The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Chippewa. Representatives of this tribe appear as parties to the Treaty of Greenville, 1795, and to treaties concluded in 1807 and 1817 by which lands in this State were relinquished to the Whites. (See Minnesota.) Delaware. The Delaware lived in Ohio for a considerable period in the course of their migration west under White pressure (See New Jersey.) Erie. Meaning in Iroquois, "long tail," and referring to the panther, from which circumstance they are often referred to as the Cat Nation. Also called: Ga-qua'-ga-o-no, by L. H. Morgau (1851). Connection.- The Erie belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic family. Location.- All of northern Ohio, except possibly the northwestern corner, and in portions of northwestern Pennsylvania and western New York. In the southeastern part of the State they perhaps reached the Ohio River. (See also Indiana, New York, and Pennsylvania.) Subdivisions and Villages The names of but two villages are known, Gentaienton and Rique. There are supposed to have been several subdivisions, but their names have not been preserved. History.- Little is known of this tribe until the final struggle which resulted in its destruction as a nation at the hands of the Iroquois and the incorporation of most of the remnants among the conquerors. The war lasted from 1653 to 1656 and seems to have been unusually bloody, the victory of the Iroquois having been determined probably by the fact that they possessed firearms. Some of the so-called Seneca of Oklahoma may be descended from Erie refugees. Population.- Hewitt (1907) considers 14,500 a conservative estimate of Erie population at the time of the last war, but Mooney (1928) allows only 4,000. Connection in which they have become noted.- The historical prominence of the Erie tribe itself is confined to the war in which it was destroyed. Its claim to present remembrance arises from the adoption of the name for one of the Great Lakes; for an important city in Pennsylvania upon its shores; counties in New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania; places in Weld County, Colo.; Whiteside County, Ill.; Neosho County, Kans.; Monroe County, Mich.; Cass County, N. Dak.; Loudon County, Tenn.; Erieside in Lake County, Ohio; and Erieville in Madison County, N. Y., and some smaller settlements; also an important railroad. Honniasont. This tribe occupied parts of the eastern fringe of Ohio after it had been incorporated into the Iroquois and perhaps before. (See Pennsylvania.) Illinois. Representatives of the Illinois were parties to the Treaty of Greenville by which lands of the State of Ohio were relinquished to the Whites. (See Illinois.) Iroquois. After the destruction or dispersal of the Erie and other native tribes of Ohio, many Iroquois settlements were made in the State, particularly by the westernmost tribe, the Seneca. Some of these so-called Iroquois villages were no doubt occupied by people of formerly independent nations. (See New York.) Kickapoo. Representatives of this tribe were parties to the Treaty of Greenville by which Ohio lands were relinquished to the Whites. (See Wisconsin.) Miami. After the original tribes of Ohio had been cleared away, some Miami worked their way into the State, particularly into the western and northern parts, and they gave their name to three Ohio rivers, the Miami, Little Miami, and Maumee. (See Indiana.) Mosopelea. Significance uncertain, though probably from an Algonquian language. Also called: Chonque, by Tonti in 1690, probably the Quapaw name. Ofo, own name, perhaps an abbreviation of the Mobilian term, Ofogoula, though this last may mean simply "Ofo people." Ofogoula may also be interpreted Ofi okla, "Dog People." They were, in fact, known to some of the other tribes as "Dog People." Ouesperie, Ossipe, Ushpee, names by which they were known to other tribes and evidently shortened forms of Mosopelea, which has a variant in r. Connections.- The Mosopelea spoke a Siouan dialect most closely related to Biloxi and Tutelo and secondarily to Dakota. Location.- When the French first heard of them. they were in southwestern Ohio, but their best-known historical location was on the lower Yazoo, close to the Yazoo and Koroa Indians. (See also Arkansas, Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee.) Villages Anciently they had eight villages, but none of the names of these have been preserved. History.- After abandoning southwestern Ohio some time before 1673, the Mosopelea appear to have settled on the Cumberland, driven thither probably by the Iroquois, and to have given it the name it bears in Coxe's map (1741), Ouesperie, a corruption of Mosopelea. By 1673 they had descended to the Mississippi and established themselves on its western side below the mouth of the Ohio. Later they appear to have stopped for a time among the Quapaw, but before 1686 at least part of them had sought refuge among the Taensa. Their reason for leaving the latter tribe is unknown, but Iberville found them in the historic location above given in 1699. He inserts their name twice, once in the form Ofogoula and once as "Ouispe," probably a corruption of Mosopelea. When their neighbors, the Yazoo and Koroa, joined in the Natchez uprising, the Ofo refused to side with them and went to live with the Tunica, who were French allies, Shortly before 1739 they had settled close to Fort Rosalie, where they remained until after 1758. In 1784 their village was on the western bank of the Mississippi 8 miles above Point Coupee, but nothing more was heard of them until 1908, when I found a single survivor living among the Tunica just out of Marksville, La., and was able to establish their linguistic connections. Population.- In 1700 the Mosopelea are said to have occupied 10-12 cabins, but some years later Le Page du Pratz (1758) gives 60. In 1758 they are reported to have had 15 warriors and in 1784, 12. Connection which they have become noted.- The most noteworthy circumstance connected with this tribe is its romantic history and the recovery of the knowledge of the same. Neutrals. The Neutral Nation may have occupied a little territory in the extreme northwest of Ohio. (See New York.) Ofo, see Mosopelea. Ottawa. In the eighteenth century, Ottawa worked into the northern part of Ohio and established settlements along the shore of Lake Erie. (See Michigan.) Potawatomi. Representatives of this tribe were parties to the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 and to treaties made in 1806, 1807, and 1817 by which lands in this State were relinquished to the Whites. (See Michigan.) Seneca, see Iroquois, under New York. Shawnee. It is probable that some Shawnee were in Ohio at very early periods. After they had been driven from the Cumberland Valley by the Chickasaw and Cherokee shortly after 1714, they world their way north into this State and, as they were joined by the former eastern and southern bands, Ohio became the Shawnee center for a considerable period, until after the Treaty of Greenville. (See Tennessee.) Wyandot. Meaning perhaps "islanders," or "dwellers on a peninsula." Occasionally spelled Guyandot. At an earlier date usually known as Huron, a name given by the French from hure, "rough," and the depreciating suffix -on. Also called: HatindiaSointen, Huron name of Huron of Lorette. Nadowa, a name given to them and many other Iroquoian tribes by Algonquians. Telamatenon, Delaware name, meaning "coming out of a mountain or cave." Thastchetci', Onondaga name. Connection.- The Wyandot belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic family. Location.- The earliest known location of the Huron proper was the St. Lawrence Valley and the territory of the present province of Ontario from Lake Ontario across to Georgian Bay. The Tionontati were just west of them on Lake Huron. (See also Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.) Subdivisions and Villages There are said to have been four confederated Huron tribes in the time of Champlain. Cartier, who first met these people, given the following town names: Aruste, on or near St. Lawrence River below the site of Quebec. Hagonchenda, on St. Lawrence River not far from the point where it is joined by Jacques Cartier River. Hochelaga, on Montreal Island. Hochelay, probably near Point Platon, Quebec. Satadin, location uncertain. Stadacona, on the site of the present Quebec. Starnatan, just below the site of Quebec. Tailla, near Quebec. Teguenondahi, location uncertain. Tutonaguay, 25 leagues above the site of Quebec. The following towns, some under their native names and others under the names of the missions established by the French Jesuits, existed in Ontario between Lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay in the first half of the seventeenth century: Andiata. Angoutenc, between the refugee Wenrohronon town and Ossossane and about 2 miles from the latter. Anonatea, 1 league from Ihonatiria. Arendaonatia. Arente. Arontaen, near Point Cockburn, on the north shore of Nattawasaga Bay. Cahiague, where was the mission of St. John the Baptist. Carhagouha, in Tiny Township about 2 miles northwest of Lafontaine. Carmaron. Ekiodatsaan. Endarahy. Iahenhouton. Ihonatiria, where was the mission of the Immaculate Conception. Karenhassa. Khinonascarant, the name of three small villages. Onentisati, in Tiny Township. Ossossane, where was the mission of the Immaculate Conception after it was moved from Ihonatiria. Ste. Agnes. Ste. Anne. St. Antoine. Ste. Barbe. Ste. Catherine. Ste. Cecile. St. Charles, 2 villages. St. Denys. St. Etienne. St. Francois Xavier. Ste. Genevieve. St. Joachim. St. Louis. Ste. Madeleine. St. Martin. Ste. Marie, 2 villages. Ste. Terese. Scanonaerat, where was the mission of St. Michel. Taenhatentaron, where was the mission of St. Ignace. Teanaustayae, weather the mission of St. Joseph was moved from Ihonatiria (?). Teandewiata. Tondakhra, on the west side of the northern peninsula of Tiny Township, 4 miles northwest of Lafontaine and about 1 mile southeast of Clover Point. Touaguainchain, perhaps where the mission of Ste. Madeleine was established. After the Huron had been broken up by the Iroquois there was for a time a Huron mission on Mackinac Island, called St. Ignace, which was soon moved to Point Ignace on the shore to the northward. A part of the tribe settled successfully in villages called Ancienne Lorette and Jeune Lorette, 8 miles northwest of Quebec. The following names of Huron or Wyandot towns are recorded in Ohio after the part of the tribe which moved west and south had collected there: Cranetown, 2 towns: (1) on the site of the present Royalton, Fairfield County; (2) in Crawford County, 8 or 10 miles northeast of the present Upper Sandusky. Junqueindundeh, on Sandusky River 24 miles above its mouth. Junundat, on a small creek that empties into a little lake below the mouth of Sandusky River, Seneca County. Sandusky, 2 towns: (1) Lower Sandusky on the site of Sandusky, Erie County; (2) Upper Sandusky near the present town of that name in Wyandot County. There was a Wyandot village in Wayne County, Mich., called Brownstown, occupied by people of this tribe from 1809 to 1818. History.