now Oklahoma, and settled near Scullyville. These also are reported to be extinct. Some families established themselves in other parts of Oklahoma, in Arkansas, and near Sanford, Colo., where they have gradually been absorbed by the Indian and White population. About 1884 several Catawba were converted by Mormon missionaries and went to Salt Lake City, and in time most of those in South Carolina became members of the Mormon Church, although a few are Baptists. Besides the two divisions of Catawba proper, the present tribe is supposed to include remnants of about 20 smaller tribes, principally Siouan. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Catawba in 1600, including the Iswa, at 5,000. About 1692 the tribe was supposed to contain 1,500 warriors or about 4,600 souls; in 1728, 400 warriors or about 1,400 souls; and in 1743, after incorporating several small tribes, as having less than that number of warriors. In 1752 we have an estimate of about 300 warriors, or about 1,000 people; in 1755, 240 warriors; in 1757, about 300 warriors and 700 souls; and in 1759, 250 warriors. Although there is an estimate accrediting them with 300 warriors in 1761, King Haigler declared that they had been reduced by that year, after the smallpox epidemic of 1760, to 60 fighting men. In 1763 fewer than 50 men were reported, and in 1766 "not more than 60." In 1773 there was estimated a total population of 400; in 1780, 490; in 1784, 250: in 1822, 450; in 1826, 110. In 1881 Gatschet found 85 on the reservation and 35 on adjoining farms, a total of 120. The census of 1910 returned 124, and in 1912 there were about 100, of whom 60 were attached to the reservation. The census of 1930 gave 166, all but 7 in South Carolina Connection in which they have become noted.- The Catawba, whether originally or by union with the Iswa, early became recognized as the most powerful of all the Siouan peoples of Carolina. They are also the tribe which preserved its identity longest and from which the greatest amount of linguistic information has been obtained. The name itself was given to a variety of grape, and has become applied, either adopted from the tribe directly or taken from that of the grape, to places in Catawba County, N. C.; Roanoke County, Va.; Marion County, W. Va.; Bracken County, Ky.; Clark County, Ohio; Caldwell County, Mo.; Steuben County, N. Y.; Blaine County, Okla.; York County, S. C.; and Price County, Wis. It is also borne by an island in Ohio, and by the Catawba River of the Carolinas, a branch of the Wateree. Cherokee. The extreme northwestern portion of the State was occupied by Cherokee Indians. (See Tennessee.) Chiaha. A part of this tribe lived in South Carolina at times. (See Georgia.) Chickasaw. The Chickasaw territory proper was in northern Mississippi, at a considerable distance from the State under discussion, but about 1753 a body of Chickasaw Indians settled on the South Carolina side of Savannah River, to be near the English trading posts and to keep in contact with the English, who were their allies. Before 1757 most of them moved over to the immediate neighborhood of Augusta and remained there until the period of the American Revolution. In that war they sided against the colonists and their lands were confiscated in 1783. (See Mississippi.) Congaree. Meaning unknown. Connection.- No words of this language have been preserved but the form of the name and general associations of the tribe leave little doubt that it was a Siouan dialect, related most closely to Catawba. Location.- On Congaree River, centering in the neighborhood of the present State Capital, Columbia. Village The only village mentioned bore the same name as the tribe and was sometimes placed on the Congaree opposite Columbia, sometimes on the north side of the river. History.- The Congaree are mentioned in documents of the seventeenth century as one of thc small tribes of the Piedmont region. In 1701 Lawson (1860) found them settled on the northeast bank of Santee River below the mouth of the Wateree. They took part against the Whites in the Yamasec War of 1715, and in 1716 over half of them were captured and sent as slaves to the West Indies. The remnant appear to have retreated to the Catawba, for Adair (1930) mentions their dialect as one of those spoken in the Catawba Nation. Population.- The Congaree are estimated by Mooney (1928) at 800 in 1600. A census taken in 1715 gives 22 men and a total population of about 40. Connection in which they have become noted.- Congaree River and a railroad station in Richland County, S. C., preserve the name; Columbia, the State capital, was originally known as the Congarees. Creeks. In the time of De Soto, Cofitachequi, which seems to have been either Kasihta or Coweta, and a few other Creek towns including perhaps Hilibi and part of the Chiaha Indians were in the territory of the present State of South Carolina near Savannah River. The Coosa of Coosawhatchie, Edisto, and Ashley Rivers may have been Creek in origin, and in Inter times Creeks constantly resorted to the provincial settlements in this area. (See Alabama.) Cusabo. Meaning perhaps "Coosawhatchie River (people)." Connections.- There is little doubt that the Cusabo belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic family. Their closest connections appear to have been with the Indians of the Georgia coast, the Guale. Location.- In the southern-most part of South Carolina between Charleston Harbor and Savannah River and including most of the valleys of the Ashley, Edisto, Ashepoo, Combahee, Salkehatchie, and Coosawhatchie Rivers. Subdivisions These people should be divided first into the Cusabo proper, who occupied all of the coast, and the Coosa, who were inland upon the rivers above mentioned. The Cusabo proper seem to have consisted of a northern group of tribes or subtribes, including the Etiwaw (on Wando River), Wando (on Cooper River), Kiawa (on the lower course of Ashley River), and perhaps the Stono (about Stono Entrance); and a southern group including the Edisto (on Edisto Island), Ashepoo (on lower Ashepoo River), Combahee (on lower Combahee River) Wimbee (between the latter and the lower Coosawhatchie River), Escamacu (between St. Helena Sound and Broad River), and perhaps a few others. Sometimes early writers erroneously include the Siouan Senee and Santee as Cusabo. Villages Ahoys or EIoya, on or near Broad River. Ahoyabi, near the preceding. Aluste, near Beaufort, possibly a form of Edisto. Awendaw, near Awendaw Creek; it may have been Sewee (q. v.). Bohicket, near Rockville. Cambe, near Beaufort. Chatuache, 6-10 leagues north of Beaufort. Mayon, probably on Broad River. Talapo, probably near Beaufort. Touppa, probably on Broad River. Yanahume, probably on the south side of Broad River. History.- While their country was most likely skirted by earlier navigators, the first certain appearance of the Cusabo in history is in connection with a slave-hunting expedition sent out by Vasques de Ayllon. This reached the mainland in 1521, probably a little north of the Cusabo territory and introduced the blessings of White civilization to the unsuspecting natives by carrying away about 70 of them. One of these Indians was finally taken to Spain and furnished the historian Peter Martyr with considerable information regarding his country and the names of a number of tribes, some of whom were certainly Cusabo. In 1525 Ayllon sent a second expedition to the region and in 1526 led a colony thither. Dissatisfied with his first landing place, probably near the landfall of the expedition of 1521, he moved the colony "40 or 45 leagues," perhaps to the neighborhood of Savannah River. But it did not prosper, Ayllon died, trouble broke out among the survivors, and finally they returned to Haiti in the middle of the following winter. In 1540 De Soto passed near this country, but apparently he did not enter it, and the next European contact was brought about by the settlement of Ribault's first colony at Port Royal in 1562. The small number of people left by Ribault managed to maintain themselves for some time with the assistance of friendly natives, but, receiving no relief from France, they became discouraged, and built a small vessel in which a few of them eventually reached home. In 1564 a Spanish vessel visited this coast for the purpose of rooting out the French settlement. Later the same year a second Huguenot colony was established on St. Johns River, Florida, and communication was maintained with the Cusabo Indians. In 1565 this colony was destroyed by the Spaniards who visited Port Royal in quest of certain French refugees, and the year following Fort San Felipe was built at the same place. From this time until 1587 a post was maintained here, although with some intermissions due to Indian risings. In 1568- 70 a vain attempt was made to missionize the Indians. In 1576 a formidable Indian uprising compelled the abandonment of the fort, but it was soon reoccupied and an Indian town was destroyed in 1579 by way of reprisal. Next year, however, there was a second uprising, making still another abandonment necessary. The fort was reoccupied in 1582 but abandoned permanently 5 years later; and after that time there was no regular post in the country but communication was kept up between the Cusabo and St. Augustine and occasional visits seem to have been made by the Franciscan Friars. Between 1633 and 1665 we have notice of a new mission in Cusabo territory, called Chatuache, but when the English settled South Carolina in 1670 there appears to have been no regular mission there and certainly no Spanish post. Charleston was founded on Cusabo soil, and from the date of its establishment onward relations were close between the English and Cusabo. In 1671 there was a short war between the colonists and the Coosa Indians and in 1674 there was further trouble with this people and with the Stono. In 1675 the Coosa Indians surrendered to the English a large tract of land which constituted Ashley Barony, and in 1682 what appears to have been a still more sweeping land cession was signed by several of the Cusabo chiefs. In 1693 there was another short war, this time between the Whites and the Stono. A body of Cusabo accompanied Colonel Barnwell in his expedition against the Tuscarora in 1711-12, and this fact may have quickened the consciences of the colonists somewhat, because in 1712 the Island of Palawana, "near the Island of St. Helena," was granted to them. It appears that most of their plantations were already upon it but it had inadvertently been granted to a white proprietor. The Cusabo here mentioned were those of the southern group; there is reason to think that the Kiawa and Coosa were not included. Early in 1720 "King Gilbert and ye Coosaboys" took part in Col. John Barnwell's punitive expedition against St. Augustine (Barnwell, 1908). In 1743 the Kiawa were given a grant of land south of the Combahee River, probably to be near the other coast Indians. Part of the Coosa may have retired to the Catawba, since Adair (1930) mentions "Coosah" as one of the dialects spoken in the "Catawba Nation," but others probably went to the Creeks. At least one band of Cusabo may have gone to Florida, because, in "A List of New Indian Missions in the Vicinity of St. Augustine," dated December 1, 1726, there is mention of a mission of San Antonio "of the Cosapuya nation and other Indians" containing 43 recently converted Christians and 12 pagans. Two years later we are informed that "the towns of the Casapullas Indians were depopulated," though whether this has reference to the ones in Florida or to those in their old country is not clear. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the number of southern Cusabo, exclusive of the Edisto, at 1,200 in 1600, the Edisto at 1,000, the Etiwaw at 600, and the Coosa at 600. He classifies the Stono with the Westo, thereby falling into a common error. The colonial census of 1715 gives the number of southern Cusabo as 295, including 95 men, in 5 villages, while the Etiwaw (probably including the other northern Cusabo) had 1 village, 80 men, and a total population of 240. There were thus 535 Cusabo over all. The Coosa are nowhere mentioned by name and were probably included with one or the other of these. The 55 Indians at the Florida mission above mentioned, consisting of individuals of "the Cosapuya nation and other Indians," included 24 men, 13 women, and 18 children. Connection in which they have become noted.- The first part of the name Coosa is identical in origin with the first part of the name of Coosawhatchie River, S. C., and a post village. The people themselves are noted in history as the first in eastern North America north of Florida among whom European settlements were begun. They had an earlier and longer contact with Europeans than any other Indians on the Atlantic seaboard except those of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Eno. This tribe moved into the northern part of the State after 1716 and perhaps united ultimately with the Catawba. At some prehistoric period they may have lived on Enoree River. (See North Carolina.) Keyauwee. They settled on the Pee Dee after 1716 and probably united with the Catawba. (See North Carolina.) Natchez. A band of Indians of this tribe lived for several years at a place called Four Hole Springs in South Carolina but left in 1744 fearing the vengeance of the Catawba because of seven of that tribe whom they had killed. (See Mississippi.) Pedee. Meaning unknown, but Speck (1935) suggests from Catawba pi'ri, "something good," or pi'here, "smart," "expert," "capable." Connections.- No words of the language have survived but there is every reason to suppose that it was a dialect of the Siouan linguistic family. Loction.- On Great Pee Dee River, particularly its middle course. Village No village names are known apart from the tribal name, which was sometimes applied to specific settlements. History.- The Pedee are first mentioned by the colonists of South Carolina. In 1716 a place in or near their country called Saukey (perhaps Socatee) was suggested as the site for a trading post but the proposition to establish one there was given up owing to the weakness of the Pedce tribe, who were thought to be unable to protect it. In 1744, the Pedee, along with Natchez Indians, killed some Catawba and were in consequence driven from their lands into the White settlements. Soon afterward most of them joined the Catawba, but some remained near the Whites, where they are mentioned as late as 1755. In 1808 the Pedee and Cape Fear tribes were represented by one half-breed woman. Population.- Mooney, 1928, estimates the number of Pedee as 600 in 1600. The census of 1715 does not give them separate mention, and they were probably included among the 610 Waccamaw or the 106 Winyaw. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Great and Little Pee Dee Rivers and a station in Marion County, S. C., also a post village in Anson County, N. C., perpetuate the name of the Pedee. Saluda. Meaning unknown. Connections.- These are uncertain but circumstantial evidence indicates strongly that the Saluda were a band of Shawnee, and therefore of the Algonquian stock. Location.- On Saluda River. History.- Almost all that we know regarding the Saluda is contained in a note on George Hunter's map of the Cherokee country drawn in 1730 indicating "Saluda town where a nation settled 35 years ago, removed 18 years to Conestogo, in Pensilvania." As bands of Shawnee were moving into just that region from time to time during the period indicated, there is reason to think that this was one of them, all the more that a "Savana" creek appears on the same map flowing into Congaree River just below the Saluda settlement. Population.