- The St. Lawrence territories seem to have been occupied by two of the four Huron tribes when Cartier explored the St. Lawrence River in 1534-43; at any rate Hurons were in occupancy. When Champlain came into the country in 1615, they were all living south of Georgian Bay. The French soon entered into amicable relations with them and, beginning in 1615, missionaries undertook to convert them to Christianity. These efforts were crowned with considerable success, but were brought to an end when the tribe was attacked and disrupted by the Iroquois in 1648-49. Part of the Huron were then adopted by their conquerors, while part placed themselves under the protection of the French at Quebec, their descendants being known today as the Hurons of Lorette, and others fled to the Neutrals, the Erie, the Tionontati, nnd other tribes. In 1649, however, the Tionontati were attacked in their turn and forced along with their Huron guests to take refuge on Christine Island in Lake Huron. Then followed a long course of wandering; to Michilimackinac; Manitoulin Island; Green Bay; the Potawatomi; the Illinois; the neighborhood of the Ottawa on Chequamigon Bay, on the south shore of Lake Superior; and again to Michilimackinac. In the latter part of the seventeenth century some moved to Sandusky, Ohio, and Detroit, Mich. In 1745 a considerable party of Huron under the leadership of the war chief Orontony or Nicholas went from Detroit to the marshlands of Sandusky Bay, but in 1748, on the failure of a conspiracy Orontony had attempted against the French, he abandoned his villages and removed to White River, Ind. After his death the Hurons seem to have returned to Detroit and Sandusky and gradually extended their claims over Ohio, so that it was by their permission that the Shawnee from the south and the Delaware from the east settled north of Ohio River. The Wyandot allied themselves with the British in the War of 1812. At its close a large tract of land in Ohio and Michigan was confirmed to them, but they sold much of it in 1819, under treaty provisions, reserving a small portion near Upper Sandusky, Ohio, and a smaller area on Huron River, near Detroit, until 1842, when these tracts also were sold, and the tribe removed to Wyandotte County, Kans. In 1867 they were placed upon a small reservation in the northeastern part of the Indian Territory and are now citizens of the State of Oklahoma. Popultion.- Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1600 there were 10,000 Huron and 8,000 Tionontati. French estimates of the first half of the seventeenth century range from 20,000 to 30,000, the former figure being one that Hewitt (in Hodge, 1907) is inclined to accept. After the dispersal, the Hurons of Lorette were estimated at 300 in 1736 but placed officially at 455 in 1904. The following figures are given for the other Huron: 1,000 in 1736; 500 and 850 in 1748; 1,250 in 1765; 1,500 in 1794-95; 1,000 and 1,250 in 1812. In 1885 the Huron in Oklahoma numbered 251; in 1905, 378; and by the census of 1910, 353. In 1923 there were 502 in Oklahoma and in 1924, 399 at Lorette, Canada: total 901. The census of 1930 returned exactly the same number in the United States as had the census of 1910. In 1937, 783 were reported in Oklahoma. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Wyandot tribe is famous, (1) from the fact that it was the chief tribe or group of tribes encountered by Cartier when he explored the St. Lawrence, (2) for the flourishing missions maintained among them by the French Jesuits, (3) for the tragic destruction of their confederacy by the Iroquois, (4) from the various applications of the names Huron and Wyandot, the former including one of the Great Lakes and also rivers and counties in Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario; places in Fresno County, Calif.; Lawrence County, Ind.; Atchison County, Kans.; Erie County, Ohio; Beadle County, S. Dak.; Henderson County, Tenn.; and the Huron Mountains in Marquette County, Mich. Wyandot was applied in the forms Wyandot or Wyandotte to counties in Ohio and Kansas; to places in Wyandot County, Ohio; Crawford County, Ind.; Butte County, California; Ottawa County, Okla.; and Wayne County, Mich.; and a famous cave, Wyandotte Cave, 4 miles northeast of Leavenworth, Ind. In the form Guyandotte, the name of the Wyandot has been given to a river, mountains, and a town in West Virginia.
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Alabama. This was one of the tribes of the Creek Confederacy, part of which accompanied the Creeks to Oklahoma early in the nineteenth century and settled near Weleetka, where a small station on the Frisco Railway bears their name. (See Alabama.) Apache. The name was given to a tribe or rather a group of tribes. (See Jicarilla under Colorado; Kiowa Apache, under Kansas; Lipan under Texas; also Apache under New Mexico.) Apalachee. A few individuals of this tribe removed to Oklahoma from Alabama or Louisiana. Dr. Gatschet learned the names of two or three individuals about 1884. (See Florida.) Arapaho. In early times the Arapaho ranged to some extent over the western sections of Oklahoma, and part of them (the Southern Arapaho) were finally given a reservation and later allotted land in severalty in the west central part along with the Southern Cheyenne. (See Wyoming.) Biloxi. A few Biloxi reached Oklahoma and settled with the Choctaw and Creeks. (See Mississippi.) Caddo. The Caddo moved to Oklahoma in 1859 and were given a reservation in the southwestern part about Anadarko, where they were allotted land in severalty. (See Texas.) Cherokee. Thc Cherokee were moved to a large reservation in the northeastern part of Oklahoma in the winter of 1838-39. After nearly 70 years of existence under their own tribal government they were allotted land in severalty and became citizens of the United States. (See Tennessee.) Cheyenne. The history of the Southern Cheyenne parallels that of the Southern Arapaho as given above. (See South Dakota.) Chickasaw. The Chickasaw moved to the present Oklahoma between 1822 and 1840. They had their own government for many years but are now citizens. (See Mississippi.) Choctaw. This tribe moved to Oklahoma about the same time as the Chickasaw though several thousand remained in their old country. Like the Chickasaw they had their own national government for a long time but are now citizens at large of Oklahoma. (See Mississippi.) Comanche. The western part of Oklahoma was occupied by the Comanche during their later history, and they were finally given a reservation in the southwestern part of it, where they were allotted land in severalty and given the privileges of citizenship. (See Texas) Creeks. The tribes constituting the Creek Confederacy came to Oklahoma between 1836 and 1841 and were given a reservation in the northeastern part, where they maintained a national government until early in the present century when their lands were allotted in severalty, and they became citizens. (See Alabama, Florida, and Georgia.) Delaware. In 1867 a part of the Delaware were removed from Kansas to the northeastern part of what is now Oklahoma and incorporated with the Cherokee Nation. Another band of Delaware is with the Caddo and Wichita in southwestern Oklahoma. (See New Jersey.) Foxes few Fox Indians accompanied the Sauk (q. v.) to Oklahoma in 1867. (See Wisconsin.) Hitchiti. This is a subtribe of the Creek Confederacy. (See Georgia; also Creeks and Creek Confederacy above and under Alabama, Florida, and Georgia.) Illinois. In 1868 the surviving Illinois Indians, principally Peoria and Kaskaskia, previously united with the Miami bands, Wea and Piankashaw, moved to Oklahoma and occupied a reserve in the northeastern part of the State under the name Peoria. (See Illinois.) Iowa. Part of the Iowa were moved from Kansas to a reserve in central Oklahoma set apart in 1883; they were allotted land in severalty in 1890. (See Iowa.) Iroquois. Some Iroquois Indians, together with the Tuscarora, some Wyandot, and probably Indians of the former Erie Nation, all under the name of Seneca Indians, were given a reservation in northeastern Oklahoma, where their descendants still live, now as citizens of the United States. (See New York and Ohio.) Jitarilla. This was one of those Athapascan tribes known as Apache. In early times they ranged over parts of western Oklahoma. (See Colorado.) Kansa. In 1873 the Kansa were moved to Oklahoma and given a reservation in the northeastern part of the State. (See Kansas.) Kichai. In very early times this tribe lived on, or perhaps north of, Red River, but later they worked their war south to tke headwaters of the Trinity. In 1859 they returned to the north side of the river in haste in fear of attack by the Texans and have since lived with the Wichita in the neighborhood of Anadarko. (See Texas.) Kickapoo. In 1873 some Kickapoo were brought back from Mexico and settled in the central part of Oklahoma, where all but a certain portion of the Mexican band were afterward gathered. (See Wisconsin.) Kiowa and Kiowa Apache. These tribes formerly ranged over much of the western part of this State. (See Kansas.) Koasati. The Koasati were one of the tribes of the Creek Confederacy. They removed to northeastern Oklahoma with the rest of the Creeks and settled in the western part of the Creek territory. (See Alabama and Louisiana.) Lipan. The Lipan were the easternmost band of Apache; some of them are with the Tonkawa. (See Texas.) Miami. Part of the Miami were brought from Indiana and given a reservation in the extreme northeastern part of Oklahoma along with the Illinois (q. v.). (See Indiana.) Mikasuki. Some of these Indians accompanied the Seminole to Oklahoma and as late as 1914 had a Square Ground of their own. (See Florida.) Missouri. The remnant of the Missouri came to Oklahoma with the Oto in 1882 and shared their reservation. (See Missouri.) Modoc. In 1873, at the end of the Modoc War, a part of the defeated tribe was sent to Oklahoma and placed on the Quapaw Reservation where a few yet remain. (See Oregon.) Muklasa. A small Creek division said to have kept its identity in Oklahoma. (See Alabama.) Munsee. A few Munsee accompanied the Delaware proper to Oklahoma and 21 were reported there in 1910. (See New Jersey.) Muskogee. This was the name of the principal tribe or group of tribes of the Creeks (q. v.). Natchez. A small band of Natcez accompanied the Creeks to Oklahoma and settled near Eufaula, where they later became merged in the rest of the Creck population. Another band of Natchez settled in the Cherokee Nation, near Illinois River, and a very few still preserve something of their identity. (See Mississippi.) Nez Perce. Chief Joseph's band of Nez Perce were sent to Oklahoma in 1878, but they suffered so much from the change of climate that they were transferred to Colville Reservation in 1885. (See Idaho.) Okmulgee. A Creek tribe and town belonging to the Hitchiti division of the Nation. Its name is perpetuated in the city of Okmulgee, former capital of thc Creek Nation in Oklahoma. (See Georgia.) Osage. The Osage formerly owned most of northern Oklahoma and after they had sold the greater part of it still retained a large reservation in the northeast, which they continue to occupy, though they have now been allotted land in severalty. (See Missouri.) Oto. In 1880 a part of the Oto moved to the lands of the Sauk and Fox Indians in Oklahoma and in 1882 the rest followed. (See Nebraska.) Ottawa. When they surrendered their lands in Michigan and Ohio, some Ottawa bands including those of Blanchard's Fork and Roche de Boeuf migrated to Kansas, and about 1868, to Oklahoma, settling in the northeastern part of the State. (See Michigan.) Pawnee. The Pawnee moved to Oklahoma in 1876 and were given a reservation in the north central part of the State, where they have now been allotted land in severalty. (See Nebraska.) Peoria. (See Illinois.) Piankashaw, see Miami. Ponca. In 1877 the Ponca were moved by force to Oklahoma and, though some individuals were finally allotted land in severalty in their old country, the greater part settled permanently near the Osage in northeastern Oklahoma. Potawatomi. The Potawatomi of the Woods were moved from Kansas to Oklahoma in 1867-81 and given a reservation in the central part of the State. (See Michigan.) Quapaw. Lands were granted to the Quapaw in the extreme southeastern part of Kansas and the extreme northeastern part of Oklahoma in 1833. In 1867, they ceded all their lands in Kansas and have since confined themselves within the limits of Oklahoma, though a large part have removed to the reservation of the Osage. (See Arkansas.) Sauk. In 1867 the Sauk ceded their lands in Kansas in exchange for a tract in the central part of Oklahoma, where they have continued to live down to the present time. (See Wisconsin.) Seminole. The greater part of the Seminole were removed to Oklahoma after the Seminole War in Florida. (See Florida.) Sheneca, see Iroquois. Shawnee. The Absentee Shawnee moved from Kansas to what is now central Oklahoma about 1845; in 1867 a second bands which had been living with the Seneca in Eansas, also moved to Oklahoma but settled in the extreme northeastern part of the State; and in 1869 the third and largest section removed to the lands of the Cherokee by agreement with that tribe. (See Tennessee.) Tawakoni. Said to refer to "a river bend among red hills," or "neck of land in the water." The synonyms should not be confounded with those of the Tonkawa. Also called: Three Canes, an English form resulting from a mistaken attempt to translate the French spelling of their name, Troiscannes. Connections.- The Tawakoni belonged to the Caddoan linguistic stock and were most closely connected with the Wichita, the two languages differing but slightly. Loction.- They were on the Canadian River about north of the upper Washita. (See also Texas.) Villages Flechazos, on the west side of Brazos River near the present Waco. History.- The Tawakoni were first met in the above location in company with the Wichita and other related tribes. Within the next 50 years, probably as a result of pressure on the part of more northerly peoples, they moved south and in 1772 they were settled in two groups on Brazos and Trinity Rivers, about Waco and above Palestine. By 1779 the group on the Trinity had rejoined those on the Brazos. In 1824 part of the Tawakoni were again back on Trinity River. In 1855 they were established on a reservation near Fort Belknap on the Brazos, but in 1859 were forced, by the hostility of the Texans, to move north into southwestern Oklahoma, where they were officially incorporated with the Wichita. Population.- Mooney (1928) includes the Tawakoni among the Wichita (q. v.). In 1772 Mezieres reported 36 houses and 120 warriors in the Trinity village and 30 families in the Brazos village, perhaps 220 warriors in all. In 1778-79 he reported that these two towns, then on the Brazos, contained more than 300 warriors. Sibley (1832) reported that in 1805 the Tanakoni, probably including the Waco, numbered 200 men. In 1859 they were said to number 204 exclusive of the Waco. The census of 1910 records only a single survivor of this tribe. Tawehash. Meaning unknown. Lesser and Weltfish (1932) suggest that this group was identical with a Wichita band reported to them as Tiwa. They have been given some of the same synonyms as the Wichita (q. v.). Connections.- The Tawehash belonged to the Caddoan linguistic stock and were related closely to the Wichita, Tawakoni, Waco, and Yscani. Location.- Their earliest known home was on Canadian River north of the headwaters of the Washita. Villages In 1778 Mezieres found two native villages to which he gave the names San Teodoro and San Bernardo. History.- The Tawehash were encountered in the above situation by La Harpe in 1719. They moved south about the same time as the Tawakoni and other tribes of the group and were found on Red River in 1759, when they defeated a strong Spanish force sent against them. They remained in this same region until in course of time they united with the Wichita and disappeared from history. Their descendants are among the Wichita in Oklahoma. Population.- Most writers give estimates of the Tawehash along with the Wichita and other related tribes. In 1778 they occupied two villages aggregating 160 lodges and numbered 800 fighting men and youths. Tonkswa. In 1884 the remnant of the Tonkawa were removed to Oklahoma and the next year settled on a reservation near Ponca, where they were finally allotted land in severalty. (See Texas.) Tuskegee. A Creek division believed to be connected linguistically with the Alabama Indians. It removed to Oklahoma with the other Creeks and established itself in the northwestern part of the allotted territory. (See Alabama.) Waco. According to Lesser and Weltfish (1932), from Wehiko, a corruption of Mexico, and given the name because they were always fighting with the Mexicans. The same authorities report that the Waco are thought to have been a part of the Tawakoni without an independent village but separated later. Also called: Gentlemen Indians, by Bollaert (1850). Houechas, Huanchane, by French writers, possibly intended for this tribe. Connections.- The Waco were most closely related to the Tawakoni of the Wichita group of tribes belonging to the Caddoan Stock. Location.- They appear first in connection with their village on the site of the present Waco, Tex., though their original home was in Oklahoma with the Wichita. Villages Quiscat, named from its chief, on the west side of the Brazos on a bluff or plateau above some springs and not far from the present Waco. History.- According to native informants as reported by Lesser and Weltfish (1932), the Waco are formerly supposed to have constituted a part of the Tawakoni without an independent village. It has also been suggested that they may have been identical with the Yscani, but Lesser and Weltfish identify the Yscani with another band. Another possibility is that the Waco are descendants of the Shuman tribe. (See Texas.) In later times the Waco merged with the Tawakoni and Wichita. Population.- In 1824 the Waco had a village of 33 grass houses and about 100 men, and a second village of 15 houses and an unnamed number of men. In 1859, just before their removal from Texas, they numbered 171. They are usually enumerated with the Wichita (q. v.), but the census of 1910 returned 5 survivors. Connection in which they have become noted.- Almost the sole claim to special remembrance enjoyed by the Waco is the fact that its name was adopted by the important city of Waco, Tex. It also appears as the name of places in Sedgwick County, Kans.; Madison County, Ky.; Jasper County, Mo.; Smith County, Miss.; Haralson County, Ga.; York County, Nebr.; Cleveland County, N. C.; Stark County, Ohio; and in Tennessee; but it is uncertain whether the designations of all these came originally from the Waco tribe. Wea, see Miami. Bichita. From wits, "man." Also known as: Black Pawnee, common early name. Do'gu'at, Kiown name, meaning "tattooed people." Do'kana, Comanche name, meaning "tattooed people." Freckled Panis, from above. Guichita, Spanish form of the name. Hinasso, Arapaho name. Hoxsuwitan, Cheyenne name. Ki'-ci-ku'-cuc, Omaha name. Kirikiris, Kirikurus, or Kitikitish, reported as own name but properly the name of one of their bands. Mitsita,, Kansa name. Paein wassabe, Ponca and Omaha name, meaning "Black bear Pawnee." Paneassa, various early writers. Panis noirs, early French name. Panis piques, early French name. Panyi Wacewe, Iowa, Oto, and Missouri name. Picks, from Panis piques. Pitchinavo, Comanche name, meaning "painted breasta" Prickled Panis, referring to their tattooing. Quirasquiris, French form of native name. Quivira, from chronicles of Coronado expedition. Sonik'ni, Comanche name, meaning "grass lodges." Speckled Pawnee, referring to their tattooing. Tuxquet, see Do'gu'at. Connections.- The Wichita were one of the principal tribes of the Caddoan linguistic family. Location.- Their earliest certain location was on Canadian River north of the headwaters of the Washita. (See also Texas). Subdivisions Most of the so-called subdivisions of the Wichita were independent tribes, some of which, including the Tawakoni, Waco, Tawehash, and Yscani, have been treated separately. The others- Akwith or Akwesh, Kirikiris, Isis (see Yscani), Tokane (see Yscani), and Itaz- were probably only temporary bands. Mooney (1928) also mentions the Kirishkitsu (perhaps a Wichita name for the Kichai) and the Asidahetsh and Kishkat, which cannot be identified. History.- The Wichita rose to fame at an early period owing to the fact that they were visited by Coronado in 1541, the Spaniards calling the Wichita country the province of Quivira. They were then farther north than the location given above, probably near the great bend of the Arkansas and in the center of Kansas. A Franciscan missionary, Juan de Padilla, remained 3 years among them in the endeavor to convert them to Christianity, but he was finally killed by them through jealousy on account of his work for another tribe. In 1719 La Harpe found the Wichita and several allied tribes on the south Canadian River in the territory later embraced in the Chickasaw Nation. Within the next 50 years they were forced south by hostile northern and eastern tribes and by 1772 were on the upper courses of the Red and Brazos Rivers. In 1835 they made their first treaty with the United States Government. They continued to live in southwestern Oklahoma until the Civil War, when they fled to Eansas until it was over. In 1867 they returned and were placed on a reservation in Caddo County, Okla., where they have since remained. Population.- In 1772 the Wichita and the Tawehash seem to have had about 600 warriors. Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1780 the confederated Wichita tribes had a population of about 3,200. Bolton (1914), on information derived from Mezieres, estimated about 3,200 for the Wichita proper in 1778. In 1805 Sibley estimated the Wichita at 400 men. In 1868, 572 were reported in the confederated tribes. The census of 1910 gives 318, including the remnant of the Kichai. In 1937 there were 385. Connection in which they have become noted.- Although a tribe of considerable power in early days, the Wichita will be remembered in future principally from the prominence of the city of Wichita, Kans., which bears their name. It is also the name of counties in Kansas and Texas a ridge of hills in southwestern Oklahoma called the Wichita Mountains, a river in Texas, and places in Oklahoma, besides Wichita Falls in Wichita County, Tex. The identification of this tribe with the Province of Quivira gives it additional interest. Wyandot. In 1867 a part of the Wyandot who had been living in Kansas was removed to the northeastern corner of Oklahoma where they have since remained. It is probable that this body includes more of the old Tionontati than of the true Wyandot. (See Ohio.) Yecani. Meaning unknown. Also spelled Ascani, Hyscani, Ixcani. Connections.- This was one of the confederated Wichita tribes and therefore without doubt related to them in speech, and thus of the Caddoan linguistic family. Location.- The Yscani are first mentioned in connection with the Wichita and allied tribes on the South Canadian in the territory later assigned to the Chickasaw Nation. Part, however, were reported to be living 60 leagues farther toward the northwest. History.- The Yscani evidently moved south from the above- mentioned location at the same time as the other tribes. They kept particularly close to the Tawakoni, with whose history their own is almost identical. As the name Yscani disappears from the early annals shortly before the name Waco appears in them, it has been thought that the Waco were the Yscani under a new name, but Lesser and Weltfish (1932) identify the Waco with the Isis or Tokane, perhaps both. (See Waco above.) Population.- In 1772 their village was reported to contain 60 warriors, and about 1782 the entire tribe was said to have about 90 families. Yuchi. Although originally an independent tribe, the Yuchi united with the Creeks before coming west, and they settled in the Creek Nation, in the northwestern part of that territory, where their descendants still live. (See Georgia.)