- Unknown. Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Saluda is preserved by Saluda River and settlements in Saluda County, S. C.; Polk County, N. C.; and Middlesex County, Ya. Santee. Named according to Speck (1935), from iswan'ti, "the river," or "the river is there." Also called: Seretee, by Lawson (1860). Connections.- No words of the Santee language have come down to us, but there is little doubt that they belonged to the Siouan linguistic family. Location.- On the middle course of Santee River. Villages The only name preserved is Hickerau, on a branch of Santee River. History.- The Santee were first encountered by the Spaniards during the seventeenth century, and in the narrative of his second expedition Captain Ecija places them on Santee River. In 1700 they were visited by John Lawson, who found their plantations extending for many miles along the river, and learned that they were at war with the coast people (Lawson, 1860). They furnished Barnwell (1908) with a contingent for his Tuscarora campaign in 1711-12, but are said to have taken part against the Whites in the Yamasee War of 1715. In 1716 they were attacked by the Etiwaw and Cusabo, acting in the interest of the colonists, and the greater part of them were carried away captive and sent to the West Indies. The remainder were probably incorporated with the Catawba. Population.- The number of Santee was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 1,000 in 1600. In 1715 an Indian census gave them 43 warriors and a total population of 80 to 85 in 2 villages. Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Santee has been given permanency chiefly by its application to the Santee River, S. C., but it has also been applied to a village in Orangeburg County, S. C. Sewee. Significance: perhaps, as Gatschet suggested, from sawe', "island." Connections.- No words of their language have survived, but the Sewee are regarded as Siouan on strong circumstantial grounds, in spite of the fact that they are sometimes classed with the Cusabo. Location.- On the lower course of Santee River and the coast westward to the divide of Ashley River about the present Monks Corner, Berkeley County. Villages Lawson, writing about 1700, mentions a deserted village in Sewee Bay called Avendaughbough which may have belonged to them (Lawson, 1860). The name seems to be still preserved in the form Awensdaw. History.- Possibly Xoxi (pronounced Shoshi or Shohi), one of the provinces mentioned by Francisco of Chicora, an Indian carried from this region by the Spaniards in 1521, is a synonym of Sewee. The name is mentioned by Captain Ecija in 1609. They may have been the Indians first met by the English expedition which founded the colony of South Carolina in 1670, when they were in Sewee Bay. They assisted the English against the Spaniards, and supplied them with corn. Lawson (1860) states that they were formerly a large tribe, but in his time, 1700, were wasted by smallpox and indulgence in alcoholic liquors. Moreover, a large proportion of the able-bodied men had been lost at sea in an attempt to open closer trade relations with England. Just before the Yamasee War, they were still living in their old country in a single village, but it is probable that the war put an end to them as a distinct tribe. The remnant may have united with the Catawba. Population.- Mooney (1928) gives an estimate of 800 Sewee for the year 1600. In 1715 there were but 57. Connection in which they have become noted.- At an earlier period this name was applied to the body of water now called Bulls Bay. There is a post hamlet with this designation in Meigs County, Tenn., but the name is probably of independent origin.
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Arapaho. According to tradition, the Arapaho at one time lived in the neighborhood of the Black Hills and warriors of the tribe often traversed the western parts of this State. (See Wyoming.) Arikara. The Arikara lived at various points on the Missouri River in South Dakota during their migration northward after separating from the Skidi Pawnee. (See North Dakota.) Cheyenne. From a Dakota term applied to them meaning "people of alien speech," literally, "red talkers." Also called: A-was-she-tan-qua, Hidatsa name (Long, 1791). Bahakosin, Gaddo name, meaning "striped arrows." Dog Indians, so called sometimes owing to a confusion of the name with the French word chien. Dzitsi'stas, own name. Gatsalghi, Kiowa Apache name. Hitasi'na or Itasi'na. Arapaho name, meaning "scarred people." I-sonsh'-pu-she, Crow name. Itah-Tschipahji, Hidatsa name (Maximilian, 1843). I-ta-su-pu-zi, Hidatsa name, meaning "spotted arrow quills." Ka'neaheawastsik, Cree name, meaning "people with a language somewhat like Cree." Nanoniks-kare'niki, Kichai name. Niere'rikwats-kuni'ki, Wichita name. Paganavo, Shoshoni and Comanche name, meaning "striped arrows." Sak'o'ta, Kiowa name. Scarred Arms, from a misinterpretation of the tribal sign. Sha-ho, Pawnee name. Connections.- Cheyenne was one of the three most aberrant languages of the Algonquian linguistic family, and was shared by no other tribe except the Sulaio, whose speech differed only in minor points. Location.- This tribe moved frequently; in South Dakota they were associated with the Cheyenne River and the Black Hills. (See also Colorado, Kansas, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and Wyoming.) Subdivisions Following are the bands which had a well-recognized place in the camp circle, as given by Mooney (1928); Heviqs'-ni''pahs, Moiseyu, Wu'tapiu, Havhaita'nio, Oi'vimana, Hisiometa'nio, Sutaio (formerly a distinct tribe; see below), Oqtoguna, Ho'nowa, Masi'`kota, O'mi'sis. Other band names not commonly recognized as divisional names, are these: Moqtavhaita'niu, Na'kuimana, Anskowinis, Pi'nutgu', Mahoyum, Woopotsi't, Totoimana (on Tongue River), Black Lodges (near Lame Deer), Ree Band, Yellow Wolf Band, Half-breed Band. History.- Before 1700 the Cheyenne lived in what is now the State of Minnesota. There are very definite traditions of a time when they were on Minnesota River, from which region the Cheyenne who visited La Salle's fort in Illinois in 1680 probably came. A little later they seem to have moved to the neighborhood of Lake Traverse and still later part of them occupied a stockaded town on the Sheyenne River of North Dakota near the present Lisbon, N. Dak. Some years before 1799, perhaps in the decade 1780 to 1790, this town was surprised by Chippewa Indians and destroyed while most of the men were off hunting. The Cheyenne who escaped first settled along the Missouri where other bands of Cheyenne seem to have preceded them. There were a number of villages belonging to the tribe along the Missouri near the point where the boundary line between North and South Dakota crosses it until just before the time of Lewis and Clark, or, as Grinnell (1923) believes, for a number of years after the date of their expedition (1804-1806). However, they accustomed themselves more and more to a nomadic life and moved on toward the Black Hills whether they had been preceded by a cognate tribe known as the Sutaio. It is very probable that the Cheyenne had met the Sutaio east of the Missouri. At first the attitude of the two people toward each other is said to have been hostile, but presently they became friendly and finally united. On leaving the Missouri, the Cheyenne seem to have given up raising corn and making pottery. During the early part of the nineteenth century they moved to the headwaters of the Platte. When Bent's Fort was built on the upper Arkansas in 1832 a large part decided to establish themselves near it but the rest continued to rove about the headwaters of the North Platte and the Yellowstone. This separation in the tribe was made permanent by the Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1851, the two sections being known respectively as Southern Cheyenne and Northern Cheyenne. In the meantime they had met and formed an alliance with the Arapaho, though there is no memory of the date or the circumstances. They were at war with the Kiowa from the time of their settlement on the upper Arkansas until 1840, but afterward acted with them against other tribes and the Whites. In 1849 they suffered severely in the cholera epidemic, and later between 1860 and 1878, in wars with the Whites. The southern division took a leading part in the general outbreak of 1874-75, and the Northern Cheyenne joined the hostile Dakota in 1876 and shared in the Custer massacre. Finally, the Northern Cheyenne were assigned a reservation in Montana. The Southern Cheyenne were similarly assigned to a reservation in the present Oklahoma in 1867 but could not be induced to remain upon it until after the general surrender of 1875. In 1901-02 the lands of the Southern Cheyenne were allotted in severalty. Population.- Mooney (1928) places the number of Cheyenne and Sutaio at 3,500 in 1780. In 1904 the number of Southern Cheyenne was given as 1,903, and the Northern Cheyenne as 1,409, a total of 3,312. The census of 1910 returned 3,055, of whom 1,522 were in Oklahoma and 1,346 in Montana, but the United States Indian Office Report of 1923 gives 3,248, composed of 1,831 Southern Cheyenne, and 1,417 Northern Cheyenne. The census of 1930 returned 2,695, the Northern Cheyenne being slightly more numerous then the Southern division. In 1937 there were 1,561 Northern Cheyenne and 2,836 Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho together. Connection in which they have become noted.- This Cheyenne tribe was one of the most famous of the Plains, and was conspicuous on account of the frequent wars which it waged against other tribes, as well as against the Whites. It is also noted on account of its romantic history, having original]y been a corn-raising tribe in southern Minnesota and later having become thoroughly adjusted to Plains life. The name is preserved by the State Capital of Wyoming; by a river in South Dakota; by counties in Colorado, Nebraska, and Kansas; by the Cheyenne Mountains and Canons in Colorado; by a river of North Dakota (spelled Sheyenne); and by Cheyenne Wells in Colorado, and Sheyenne in Eddy County, N. Dak. There is also a place of the name in Roger Mills County, Okla.; and another in Winkler County, Tex. Dakota. Signifying "allies" in the Santee or eastern dialect; in Yankton and in Assiniboin it is Nakota; in Teton, Lakota. They are more often known as Sioux, an abbreviation of Nadouessioux, the name applied to them by the Chippewa, as transmitted through French; it signifies "adders," and by derivation "enemies." Also called: Ab-boin-ug, Boinug or Obwahnug, Wanak, Chippewa name, meaning "roasters" from their custom of torturing foes. Ba-akush', Caddo name. Ba-ra-shhp'-gi-o, Crow name. Chah'-ra-rat, Pawnee name. Coupe-gorges, French rendering of a name given them in the sign language. Cut-throats, English equivalent of same. Hand Cutters, translation of Ute name. Ita ha'tski, Hidatsa name, meaning "long arrows." Kaispa, Sarsi name. K'odalpa-Kihago, Kiowa name, meaning "necklace people." Mar-an-sho-bish-ko, Crow name, meaning "cutthroats." Minishupsko, Crow name of opprobrious meaning. Nadouessioux, general Algonquian name received through the French. Natni or Natnihina, Arapaho, meaning "cutthroats." Na'-to-wo-na, Cheyenne name for easternmost bands of Sioux. Nuktusem or Nktusem, Salish name. Ocheti shakonin, own name, meaning "the seven council fires." O-o'-ho-mo-i'-o, Cheyenne name, meaning "those on the outside." Oshahak, Fox name. Pambizimina, Shoshoni name, meaning "beheaders." Pampe Chyimina, Ute name, meaning "Hand Cutters." Papitsinima, Comanche name, meaning "beheaders." Plshakulk, Yakima name, meaning "beheaders." Poualak or Pouanak, name given in early French records, for Ab-boin-ug. Shagi, Shawnee name. Shahan, Osage, Kansa, and Oto name. Shanana, Kiowa Apache name. Tsaba'kosh, or Ba-akush', Caddo name, meaning "cutthroats." Tuyetchiske, Comanche name, meaning "cutthroats." Wa-sa-sa-o-no, Iroquois name. Yunssaha, Wyandot name, meaning "birds." Connections.- The Dakota belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, their closest relations being the Hidatsa. Location.- The earliest known home of this tribe was on and near the Mississippi in southern Minnesota, northwestern Wisconsin, and neighboring parts of Iowa. In 1825, after they had spread somewhat farther west, Long (1791) gives their boundaries thus: They were bounded by a curved line extending east of north from Prairie du Chien on the Mississippi, so as to include all the eastern tributaries of the Mississippi, to the first branch of Chippewa River; thence by a line running west of north to Spirit Lake; thence westwardly to Crow Wing River, Minn., and up that stream to its head; thence westwardly to Red River and down that stream to Pembina; thence southwestwardly to the eastern bank of the Missouri near the Mandan villages; thence down the Missouri to a point probably not far from Soldiers River; thence east of north to Prairie du Chien. At a later time they occupied less territory toward the east but extended much farther westward between the Yellowstone and Platte Rivers. (See also Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, Wisconsin, Wyoming, and Canada.) Subdivisions Early explorers usually distinguished an Eastern or Forest and a Western or Prairie division, but the following is a more accurate classification: Idewkanton, (2) Wahpeton, (3) Wahpekute, (4) Sisseton, (5) Yankton, (6) Yanktonai, including (a) Upper Yanktonai, and (b) Lower Yantonai or Hunkpatina, from whom also the Assiniboin are said to have separated, and (7) Teton, including (a) the Brule (Upper and Lower), (b) Hunkpapa, (c) Miniconjou, (d) Oglala, (e) Oohenonpa or Two Kettle, (f) San Arcs, (g) Sihasapa or Blackfoot. Numbers 1 to 4 constituted the Santee or Eastern division. Minor Bands, Villages, Etc. Black Tiger, near Fort Peck Agency. Broken Arrows, possibly the Cazazhita. Casarba, 35 leagues up St. Peters River in 1804. Cazazhita, probably Tetons and perhaps the same as the Wannawegn. Chansuushka, unidentified. Chasmuna, unidentified. Cheokhba, a band of the Hunkpapa Teton. Congewichacha, a Dakota division, perhaps Teton. Farmers Band, probably a band of the Mdewakanton, below Lake Traverse, Minn. Fire Lodge, below Lake Traverse. Flandreau Indians, a part of the Santee who settled at Flandreau, S. Dak. Grey Eagle Band, below Lake Traverse, Minn. Lake Comedu unidentified. Lenn Bear, beiow Lake Traverse, Minn. Long Sioux, near Fort Peck. Magayuteshni, a Mdewakanton division. Menostamenton, unidentified. Micacoupsiba, on the upper St. Peters, Minn. Minisha, an Oglala band. Neecoweegee, unidentified, possibly Minneconjou. Nehogatawonahs, near St. Croix River in Minnesota or Wisconsin. Newastarton, an unidentified band on the Mississippi above the St. Peters (Minnesota) River; probably the Mdewakanton. Ocatameneton, an eastern Dakota band. Ohanhanska, a band of the Magayuteshni division of the Mdewakanton on Minnesota River. Oughetgeodatons, a village or subdivision of one of the western bands. Oujatespouitons, west of the Mississippi. Peshlaptechela, an Oglala Teton band. Pineshow, a band of Wahpeton, on Minnesota River, 15 miles from its mouth. Psinchaton, belonging to the Western Dakota in Minnesota. Psinoumanitons, a division of the Eastern Dakota, probably in Wisconsin. Psinoutanhinhintons, a band of Western Dakota in Minnesota. Rattling Moccasin Band, a band of Mdewakanton Dnkota on Minnesota River below Lake Traverse, Minn. Red Leg's Band, n Wahpekute band in Minnesota. Redwood, location uncertain. Star Band, a band of Mdewakanton. Takini, an Upper Yanktonai band. Talonapin, a Hunkpapa band. Tashunkeota, a Sihasspa band. Tateibombu's Band, location uncertain. Touchouasintons, a band of the Western Dakota, perhaps the Wazikute. Traverse de Sioux, a part of the Sisseton formerly on Minnesota River, Minn. Waktonila, unidentified. Wazikute, a band of Upper Yanktonai. White Cap Indians, on the south Saskatchewan River, in Assiniboia, Canada. White Eagle Band, location unknown. Wiattachechah, an unidentified village. History.- The first historical mention of the Dakota is in the Jesuit Relation for 1640 when they were probably in the eastern part of the territory indicated above. Rev. A. L. Riggs, for many years a missionary among them, claims that their traditions pointed to the northeast as the place of their origin and that they once lived about the Lake of the Woods. There are, however, strong grounds for believing that they pushed their way up into the present Minnesota from the southeast, though there is no doubt that the Chippewa forced them back in later times from some of the most easternmost lands they occupied and their expulsion from Mille Lacs is an historical event. It is thought that few Dakota crossed the Missouri before 1750, yet it is claimed that some of them reached the Black Hills by 1765. In 1862 the Eastern Dakota under Little Crow rose upon the Whites and in the war which followed 700 settlers and 100 soldiers were killed, while the hostile bands lost all of the rest of their lands in Minnesota and were forced to move to Dakota and Nebraska. On the discovery of gold in the Black Hills the rush of miners to that region became the occasion for a war with the Western Dakota rendered famous by the cutting off of General Custer and five companies of cavalry on the Little Bighorn, June 25, 1876. An incipient rising at Wounded Knee Creek, resulting from the spread of the Ghost Dance religion, was the last scene of the struggles between the Dakota and the Whites, and the tribe is now allotted lands in severalty, principally in South Dakota, but in part in North Dakota and Nebraska. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were 25,000 Dakota of all divisions, exclusive of the Assiniboin (q. v. under Montana). In 1904 their distribution on agencies and their numbers were as follows: Cheyenne River (Minniconjou, Sans Arcs, and Oohenonpa), 2,477; Crow Creek (Lower Yanktonai), 1,025; Fort Totten School (Sisseton, Wahpeton, and Yanktonai), 1,013; Riggs Institute (Santee), 279; Fort Peck (Yankton), 1,116; Lower Brule (Lower Brule), 470; Pine Ridge (Oglala), 6,690; Rosebud (Brule, Waglukhe, Lower Brule, Northern, Oohenonpa, and Wazkazha), 4,977; Santee (Santee), 1,075; Sisseton (Sisseton and Wahpeton), 1,908; Standing Rock (Sihasapa, Hunkpapa, and Yanktonai), 3,514; Yankton (Yank-ton), 1,702; under no agency (Mdewakanton in Minnesota) 929; total, 27,175. The census of 1930 returned 25,934, of whom 20,918 were in South Dakota, 2,307 in North Dakota, 1,251 in Montana, 690 in Nebraska, and the remaindcr in more than 22 other States. The Report of the United States Office of Indian Affairs for 1937 gave 33,625, including 27,733 in South Dakota, 2,797 in North Dakota, 1,292 in Nebraska, 1,242 in Minnesota, and 561 in Montana. Connections in which they have become noted.- The Dakota are one of the most famous tribes of North America, thanks to their numbers and prowess, their various wars with the Whites and the spectacular character of one of the last encounters with them, the celebrated "Custer massacre," not to mention the conspicuous nature of their connection with the Ghost Dance cult and the tragic affray at Wounded Knee Creek which grew out of it. The name is preserved in two of the States of our Union, North and South Dakota; by a river which flows through them; by counties in Minnesota and Nebraska; and by places in Stephenson County, Ill.; Winona County, Minn.; in Wisconsin and Nebraska; and as Dakota City in Humboldt County, Iowa, and Dakota County, Nebr. The other popular name for this tribe, Sioux, has been given to Sioux City, Iown, and Sioux Falls, S. Dak.; to counties in Iowa and Nebraska; and small places in Nebraska, Iowa, and Minnesota; as Sioux in Yancey County, N. C.; Sioux Center in Sioux County, Iowa; Sioux Rapids in Buena Vista County, Iowa; and Sioux Pass in Richland County, Mont. It appears as Lacota (the Teton form of the name) in Marion County, Fla., and Van Buren County, Mich., and with the spelling Lakota in Kossuth County, Iowa; Nelson County, N. Dak.; and Culpeper County, Va. Kiowa. The Kiowa lived in and about the Black Hills for a time before they were succeeded by the Sutaio and Cheyenne. (See Oklahoma.) Mandan. According to tradition, this tribe reached the Missouri River near the mouth of White River, and settled at several places along the former within the borders of this State before passing out of it into North Dakota. (See North Dakota.) Omaha. After having been driven from the region of the Pipestone Quarry in Minnesota, the Omaha settled on the Missouri in the territory of South Dakota and later moved downstream under pressure from the Dakota to their later seats in Nebraska. (See Nebraska.) Ponca. This tribe was with the Omaha when it left the region of the Pipestone Quarry, but separated from it on the Missouri and went into the Black Hills for a time, after which it retired to the Missouri and settled in the present Nebraska. (See Nebraska.) Sutaio. Significance uncertain. A Cheyenne informant of Grinnell (1923) believed it was derivcd from issuht', "ridge." Connection.- The Sutaio belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock, their nearest relatives being the Cheyenne. Location.- When first brought distinctly to the knowledge of Whites, this tribe was west of Missouri River, between it and the Black Hills. History.- The Sutaio may have been the "Chousa" band of Cheyenne of whom Perrin du Lac (1805) heard. At any rate they were probably not far distant from the Cheyenne during their migrations from Minnesota to the Missouri River and beyond, though whether in front of them, or to one side, it is impossible to tell. According to Cheyenne trndition as reported by Grinnell (1923), the two tribes met three different times. At any rate we know that they lived side by side in the region eastward of the Black Hills for some time and that they finally united there into one body, the Sutaio taking their place as one band in the Cheyenne tribal camping circle. Population- Unknown. (See Cheyenne.) Winnebago. After leaving Minnesota in 1862 and before they took refuge with the Omaha, part of this tribe lived for a while on the Crow Creek Reservation. (See Wisconsin.)
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Catawba. For a brief period in their later history the Catawba lived among the Cherokee and they may have occupied lands in Tennessee at that time. There are indications that they may have been in eastern Tennessee at a more remote epoch. (See South Carolina.) Cherokee. Meaning unknown, but possibly from Creek tciloki, "people of a different speech." The middle and upper dialects substitute l for r. Also called: Alligewi or Alleghanys, a people appearing in Delaware tradition who were perhaps identical with this tribe. Ani'-Kitu'hwagi, own name, from one of their most important ancient settlements, and extended by Algonquian tribes to the whole. Ani'-Yun'-wiya', own name, meaning "real people." Baniatho, Arapaho name (Gatschet, MS., B.A.E.). Entari ronnon, Wyandot name, meaning "mountain people." Manteran Catawba name, meaning "coming out of the ground." Ochie'tari-ronnon, a Wyandot name. Oyata' ge'ronon, Iroquois name, meaning "inhabitants of the cave country." Shanaki, Gaddo name. Shannakiak, Fox name (Gatschet, Fox MS., B. A. E.). Talligewi, Delaware name (in Walam Olum), see Alligewi. Tcaike, Tonkawa name. Tcerokieco, Wichita name. Uwatayo-rono, Wyandot name, meaning "cave people." Connections.- The Cherokee language is the most aberrant form of speech of the Iroquoian linguistic family. Location.- From the earliest times of which we have any certain knowledge the Cherokee have occupied the highest districts at the southern end of the Appalachian chain, mainly in the States of Tennessee and North Carolina, but including also parts of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Virginia. (See also Arkansas, Kansas, Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Texas.) Subdivisions and Villages There were anciently three Cherokee dialects which probably corresponded in some measure to the three groups of towns into which early traders and explorers divided the tribe. These groups, with the towns belonging to each according to the Purcell map, but following as far as possible the Handbook (Hodge, 1907, 1910) orthography, are as follows: Lower Settlements: Estatoee, 2 towns: Old Estatoee on Tugaloo River below the junction of Chattanooga and Tuilalah Rivers, in Oconee County, S. C.; and Estatoee in the northwestern part of Pickens County. Keowee, 2 towns: Old Keowee on Keowee River near Fort George, Oconee County, S.C., and New Keowee on the headwaters of Twelve-mile Creek in Pickens County, S.C., the latter also called probably Little Keowee. Kulsetsiyi, 3 towns: (1) on Keowee River, near Fall Creek, Oconee County, S.C.; (2) on Sugartown or Cullasagee Creek near Franklin, Macon County, N.C.; (3) on Sugartown Creek, near Morganton, Fannin County, Ga. Oeonee, on Seneca Creek near Walhalla, Oconee County, S.C. Qualatchee, 2 towns: (1) on Keowee River, S.C.; (2) on the headwaters of Chattahoochee River, Ga. Tomassee, 2 towns: on Tomassee Creek of Keowee River, Oconee County, S.C.; (2) on Little Tennessee River near the entrance of Burningtown Creek, Macon County, S.C. Toxaway, on Toxaway Creek, a branch of Keowee River, S.C. Tugaloo, on Tugaloo River at the junction of Toccoa Greek, Habersham County, Ga. Ustanali, several towns so called: (1) on Keowee River below the present Fort George, Oconee Gounty, S.C.; (2) probably on the waters of Tuckasegee River in western North Carolina; (3) just above the junction of Coosawatee and Conasauga Rivers to form the Oostanaula River in Gordon County, Ga.; (4) perhaps on Eastanollee Creek of Tugaloo River, Franklin County, Ga.; (5) perhaps on Eastaunaula Creek flowing into Hiwassee River in McMinn County, Tenn.; and (6) possibly another. Middle Settlements: Cowee, about the mouth of Cowee Creek of Little Tennessee River, about 10 miles below Franklin, N.C. Coweeshee, probably between the preceding and Yunsawi. Ellijay, 4 towns: (1) on the headwaters of Keowee River, S.C.; (2) on Ellijay Creek of Little Tennessee River near Franklin, N. C.; (3) about Ellijay in Gilmer County, Ga.; and (4) on Ellejoy Creek of Little River near Marysville in Blount County, Tenn. Itseyi, 3 towns: on Brasstown Creek of Tugaloo River, Oconee County, S.C., (2) on Little Tennessee River near Franklin, N, G.; and (3) on upper Brasstown Creek of Hiwassoe River, Towns County, Ga. Jore, on Iola Creek, au upper branch of Little Tennessee River, N.C. Kituhwa, on Tuckasegee River and extending from above the junction of the Oconaluftce nearly to the present Bryson City, Swain County, S.C. Nucassee, at the present Franklin, N.C. Stikayi, 3 towns: on Sticoa Creek, near Clayton, Rabun County, Ga.; (2) on Tuckasegee River at the old Thomas homestead just above Whittier, Suain County, N.C.; and (3) on Stekoa Creek of Little Tennessee River, a few miles below the junction of Nantahala, Graham County, N.C. Tawsce, on Tugaloo River, Habersham County, Ga. Tekanitli, in upper Georgia. Tessuntee, on Cowee River, south of Franklin, N.C. Tikaleyasuni, on Burningtown Creek, an upper branch of Little Tennessee River, western North Carolina. Watauga, 2 towns: on Watauga Creek, a branch of Little Tennessee River, a few miles below Franklin, N.C.; (2) traditionally located at Watauga Old Fields, about Elizabethtown, on Watauga River, in Carter County, Tenn. Yunsawi, on West Buffalo Creek of Cheowa River, Graham County, N.C. Over-the-Hills and Valley Settlements, or Overhill Settlements: Chatuga, 3 towns: (1) on Chattooga River, on the boundary between South Carolina and Georgia; (2) probably on upper Tellico River, Monroe County, Tenn.; (3) perhaps on Chattooga River, a tributary of the Coosa, in northwest Georgia. Chilhowee, on Tellieo River in Monroe County, Tenn., near the North Carolina border. Cotoeanahut, between Natuhli and Niowe. Echota, 5 towns: Great Eehota, on the south side of Little Tennessee River, a short distance below Citico Creck, Monroe County, Tenn.; (2) Little Echota on Sautee Creek, a head stream of the Chattahoochee west of Clarksville, Ga.; (3) New Echota, at the junction of Oostanaula and Conasauga Rivers, Gordon County, Ga.; (4) the old Macedonian Mission on Soco Creek, of the North Carolina Reservation; and (5) at the great Nacooehee mound. (See Naguchee below.) Hiwassce, 2 towns: (1) Great Hiwassce on the north bank of Hiwassee River at the present Savannah Ford, above Columbus, Polk County, Tenn.; (2) at the junction of Peaehtree Creek with Hiwassee River, above Murphy, N.C., probably the Guasuli of the De Soto Chroniclers. Natuhli, on Nottely River, a branch of Hiwassee River at or near the site of the present Ranger, Cherokee County, N.C. Nayuhi, seems to have been the name of four towns: (1) probably of the Lower Settlements, on the east bank of Tugaloo River, S. C.; (2) on the upper waters of Tennessee River, apparently in North Carolina, and (3 and 4) in the same general region, the last three being mentioned by Bartram (1792). Sitiku, on Little Tennessee River at the entrance of Citico Creek, Monroe County, Tenn. Tahlasi, on Little Tennessee River about Talassee Ford in Blount County, Tenn. Tallulah, 2 towns: (1) on the upper Tallulah River, Rabun County, Ga.; (2) on Tallulah Creek of Cheowa River in Graham County, S.C. Tamahli, 2 towns: on Valley River a few miles above Murphy, about the present Tomatola, Cherokee County, N.C.; (2) on Little Tennessee River about Tomotley Ford, a few miles above Tellico River in Monroe County, Tenn. Tellico, 4 towns: (1) Great Tellico, at Tellico Plains on Tellico River, Monroe County, Tenn.; (2) Little Tellico, on Tellico Creek of Little Tennessee River about 10 miles below Franklin, N.C.; (3) (also called Little Tellico at times) on Valley River about 5 miles above Murphy, N.C.; (4) Tahlequah, capital of the Cherokee Nation in what is now Oklahoma. Tennessee, 2 towns: on Little Tennessee River a short distance above its junction with the main stream in east Tennessee; (2) on an extreme head branch of Tuckasegee River, above the present Webster, N.C. Toquo, on Little Tennessee River about the mouth of Toco Creek, Monroe County, Tenn. Tsiyahi, 3 towns: on a branch of Keowee River, near the present Cheochee, Oconee County, S.C.; (2) a modern settlement on Cheowa River about Robbinsville, N.C.; (3) a former settlement in Cades Cove, on Cover Creek Blount County, Tenn. Ustanali; according to Purcell's map, there was a town of this name different from those already given, on the upper waters of Cheowa River, Graham County, N.C. Besides the above, the following settlements are given by Mooney and other writers: Amahyaski, location unknown. Amkalali, location unknown. Amohi, location unknown. Anisgayayi, a traditional town on Valley River, Cherokee County, N.C. Anuyi, location unknown. Aquohee, perhaps at the site of Fort Scott, on Nantahala River, Macon County, N.C. Atsiniyi, location unknown. Aumuchee, location unknown. Ayahliyi, location unknown. Big Island, on Big Island, in Little Tennessee River a short distance below the mouth of Tellico River. Briertonn, on Nantahala River about the mouth of Briertown Creek, Macon County, N.C. Broomtown, location unknown. Brown's Village, location unknown. Buffalo