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton The history of the Oregon Indians was similar to that of the Indians of Washington. The coast tribes seem to have been affected little or not at all by the settlements of the Spaniards in California, and those of the interior were influenced only in slightly greater measure by them through the introduction of the horse. Nor were these tribes reached so extensively by the employees of the great fur companies. Contact with such advance agents of civilization was principally along the valley of the Columbia River, and Astoria will always be remembered as bearing witness to the transient attempts of the American Fur Company to establish a permanent trading organization in this region under the American flag. As in the case of Washington, Oregon and its tribes were first brought to the acquaintance of our Eastern States in an intimate way by the expedition of Lewis and Clark in 1805-6. Here also settlement was delayed until the fixation of the International Boundary line and the rush westward following upon the discovery of gold in California. From the middle of the nineteenth century onward, however, the native tribes were rapidly dispossessed, placed upon reservations, and reduced in numbers. At a later period the decrease became less marked, but it has continued nevertheless, partly as an actual extinction of the aboriginal population and partly as an absorption in the dominant race. Most of the Chinookan tribes were finally placed upon Warm Springs and Grande Ronde Reservations and on Yakima Reservation in Washington; all of the Athapascan tribes upon the Siletz Reservation, except the Umpqua, who went to Grande Ronde; the Kusan and Yakonan tribes upon the Siletz Reservation; the Salishan peoples of Oregon upon the Grande Ronde and Siletz Reserves; most of the Kalapooian peoples upon the Crande Ronde, though a few on the Siletz; most of the Molala upon the Grande Ronde; the Klamath upon Klamath Reserve; the Modoc mostly on Klamath Reserve but a few upon the Quapaw Reservation in Oklahoma; the Shahaptian tribes of Oregon upon the Umatilla Reservation; and the Northern Paiutes upon the Klamath Reservation. Ahantchuyuk. Own name, significance unknown. Also called: French Prairie Indians, by early settlers. Pudding River Indians, by various authors, and adopted by Berreman (1937). Connections.- The Ahantchuyuk belonged to the Kalapooian linguistic stock. Location.- On and about Pudding River, which empties into the Willamette from the east about 10 miles south of Oregon City. Population.- (See Calapooya.) Not given separately. Alsea. A corruption of Alse, their own name, meaning unknown. Also called: Kunis'tunne, Chastncosta name. Paifan amim, Luckiamute Kalapuya name. Si ni'-te-li tunne, Naltunne name, meaning "flatheads." Tcha yaxo amim, Luckiamute Kalapuya name. Tehayesatlu, Nestucca name. Connections.- The Alsea belonged to the Yakonan linguistic stock. Location.- On Alsea River and Bay. Villages Chiink, on the south side of Alsea River. Kakhtshanwaish, on the north side of Alsea River. Kalbusht, on the lower course of Alsea River. Kauhuk, on the south side of Alsea River. Kaukhwan, on the north side of Alsea River at Beaver Creek. Khlimkwaish, on the south side of Alsea River. Khlokhwaiyutslu, on the north side of Alsea River. Kutauwa, on the north side of Alsea River at its mouth. Kwamk, on the south side of Alsea River. Kwulisit, on the south side of Alsea River. Kyamaisu, on the north side of Alsea River at its mouth. Panit, on the south side of Alsea River. Shiuwauk, on the north side of Alsea River. Skhakhwaiyutslu, on the south side of Alsea River. Tachuwit, on thc north side of Alsea River. Thlekuhweyuk, on the south side of Alsea River. Thlekushauk, on the south side of Alsea River. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Indians belonging to the Yakonan stock at 6,000 in 1780. The census of 1910 returned 29 Indians under this name, and that of 1930 only 9 under the entire Yakonan stock. Connection in which they have become noted.- Alsea or Alseya River, Alsea Bay and the village of Alsea, Benton County, Oreg., preserve the name of the Alsea Indians. Atfalati. Meaning unknown. Often shortened to Fallatahs. Sometimes spelled Tualati, or Tualatin (Berreman, 1937). Also known as: Tualatin, Palmer in Ind. Aff. Rep., p. 260, 1859. Wapato Lake Indians, a common name used by travelers. Connection The Atfalati belonged to the northern dialectic branch of the Kalapooian linguistic family. Location.- On the Atfalati plains, the hills about Forest Grove and the shores and vicinity of Wapato; they are also said to have extended as far as the site of Portland. Villages and Bands Chachambitmanchal, 3 1/2 miles north of Forest Grove. Chachamewa, at Forest Gove, 6 miles from Wapato Lake. Chachanim, on Wapato Lake prairie. Chachif, on Wapato Lake. Chachimahiyuk, between Wapato Lake and Willamette River, Washington County. Chachimewa, on or near Wapato Lake, Yamhill County. Chachokwith, at a place of the same name north of Forest Grove, Washington County. Chagindueftei, between Hillsboro and Sauvies Island, Washington County. Chahelim, in Chehelim Valley, 5 miles south of Wapato Lake, Yamhill County. Chakeipi, about 10 miles west of Oregon City. Chakutpaliu, northeast of Hillsboro, Washington County. Chalal, near the outlet of Wapato Lake. Chalawai, southeast of Wapato Lake. Chamampit, on Wapato Creek at the east end of Wapato Lake. Chapanaghtin, north of Hillsboro, Washington County. Chapokele, 4 miles west of Wapato Lake. Chapungathpi, at Forest Grove, Washington County. Chatagihl, at the upper end of Wapato Lake. Chatagithl, at the upper end of Wapato Lake. Chatagshish, in Washington County. Chatakuin, 7 miles north of Hillsboro, Washington County. Chatamnei, 10 miles north of Wapato Lake, in Washington County. Chatilkuei, 5 miles west of Wapato Lake, in Yamhill County. Chawayed, west of Forest Grove, in Washington County. Population.- (See Calapooya.) The census of 1910 returned 44 Atfalati. Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Atfalati is preserved in the form Tualatin by a town in Washington County. Bannock. The Bannock came over into the eastern borders of the state between Powder and Owyhee Rivers in more recent times. (See Idaho.) Calapooya. Meaninp unknown. Also called: Kait-ka, by the Umpqua. Tsanh-alokual amim, by the Luckiamute Kalapuyn. Connections.- The Calapooya belonged to the Calapooya dialectic division of the Kalapooian linguistic stock. Location.- On the headwaters of Willamette River including McKinzie, Middle, and West Forks. Subdivisions or Bands Ampishtna, east of upper Willamette River. Tsanchifin, on the site of Eugene City. Tanklightemifa, at Eugene City. Tsankupi, at Brownsville, Lynn County. Tsawokot, north of Eugene City. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimntes the population of the entire Kalapooian stock at 3,000 in 1780. The Kalapooian bands on Grande Ronde Reservation numbered 351 in 1880; 164 in 1890; 130 in 1905. The census of 1910 returned 5 of the Calapooya tribe by itself, and 106 in the entire stock; and that of 1930, 45 individuals in the stock. Connections in which they have become noted.- The Calapooya tribe is of note (1) because its name has been used for all the tribes of the stock; and (2) from its later application to Calapooya River, a branch of the Willamette; Calapooya Creek, an affluent of the Umpqua; and the Calapooya Mountains. Cayuse. Significance unknown. Hat'luntchi, Molalla name. Wailetpu, own name. Connections.- The Cayuse were placed by Powell (1891) in the Waiilatpuan linguistic stock along with the Molala (q. v.) but this is now recognized as a branch of the Shapwailutan family. Location.- About the heads of Wallawalla, Umatilla, and Grande Ronde Rivers and extending from the Blue Mountains to Deschutes River, Washington and Oregon. History.- Anciently the Cayuse are said to have had their headquarters on the Upper Grande Ronde but to have extended west later to the region of Deschutes River, where they may have met the Molala. They entered the historical arena with the expedition of Lewis and Clark and were afterward well known to explorers, hunters, and settlers. In 1838 a mission was established among them by the noted Marcus Whitman at the site of the present town of Whitman, but in 1847 smallpox carried off a large number of the tribe, and the Indians, believing the missionaries to be the cause, murdered Whitman and a number of other Whites and destroyed the mission. By 1851 they were much reduced in numbers and had become partially merged in the Nez Perce. In 1853 they joined in the treaty by which Umatilla Reservation was formed and made their homes upon it from that time forward. Their language is now nearly extinct. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates 500 Cayuse in 1780. In 1904, 404 were offlcially reported; the census of 1910 gave 298, while the United States Indian Office in 1923 returned 337. The census of 1930 reported 199 Cayuso and Molala, and the United States Indian Office of Cayuse alone in 1937, 370. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Cayuse were reputed one of the most warlike tribes of Washington and Oregon. Horses were early bred among them and an Indian pony came to be known to the white settlers as a "cayuse." There is a place called Cayuse in Umatilla County, Oreg. Chastacosta. From Shista-kwusta, their own name, significance unknown. Also called: Atchashti ame'nmei, by the Atfalati Kalapuya. Atchashti amim, another form of the Kalapuya name. Katuku, by the Shasta. Walamskni, by the Klamath. Walamswash, by the Modoc. Connections.- The Chastacosta belonged to the Athapascan stock. Location.- On the lower course of Illinois River, both sides of Rogue River for some distance above its confluence with the Illinois, and on the north bank somewhat farther. Villages Dorsey recorded the following: Chetuttunne. Chuttushshunche. Chunarghuttunne, east of Khloshlekhwuche. the junction of Rogue River and Applegate River. Khotltacheche. Chunsetunneta. Khtalutlitunne. Chunsetunnetun. Kthelutlitunne, at the junction of Rogue Chushtarghasuttun. River and a southern affluent. Chusterghutmunnetun, the Kushlatata. highest on Rogue River. Mekichuntun. Musme. Tachikhwutme, above the Natkhwunche mouth of Illinois River. Nishtuwekulsushtun. Takasichekhwut. Sechukhtun. Talsunme. Senestun Tatsunye. Setaaye. Tisattunne Setsurgheake. Tsetaame, east of the junction Silkhkemechetatun of Rogue River with Applegate River. Sinarghutlitun. Tsetutkhlalenitun. Skurgnut. Tukulittatun. Sukechunetunne. Tukwilisitunne. Surghustesthitun. Tuslatunne. Twenty of these at least were on the north side of Rogue River. The following may be synonymous with some in the above list: Klothchetunne, on or in the vicinity of Rogue River; Sekhatsatunne, on the north bank of Rogue River; Tasunmatunne, in the Rogue River country. Drucker (1937) merely gives the "Chasta Costa (cista kwusta)" as one town near the Rogue-Illinois confluence divided into three parts called Tleattli'ntun, Tcetci'-wut, and Setla'tun. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the population of the Chastacosta and 10 other Athapascan tribes in the vicinity at 5,600. In 1856 the remnant which was removed to Siletz Reservation numbered but 153, and the census of 1910 returned only 7. The 1930 census returned a total Athapascan population in Oregon of 504. The United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 30 Chastacosta in 1937. Chelamela. Significance unknown. Also called: Long Tom Creek Indians. Connections.- The Chelamela belonged to the Calapooya dialectic division of the Kalapooian linguistic stock. Location.- On Long Tom Creek, a western tributary of the Willamette River. Population.- (See Calapooya.) Chepenafa. Significance unknown. Also called: Api'nefu, or Pineifu, by the other Kalapuya. Marys River Indians, the official and popular name. Connections.- The Chepenafa belonged to the Calapooya dialectic division of the Kalapooian linguistic stock, and were sometimes regarded as a subdivision of the Luckamiut (q. v.). Location.- At the forks of St. Marys Creek, near Corvallis. Population.- (See Calapooya.) The census of 1910 returned 24. Chetco. Own name, meaning "close to the mouth of the stream." Connections.- The Chetco belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock and differed little in culture from the other Athapascan groups immediately north of them and the Tolowa to the south. Location.- On each side of the mouth of Chetco River and about 14 miles up it as well as on Winchuck River. (See also California.) Villages As recorded by Dorsey (in Hodge, 1907): Chettanne, Khuniliikhwut, Nukhsuchutun, Setthatun, Siskhaslitun, and Tachukhaslitun, on the south side of Chetco River. Chettannene, on the north side of Chetco River. Nakwutthume, on Chetco River above all the other villages. Thlcharghiliitun, on the upper course of a south branch of Chetco River. As recorded by Drucker (1937). Hosa'tun, at the mouth of Winchuck River. Natltene'tun, about where the modern town of Brookings stands. Shri'choslintun, on Chetco River a little above the following. Tcagitli'tun, on Chetco River at the mouth of the north Fork. Tcet or Tcetko, at the mouth of Chetco River, really a town on each side. Tume'stun, near Shri'choslintun. Drucker adds that "the coast town Parrish calls Wishtenatan (Water man, xustene'ten) may have been affiliated more closely with Chetco River than with the Lower Rogue River group." Population.- See Chastacosta. In 1854, n year after the Chetco had been removed to the Siletz Reservation, they numbered 241. In 1861 they numbered 262. In 1977 there were only 63 on the reservation. The census of 1910 returned 9. Connection in which they have become noted.- A river and a post hamlet in Curry County, Oregon, perpetuate the name of the Chetco. Clackamas. From their own name, Guithla'kimas, significance unknown. Also spelled Tlakimish, and called: A'kimmash, by the Atfalati Kalapuya. Gita'qlamas, by the Clatsop. N'sekau's or Ns tiwat, by the Nestucca. Tu'hu tane, by the Umpqua. Connections.- The Clackamas belonged to the Chinookan linguistic stock and to a dialectical division to which they have given their name. Location.- On Clackamas River, claiming the country on the east side of Willamette River from a few miles above its mouth nearly to Oregon City and cast as far as the Cascade Mountains. (See also Washington.) Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that the Clackamas numbered 2,500 in 1780. In 1806 Lewis and Clark set down their probable number as 1,800. In 1851 there were 88; the 1910 census returned 40; and United States Office of Indian Affairs in 1937, 81. The census of 1930 reported a total of 561 Indians in the Chinookan stock. Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Clackamas is perpetuated by a river, a county, and a town in Oregon. Clatskanie. Significance unknown. Also spelled A'latskne-i, Clackstar, Klatskanai, Tlatskanai, etc. Connection- The Clatskanie belonged to the Athnpascan linguistic stock. Location.- According to Gibbs (1877) the Clatsknnie at one time owned the prairies bordering Chehalis River, Washington, at the mouth of Skookumchuck River, but on the failure of game, crossed the Columbia and occupied the mountains about Clatskanie River, their best-known historic seat. For a long time they exacted toll of all who passed going up or down the Columbia. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates 1,600 Clatskanie in 1780. In 1851 they were reduced to three men and five women. The census of 1910 returned three. (See Chastacosta.) Connection in which they have become noted.- Like the Kwahlioqun, the Clatskanie arc noted for their isolation from other branches of the Athapascan stock. Their nnme is preserved by Clatskanie Creek and Clntskanie town in Columbia County, Oreg. Clatsop. From a native word meaning "dried salmon." Connection.- The Clatsop belonged to the Lower Chinook dialectic division of the Chinookan linguistic stock. Location.- The Clatsop centered about Cape Adams, on the south side of Columbia River, extending up the latter as far as Tongue Point, and southward on the Pacific coast to Tillamook Head. Villages As far as known these were: Konope, near the mouth of Columbia River. Neacoxy, the principal winter village, at the site of Seaside, at the mouth of Neacocie Creek. Neahkeluk, at Point Adams. Niakewankih, south of Point Adams at the mouth of Ohanna Creek. Neahkstowt, near the present Hammond. Necotat, at the site of Seaside. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates 300 Clatsop in 1780. In 1806 Lewis and Clark gave 300. In 1875 the few survivors were moved to Grande Ronde Reservation, where the census of 1910 returned 26. (See Clackamas) Connection in which they have become noted.- Clatsop County and the town of Clatsop, Oreg., preserve the name. Clowwewalla. Significance unknown. Phonetically Gila'wewalamt. Also called: Fall Indians, Tumwater Indians, popular names. Willamette Indians, Willamette Falls Indians, popular names. Connections.- The Clowwewalla belonged to the Clackamas division of the Chinookan linguistic stock. Location.- At the falls of Willamette River. Subdivisions The Clowwewalla may have included the Cushooks, Chahcowahs, and Nemalquinner of Lewis and Clark. Population.- The Clowwewalla, or a part of them, were called Cushook by Lewis and Clark, who estimated that they numbered 650 in 1805-6. On this basis Mooney (1928) estimated there might have been 900 in 1780. They were greatly reduced by the epidemic of 1829 and in 1861 numbered 13. They are now apparently extinct. Dakubetede. Own name, significance unknown. Also called: Applegate River Indians, from their habitat. Ni'ckitc hitclum, Alsea name, meaning "people far up the stream." Ts'u-qus-li'-qwut-me' tunne, Naltunnetunne name. Connections.- The Dakubetede belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock, using a dialect identical with that of the Taltushtuntude. Location.- On Applegate River. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the Dakubetede, the Nahankhotane (part of the Umpqua), the Taltushtuntude, and the Umpqua to have numbered 3,200 in 1780. They are nowhere separately enumerated. (See Chastacosta.) Hanis. Own name, significance unknown. Connections.- The Hanis formed one dialectic group of the Kusan linguistic family, the other being Miluk. It is probable that this stoek was connected with the Yakonan. Location.- On Coos River and Bay. Villages Anasitoh, on the south side of Coos Bay. Melukitz, on the north side of Coos Bay. Population.- Mooney (1828) estimates that the Hanis and the Miluk together numbered 2,000 in 1780. In 1805 Lewis and Clark estimated 1,500 Hanis. The census of 1910 returned 93 for the entire stock and that of 1930, 107, while, again for the stock, the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 55 in 1937. Klamath. A word of uncertain origin but probably used first by Columbia River or other outside tribes. Their own name is maklaks, meaning "people," "community." They are also called: Algspaluma, abbreviated to Aigspalo, Aigspalu; Nez Perce name for all Indians on Klamath Reservation and in the vicinity, meaning "people of the chipmunks." Alammimakt ish (from ala'mmig, "Upper Klamnth Lake"), said to be the Achomawi name. Athlameth, Calapooya name. Auksiwash, in Yreka dialect of Shasta. Dak'-tslaam-al-a' or Dak'-tslaew-an-a'e, "those above the lakes," by the Takelma. E-ukshik-ni maklaks, meaning "people of the lakes," also their own name. Makaitserk, by the western Shasta. Plafkni, collective name for Klamath, Modoc, nnd Snakes on Sprague River. Sayi, Northern Paiute name. Tapaadji, Ilmawi name. Wols, name given by the Latgawa. Connections.- Together with the Modoc (q. v.), the Klamath constituted the Lutuamian division of the Shapwailutnn lingulstic family. Location.- On Upper Klamath Lake, Klamath Marsh, and Williamson and Sprague Rivers. Subdivisions and Vilages These are given as follows by Spier (1930), maintaining his order: I. a'ukckni (the Klamath marsh- Williamson River group), with the following villages: mu'tcuia'ksi (near the bridge tonard the eastern end of Klamath marsh), k'etaiwa's (along the eastern side of the marsh), gupgua'ksi, (east side of Klamath marsh south of lask), i'wal (along a southeastern tongue of the marsh), kla'djoksi (ibid.), du'ilkut (on the south shore of Klamath marsh), awn'lwaskan (west of preceding). wa'ktale'e (on the higher ground where Williamson River leaves the marsh), la'laks (ibid.), lobo'kstsoksi (on the bluff on the left bank of the Sprague River at the railroad bridge) called by Gatschet (1891) ktai-tu-pakshi), an unnamed site (on the south side of Sprague River below the dam), klotcwa'ets (about 2 miles above the dam on the south bank of Sprague River), koma'eksi (on both sides of Sprague River south of Braymill, 4 miles from Chiloquin), ka'umkan (about 6 miles above last), [Yainax] (settlements of some sort near here), hicdic-lue'iukc (west of Gearhart Mountain), bezukse'was (on the right bank of Williamson River below the mouth of Sprague River), takalma'kcda (on the right bank of Williamson River below preceding), k'tai'di (on a flat opposite last mentioned), djigia's (below last two on both sides of river), klo'ltawns (on both banks below preceding but principally on left bank), at'awikc (below last, principally on right bank), ya'ak (right bank below preceding), tsa'k'wi (below last, principally on right), wita'mumpsi (on a high bluff on the right bank above an eddy in the sharp bend in the river), goyemske'egie' or kieke'tsus (on right bank below last), wela'lksi (on the eastern shore of Agency Lake), lok'o'gut (on the higher land near Agency Lake by a little warm spring), tco'klalumps (overlooks the lake where the Chiloquin road meets the Agency Lake highway), "other towns may have been at ya'mzi, on the western side of Yamsay Mountain, and kokena'oke, Spring Creek, a large northern affluent of Klamath marsh." II. kowa'cdikni, perhaps part of the first division, occupying- kowa'cdi (on Agency Lake). III. du'kwakni (on the delta of Williamson River), affiliated most closely with the next division, and including: mo'aksda (on the left bank of Williamson River nearly a mile above the mouth), wickamdi (below the preceding on the right bank), la'wa'lstot (on the point forming the right side of the mouth of Williamson River), mo'ginkunks (on the left bank of Williamson River a quarter of a mile above the mouth), djingus (at a spring on the lake kont to the east of the mouth of Williamson River). IV. gu'mbotkni (on Pelican Bay and the marsh to the north) including: sle'tsksi (on the west side of Seven Mile Crcek near its mouth), wudo'kan (in the marsh a mile from the last and east of Seven Mile Creek), iwunau'ts (on the western side of a little creek emptying into Klamath Lake 2 miles east of Recreation P. O., and extending along thc marsh shore to the northern side of Pelican Bay), duno'ksi (an open space overlooking the northern end of Pelican Bay), e'o'kai (a few hundred yards up Four Mile Creek on the left bank), wa'lo'kdi (above the last mentioned on the opposite side of the creek), wak'a'k (south of the high ridge south of Odessa), gai'loks or gaila'lks (on the point south of Odessa, or more probably between Howard and Shoalwater Bays), sto'kmatc (at Eagle Point); to which should perhaps be added: e'o'kak (on Wood River, toward the mountains), and e'ukua'lksi (on the east side of Wood River, and possibly the same site as the other). V. iu'la'lonkni (the people of Klamath Falls (Link River) and the eastern shore of Klamath Lake), including the following villages: ketai'ksi (extending southward from a promontory 2 miles or so northwest of Modoc Point), suwiaka'eks (at Modoc Point), iula'u (on the east side of Klamath Lake), diu'wiaks (at the railroad point Ouxy), kau'omot (a half mile south of the preceding on the lake shore), di'tk!aks (at a hot spring known as Barclay Spring near the lask mentioned), kolwa'l (at Rattlesnake Point at Algoma), wuk!o'twas (on Buck Island in Klamath Lake), lama'tcksi (on the point east of Buck Island), k!su'nk!si (three-fourths of a mile south of the preceding on the shore of Klamath Lake), iwau'wone (on both sides of Link River at the highway bridge), iu'lalone (at the mouth of Klamath River), weka'els (on the shore of Klamath Lake a mile west of the mouth of Klamath River), wut!ana'koks (at one end of a little marsh (now drained) on the west side of Klamath Lake), iup!a'tona (at the other end of the same marsh), woksa'lks (on the north shore of Wokas marsh near Klamath Lake), de'ktconks (on the west shore of Klamath Lake opposite Buck Island), sa'stltka'-wals (at Squaw Point). Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated the Klamath at 800 in 1780 but Spier (1930) raises this to 1,200. In 1905, including former slaves and members of other tribes more or less assimilated with them, they numbered 755. The census of 1910 returned 696. In 1923 there were 1,201 Indians under the Klamath Superintendency including Klamath, Modoc, and other Indians. In 1930, 2,034 were returned as Klamath and Modoc. In 1937 the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 1,912 Klamatk. Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Klamath is perpetuated by Klamath Lake, Klamath County, and the town of Klamath Falls, Klamath County, Oreg.; by Klamath River, Oreg. and Calif.; and by a village in Eumboldt County, Calif. Kuitsh. Significance unknown. Also called: Ci-sta'-qwut-me' tunne', Mishikwutmetunne name, meaning "people dwelling on the stream called Shista." Lower Umpqua, or Umpwua, popular name. Tu'kwil-ma'-k'i, Alsea name. Connections.