Fish, location unknown. Canuga, 2 towns: (1)apparently on Keowee River, S.C.; (2) a traditional town on Pigeon River probably near Waynesville, Haywood County, N.C. Catatoga, on Cartoogaja Creek of Little Tennessee River above Franklin, N.C. Chagee, near the mouth of Chatooga Creek of Tugaloo River at or near Fort Madison, southwest Oconee County, S.C. Cheesoheha, on a branch of Savannah River in upper South Carolina. Chewase, on a branch of Tennessee River in East Tennessee. Chicherohe, on War Woman Creek in the northwestern part of Rabun County, Ga. Chickamauga, a temporary settlement on Chickamauga Creek near Chattanooga. Conisca, on a branch of Tennessee River. Conontoroy, an "out town." Conoross, on Conoross Creek which enters Keowee or Seneca River from the west in Anderson County, S.C. Coyatee, on Little Tennessee River about 10 miles below the Tellico, about the present Coytee, Loudon County, Tenn. Crayfish Town, in upper Georgia. Creek Path, with Creeks and Shawnee at Gunker's Landing, Ala. Crowmocker, on Battle Creek which falls into Tennessee River below Chattanooga, Tenn. Crow Town, on the left bank of Tennessee River near the mouth of Raccoon Creek, Cherokee County, Ala. Cuclon, an unidentified town. Cusawatee on lower Coosawatee River in Gordon County, Ga. Dulastunyi, on Nottely River, Cherokee County, N.C., near the Georgia line. Dustayalunyi, about the mouth of Shooting Creek, an affluent of Hiwassee River, near Hayesville, Clay County, N.C. Ecochee, on a head stream of Savannah River in northwest South Carolina or northeast Georgia. Elakulsi, in northern Georgia. Etowah, 2 towns: on Etowah River about the present Hightower, Forsyth County, Ga.; (2) a possible settlement on Hightower Creek of Hiwassee River, Towns County, Ga. Euforsee, location unknown. Fightingtown, on Fightingtown Creek, near Morgantown, Fannin County, Ga. Frogtown, on a creek of the same name, north of Dahlonega, Lumpkin County, Ga. Guhlaniyi, occupied by Cherokee and Natchez, at the junction of Brasstown Creek with Hiwassee River a short distance above Murphy, N.C. Gusti, traditional, on Tennessee River near Kingston, Roane County, Tenn. Halfway Town, about halfway between Sitiku and Chilhowee on Little Tennessee River about the boundary of Monroe and Loudon Counties, Tenn. Hemptown, on Hemptown Creek near Morgantown, Fannin County, Ga. Hickory Log, on Etowah River a short distance above Canton, Cherokee County, Ga. High Tower Forks, probably one of the places called Etowah. Ikatikunahita, on Long Swamp Creek about the boundary of Forsyth and Cherokee Counties, Ga. Ivy Log, on Ivy Log Creek, Union County, Ga. Johnstown, on the upper waters of Chattahoochee River and probably in the northern part of Hall County, Ga. Kulanunyi, a district or town laid off on the Eastern Cherokee Reserve in Swain and Jackson Counties, N.C. Kanastunyi, on the headwaters of French Broad River near Brevard in Transylvania County, N, C., also possibly a second on Hiwassee River. Kansaki, 4 towns: (1) on Tuckasegee River a short distance above the present Webster in Jackson County, N.C.; (2) on the lower course of Canasauga Creek in Polk County, Tenn.; (3) at the junction of Conusauga and Coosawatee Rivers, the later site of Nen Echota, Gordon County, Ga.; (4) mentioned in the De Soto narratives but perhaps identical with No. 2. Kanutaluhi, in northern Georgia. Kawanunyi, about the present Ducktown, Polk County, Tenn. Kuhlahi, in upper Georgia. Kulahiy in northeastern Georgia near Currahee Mountain. Leatherwood, at or near Leatherwood in the northern part of Franklin County, Ga. Long Island, at the Long Island in Tennessee River on the Tennessee-Georgia line. Lookout Mountain Town, at or near the present Trenton, Dade County, Ga. Naguchee, about the junction of Soquee and Sautee Rivers in Nacoochee Valley at the head of Chattahoochce River, Habersham County, Ga. Nanatlugunvi, traditional, on the site of Jonesboro, Washington County, Tenn. Nantahala (see Briertown). Nickajack, on the south bank of Tennessee River in Marion County, Tenn. Nununyi, on Oconaluftee River near Cherokee, Swain County, N.C. Ocoee, on Ocoee River near its junction with the Hiwassee, about Benton, Polk County, Tenn. Oconaluftee, probably at the present Birdtown, on the Eastern Cherokee Reservation. Ooltewah, about the present Ooltewah, on Ooltewah Creck, James County, Tenn. Oothealoga, on Oothealoga (Ougillogy) Creek of Oostannula River near Calhoun, Gordon County, Ga. Paint Town, on lower Soco Creek, within the reservation in Jackson and Swain Counties, N.C. Pine Log, on Pine Log Creek in Bartow County, Ga. Quacoshatchee, in northwest Pickens County, S.C. Qualla, agency of the Eastern Cherokee on a branch of Soco River, Jackson County, N.C. Quanusee, location unknown. Rabbit Trap, in upper Georgia. Red Bank, on Etowah River, at or near Ganton, Cherokee County, Ga. Red Clay, on Oconaluftee River in Swain County, N.C., Eastern Cherokee Reservation. Running Water, on the southeast bank of Tennessee River below Chattanooga, near the northwestern Georgia line and 4 miles above Nickajack. Sanderstown, in northeastern Alabama. Selikwayi, on Sallacoa Creek probably at or near the present Sallacoa, Cherokee County, Ga. Seneca, on Keowee River about the mouth of Conneross Creek in Oconee County, S.C. Setsi, traditional, on the south side of Valley River, about 3 miles below Valleytown, Cherokee County, N.C. Skeinah, on Toccoa River, Fannin County, Ga. Soquee, on Soquee River, near Clarksville, Habersham County, Ga. Spikebuck Town, on Hiwassee River at or near Havesville, Clay County, N.C. Spring Place, a mission station in Murray County, Ga. Standing Peach Tree, on Chattahoochee River, at the mouth of Peachtree Creek, northwest of Atlanta, Ga. Sutali, on Etowah River, probably in southwestern Cherokee County, Ga. Sunanee, on Chattahoochee River about the present Suwanee, Gwinnett County, Ga. Tagwahi, 3 towns: (1) on Toccoa Creek east of Clarkesville, Habersham County, Ga.; (2) on Toccoa or Ocoee River about the present Toccoa in Fannin County, Ga., (3) perhaps on Persimmon Creek which enters Hiwassee River some distance below Murphy, Cherokee County. N.C. Takwashnaw, a Lower Cherokee town. Talahi, location unknown. Talaniyi, in upper Georgia. Talking Rock, on Talking Rock Creek, an affluent of Coosawattee River, Ga. Tasetsi, on the extreme head of Hiwassee River in Towns Gounty, Ga. Taskigi, 3 towns occupied originally by Tuskegee Indians (see Alabama): (1) on Little Tennessee River above the junction of the Tellico, Monroe County, Tenn.; (2) on the north bank of Tennessee River just below Chattanooga, Tenn.; (3) perhaps on Tuskegee Creck of Little Tennessee River near Robbinsville, Graham County, N.C. Tikwalitsi, on Tuckasegee River at Bryson City, Swain County, N.C. Tlanusiyi, at the junction of Hiwssee and Valley Rivers on the site of Murphy, N.C. Tocax, location unknown, perhaps connected with Toxaway or Toccoa. Torsalla, one of the Keowee towns. Tricentee, one of the Keowee towns. Tsilaluhi, on a small branch of Brasstown Creek of Hiwassee River, just within the lines of Towns County, Ga. Tsiskwahi, a district or town in the Eastern Cherokee Reservation, Swam County, N, C. Tsistetsiyi, on South Mouse Creek, a branch of Hiwassee River in Bradley County, Tenn. Tistuyi, on the north bank of Hiwassec River at the entrance of Chestua Creek, in Polk County, Tenn., at one time occupied by Yuchi. Tsudinuntiyi, on lower Nantahala River, in Macon County, N. C. Tucharechee, location unknown. Tuckasegee, 2 towns: (1) about the junction of the two forks of Tuckasegee River, above Webster, Jackson County, N.C.; (2) on a branch of Brasstown Creek of Hiwussee River, in Towns County, Ga. Turkeytown, on the west bank of Coosa River opposite the present Center, Cherokee County, Ala. Turniptown, on Turniptown Creek above Ellijay, Gilmer County, Ga. Turtletown, in upper Georgia. Tusquittah, on Tusquittee Creek near Hayesville, Clay County, N.C. Two Runs, on Etowah River at the crossing of the old Indian trail between Coosa and Tugaloo Rivers, Bartow County, Ga. Ustisti, one of the Lower Towns. Valleytown, at Valleytown on Valley River, Cherokee County, N.C. Wahyahi, on upper Soco Creek on the Eastern Cherokee Reservation, Jackson County, N.C. Wasasa's Village, on Brown's Creek, a southern affluent of Tennessee River in northern Alabama. Willstown, on Wills Creek, below Fort Payne, De Kalb County, Ala. History.- There seems to have been a Cherokee migration legend something like that of the Creeks according to which the tribe entered their historic seats from some region toward the northeast. In 1540 De Soto seems to have passed through only one town that has a Cherokee name, but Pardo in 1566 learned of another, Tanasqui, which has a Cherokee appearance and may have given its name to Tennessee River. Continuous contact between the Cherokee and the Whites began after Virginia was settled, when traders from that colony commenced to work their way into the Appalachian Mountains. Contact became more intimate with the founding of the Carolina colonies, and a contingent of 310 Cherokee joined Moore in his attack on the Tuscarora in 1713. In 1730 Sir Alexander Cuming staged a personal embassy to the Cherokee and afterward took seven of the Indians to England with him. In 1738 an enemy more serious even than White men made its first appearance in this tribe, namely smallpox, which cut down their numbers by nearly 50 percent. In 1755 the Cherokee won a great victory over the Abihka Creeks, who forthwith withdrew from the Tennessee River. Relations with the Whites were upon the whole friendly until 1759 when the Indians refused to accede to the demand of the Governor of South Carolina that a number of Indians including two leading chiefs be turned over to him for execution under the charge that they had killed a White man. He had asked also to have 24 other chiefs sent to him merely on suspicion that they entertained hostile intentions. War followed, and the Indians captured Fort Loudon, a post in the heart of their country, August 8, 1760, after having defeated an army which came to relieve it. The year following, however, the Indians were defeated on June 10, by a larger force under Col. James Grant, who laid the, greater number of the Middle Cherokee settlements in ashes, and compelled the tribe to make peace. In 1769 they are said to have suffered a severe defeat at the hands of the Chickasaw at the Chickasaw Oldfields. On the outbreak of the American Revolution they sided with the British and continued hostilities after its close down to 1794. Meanwhile parties of Cherokee had pushed down Tennessee River and formed new settlements near the present Tennessee-Alabama boundary. Shortly after 1800 missionary work was begun among them, and in 1820 they adopted a regular form of government modeled on that of the United States. In the meantime large numbers of them, wearied of the encroachments of the Whites, had crossed the Mississippi and settled in the territory now included in the State of Arkansas. In 1821 Sequoya, son of a mixed-blood Cherokee woman by a White man, submitted a syllabary of his own devising to the chief men of the nation, and, on their approval, the Cherokee of all ages set about learning it with such zeal that in a few months numbers of them were able to read and write by means of it. In 1822 Sequoya went west to teach his alphabet to the Indians of the western division, and he remained among them permanently. The pressure of the Whites upon the frontiers of the Eastern Cherokee was soon increased by the discovery of gold near the present Dahlonega, Ga., and after a few years of fruitless struggle the nation bowed to the inevitable and by the treaty of New Echota, December 29, 1835, sold all of their territories not previously given up and agreed to remove to the other side of the Mississippi to lands to be set apart for them. These lands were in the northeastern part of the present Oklahoma, and thither the greater part of the tribe removed in the winter of 1838-39, suffering great hardships and losing nearly one-fourth of their number on the way. Before the main migration took place one band of Cherokee had established themselves in Texas where they obtained a grant of land from the Mexican government, but the Texas revolutionists refused to recognize this claim although it was supported by Gen. Sam Houston. In consequence, the Cherokee chief Bowl was killed in 1839) along with many of his men, and the rest were expelled from the State. At the time of the great migration, several hundred Cherokee escaped to the mountains where they lived as refugees until in 1842, through the efforts of William H. Thomas, an influential tender, they received permission to remain on lands set apart for their use in western North Carolina, the Qualla Reservation, where their descendants still reside. The early years of the reestablished Cherokee Nation west of the Mississippi were troubled by differences between the faction that had approved removal and that which had opposed it. Afterward the tribal life was entirely disrupted for a few years by the Civil War. In 1867 and 1870 the Delaware and Shawnee were admitted from Kansas and incorporated into the nation. March 3, 1906, the Cherokee government came to an end, and in time the lands were allotted in severalty, and the Cherokee people soon became citizens of the new State of Oklahoma. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1650 there was a total Cherokee population of 22,000. In 1715 a rather careful estimate, yet in all probability too low, gave a total of 11,210 (Lower Cherokee 2,100; Middle 6,350; Upper 2,760), including 4,000 warriors and distributed among 60 villages. In 1720 two estimates were made, of 10,000 and 11,500 respectively, but in 1729 the estimate jumps to 20,000, with 6,000 warriors, distributed in 64 towns. In 1755 a North Carolina estimate gives 5 divisions of the tribe and a total of 2,590 men. In 1760 we find a flat figure of 2,000; in 1761, about 3,000. Even before this time the Cherokee are supposed to have lost heavily from smallpox, intoxicants, and wars with the colonists, but at the time of their forced removal to the west in 1838 those in their old country had increased to 16,542. Those already in the west were estimated at about 6,000. The Civil War interfered with their growth but in 1885 they numbered 19,000, about 17,000 being in the west. In 1902 there were officially reported in the west 28,016 persons of Cherokee blood, including all degrees of admixture, but this includes several thousand persons repudiated by the tribal courts. The Census of 1910 returned 31,489 Cherokee, 29,610 of whom were in Oklahoma, 1,406 in North Carolina, and the rest scattered in 23 other States. In 1923 the report of the United States Indian Office gave 36,432 Cherokee "by blood" in Oklahoma, and 2,515 in North Carolina: total 38,947. In 1930, 45,238 were returned: 40,904 in Oklahoma, 1,963 in North Carolina, and the rest in more then 36 other States. In 1937 the number of eastern Cherokee was given as 3,327. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Cherokee tribe is one of the most famous in all North America, (1) on account of its size and strength and the prominent part it played in the history of our country, (2) from the fact that the invention of the Cherokee alphabet by Sequoya was the only case of the adoption of a system of writing without immediate White prompting in the annals of our Indians, (3) from the perpetuation of numerous place names from Cherokee sources and of the name itself in counties in Alabama, Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Texas, and places in some of these States and California, Kentucky, and Arkansas; in Colbert County, Ala.; Cherokee County, Iowa; Crawford County, Kans.; Lawrence County, Ky.; and the name of stations in Louisville, Ky.; Swain County, N. C.; Alfalfa County, Okla.; and San Saba County, Tex. There is a Cherokee City in Benton County, Ark.; Cherokee Dam at Jefferson City, Tenn.; and Cherokee Falls in Ckerokee County, S. C. Several prominent Americans were descended from this tribe, including Senator Robert Owen and Will Rogers. Chiaha. A part of this tribe was encountered by De Soto in 1540, in the territory now forming this State, probably, as shown by Mr. J. Y. Brame, on what is now Burns Island. They are also mentioned in connection with the explorations of Juan Pardo in 1567. (See Georgia.) Chickasaw. In historic times the Chickasaw claimed the greater part of western Tennessee, and twice drove Shawnee Indians from the Cumberland Valley, the first time with the assistance of the Cherokee, according to the claim of the latter. At an early date they had a settlement on the lower Tennessee River but it is doubtful whether this was in Tennessee or Kentucky. (See Mississippi.) Kaskinampo. Meaning unknown, though -nampo may be the Koasati word for "many." Connections.- The Kaskinampo were probably closely related to the Koasati, and through them to the Alabama, Choctaw, and other Muskhogean people. Location.- Their best-known historic location was on the lower end of an island in the Tennessee River, probably the one now called Pine Island. (See also Arkansas.) History.- There is every reason to believe that this tribe constituted the Casqui, Icasqui, or Casquin "province" which De Soto entered immediately after crossing the Mississippi River, and it was probably in what is now Phillips County, Ark. We hear of the Kaskinampo next in connection with the expeditions of Marquette and Joliet but do not learn of their exact location until 1701, when they seem to have been on the lower end of the present Pine Island. We are informed, however, by one of the French explorers that they had previously lived upon Cumberland River, and there is evidence that, when they first moved to the Tennessee, they may have settled for a short time near its mouth. Both the Cumberland and the Tennessee were known by their name, and it stuck persistently to the latter stream until well along in the eighteenth century. After the early years of the eighteenth century we hear little more of them, but there is reason to believe that they united with the Koasati. Population.- Our only clue to the population of the Kaskinampo is in an unpublished report of Bienville, who estimates 150 men, or a total population of about 500. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Kaskinampo are distinguished only for the prominent part they played in the De Soto narratives and for the application of their name for a time to Tennessee River. Mosopelia. This tribe probably established themselves on Cumberland River and at one or two points on the Tennessee shore of the Mississippi on their way from Ohio to Mississippi. (See Ofo under Mississippi and Ohio.) Muskogee. Although we do not have records of any settlement in Tennessee by the true Muskogee, it is probable that some of them occupied part of its territory in prehistoric times, and at a later date their war parties constantly visited it. (See Alabama.) Natchez. After being driven from Mississippi and Louisiana, one band of Natchez lived among the Cherokee. (See Mississippi.) Ofo, see Mosopelia. Shawnee. Meaning "southerners," the best-known variants of the name being the French form Chaouanons, and that which appears in the name of Savannah River. Also called: Ani'-Sawanu'gi, by the Cherokee. Ontwagnnn, "one who stutters," "one whose speech is unintelligible," applied by the Iroquois to this tribe and many others. Oshawanoag, by the Ottawa. Shawala, by the Teton Dakota. Connections.- The Shawnee belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock, their closest relatives being the Fox, Sauk, and Kickapoo. Location.- There was scarcely a tribe that divided so often or moved so much as the Shawnee, but one of the earliest historic seats of the people as a whole was on Cumberland River. (See also Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland and the District of Columbia, Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia.) Subdivisions and Villages There were five subdivisions of long standing, Chillicothe, Hathawekela, Kispokotha, Mequachake, and Piqua. The Hathawekela, Kispokotha, and Piqun later formed one body known as Absentee Shawnee. The following names of villages have been preserved: Bulltown, or Mingo, on Little Kanawha River, W. Va. Chillicothe, 3 or 4 towns: (1) on Paint Creek on the site of Oldtown, near Chillicothe in Ross County, Ohio; (2) on the Little Miami about the site of Oldtown in Greene County, Ohio; (3) on the Great Miami River at the present Piqua in Miami County; (4) probably the native name of Lowertown (see below). Conedogwinit, location unknown. Cornstalk's Town, on Scippo Creek opposite Squaw Town, Picksway County, Ohio. Girty's Town, on St. Mary's River, east of Celina Reservoir, Auglaize County, Ohio. Grenadier Squaw's Town, on Scippo Creek, Pickaway County, Ohio. Hog Creek, on a branch of Ottawa River in Allen County, Ohio. Kagoughsage, apparently in Ohio or western Pennsylvania. Lewistown (and Seneca), near the site of the present Lewistown, Logan County, Ohio. Lick Town, probably Shawnee, on upper Scioto River, probably near Circleville, Ohio. Logstown, with Delaware, and Inter Iroquois, on the right bank of Ohio River about 14 miles below Pittsburgh, in Allegheny County, Pa. Long Tail's Settlement, in Johnson County, Kans. Lowertown, 2 towns; (1) on Ohio River just below the mouth of the Scioto and later built on the opposite side of the river about the site of Portsmouth, Ohio; (2) in Ross County, also called Chillicothe. Mequachake: There were several towns of the name occupied by people of this division; they also had villages on the headwaters of Mad River, Logan County, Ohio. Old Shawnee Town, on Ohio River in Gallia County, Ohio, 3 miles above the mouth of the Great Kanawha. Peixtan (or Nanticoke), on or near the lower Susquehanna River in Dauphin County, Pa., possibly on the site of Paxtonville. Pigeon Town, Mequachake division, on Mad River, 3 miles northwest of West Liberty, Logan County, Ohio. Piqua, 4 towns: (1) Pequea on Susquehanna River at the mouth of Pequea Creek, in Lancaster County, Pa.; (2) on the north side of Mad River, about 5 miles west of Springfield, Clark Gounty, Ohio; (3) Upper Piqua on Miami River 3 miles north of the present Piqua in Miami County, Ohio, and (4) Lower Piqua, a smaller village on the site of the modern town of that name, Ohio. Sawanogi, on the south side of Tallapoosa River in Maeon County, Ala; but see Muskogee in Alabama. Scoutash's Town (or Mingo), near Lewistown, Logan County, Ohio. Shawneetown, on the west bank of Ohio River about the present Shawneetown, Gallatin County, Ill. Sonnioto, at the mouth of Scioto River, Ohio, perhaps the same as Lowertown. Tippecanoe, on the west bank of the Wabash River, just below the mouth of Tippecanoe River in Tippecanoe County, Ind. Wapakoneta, on the site of the present Wapakoneta, Auglaize County, Ohio. Will's Town, at the site of Cumberland, Md. History.- Tradition and the known linguistic connections of the Shawnee indicate that they had migrated to the Cumberland River Valley from the north not long previous to the historic period. They were on and near the Cumberland when French explorers first heard of them, although there are indications that they had been in part on the Ohio not long before. Shortly after 1674 the Hathawekela or that part of the Shawnee afterward so called, settled upon Savannah River, and in 1681 they proved of great assistance to the new colony of South Carolina by driving a tribe known as Westo, probably part of the Yuchi, from the middle Savannah. Early in the following century, or possibly very late in the same century, some of these Hathawekela began to move to Pennsylvania and continued to do so at intervals until 1731. Meanwhile, however, immediately after the Yamasee War, a part had retired among the Creeks, settling first on Chattahoochee River and later on the Tallapoosa, where they remained until some years before the removal of the Creeks to the west. Of the remaining bands of Shawnee- those which had stayed upon the Cumberland- part of the Piqua moved eastward into Pennsylvania about 1678, and more in 1694, so that they were able to welcome their kinsmen from the south a few years later. A French trader named Charleville established himself at Nashville among the rest of the tribe, but soon afterward they were forced out of that region by the Cherokee and Chickasaw. They stopped for a time at several points in Kentucky, and perhaps at Shawneetown, Ill., but about 1730, by permission of the Wyandot, collected along the north bank of the Ohio between the Allegheny and Scioto Rivers. Shortly after the middle of the eighteenth century they were joined by their kinsmen who had been living in Pennsylvania. One Pennsylvania band continued on south to the Upper Creeks with whom they lived for several years before returning north. Their return must have occurred soon after 1760, and they are said to have settled for a time in the old Shawnee country on the Cumberland but were soon ejected by the Chickasaw, this time unassisted by the Cherokee. From the beginning of the French and Indian War to the treaty of Greenville in 1795, the main body of Shawnee were almost constantly fighting with the English or the Americans. They were the most active and pertinacious foes of the Whites in that section. Driven from the Scioto, they settled upon the headwaters of the Miami, and later many of them assisted the Cherokee and Creeks in their wars with the Americans. In 1793, however, one considerable body, on invitation of the Spanish Government, occupied a tract of land near Cape Girardeau, Mo., along with some Delaware. After the treaty of Greenville, the Shawnee were obliged to give up their lands on the Miami, and part retired to the headwaters of the Auglaize, while the more hostile element swelled the numbers of those who had gone to Missouri. In 1798 a part of the Shawnee in Ohio settled on White River, Ind., by invitation of the Delaware. Shortly afterward a Shawnee medicine man named Tenskwatawa, known to the Whites as "the Shawnee prophet," began to preach a new doctrine which exhorted the Indians to return to the communal life of their ancestors, abandoning all customs derived from the Whites. His followers increased rapidly in numbers and established themselves in a village at the mouth of Tippecanoe River, Ind. Their hostile attitude toward the Whites soon becoming evident, they were attacked here in 1811 by Gen. W. H. Harrison and totally defeated. While this war was going on Tecumseh, Tenskwatawa's famous brother, was in the south endeavoring to bring about an uprising among the tribes in that section. In the war between the Americans and British which broke out in 1812 Tecumseh acted as leader of the hostiles and was killed at the battle of the Thames in 1814. In 1825 the Shawnee in Missouri, who are said to have taken no part in these wars, sold their lands, and most of them moved to a reservation in Kansas, but a large part had previously gone to Texas, where they remained until expelled by the American colonists in 1839. About 1831 the Shawnee still in Ohio joined those in Kansas, and about 1845 the Hathawekela, Kispokotha, and Piqua moved from Kansas to Oklahoma and established them- selves on Canadian River, becoming known later as the Absentee Shawnee. In 1867, a band which had been living with the Seneca also moved to what is now Oklahoma and came to be known as Eastern Shawnee; and still later the main body became incorporated with the Cherokee. One band, known as Black Bob's band, at first refused to remove from Kansas, but later joined the rest. All have now become citizens of Oklahoma. Population.- Owing to the number of separate bodies into which this tribe became divided, and their complex history, estimates of Shawnee population in early times are difficult. Mooney (1928) places their entire number at 3,000 in 1650. Estimates made by various writers during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries vary between 1,000 and 2,000, 1,500 being the favorite figure. In 1760 the Abihka and Tallapoosa bands numbered 100 warriors. In 1909 the Eastern Shawnee numbered 107; the Absentee Shawnee, 481; and those incorporated with the Cherokee Nation, about 1,400. The census of 1910 returned only 1,338. In 1923, 166 Eastern Shawnee were enumerated and 551 Absentee, but no figures were given for that part of the tribe in the Cherokee Nation. The census of 1930 gave 1,161, most of whom were in Oklahoma. There were 916 in Oklahoma in 1937. Connection in which they have become noted.- Although prominent by virtue of its size, the Shawnee tribe is noteworthy rather on account of numerous migrations undertaken by its various branches and the number of contacts established by them, involving the history of three-quarters of our southern and eastern States. They constituted the most formidable opposition to the advance of settlements through the Ohio Valley, and under Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa attempted an extensive alliance of native tribes to oppose the Whites The name Shawnee is preserved in various forms in Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Wisconsin, Kansas, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Missouri, and Illinois, and most conspicuously of all, perhaps, in the name of the river Savannah and the city of Savannah, Ga. There are places called Shawnee in Park County, Colo.; Johnson County, Kans.; Perry County, Ohio; Pottawatomie County, Okla.; and Converse County, Wyo.; Shawnee-on-Delaware in Monroe County, Pa.; Shawnee in Claiborne County, Tenn.; Shawanese in Luzerne County, Pa.; Shawano in Shawano County, Wis.; Shawneetown in Gallatin County, Ill., and Cape Girardeau County, Mo. Tali. A tribe met by De Soto near the great bend of the Tennessee and found in the same region by the earliest English and French explorers, living in what is now northern Alabama and perhaps also in Tennessee. It is probable that they were a part of the Creeks (q. v.). Tuskegee. One band of Tuskegee formed a settlement or settlements in the Cherokee Nation. (See Cherokee, and Tuskegee under Alabama.) Yuchi. The greater part of the Yuchi probably lived at one period in and near the mountains of eastern Tennessee though one band of them was on the Tennessee River just above Muscle Shoals and there is evidence for an early occupation of the Hiwassee Valley. Some remained with the Cherokee until a very late date. (See Georgia.)