- The Kuitsh belonged to the Yakonan linguistic stock, though so remotely connected that Frachtenberg (1911, p. 441 thought of placing them in an independent family, the Siuslawan. Location.- On Lower Umpqua River. Villages According to Dorsey these were: Chitlatamus. Paiuiyunitthai. Chukhuiyathl. Skakhaus. Chukukh. Takhaiya. Chupichnushkuch. Thukhita. Kaiyuwuntsunitthai. Tkimeye. Khuwaihus. Tsalila. Kthae. Tsetthim. Kuiltsh. Tsiakhaus. Mikulitsh. Tsunakthiamittha. Misun. Wuituthlaa. Ntsiyamis. Population.- The Kuitsh are usually classed with the Siuslaw. Mooney (1928) estimates the entire Yakonan stock at 6,000 in 1780, and by 1930 this had been reduced to 9. The Kuitsh nre nowhere separately enumerated. Latgawa. Signifying "those living in the uplands." Also called: Walumskni, by the Klamath. Connections.- With the Takelma proper, the Latgawa constituted the Takilman linguistic family which, in turn, was probably affiliated with the Shastan stock. Location.- On Upper Rogue River eastward about Table Rock and Bear Creek and in the neighborhood of the present town of Jacksonville. Villages Sapir (1915) records, one village belonging to this tribe known by the tribal name and also called Latgauk. Population.- See Takelma. Lohim. Significance unknown. (See Paiute, Northern.) Connections.- Reported as a band of Shoshoneans which entered Oregon at a late period. Location.- On Willow Creek, a southern affluent of the Columbia. Population.- In 1870 the number of Lohim was reported as 114, but the name has not appeared in recent official reports. They have generally been regarded as renegades belonging to the Umatilla Reservation, and Ray's (1938) informants denied the presence of Shoshoneans here, asserting that the name was applied to Yakima. Luckiamute, Lakmiut. Significance unknown. Alakema'yuk, Atfalati name. Suck-a-mier, Cheiukimaukes, forms appearing in Reports of the Office of Indian Affairs. Connections.- The Luckiamute belonged to the Calapooya dialcctic division of the Kalapooian linguistic stock. Loction.- The Luckiamute River. Subdivisions or Bands Ampalamuyu, on Luckiamute River. Mohawk, on Mohawk River. Tsalakmiut, on Luckiamute River. Tsamiak, near Luckiamute River. Tsantatawa, south of Luckiamute River. Tsantuisha, on Luckiamute River. Population.- (See Calapooya.) The number of Luckiamute was given as 28 in 1905. The census of 1910 returned only 8. Connection in which they have become noted.- This tribe has given its name to Luckiamute River, Oreg. Miluk. Significance unknown; also called Lower Coquille. Connections.- The Miluk spoke the southern of the two dialects of the Kusan linguistic family, and were related more remotely to the Yakonan stock. Loction.- At the mouth of Coquille River. Villages Miluk or Mulluk, on the north side of the Coquille River at the site of the present town of Randolph. Nasumi, on the south side of Coquille River on the coast of Oregon, near the site of the present Bandon. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated 2,000 in 1780 for the Miluk and Hanis together. In 1910 they numbered 93. (See Hanis.) In 1937 the population of the "Kus" Indians was given as 55. Mishikhwutmetunne. Signifying "people who live on the stream called Mishi." Also called: Coquille, or Upper Coquille, from their habitat. De-d'a tene, Tutuni name, meaning "people by the northem water." Ithale teni, Umpqua name. Kukwil', Alsea name (from Coquille). Connections.- The Mishikhwutmetunne belonged to lhe Athapascan linguistic stock, their relations being particularly close with the Tututni. Location.- On upper Coquille River. Villages The following were recorded by J. O. Dorsey (1884): Chockreletan, near the forks of Sunsunnestunne. Coquille River. Sushltakhotthatunne. Chuntshs.taatunne. Thlkwantiyatunne. Duldulthawaiame. Thltsharghiliitunne. Enitunne. Thltsusmetunne. Ilsethlthawaiame. Thlulehikhnutmetunne. Katomemetunne. Timethltunne. Khinukhtunne. Tkhlunkhastunne, next to Khweshtunne, next above Coquille City. the Kusan people and below Coquille City. Kimestunne. Tsatarghekhetunne Kthukhwestunne. Tthinatlftunne, at the site of Coquille. Kthunataachuntunne. Tulwutmetunne. Meshtshe. Tuskhlustunne. Nakhituntunne Tustatunkhuushi. Nakhochatunne. Drucker (1937) recorded besides: Natarghiliitunne. Hweshtun (perhaps partly Kusan). Natsushltatunne. Natgrilitun. Nilertunne. Stonerutltutl, a suburb of Natgrilitun. Rghoyinestunne. Tlunhoshtun, said to have come from Umpqua. Sathlrekhtun. Sekhushtuntunne. Population..- (See Chastacosta.) The census of 1910 returned 15 Mishikhwutmetunne under the name Upper Coquille. Modoc. From Moatolni, meaning "southerners." Also called: Afgspaluma, Nez Perce name for all Indians on Klamath Reservation and in the vicinity. La-la-cas, said to be the original name. Lutmawi, by a part of the Pit River Indians. Lutuami, Ilmawi name. Pxanai, Yreks Shasta name. Saidoka, Shoshoni name. Connections.- With the Klamath (q. v.), the Modoc constituted the Lutuamian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock. Location.- On Little Klamath Lake, Modoc Lake, Tule Lake, Lost River Valley, and Clear Lake, extending at times as far east as Goose Lake. (See also California and Oklahoma.) Subdivisions The most important bands of the Modoc are said to have been at Little Klamath Lake, Tule Lake, and in the valley of Lost River. Villages Agawesh, on lower Klamath Lake, Calif., and on Hot Greek. Chakawech, near Yaneks, on Sprague River, Klamath Reservation. Kalelk, on the north shore of Tule or Rhett Lake. Kawa, at Yaneks on Sprague River. Keshlakchuis, on the southeast side of Tule (Rhett) Lake, Calif. Keuchishkeni, on Hot Creek near Littie Klamath Lake, Calif. Kumbatuash (with Klamath), southwest of Tule (Rhett) Lake, Calif., extending from the lake shore to the lava beds. Leush, on the north side of Tule (Rhett) Lake, Oreg. Nakoshkcni, at the junction of Lost River with Tule Lake. Nushaltkagakni, at the headwaters of Lost River near Bonanna. Pashka, on the northwest shore of Tule (Rhett) Lake. Shapashkeni, on the southeast side of Little Klamath Lake, Calif. Sputuishkeni, on Lower Klamath Lake, Calif. Stuikishkeni, on the north side of Little Klamath Lake. Waisha, on Lost River, 3 or 4 miles northwest of Tule Lake, and near the hills that culminate in Laki Peak. Wachamshwash, on Lost River near Tule (Rhett) Lake, in Klamath County. Welwashkeni, on the southeast side of Tule Lake, at Miller's Farm, Calif. Wukakeni, on the east side of Tule Lake, Calif. Yaneks (with Klamath and Shoshoni), along middle Sprague River, Lake County. Yulalona (with Klamnth), at the site of the present Linkville. History.- The Modoc came into contact with the Whites in comparatively late times, and acquired an unfortunate reputation from frequent conflicts with white immigrants in which atrocities were committed on both sides. In 1964 the Modoc and the Klamath together ceded their territory to the United States and retired to Klamath Reservation, but their were never contented there and made persistent efforts to return to their old country. Finally, in 1870, a chief named Kintpuash, better known to the Whites as Captain Jack, led the more turbulent element of the tribe back to the California border and refused to return. The first attempt to bring the runaways back precipitated the Modoc War of 1872-73. The Modoc retreated to the lava beds of northern California and for several months resisted all attempts to dislodge them, but they were finally overcome and Kintpuask and five other leaders hanged in October of that year. Part of the tribe was then sent to Indian Territory and placed on the Quapaw Reservation and the remainder on the Klamath Reservation. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 400 Modoc in 1780, but Kroeber (1925), with whom Spier (1930) seems to concur, allows twice as many. In 1905 there were 56 on the Quapaw Reservation and 223 on the Klamath Reservation. The census of 1910 returned 282, of whom 212 were in Oregon, 33 in Oklahoma, 20 in California, and the remainder scattered among 5 other States. In 1930, 31 were in Oklahoma. (See Klamath.) In 1937, 329 were reported. Connections in which they have become noted.- The chief claim of the Modoc to remembrance is on account of the remarkable defensive war they maintained in the lava beds of California, as above stated. A California county is named for them and places called Modoc are to be found in Phillips County, Ark.; in Emanuel County, Ga.; in Louisiana; in Ohio; and in McCormick County, S. C.; Randolph County, Ill.; and Randolph County, Ind.; also in the name of Modoc Point, Oreg.; in Scott County, Kans.; and in the name of the Modoc Lava Beds, Calif. Molala. Derived from the name of a creek in the Willamette Valley from which one of their bands drove the original inhabitants. Also called: Amolelish, by the Kalapuya. Kuikni, by the Klamath. Lati-u or La'tiwe, their own name. Ya'-ide'sta, by the Umpqua. Connections.- Together with the Cayuse, the Molala constituted the Waiilatpuan division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock. According to Cayuse tradition, thc Molala formerly lived with them and were separated and driven westward in consequence of wars with hostile tribes. Location.- At an early date the Molala are believed to have been in the valley of the Deschutes River and to have been driven west, as above intimated, into the valleys of the Molala and Santiam Rivers. Either part of them subsequently went south to the head-waters of Umpqua and Rogue Rivers or they were separated from the rest in the movement above mentioned, as Berreman (1937) thinks. Subdivisions The following are said to have been Molala bands or settlements: Chakankni, on the headwaters of Rogue River, northwest of Klamath Lake, absorbed later by the neighboring tribes, particularly the Klamath. Chimbuiha, on the headwaters of Santiam River. Mukanti, on the western slope of the Cascade Mountains. Population.- Mooney (1928) believes the Molala were still with the Cayuse in 1780, whose numbers he fixes at about 500. In 1849 the Molala were estimated at 100. In 1877 Gatschet found several families living on the Grande Ronde Reservation, and in 1881 there were said to be 20 individuals in the mountains west of Klamath Lake. The census of 1910 returned 31, all but 6 of whom were in Oregon. (See Cayuse.) Connection in which they have become noted.- The Molala are note-worthy in the first place for the uniqueness of their language, which is closely related only to Cayuse. Molalla River or Creek and a post village, both in Clackamas County, Oreg., bear the name. Multnomah. Significance unknown. Also called: Wappato, originally the Cree or Chippewa name of a bulbous root (Sagittaria variabilis) used as food by the Indians of the west and northwest. It means literally "white fungus." It passed into the Chinook jargon with the meaning "potato" and became applied to Sauvies Island in Columbia River, at the mouth of the Willamette, and the Indian tribes living on or near it. It was so used by Lewis and Clark, though there was little or no political connection between the numerous bands so designated. Connections.- The Multnomah belonged to the Clackamas division of the Chinookan linguistic stock. Location.- As above indicated, on and near Sauvies Island. Subdivisions or Bands Cathlacomatup, on the south side of Sauvies Island on a slough of Willamette River. Cathlacumup on the west bank of the lower mouth of the Willamette River and claiming as their territory the bank of the Columbia from there to Deer Island. Cathlanaquiah, on the southwest side of Sauvies Island. Clahnaquah, on Sauvies Island. Claninnata, on the southwest side of Sauvies Island. Kathlaminimin, at the south end of Sauvies Island, later said to have become associated with the Cathlacumup and Nemoit. Multnomah, on the upper end of Sauvies Island. Nechacokee, on the south bank of Columbia River a few miles below Quicksand (Sandy) River. Nemalquinner, at the falls of the Willamette but with a temporary house on the north end of Sauvies Island. Shoto, on the north side of Columbia River, a short distance from it and nearly opposite the mouth of the Willamette. Population.