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Akokisa. The name Akokisa, spelled in various ways, was given by the Spaniards to those Atakapa living in southeastern Texas, between Trinity Bay and Trinity River and Sabine River. (See Atakapa under Louisiana.) Alabama. Alabama Indians came to Texas early in the nineteenth century, and the largest single body of Alabama still lives there on a State reservation in Polk County. (See Alabama.) Anadarko. The name of a tribe or band belonging to the Hasinai Confederacy (q. v.). Apache. The Jicarilla and other Apache tribes raided across the boundaries of this State on the northwest and west in early times, but the only one of them which may be said to have had its headquarters inside for any considerable period was the Lipan (q. v.). Aranama. The Aranama were associated sometimes with the Karankawa in the Franciscan missions but were said to be distinct from them. Although a small tribe during all of their known history, they held together until comparatively recent times, and Morse (1822) gives them a population of 125. They were remembered by the Tonkawa, when Dr. A. S. Gatschet visited the latter, and he obtained two words of their language, but they are said to have been extinct as a tribe by 1843. While their affiliations are not certainly known, they were undoubtedly with one of thc three stocks, Karankawan, Tonkawan, or Coahuiltecan, probably the last mentioned, and will be enumerated provisionally with them. (See Coahuiltecan Tribes.) Atakapa, see Akokisa above and under Louisiana. Bidai. Perhaps from a Caddo word signifying "brushwood," and having reference to the Big Thicket near the lower Trinity River about which they lived. Also called: Quasmigdo, given as their own name by Ker (1816). Spring Creeks, the name given hy Foote (1841). Connections.- From the mission records it appears that the Bidai were of the Atakapan linguistic stock. Location.- On the middle course of Trinity River about Bidai Creek and to the westward and southwestward. History.- The Bidai were living in the region above given when first known to the Europeans and claimed to be aborigines of that territory. The Franciscan mission of San Ildefonso was founded for them and the Akokisa, Deadose, and Patiri. In the latter part of the eighteenth century they are said to have been chief intermediaries between the Spaniards and Apache in the sale of firearms. The attempt to missionize them was soon abandoned. In 1776-77 an epidemic carried away nearly half their number, but they maintained separate existence down to the middle of the nineteenth century, when they were in a village 12 miles from Montgomery. They have now entirely disappeared. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates for them a population of 500 in 1690. In 1805 there were reported to be about 100. Connection in which they have become noted.- The name is perpetuated in that of a small creek flowing into Trinity River from the west and in a village known as Bedias or Bedais in Grimes County, Tex. Biloxi. Some Biloxi entered Texas before 1825. In 1846 a band was camped on Little River, a tributary of the Brazos. Afterward they occupied a village on Biloxi Bayou in the present Angelina County, but later either returned to Louisiana or passed north to the present Oklahoma. (See Mississippi.) Caddo Tribes. Under this head are included the Adai and the Natchitoches Confederacy (see Louisiana); and the Eyeish, the Hasinai Confederacy, and the Kadohadacho Confederacy in Texas. Cherokee. A band of Cherokee under a chief named Bowl settled in Texas early in the nineteenth century, but they were driven out by the Texans in 1839 and their chief killed. (See Tennessee.) Choctaw. Morse (1822) reported 1,200 Choctaw on the Sabine and Neches Rivers, and some bands continued to live for a while in eastern Texas. One band in particular, the Yowani Choctaw, was admitted among the Caddo there. All the Choctaw finally removed to Oklahoma. (See Mississippi.) Coahuiltecan Tribes. The name was derived from that of the Mexican State of Coahuila, the tribes of this group having extended over the eastern part of that province as well as a portion of Texas. Also called: Tejano, an alternative name for the group. Connections.- As Coahuiltecan are included all of the tribes known to have belonged to the Coahuiltecan linguistic family and some supposed on circumstantial evidence to be a part of it. It is probable that most of the so-called Tamaulipecan family of Mexico were really related to this, and that the Karankawan and Tonkawan groups were connected as well, though more remotely. Location.- The Coahuiltecan tribes were spread over the eastern part of Coahuila, Mexico, and almost all of Texas west of San Antonio River and Cibolo Creek. The tribes of the lower Rio Grande may have belonged to a distinct family, that called by Orozco y Berra (1864) Tamaulipecan, but the Coahuiltecans reached the Gulf coast at the mouth of the Nueces. Northeast of that point they were succeeded by Karankawan tribes. Toward the north it is probable that the Coahuiltecans originally extended for a long distance before they were displaced by the Apache and Comanche. (See also Mexico.) Subdivisions In considering the Coahuiltecan stock it has been found necessary to change the original plan of giving separate consideration to rich tribe because we are here confronted by an enormous number of small tribal or band names, of many of which we do not know even the location. In lieu of subdivisions, therefore, we shall give as complete a list as possible of these small tribes or bands, as far as they are known. They are as follows: Aguastayas. Asan. Alasapas. Atajah Andacaminos. Atastagonies. Annas. Borrados. Apayxam. Cabia. Aranama (see above). Cacafes. Caohopostales. Mazapes. Camai. Menenquen. Cantunas. Mescales. Casas Chiquitas. Mesquites. Casastles. Milijaes. Chaguantapam. Morbanas. Chagustapa. Mulatos. Chapamaco. Murusm (perhaps Tonkawan). Chemoco. Narices. Choyapin (perhaps Tonkawan). Natao. Chuapas. Nazas. Cimataguo. Necpacha. Cluetau. Nigco (probably meant for Sinicu). Cocomeioje. Nonapho (perhaps Tonkswan). Comecrudo. Obozi Cotonam. Ocana. Cupdan. Odoesmades. Escaba. Ohaguames. Espopolames. Orejones. Gabilan. Oydican. Geies. Paac. Guanipas. Paachiqui. Gueiquesales. Pabor. Guerjuatida. Pacaruja (given by Uhde, 1861). Guisoles. Pachal. Hueser. Pachalaque. Hapes. Pachaloco. Harames. Pachaquen. Heniocane. Pachaug. Hiabu. Pacpul. Hihames. Pacuaches. Huacacasa. Pacuachiam. Huanes. Paguan. Hume. Paguanan. Juamaca. Pajalat. Jueinzum. Pajarito. Juncatas. Pakawa. Junced. Pamaque. Macapao. Pamaya. Macocoma. Pamoranos. Mallopeme. Pampopas. Mamuqui. Papanac. Manam. Paquuche. Manico. Parantones. Manos Colorados. Parchaque. Manos de Perro. Parchinas. Manos Prietas. Pasalves. Maquems. Pasnacanes. Maraquites. Pasqual. Matucar. Pastaloca. Matuime. Pastancoyas. Maubedan. Pasteal. Mauyga. Patague. Patan. Suanas. Patanium. Sulujame. Pataquilla (perhaps Karankawan). Taeame. Patou. Taimamares. Patzau. Tamoan (?). Pauganes. Tamfque (?). Pausaqui. Tanpacuazes. Pausay. Tarequano. Payaya. Teana. Payuguan. Tecahuistes. Peana. Tejones. Pelones. Teneinamar. Pescado (?). Tenicapeme. Piedras Blancas. Tepachuaches. Piquique. Tepemaca. Pinanaca. Terocodame. Piniquu. Tet. Pintos. Tctanauoica. Pita. Tetecores. Pitahay. Tetzino (perhaps Tonkawan). Pomuluma. Tilijaes. Prietos. Tinapihuayas. Psaupsau. Tiopane (perhaps Karankawan). Pulacuam (perhaps Tonkawan). Tiopines. Putaay. Tishim. (perhaps Tonkawan). Quanataguo. Tocas. Quems. Tonzaumacagua. Quepanos. Tripas Blancas. Quesal. Tuancas. Quide (?). Tumamar. Quioborique (?). Tumpzi. Quisabas (?). Tusanes. Quitacas. Tusonid. Quivi (?). Tuteneiboica. Salapaque (?). Unojita (?). Salinas (?). Uracha. Samampac. Utaca (?). Sampanal. Venados. Sanipao. Vande Flechas. Saracuam (?). Viayam. Secmoco. Viddaquimamar. Semonan (?). Xarame. Senisos. Xiabu. Siaguan. Yacdossa. Siansi. Ybdacas. Siiame (perhaps Tonkawan). Yeme. Silianguayas. Yman. Simaomo (perhaps Tonkawan). Ymic. Sinicu. Yoricas. Siupam. Ysbupue. Sonaque. Yue. Sonayan. Yurguimes. Suahuaches (?). Zorquan. As indicated, some of there were perhaps Tonkawan, Karankawan, or of other affiliations. Some were represented by single individuails and no doubt many of the names are synonyms or have become distorted in the process of recording. The exact nature of these groups can now never be known. The above list does not include a great many names given only by Cabeza de Vaca or La Salle and his companions in the same region. The multiplicity of tribes and confusion in names is not so serious in any other region north of Mexico. History.- The Coahuiltecan tribes were first encountered by Cabeza de Vaca and his companions who passed through the heart of their country, nnd by the Spaniards when they invaded Coahuila and founded Parral. From the early part of the seventcenth century onward, their country was traversed repeatedly. In 1675 the Coahuiltecan country on both sides of the Rio Grande was invaded by Fernando del Bosque, and in 1689 and 1690 the Texas portion was again traversed by De Leon and Manzanet. In 1677 a Franciscan mission for Coahuiltecan tribes was established at Nadadores and before the end of the century others were started along the Rio Grande and near San Antonio. Great numbers of Indians were gathered into these missions during the first part of the eighteenth century but the change of life entailed upon roving people, disease, and the attacks of hostile tribes from the north reduced their numbers rapidly. Today none of these Indians are known to survive in Texas. In 1886 Dr. A. S. Gatschet found remnants of two or three tribes on the south side of the Rio Grande and some of their descendants, survive, but they are no longer able to speak their ancient language. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1690 the Coahuiltecan peoples totaled 15,000; no figures embracing all of them occur in the various narratives. Comanche. Significance unknown. Also called: Allebome, given by Lewis and Clark as the French name. Bald Heads, so called by Long (1823). Bo'dalk' inago, Kiowa name, meaning "reptile people," "snake men." Ca'-tha, Arapaho name, meaning "having many horses." Cintu-aluka, Teton Dakota name. Datse-an, Kiowa Apache name (Gatschet, MS, BAE). Gyai'-ko, Kiowa name, meaning "enemies." Idahi, Kiowa Apache name (Mooney, 1896). Inda, Jicarilla name. La Plais, French traders' name, perhaps corrupted from Tete Pelee. La'-ri'hta, Pawnee name. Los Mecos, Mexican name. Mahan, Isleta name. Mahana, Taos name. Na'`lani, Navaho name, meaning "many aliens," or "many enemies" (collective for Plains tribe). Na'nita, Kichai name. Nar-a-tah, Waco name. Na'taa, Wichita name, meaning "snakes," i. e., "enemies." Ne'me ne, or Nimenim, own name, or Numa, meaning "people." Padouca, common early name, evidently from the name of the Penateka band. Sanko, obsolete Kiowa name. Sau'hto, Caddo name. Selakampom, Comecrudo name for all warlike tribes but especially for the Comanche. Shishinowutz-hita'neo, Cbeyenne name meaning "snake people." Snake Indians, common name. Tete Pelee, French traders' name, identification somewhat doubtful. Yampah or Ya'mpaini, Shoshoni name, meaning "Yampa people," or "Yampa eaters." Connections.- The Comanche belonged to the Shoshonean linguistic family, a branch of Uto-Aztecan, its tongue being almost identical with that of the Shoshoni. Location.- In northwestern Texas and the region beyond as far as Arkansas River. (See also Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Wyoming.) Subdivisions The following are the names of Comanche bands so far as these are known: Detsanayuka or Nokoni. Pagatsu. Ditsakana, Widyu, Yapa Penateka or Penande. or Yamparika. Kewatsana. Pohoi (adopted Shoshoni). Kotsai. Tanima, Tenawa or Tenahwit. Kotsoteka, Kwahari Waaih. or Kwahadi. Motsai. Various writers also mention the following: Guage-johe. Muvinabore. Ketahto. Nauniem. Kwashi. Parkeenaum. History.- Although differing today in physical type, on account of their close linguistic relationship it is supposed that the original Comanche must have separated from the Shoshoni in the neighborhood of eastern Wyoming. The North Platte was known as Padouca Fork as late as 1805. In 1719, however, the Comanche are placed by early writers in southwestern Kansas. For a long time the Arkansas River was their southern boundary, but finally they moved below it attracted by opportunities to obtain horses from the Mexicans and pushed on by other peoplcs. The Apache, who were in the country invaded, attacked them but were defeated. In this movement the Penateka Comanche were in advance and from the name of this band comes Padouca, one of the old terms applied to the entire people. For a long time the Comanche were at war with the Spaniards and the Apache, and later with the Americans. Texas suffered so much from their depredations that the famous Texas Rangers were organized as a protection against them and proved extremely effective. In 1854, by permission of the State of Texas, the Federal Government established two reservations upon Brazos River and some of the Comanche and Kiowa were placed upon the upper reserve. Friction with the settlers, however, continued and compelled the abandonment of these reserves in 1859 and the removal of the Indians to the territory embraced in the present State of Oklahoma. By a treaty concluded October 18, 1865, a reservation was set apart for the Comanche and Kiowa consisting of the Panhandle of Texas and all of Oklahoma west of Cimarron River and the 98th meridian of west longitude. By a treaty concluded October 21, 1867, they surrendered all of this except a tract of land in southwestern Oklahoma between the 98th meridian, Red River, the North Fork of Red River, and Washita River. They did not settle finally upon this land, however, until after the last outbreak of the southern prairie tribes in 1874-75. Their descendants continue to live in the same territory. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that there must have been 7,000 Comanche about 1690. The census of 1904 gives 1,400; the census of 1910, 1,171; and the United States Indian Office Report for 1923 shows a total of 1,697. The census of 1930 returned 1,423. In 1937 the figure given is 2,213. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Comanche were one of the most famous tribes of the Plains, particularly the southern Plains. They were remarkable (1) for their numbers, horsemanship, and warlike character; (2) for the frequent clashes between them and the White expeditions or bodies of emigrants; (3) as largely instrumental in introducing horses to the Indians of the northern Plains. They gave place names to counties in Kansas and Texas; a mountain in Texas; and places in Yellowstone County, Mont.; Comanche County, Tex.; and Stephens County, Okla. There is a Comanche River in Colorado. Creeks, see Muskogee, under Alabama. Deadose. An Atakapa tribe or subtribe in south central Texas. (See Louisiana.) Eyeish, or Haish. Meaning unknown. Also called Aays, Aix, Aliche, Yayecha, etc. Connections.- The Eyeish belonged to the Caddoan linguistic stock, their closest relatives probably being the Adai, and next to them the peoples of the Kadohadacho and Hasinai Confederacies, with which, in fact, Lesser and Weltfish (1932) classify them. Location.- On Ayish Creek, northeastern Texas, between the Sabine and Neches Rivers. History- In 1542 the Eyeish were visited by the Spaniards under Moscoso, De Soto's successor. They are next noted in 1686-87 by the companions of La Salle. In 1716 the mission of Nuestra Senora de los Dolores was established among them by the Franciscans, abandoned in 1719, reestablished in 1721, and finally given up in 1773, the success of thc mission having been very small. Their proximity to the road between the French post at Natchitoches and the Spanish post at Nacogdoches seems to have contributed to their general demoralization. Sibley (1832) reported only 20 individuals in the tribe in 1805 but in 1828 there were said to be 160 families. Soon afterward they joined the other Caddo tribes and followed their fortunes, and they must have declined very rapidly for only a bare memory of them is preserved. Population.- In 1779, 20 families were reported; in 1785, a total population of 300; in 1805, 20 individuals; in 1828, 160 families. (See Caddo Confederacy, under Louisiana.) Connection in which they have become noted.