- Mooney (1928) gives the population of all of these bands of the Multnomah as 3,600 in 1780. Their descendants are probably included among the 315 Indians returned as Chinook by the consus of 1910. (See Clackamas.) Connection in which they have become noted.- There is a county, town, and river channel of the name in Oregon. The name "Wappato" secondarily applied to the Multnomah besides its former use as a name of Sauvies Island, is given, with the spelling Sapato, to a lake and place near Portland in Oregon- the latter in Multnomah County, the former between Yamhill and Washington Counties- and to a place in the State of Washington. Naltunnetunne, a small Athapascan tribe bctwcen the Tututni and Chetco, apparently included by later writers under the former. Nez Perce. Thcy extcndcd into northeastem Oregon. (See Idaho.) Paiute, Northern. These people occupied the southeastern part of Oregon and formerly extended far enough north to include the valley of Powder River and the upper course of John Day River of which they were dispossessed by Shahaptians. (See Nevada.) Santiam. Significance unknown. Also called: Aha'lpam, by the Atfalati Kalapuya. Connections.- The Santiam belonged to the Calapooya dialectic division of the Kalapooian linguistic stock. Location.- Santiam River. Subdivisions or Bands Chamifu, on Yamhill Creek. Chanchampenau, east of Willamette River. Chanchantu, location not specified. Chantkaip, below the junction of the Santiam forks. Population.- (See Calapooya.) In 1906 there were 23 Santiam on the Grande Ronde Reservation. The census of 1910 relurned 9. Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Santiam is perpetuated in Santiam River, a branch of the Willamette. Shasta. The Shasta extended at least into the territory watered by Jenny Creek from their main seats in California (q. v.). Siletz. Significance unknown. Also called: Tsa Shnadsh amim, Luckiamute Knlapuya name. Connection The Siletz belonged to the Salishan linguistic stock. Loction.- On Siletz River. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the population of all of the Salishan tribes of Oregon as 1,500 in 1780. They are not now scparately recorded, but in the census of 1930, 72 Salishan Indians were returned from Oregon besides the Tillamook. Connections in which they have become noted.- The Siletz are of note as having been the southernmost of the Salishan linguistic family. Siletz River and a post village, both in Lincoln County, Oreg., preserve the name. Siuslaw. Significance unknown. Also called: K'cu-qwic'tunne, Naltunne name. K'qlo-qwec tunne, Chastacosta name. Tsana-uta amim, Luckiamute Kalapuya name. Connections.- The Siuslaw belonged to the Siuslawan division of the Yakonan linguistic stock. Location.- On and near Siuslaw River. Villages Dorsey (1884) gives the following: Chimuksaich. Khalakw. Hauwiyat. Kumiyus. Hilakwitiyus. Kumkwu. Khachtais. Kupimithlta. Khaikuchum. Kuskussu. Khaiyumitu. Kwsichichu (south of Eugene City). Khakhaich. Kwulhauunnich. Kwultsaiya. Stthukhwich. Kwunnumis. Thlachaus. Kwuskwemus. Thlekuaus. Matsnikth. Tiekwachi. Mithlausmintthai. Tsahais. Paauwis. Tsatnuwis. Pia. Tsiekhaweyathl. Pilumas. Waitus. Pithlkwutsiaus. Wetsiaus. Skhutch. Yukhwustitu. Population.- (See Alsea.) The census of 1910 reported 7 Siuslaw. Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Siuslaw is preserved by Siuslaw River, in Lane County, Oreg. Skilloot. The Skilloot occupied part of Oregon opposite the mouth of Cowlitz River. (See Washington.) Snake. (See Northern Paiute under Nevada.) Takelma. Own name, meaning "those dwelling along the river." Kyu'-kutc hitclum, Alsea name meaning "people far down the stream (or country)." Lowland Takelma, of Berreman (1937). Na-tcte tunne, Naltunne name. Rogue River Indians, from their habitat. Connections.- Together with the Latgawa (q. v.), the Takelma constituted the Takilman linguistic stock. It is possible that this is distantly connected with the Shastan stock of northern California. Location.- On the middle course of Rogue River from above Illinois River to about Grant's Pass and on the northern tributaries of Rogue River between these limits and the upper course of Cow Creek; also south nearly to the California boundary. Villages The following names were recorded by J. O. Dorsey mainly in one of the Athapascan dialects of the region: Hashkushtun, on the south side of Rogue River. Hudedut, at the forks of Rogue River and Applegate River. Kashtata, on the south side of Rogue River above Leaf Creek and Galice Creek. Kthotaime, on the south side of Rogue River. Nakila, on the south side of Rogue River about 10 miles above Yaasitun. Salwahka, near the mouth of Illinois River or one of its tributaries. Seethltun, on the south side of Rogue River, the village nearest the Chastacosta. Sestikustun, on the south side of Rogue River. Sewaathlchutun, ibid. Shkashtun, ibid. Skanowethltunne, ibid. Talmamiche, ibid. Talotunne, ibid. Tthowache, on the south side of Rogue River near "Deep Rock". Yaasitun, on the south side of Rogue River. Yushlali, ibid. The following names, probably covering in part the same towns, were recorded by Dr. Edward Sapir in 1906, and are enumerated from the Latgawa country downstream: Hatil, east of Table Rock. Gelyalk, below Table Rock. Dilomi, near the falls of Rogue River. Gwenpunk. Hayaal balsda. Daktgamik. Didalam, on the present site of Grant's Pass, the county seat of Josephine County. Daktsasin or Daldanik, on Rogue River near Jump Off Joe Creek. Hagwal, on Cow Creek. Somouluk. Hatonk. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the entire Takilman stock at 500 in 1780. Only 1 was returned under that name by the census of 1910, but under the general head of "Rogue River" the Indian Office Report for 1937 gives two bodies of Indians numbering 68 and 46 individuals, respectively. Connection in which they have become noted.- Together with the Latgawa, the Takelma are remarkable for the peculiarity of their language, accentuated by the fact that they are almost entirely surrounded by Athapascan peoples. A post village called Takilma in Josephine County, Oreg., perpetuates the name. Taltushtuntude. Own name, meaning unknown. Also called: Galice Creek Indians, from their habitat. Ku-lis'-kitc hitc'lum, Alsea name. Connections.- The Taltushtuntude belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock, and spoke the same dialect as the Dakubetede but culturally had become assimilated with the Takelma. Location.- On Galice Creek. Population.- In 1856, 18 Taltushtuntude were reported living on the Siletz Reservation. Under the name "Galice Creek" 42 Indians were reported in 1937. Temno. Significance unknown. Also called: Meli'-lema, own name. Warm Springs Indians, the common official designation. Connections.- The Tenino constituted a division of the Shahaptian branch of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock. Subdivisions and Villages Kowasayee, on the north bank of Columbia River nearly opposite the mouth of the Umatilla. Ochechote or Uchichol, on the north bank of Columbia River, the exact region being uncertain though they derive their name from a rock near the mouth of the Deschutes River. Skinpah, on the north bank of Columbia River above the mouth of the Deschutes. Tapanash, on the north bank of Columbia River, near the mouth of the Deschutes and a little above Celilo, the name being later extended over most of the above bands. Tilkuni, between White and Warm Springs Reservations. Tukspush, on John Day River, and hence called often John Day Indians. Wahopum, on the north bank of Columbia River near the mouth of Olive Creek. Waiam, near the mouth of the Deschutes River. History.- The Tenino were mentioned by Lewis and Clark in 1805. By the treaty of 1855 they gave up their lands and settled, along with other Shahaptian tribes and some Salishan tribes, on Yakima Reservations Washington. Since then they have not had separate official recognition. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 there were 3,600 including the Atanum of the Yakima and the Tyigh. The United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 460 in 1937 of the Yakima and associated bands. Connection in which they have become noted.- A town in Thurston County, Wash., perpetuates the name. Tillamook. A Chinook term meaning "people of Nekelim (or Nehalem). Also spelled Calamox, Gillamooks, Killmook, etc. Higgahaldahu, Nestucca name. Kyaukw, Alsea name. Nsietshawas, so called by Hale (1846). Si ni'-te-li, Mishikwutmetunne name for this tribe and the Alsea, meaning "flatheads." Connections.- The Tillamook were the principal trihe in Oregon belonging to the Salishan linguistic family, coastal division. Location.- The coast from the Nehalem to Salmon River. Subdivisions and Villages Nehalem, on Nehalem River. Nestucca, on Nestucca Bay and the streams flowing into it. Salmon River, on the river of that name. Tillamook, on Tillamook Bay and the streams flowing into it, including the following villages enumerated by Lewis and Clark: Chishucks (at the mouth of Tillamook River), Chucktin (the southernmost Tillamook village, on a creek emptying into Tillamook Bay), Kilherhursh (at the entrance of Tillamook Bay), Kilherner (on Tiilamook Bay, at the mouth of a creek 2 miles from Kilherhursh), Towerquotten (on a creek emptying into Tillamook Bay). Population.- See Siletz. Lewis and Clark estimated 2,200 Tillamook in 1805. In the reports of thc Wilkes Exploring Expedition (1845) their number is given as 400, and by Lane in 1849 as 200. The census of 1910 returned 26, and that of 1930, 12. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Tillamook seem to have been the most powerful tribe on the coast of Oregon. A bay, and also a county and its capital in the former country of the tribe preserve the name; also a cape, Tillamook Head. Tututni. Meaning unknown. Also called: H'lilush, Nestucca name. Lower Rogue River Indians, or Rogue River Indians, from their habitat. Talemaya, Umpqua name. Ta-qu'-quc-ce, Chetco name, meaning "northern Janguage." Connection.- The Tututni belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock, and were related closely with the Mishikhwutmetunne. Location.- On lower Rogue River and the Pacific coast north and south of its mouth. Villages J. O. Dorsey (1884) gave the following villages or bands: On the north coast of Rogue River: Chemetunne, popularly called Joshuas, just north of Rogue River. Kaltsergheatunne, at Port Orford. Kosotshe, between Port Orford and Sixes Creek, perhaps earlier on Flores Creek. Kwatami, on or near Sixes River. Kthukwuttunne. Kthutetmeseetuttun, just north of Rogue River. Kwusathlkhuntunne, said to have been at the mouth of Mussel Creek, 5 miles south of Mount Humbug. Natutshltunne, between Coquille River and Flores Creek. Niletunne, the first village south of the Miluk village of Nasumi, south of Coquille River. Yukichetunne, on Euchre Creek. On Rogue River: Chetlesiyetunne, on the north side. Enitunne, near the mouth of a southern affluent of Rogue River. Etaatthetunne. Kunechuta. Kushetunne, on the north side. Mikonotunne, on the north side 14 miles from its mouth. Nakatkhaitunne, on the north side of Rogue River. Targheliichetunne, on the north side. Targhutthotunne, near the coast. Testthitun, on the north side. Thechuntunne, on the north side. Thethlkhttunne, or Chastacosta, on the north side. On or near the coast south of Rogue River: Aanetun. Chetlcschantunne, on Pistol River and the headlands from the coast 6 miles south of Rogue River. Khainanaitetunne. Kheerghia, about 25 miles south of Pistol River. Khwaishtunnetunne, near the mouth of a small stream locally calied Wishtenatin, after the name of the settlement, that enters the Pacific about 10 miles south of Pistol River, at a place later known as Hustenate. Natthutunne, on the south side of Rogue River. Nuchumatuntunne, on the north side of Rogue River near the mouth. Sentethltun, on the south side of Rogue River and perhaps at its mouth. Skumeme, on the south side of Rogue River near its mouth. Tsetintunne, the highest of 4 villages on a stream emptying into Rogue River near its mouth. Tsetuttunne. Drucker (1937) gives the following village names: On Rogue River: Gwi'sat huntun, on Mussel Creek near Sixes River and sometimes separated as the Sixes tribe. Kusu'me, on what is now called Flores Creek. Kwataime, a short distance north of last. Kwuse'tun, near and possibly a suburb of Megwino'tun, on the coast. Megwino'tun, a few miles up river. Skame'me, between Pistoi River and mouth of Rogue River; Waterman places it at Hunter's Creek. Sukwe'me or Sukwe'tee, at mouth of Sixes River. Tagrili'tun, a suburb of Tu'tutun. Tee'metun or Tee'me, really two towns, one on each side of the river's mouth. Tee'tlersh teuntun, on Pistol River, perhaps belonging to the Chetco. Tu'tutun, 5 to 6 miles from the river's mouth, divided into two parts called Tatre'tun, "downriver," and Na'gutretun "upriver." Yukwi'tce or Yu'gwitce, on what is now called Euchre Creek. Berreman (1937) makes seven major divisions as follows: Kwatami or Sixes River; Euchre Creek (Yukichetunne); Mikono tunne; Pistol River (Chetleschantunne); Joshua; Tututunne (Tututni); Kwaishtunne or Khustenete. Population.