- Ayish Bayou, a tributary of the Angelina River on which they formerly lived, perpetuates the name of the Eyeish. Guasco. A tribe or band which attained some prominence from the importance attached to it in the narratives of the De Soto expedition. (See Hasinai Confederacy.) Hinai. An important band of the Hasinai Confederacy (q. v.). Hasinni Confederacy. Hasinai signifies "our own folk." The name often occurs in the forms Assinay or Cenis. Connections.- The Hasinai Confederacy constituted one of the major divisions of the Caddo, the others being the Kadohadacho Confederacy, the Natehitoches Confederacy, and the Adai and Eyeish, the two last probably connected but not confederated. All belonged to the Caddoan linguistic stock. Location.- In northeastern Texas between the headwaters of the Neches and Trinity Rivers. Subdivisions The following tribes or bands were included: Anadarko, northwest of Nacogdoches in the present Rusk County. Guasco, position unknown. Hainai, 3 leagues west of Nacogdoches. Nabedache, 3 to 4 leagues west of Neches River and near Arroyo San Pedro, at a site close to the old San Antonio road, which became known as San Pedro. Nacachau, just north of the Neches tribe and on the east side of Neches River. Nacanish, north of the Hainai. Naco, probably part of the Nacanish. Nacogdoche, at the present Nacogdoches. Nacano, southeast of the Neches and Nabedache and 5 leagues from the former. Namidish or Nabiti, on Angelina River north of the Hainai. Nasoni, two towns: bout 27 miles north of Nacogdoches near the Anadarko (2) in the Kadohadacho Confederacy. Nechaui, southeast of the Nabednche, half a league from the Nacono, and 5 leagues from the crossing of the Neches at the Neches village. Neches, the main village 1 league or more east of Neches River, nearly west of the present Nacogdoches and near the mounds southwest of Alto, Cherokee County. The following names may belong to other allied tribes but next to nothing is known of them: Naansi. Nadamin. Neihshat. Nabeyeyxa. Natsshostanno. Tadiva. Lesser and Weltfish (1932) speak of a tribe called Knyamaici, but this was probably a local group on Kiamichi River. Villages As recorded by our authorities, these almost always bore the names of the tribes occupying them. History.- On their way west in 1542 after the death of De Soto, in an endeavor to reach Mexico overland, the Spaniards who had followed him passed through the Caddo country, and the names of the Nabedache, Nasoni, Anadarko, and Nacanish seem to be recognizable. In 1686-87 La Salle and his companions spent some time in their villages, and it was near one of them that La Salle was murdered by his own people. In 1690 the Spaniards entered their country and opened the first mission among them at the Nabedache village in May of that year. A number of missions were established in the other villages. All were abandoned in 1719 in expectation of a French attack, but they were reestablished in 1721. They did not prove successful, however, and were gradually removed to the neighborhood of San Antonio. Early in the nineteenth century the Hasinai were joined by the Louisiana Caddo, and all were placed upon a reservation on the Brazos River in 1855. Threatened with massacre by some of their White neighbors, they fled to Oklahoma 4 years later, were granted new lands near the present Anadarko, and finally allotted land in severalty. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1690 the entire Caddo population, including the Hasinai, the Kadohndacho and Natchitoches Confederacies, and the Adai and Eyeish tribes, amount to 8,500, 700 more than the number I arrived at. He does not give figures for the Hasinai by themselves, but it is probable that he would have allowed between 4,000 and 5,000. The former figure is the one I suggested (see Swanton, 1942). Referring to earlier estimates, we are told that a Canadian who had lived for several years among the Hasinai stated in 1699 that they had between 600 and 700 warriors, which would indicate a population of 2,500-3,000. In 1716 Don Diego Ramon, under whom the missions were established, gave it as his opinion that they were serving a population of 4,000-6,000. When Aguayo reestablished them in 1721 he distributed presents to the inhabitants of the principal towns. His figures are evidently incomplete, but even so they suggest some falling off in the 5 years that had elapsed. At any rate it is evident that these Indians lost very heavily during the eighteenth century and that their numbers did not exceed 1,000 at the opening of the nineteenth century. A rather careful estimate by Jesse Stem in 1851 would indicate a population of about 350. In 1864 the United States Indian Office reported 150, and in 1876 and subsequent years still smaller figures appear which are evidently incomplete. The first seemingly accurate census taken by the Indian Office was in 1880, when the figure for the united Caddo people was given as 538. It varied little from this until after 1910 when it showed steady gains. In 1937, 967 Caddo were reported. Connection in which they haue become noted.- The Hasinai are noted as the Indians among whom La Salle came to his untimely end, and along with the Kadohadacho and Natchitoches as makers of the beautiful Caddo pottery. (See Kadohadacho Confederacy.) Texas, a common name applied to them, was adopted as the designation of a Republic and later State of the American Union. It has been given to places in Washington County, Ky., and Baltimore County, Md.; to Tcxas City, Galveston County, Tex.; Texas Creek, Fremont County, Colo.; and in the combined form Texarkana to a city on the boundary line between Texas and Arkansas, entering also into Texhoma, Texas County, Okla., and Sherman County, Tex. Isleta del Sur, see Pueblos under New Mexico. Jicarills. The Jicarilla ranged into this State (Texas) at times. (See Colorado.) Kadohadacho Confederacy. The word Kadohadacho signifies in the native language "real chiefs," kadi being the word for "chief," and it is from an abbreviation of this term that we get the word Caddo. They were also called: At'-ta-wits, by the Comanche, according to Ten Kate (1907). Da'sha-i, or Tashash, by the Wichita. Erawika, by the Pawnee. 'H'-doum-dei-kih, by the Riowa. Ka-lox-la'-tce, by the Choctaw. Kalu-xnadshu or Kasseye'i, by the Tonkawa. Kul-hul-atsl, by the Creeks. Ma'-seip'-kin, by the Kiowa, signifying "pierced noses." Ni'ris-hari's-ki'riki, another Wichita name. Ota's-ita'niuw', Cheyenne name, signifying "pierced nose people" for Utaseta). Su'-dee, hy the Quapaw. Tani'banen, by the Arapaho, signifying "pierced nose people." Witune, by the Comanche, according to Gatschet (M.S., B.A.E.). Connections.- The Kadohadacho belonged to the Caddo division of the Caddoan linguistic stock, thc other members being the closely related Hasinai (q. v.) and Natchitoches (see under Louisiana), and the more remotely connected Adai of Louisiana and Eyeish of Texas. Location.- The Kadohadacho lived in northeastern Texas and southwestern Arkansas at the Great Bend of Red River, though they are usually associated with the region around Caddo Lake which they occupied at a later period. (See also Arkansas and Louisiana.) Subdivisions Cahinnio, near Ouachita River, Ark. Kadohadacho, on the north side of Red River near the point where the present Arkansas-Texas boundary line reaches it. Nanatsoho, on the south side of Red River not far from the point reached by the present Arkansas-Oklahoma State line. Upper Nasoni, on the south side of Red River nearly opposite the present Ogden. Upper Natchitoches, on the south side of Red River between the Nanatsoho and Nasoni. Upper Yatasi, a part of the Yatasi which joined them in very late times. History.- In October 1541, De Soto and his army entered a province called Tula believed to be the country of the Indians later known as Cahinnio, a tribe for whose bravery the Spaniards came to have a wholesome respect. The next encounter between these people and white men was in the summer of 1687 when, after the murder of the Sieur de la Salle, six survivors of his expedition, including Joutel and Father Anastasius Donay, passed through the Kadohadacho towns on their way to the Mississippi, visiting the Nasoni, Kadohadacho, and Cahinnio. Tonti visited them also 4 years later. In November and December 1691, Domingo Teran (Castaneda, 1936) spent a miserable week in this country exploring it and taking soundings of Red River, and we owe to him the first map of the region. In 1700 Bienville undertook to reach them but got no farther than the Yatasi village halfway between thc Natchitoches and Kadohadacho. In 1719 the French officer Bernard de la Harpe (1831) spent some time among them and established a trading post which endured for a considerable period. French traders quickly monopolized the Kadohadacho trade, the principal trading point being Natchitoches, but no missions were established. This group of tribes proved to be a strong bulwark against the warlike northern Indians, particularly the Osage, but they suffered much in consequence, and late in the eighteenth century the Kadohadacho or a part of them moved to another location some miles below their ancient village. The town established in the new location, however, was also attacked by the Osages, who inflicted such losses upon its inhabitants that they removed again about 1800 and established themselves on Sodo Creek northwest of the present Shreveport. In 1824 a treaty was signed between the United States Government and the Quapaw Indians by which the latter agreed to give up their lands on the Arkansas and remove to the country of the Caddo Indians. The Quapaw removed the year following but suffered such losses on account of floods in Red River that in 1833 they surrendered these lands and removed to Oklahoma. Two years later the Kadohadacho and their allies also subscribed to a treaty by which they surrendered all of their lands within the territory of the United States. In consequence, they removed to Texas and settled near their Hasinai kindred, whose fortunes they afterward followed although the two parties remained distinct for a considerable period. Some united themselves for a time with the Cherokee under Chief Bowl. Some also took up their residence with the Chickasaw in the Indian Territory. Those who remained in Texas were fellow victims with the Hasinai of the increasing friction with their white neighbors embittered by Comanche and Apache depredations for which they were in no way responsible. We may now call these united peoples by the simple term "Caddo." In an endeavor to end these difficulties a reservation was set apart for the Caddo on Brazos River in 1852 but trouble arose again of such a violent character that in 1859 the Caddo abandoned Texas and were assigned a new reservation in the southwestern part of the present State of Oklahoma, where their descendants still live, most of the scattered bands having been gathered into one section. Most of the Caddo sided with the Federal Government during the Civil War and went to Kansas, where they remained until it was over, though experiencing many hardships in consequence and losing many of their people in epidemics. They took considerable interest in the Ghost Dance Religion and still more in the Peyote Cult, John Wilson, a mixed-blood Caddo and Delaware, being one of the prominent leaders. The fact that they had always cultivated the ground has made their adjustment to the new economic system fairly easy. In 1902 they were allotted land in severalty. Population.- My estimate for the Kadohadacho division of the Caddo before White contact is 2,000. Bienville and La Harpe place it in 1700-1709 between 2,000 and 2,500. In 1718, however, Bienville asserts that it had fallen to 200 warriors, which would mean about 800 people, and Sibley (1832) indicates the same figures as late as 1805. In 1829 Porter (in Schoolcraft, vol. 3) gives an estimate of 450, and in 1851 Stem (1851) who is likely to be reliable, places it at 476. In 1857 Neighbors returns a partial enumeration of 235, and in 1876, the last time they were returned separately from the Hasinai, the Indian Office reported 467. It is evident, however, that this also includes part of the Hasinai and all of the Adai and Eyeish besides the remnants of the Natchitoches group. After this date the population of the united Caddo group remained around 500, but during the present century it has been steadily increasing and in 1937, 967 were reported. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Kadohadacho group is noted as containing the tribe which ultimately gave the name Caddo to the linguistic family of which it is a part. The name Caddo has been applied to a parish and lake in Louisiana; a county in Oklahoma; a creek and gap in Arkansas; to the village of Caddo Gap, Montgomery County, Ark.; and to villages in Bryan County, Okla., and Stephens County, Tex.; and in Hunt County, Tex., is Caddo Mills. Karankawan Tribes. The name Karankawa is derived from one of the constituent tribes, but the significance is unknown. Nda kun-dadehe, Lipan name, meaning "people walking in the water." Quelancouchis, Clamcoets, names given by the French. Yakokon kapai, Tonkawa, meaning "without moccasin," but this name includes the coast Coahuiltecan tribes. Connections.- The Karankawan tribes are placed in an independent linguistic stock, which was connected most closely, it would seem, with the Coahuiltecan group. Location.- On the coast of the Gulf of Mexico between Trinity and Arkansas Bays. Subdivisions Five principal tribes constituted the Karankawan stock. They were as follows. Coapite. Coaque or Coco, on Galveston Island and at the mouth of Brazos River. Karankawa, on Matagorda Bay. Kohani, near the mouth of Colorado River. Kopano, on Copano Bay. To these should perhaps be added the Tiopane and Tups, and perhaps also the Pataquilla, and the Quilotes mentioned by Cabeza de Vaca (1851). History.- The Karankawan coast was skirted by a number of early voyagers but the first contact with its inhabitants worth noting was by Cabeza de Vaca and other shipwrecked members of Pamphilo de Narvaez's expedition. There is little doubt that the people among whom Cabeza de Vaca was cast away in 1528 were the Coaque or Coco. In 1685 La Salle landed in their country supposing that he was near the mouth of the Mississippi, and he built a fort (Fort St. Louis) in which the French maintained themselves for 2 years. In 1689 the region was visited by a Spanish expedition under De Leon intent upon driving the Frenchmen out of the country. Shortly afterward the Spaniards began to colonize Texas and, though few settlements were made near the coast, missions were established from time to time to gather in the Karankawan Indians. The neophytes could never be induced to remain long at these missions, however, and continued during the Spanish period in about the same condition of savagery in which they had been found, though they decreased steadily in numbers. After the American settlements and begun, the coast tribes annoyed them by constant pilfering, and the reprisals which the Karankawans suffered finally destroyed them entirely. The last are said to have perished shortly before the Civil War. The only Karankawan vocabulary of undoubted purity was recorded in 1720 by the French Captain Beranger. In 1891 Dr. A. S. Gatschet published two others, one obtained from Tonkawa Indians and the other, much longer, from a white woman named Oliver who had lived near the last band of Karankawa in her girlhood and had learned a considerable number of words. But this band is said to have been much mixed with Coahuiltecan, a contention which an examination of the material seems to confirm. Population.- Mooney's (1928) estimate of 2,800 for the Karankawan tribes in 1690 appears to me decidedly too high, but there are practically no data upon which to make a satisfactory determination. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Karankawan tribes will be longest remembered as those among which Cabeza de Vaca and his companions were cast away in 1528, and where La Salle's colony was established in 1685. The name of one Karankawan tribe (Kopano) is preserved by Copano Bay. Kichai or (more phonetically) Kitsei. Their own name and said to mean "going in wet sand," but the Pawnee translate their rendering of it as "water turtle." Also called: Gits'aji, Kansa name. Ki-ci'-tcac, Omaha name Kietsash, Wichita name. Ki-tchesh, Caddo name. Quiehais, Spanish variant. Quidehais, from French sources (La Harpe, 1831). Connections.- The Kichai were a tribe of the Caddoan stock whose language lay midway between Wichita and Pawnee. Location.- On the upper waters of Trinity River, and between that stream and Red River. (See also Oklahoma.) History.- It is probable that in the prehistoric period the Kichai lived north of Red River but they had gotten south of it by 1701 when the French penetrated that country and they continued in the same general region until 1855. They were then assigned to a small reservation on Brazos River, along with several other small tribes. In 1858, however, alarmed at threats of extermination on the part of the neighboring Whites, they fled to the present Oklahoma, where they joined the Wichita. They have remained with them ever since. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates a total Kichai population of 500 in 1690. In 1772 the main Kichai village contained 30 houses and there were estimated in it 80 warriors, most of whom were young. In 1778 the number of Kichai fighting men was estimated at 100. The census of 1910 returned a total population of only 10, and that of 1930 included them with the Wichita, the figure for the two tribes, nearly all Wichita however, being 300. Connection in which they have become noted.- Their name Kichai is perpetuated in the Keeche Hills, Okla.; Keechi Creek, Tex.; a branch of the Trinity, Keechi; a post hamlet of Leon County, Tex.; and perhaps Kechi, a post township of Sedgwick County, Kans. Kiowa. This tribe hunted in and raided across northern Texas. (See Kansas.) Koasati. Early in thc nineteenth century bands of Koasati had worked over from Louisiana into Texas, settling first on the Sabine and later on the Neches and the Trinity. In 1850 the bulk of the entire tribe was in Texas but later, partly it is said on account of a pestilence, they suffered heavy losses and most of the survivors returned to Louisiana, where the largest single body of Koasati is living. Among the Alabama in Polk County, Tex., there were in 1912 about 10 of this tribe. (See Alabama and Louisiana.) Lipan. Adapted from Ipa-n'de, apparently a personal name; n'de meaning "people." Also called: A-tagui, Kiowa name, meaning "timber Apache"; used also for Mescalero. Cances, Caddo name, meaning "deceivers." Hu-ta'-ci, Comanche name, meaning "forest Apache" (Ten Ka,te, 1884, in Hodge, 1907. Huxul, Tonkawa name. (See Uxul) Na-izha'n, own name, meaning "ours," "our kind." Navone, Comanche name (Gatschet, MS., B.A.E.). Shi'lni, former Mescalero name, meaning "summer people"(?). Tu-tssn-nde, Mescalero name, meaning "great water people." Uxul, Tonkawa name, meaning a spiral shell and applied to this tribe because of their coiled hair. Yabipai Lipan, so called by Garces in 1776. Connections.- This is one of the tribes of the Athapascan linguistic stock to which the general name Apache was applied. Their closest relations politically were with the Jicarilla, with whom their formed one linguistic group. Location.- The Lipan formerly ranged from the Rio Grande in New Mexico over the eastern part of the latter State and western Texas southeastward as far as the Gulf of Mexico. (See also New Mexico and Oklahoma.) Subdivisions The Lipan were reported during the early part of the nineteenth century to consist of three bands, probably the same which Orozco y Berra (1864) calls Lipanjenne, Lipanes de Arriba, and Lipanes Abajo. History.- The position of the Lipan prior to the eighteenth century is somewhat obscure, but during that century and the early part of the nineteenth they ranged over the region just indicated. In 1757 the San Saba mission was established for them, but it was broken up by their enemies, the Comanche and Wichita. In 1761-62 the missions of San Lorenzo and Candelaria were organized for the same purpose but met a similar fate in 1767. In 1839 the Lipan sided with the Texans against the Comanche but suffered severely from the Whites between 1845, and 1856, when most of them were driven into Coahuila, Mexico. They remained in Coahuila until October 1903, when the 19 survivors were taken to northwest Chihauhua, and remained there until 1905. In that year they were brought to the United States and placed on the Mescalero Reservation, N. Mex., where they now live. A few Lipan were also incorporated with the Tonkawa and the Kiowa Apache. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that the Lipan numbered 500 in 1690. In 1805 the three bands were reported to number 300, 350, and 100 men respectively, which would seem to be a too liberal allowance. The census of 1910 returned 28. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Lipan were noted as persistent raiders into Texas, New Mexico, and Mexico. Their name has been given to a post village in Hood County, Tex. Muskogee. A few Muskogee came to Texas in the nineteenth century, most belonging to the Pakana division. Two or three individuals lived until recently near Livingston, Tex. (See Alabama.) Nabedache, Nacschau, Nacanish, Nacogdoche, Nadaco, Namidish, Nechaui, Neches, and one section of the Nasoni. Small tribes or bands belonging to the Hnsinai Confederacy (q. v.). Nanatsoho, Nasoni (Upper). Small tribes or bands connected with the Kadohadacho Confederacy (q. v.). Pakana. A Muskogee division. (See Muskogee above and also under Alabama.) Pascagoula. Bands belonging to the Pascagoula, entered Texas from Louisiana early in the nineteenth century, and one band lived on Biloxi Bayou, a branch of the Neches, for a considerable period, together with some Biloxi Indians. All had disappeared in 1912 except two Indinns, only half Pascagoula, living with the Alabama in Polk County. (See Mississippi). Patiri. A tribe associated with the Akokisa, Bidai, and Deadose in the mission of San Ildefonso west of Trinity River. Since related tribes are said to have been put in the same mission in that period (1748-49), it is believed that the Patiri spoke an Atakapan language. Their former home is thought to have been along Caney Creek. Pueblos. There were two late settlements of Pueblo Indians, Isleta del Sur and Senecu del Sur, near El Paso, Tex., composed principally of Indians brought back by Governor Otermin in 1681 after an unsuccessful attempt to subdue the Pueblo Indinns of the Rio Grande. Senecu del Sur was, however, actually in Chihuahua, Mexico. The people of these pueblos are now almost completely Mexicanized. (See New Mexico.) Quapaw. Between 1823 and 1833 the Quapaw lived with the Caddo Indians in northwestern Louisiana and northeastern Texas, and one band of them known as Imaha were reckoned as a constituent element of the Caddo Confederacy. (See Arkansas.) Senecu del Sur. (See Pueblos above.) Shawnee. A band of Shawnee entered eastern Texas for a brief period during the middle of the nineteenth century. They were afterward moved to Oklahoma. (See Tennessee.) Shuman. More often known as Jumano or Humano, significance unknown. Also called: Borrados, from Spanish sources, "striped" (?). Chouman, French form of name. Humanas, Jumanas, Xumanas, Spanish forms of name. Ipataraguites, from Mota-Padilla, probably intended for this tribe. Patarabueyes, given by Espejo in 1582. Sumn, sometimes regarded as a separate tribe but considered by Sauermerely as a synonym. Connections.- The eastern division of the Shuman, that to which the name Jumano is oftentimes applied, was once thought to have belonged to the Caddoan stock but Sauer (1934) appears to have shown that in all probability it was Uto-Aztecan. The western section, often called Suma, has been classed, erroneously of course, as Tanoan. Location.- In early times most of thc Shuman lived along the Rio Grande between the mouth of the Concho and the present El Paso but extending westward as far as the Casas Grandes in Chihunhua. Later a part of them entered the Plains in western Texas and eastern New Mexico. (See also New Mexico.) Subdivisions and Villages Besides the two main divisions to which the names Shuman or Jumano and Suma have been applied respectively, the Suma later became separated into two groups, one about El Paso and the other in the region of the Casas Grandes. The only villages named are: Atripuy, Genobey, Quelotetrey, and Pataotrey. History.- The Shuman were first met by Cabeza de Vaca and his companions about the beginning of the year 1536 although De Vaca does not mention them by name. In 1582 they were visited by Antonio de Espejo and in 1598 by Juan de Oriate. At the latter date a part of them at least were near the Salinas, east of the Rio Grande in what is now New Mexico. About 1622 they were visited by the Franciscan missionary of the Pueblo of Isleta, and in 1829 an independent mission was established for them. By this time, the eastem section of the tribe had gotten as far east as the Conchos, a headstream of the Nueces. About 1670 there were Shuman not far from Pecos River, and from that lime through the eighteenth century they seem to have resided principally in the region indicated. As late as the middle of the nineteenth century they are mentioned in connection with the Kiowa, and again as living near Lampazas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Possibly they were the tribe later known as Waco. The name of the western Shuman appears in the form Suma as early as 1630 when it was used by Benavides, and in 1659 some of the northern Suma were at San Lorenzo. During the Pueblo revolt of 1680 they became hostile and united with the Manso and Jano in an outbreak in 1684, but they were reduced 2 years later and formed into several settlements about El Paso, San Lorenzo being the only one to endure. They declined steadily in numbers until in 1897 only one was known to be living, at Senecu. The mission of Casas Grandes was established among the southern branch of the Suma in 1664. Then and for some years afterward they were allied with the Apache and Jocome in raids against the Piman tribes west of them, particularly the Opata, but are supposed to have been destroyed ultimately by the Apache. Population.- In 1582 Espejo believed that the Shuman numbered 10,000, probably an overestimate. Mooney (1928) does not give them separate entry in his estimates, of population. In 1744 the northern branch of that part of the tribe called Suma had become reduced to 50 families; in 1765 there were only 21 families; and in 1897 only one individual was supposed to be left. Soacatino, or Xacatin. A tribe met by the companions of De Soto in northwestern Louisiana or northeastern Texas. It Was undoubtedly Caddo but has not been identified satisfactorily with any known Caddo tribe. Tawakoni. The Tawakoni were a subdivision of the Wichita, or at least a tribe closely affiliated with them. (See Oklahoma.) Tonkawan Tribes. The name derived from the most important and only surviving tribe of the family. Gatschet (1891 a) says that Tonkawa is a Waco word, Tonkaweya, meaning "they all stay together." The synonyms are not to be confounded with those of the Tawakoni. Also called: Kadiko, Kiowa name, probably a corruption of Kuikogo, "maneating men" (Gatschet, MS., B.A.E.). Kariko, Comanche name, from above. K'inahi-piako, Kiowa name, meaning "maneaters" (Mooney, 1898). Konkone or Komkome, early French name. Maneaters, common translation of some of above synonyms. Miuxsen, Cheyenne name. Nemerexka, Comanche name (Gatschet, MS., B. A. E.). Titskan watitch, own name. Connections.- The Tonkawan tribes constitute a distinct linguistic family but with affinities for the Coahuiltecan and probably Karankawan and Tunican groups. Location.- In central Texas from Cibolo Creek on the southwest to within a few miles of Trinity River on the northeast. (See also Oklahoma.) Subdivisions The tribes or bands certainly included under this head were the Tonkawa Yojuane, Mayeye, and Ervipiame, but there should probably be added the Sana, Emet, Cava, Toho, Tohaha, Quiutcanuaha, Tenu, Tetzino, Tishin, Tusolivi, and Ujuiap, and perhaps also the Nonapho, Sijame, Sirnaomo, Muruam, Pulncuam, and Choyapin, though the last three at least were probably Coahuiltecan. History.- Tribes of Tonkawan stock were undoubtedly encountered by Cabeza de Vaca early in the sixteenth century; certainly so if the Muruam were Tonkawan for they are evidently his Mariames. In 1691 the Tonkawa and Yojuane are mentioned by Francisco Casanas de Jesus Maria as enemies of the Hasinai (Swanton, 1942, p. 251), and in 1714 the Yojuane destroyed the main fire temple of the Hasinai. Between 1746 and 1749 the Tonkawa were gathered into missions on San Xavier (San Gabriel) River but these were given up in 1756, and 2 years later the Tonkawa assisted in the destruction of the San Saba Mission established for the Apache. From that time until well into the nineteenth century the tribe continued to reside in the same section, rarely settling down for any considerable period. In 1855 they and several other Texas tribes were gathered by the United States Government on two small reservations on Brazos River. In 1859 however, the threatening attitude of their white neighbors resulted in their removal to Washita River in what is now Oklahoma. On the night of October 25, 1862, the Tonkawa camp there was fallen upon by a body of Delaware, Shawnee, and Caddo Indians desiring to pay off old scores but pretending that the Tonkawa and their agent were in sympathy with the Southern Confederacy. Out of about 300 Tonkawa 137 were massacred, and the survivors, after some years of miserable wandering, were gathered into Fort Griffin, Tex., where they might be protected from their enemies,. In 1884 all that were left were given a small reservation in northern Oklahoma, near the Ponca, where their descendants still live. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1690 there were about 1,600 Tonkawa. A Spanish estimate of 1778 gives 300 warriors but the following year, after an epidemic of smallpox, this is cut in half. In 1782, 600 were said to have attended a certain meeting and this was only a portion of the tribe. Sibley (1832) estimated that in 1805 they had 200 men. In 1809 there were said to be 250 families and in 1828, 80. In 1847 the official estimate was 150 men Before the massacre of 1862 there were supposed to be about 300 all told, but when they were placed on their reservation in 1884 there were only 92. In 1908 there were 48 including a few intermarried Lipan; the census of 1910 gave 42, but that of 1930 restores the figure to 48, and in 1937 there were said to be 51. Connection in which they have become noted- The Tonkawan tribes have the following claims to remembrance (1) On account of the uniqueness of their language, (2) for their reputed addiction to cannibalism, (3) on account of the massacre perpetrated upon them partly in consequence of this reputation, as above described. The city of Tonkawa in Kay County, Okla., perpetuates the name. Waco. The Waco were a subtribe or tribe of the Wichita group which lived near the present Waco for a limited period before removal to Oklahoma (q. v.). Wichita. The Wichita ,lived for a time along both sides of Red River in northern Texas. (See Oklahoma.)