- (See Chastacosta.) In 1854 the Tututni population was 1,311. The census of 1910 returned 383, but in 1930 the United States Indian Office gave only 41 under this name, 55 under that of "Meguenodon" (see above), and 45 under that of "Joshua" (Tce'metun). Tyigh. Significance unknown. Also spelled Attayes, Iyich, Ta-ih, Thy, Tyh, etc. Teaxtkni, or Telknikni, Klamath name. Tse Aminema, Luckiamute Kalapuya name. Connections.- The Tyigh belonged to the Tenino branch of the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock. Location.- The country about Tygh and White Rivers. Subdivisions and Villages No names are recorded. History.- The history of the Tyigh was identical with that of the Tenino (q. v.). Population.- With the other Oregon tribes of the Tenino group, the Tyigh numbered 1,400 in 1780 according to Mooney's (1928) estimate. In 1854 they were said to number 500 and in 1859, 450; but both of these figures must be overestimates. They are not now enumerated separately from the Warm Spring Indians, placed at 550 by the census of 1910. Connection in which they have become noted.- Tygh Creek and a place called Tygh Valley in Wasco County, Oreg., bears the name of the Tyigh. Umatilla. Significance unknown. Connections.- The Umatilla belonged to the Shahaptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock. Location.- On Umatilla River and the banks of Columbia River adjacent to the mouth of the Umatilla. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates this tribe and the Wallawalla together at 1,500 in 1780. The census of 1910 returned 272, the United States Indian Office Report for 1923, 145, and the Indian Office Report for 1937, 124. Connections in which they have become noted.- An Indian reservation has received the name Umatilla, and it has also been applied to a river, a county, and a post village, all in Oregon; also to a place in Lake County, Fla. Umpqua. Significance unknown. Amgutsuish, Shasta name. Cactan'-qwut-me'tunne, Naltunne name. Ci-cta'-qwut-me'tunne, Tututni name, meaning "Umpqua River people." Ci-sta'-qwut, Chastacosta name. Etnemitane, own name (Gatschet, 1877). Tsan Ampkua amim, Luckiamute Kalapuys name, meaning "people on the Umpqua." Upper Umpqua, Berreman (1937). Yanala', Talcelma name. Connections.- The Umpqua belonged to the Athapascan linguistic stock. Location.- On upper Umpqua River, east of the Kuitsh. Subdivisions The Umpqua on Cow Creek are often spoken of separately under the name Nahankhuotana. Parker (1840) mentions a people called Palakahu which was probably an Athapascan or Yakonan tribe but cannot now be identified, and also the Skoton and Chasta, probably parts of the Chastacosta or Tututni. This is all the more likely as he includes the Kratami band of the Tututni and the entirely independent Chilula of California. Their chief village was Hewut. Population.- (See Dakubetede.) Hale (1846) says that in his time the Umpqua were supposed to number not more than 400. In 1902 there were 84 on Chande Ronde Reservation. The census of 1910 returned 109. In 1937, 43 Indians are given under this name. (See Chastacosta and Dakubetede.) Connection in which they have become noted.- Umpqua River, and the settlement of Umpqua or Umpqua Ferry in Douglas County, preserve the name. Wallawalla. The Wallawalla extended somewhat into northeastern Oregon. (See Washington.) Walpapi. Significance unknown. Commonly called Snakes. A part of the Northern Paiute. (See under Nevada.) Wasco. From a native word wacquo, "cup or small bowl of horn," the reference being to a cup-shaped rock a short distance from the main village of the tribe; from this the tribal name Galasq'o, "those that have the cup," is derived and variations of it frequently appear in the literature. Also called: Afulakin, by the Kalapuya. Ampxankni, meaning "where the water is," by the Klamath. Awasko ammim, by the Kalapuya. Saxlatks, by the Molala. Connections.- They belonged to the upstream branch of the Chinookan linguistic stock, their closest relatives being the Wishram on the opposite side of the river. Location.- In the neighborhood of The Dalles, in the present Wasco County. Villages and Fishing Stations The following are given by Sapir (1930) in order from east to west: Hlgahacha, Igiskhis, Wasco (a few miles above the present town of Thc Dalles), Wogupan, Natlalalaik, Gawobumat, Hliekala-imadiik, Wikatk, Watsokus Winkwot (at The Dalles), Hlilwaihldik, Hliapkenum, Kabala, Gayahisitik, Itkurnahlemkt, Hlgaktahlk, Tgaliu, Hliluktik, Gahlentlich, Gechgechak, Skhlalis. Population.- Morse (1822) estimated the number of Wasco at 900. The census of 1910 returned 242, and the United States Office of Indian Affairs, 227 in 1937. (See Clackamas and Watlala.) Connections in which they have become noted.- The Wasco were the strongest Upper Chinook tribe and that which ultimately absorbed the rest. The name is presented by Wasco County, Oreg., and a town in Sherman County in the same State; also places in Kern County, Calif., and Kane County, Ill. Watlala. Significance of word is unknown. Also called: Cascade Indians, the popular English name. Gila'xicatck, by the Chinook. Katlagakya, own name. Shahala, from Chinook saxala, meaning "above," by Chinook. Connections.- The Watlala belonged to the Chinookan linguistic stock and the Clackamas dialectic group. Location.- At the Cascades of Columbia River and extending down to the mouth of the Willamette River. Subdivisions The following names have been applied by various writers to the Indians in this neighborhood and may be subdivisions of this tribe, or perhaps refer to the entire tribe itself: Cathlakaheckit, at the Cascades. Cathlathlala, just below the Cascades. Clahclellah, near the foot of the Cascades. Neerchokioon, on the south side of Columbia River a few miles above Sauvies, Island. Washougal, near Quicksand River. Yehuh, just above the Cascades. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that the Watlala and the Wasco together numbered 3,200 in 1780. In 1805-6 Lewis and Clark estimated that there were 2,800. In 1812 the two first-mentioned bands were estimated to number 1,400. They are no longer enumerated separately and are probably incorporated at the present time with the Wishram and the Wasco. Yahuskin. One of the two chief peoples in Oregon belonging to the Northern Paiute division of the Shoshonean and therefore Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock. (See Nevada.) Yamel. Significance unknown, often spelled Yam Hill. Also ealled: Ycha-yamel-amim, by the Atfalati Kalapuya. Connections.- The Yamel belonged, along with the Atfalati, to the northern dialectic division of the Kalapooian linguistic stock. Location.- Yamhill River. Subdivisions Gatschet (1877) records these as follows: Andshankualth, on a western tributary of the Willamette. Andshimmampak, on Yamhill River. Chamifu, in the forks of Yamhill River. Chamiwi, on Yamhill River. Chnmpikle, on Dallas (La Creole) Creek. Chinchal, on Dallas Creek. Popultion.- (See Calapooya.) The census of 1910 returned 5 Yamel. Connection in which they have become noted.- The name of the Yamel, in the form Yamhill, is perpetuated by an affluent of the Willamette and by the county through which it flows. Yaquina. Significance unknown. Sa-akl, Nestucca name. Sls'-qun-me'tunne, Chetco nnme. Tcha yakon amim, Luckinmute Kalapuya name. Connections.- The Yaquina were one of the tribes of the Yakonan linguistic stock to which they gave their name. Location.- About Yaquina River and Bay. Villages The following list is from J. O. Dorsey (1884): On the north side of Yaquinn River: Holukhik. MittsuLstik. Hunkkhwitik. Shash. Iwai. Thlalkhaiuntik. Khaishuk. Thlekakhnik. Khilukh. Tkhakiyu. Kunnupiyu. Tshkitshiauk. Kwulaishauik. Tthilkitik. Kyaukuhu. Ukhwaiksh. Kyuwatkal. Yahal. Mipshuntik. Yikkhaich. On the south side of the river: Atshuk. Kwullakhtauik. Chulithltiyu. Kwutichuntthe. Hakkyaiwal. Mulshintik. Hathletukhish. Naaish. Hitshinsuwit. Paiinkhwutthu. Hiwaitthe. Pikiiltthe. Raku. Pkhulluwaaitthe. Khaiyukkhai. Pkuuniukhtauk. Khitalaitthe. Puuntthiwaun. Kholkh. Shilkhotshi. Khulhanshtauk. Shupauk. Kilauutuksh. Thlekwiyauik. Kumsukwum. Thlelkhus. Kutshuwitthe. Thlinaitshtik. Kwaitshi. Thlukwiutshthu Kwilaishauk. Tkulmashaauk. Kwulchichicheshk. Tuhaushuwitthe. Kwullaish. Tulshk. Population.- (See Alsea.) The census of 1910 returned 19 Yaquina. Connecton in which they have become noted.- The name of this tribe Yaquina, was given some scientific prominence by its use, in the form Yakonan, for a small linguistic stock in the Powellian classification. It is preserved in Yaquina River, Yaquina Bay and a town called Yaquina in Lincoln County. Yoocalla. From Ayankeld, or Tch'Ayanke'ld, "those living at Ayankeld," own name. Connections.- The Yoncalla were the southernmost tribe of the Kalapooian linguistic stock, forming one of the three dialectic divisions. Location.- On Elk and Calapooya Creeks, tributaries of Umpqua River. Subdivisions According to Gatschet (1887), there were two bands, called Chayankeld and Tsantokayu by the Luckiamute, but it seems likely that the former name (Tch'Ayanke'ld) is merely the native tribal name. Population.- (See Calapooya.) The census of 1910 returned 11 Yoncalla. Connection in which they have become noted.- Yoncalla, a post village of Douglas County, Oreg., preserves the name.
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Delaware. In early times this tribe occupied the eastern parts of Pennsylvania along Delaware River; later they were, for a time, on the Susquehanna and the headwaters of the Ohio. (See New Jersey.) Erie. The Erie extended over the extreme northwestern corner of the State. (See Ohio.) Honniasont. An Iroquois term meaning "Wearing something round the neck." Also called: Black Minqua, the word "black" said to refer to "a black badge on their breast," while "Minqua" indicated their relationship to the White Minqua, or Susquehann (q. v.). Connections.- The Honniasont belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic family. Location.- On the upper Ohio and its branches in western Pennsylvania and the neighboring parts of West Virginia and Ohio. (See also Ohio.) History.- The Honniasont appear first as a tribe which assisted the Susqueharma in war and traded with the Dutch, but a little later they are reported to have been destroyed by the Susquehanna and Seneca. The, remnant seems to have settled among the Seneca, and a Minqua town, probably occupied by their descendants, is mentioned from time to time among the latter and in the neighborhood of their former country. Population.- This is unknown, but as late as 1662 the Honniasont must have been fairly numerous if the testimony of five Susquehanna chiefs taken in that year is to be relied upon, which was to the effect that they were then expecting 800 Honniasont warriors to join them. Iroquois. In very early times these Indians entered Pennsylvania only as hunters and warriors, but at a later period they made numerous settlements in the State. (See New York.) Saluda. A band of "Saluda" Indians from South Carolina moved to Conestoga in the eighteenth century. They may have been Shawnee. (See South Carolina.) Saponi. The majority of the Saponi lived at Shamokin for a few years some time after 1740 but then continued on to join the Iroquois. (See Virginia.) Shawnee. Bands of Shawnee were temporarily located at Conestoga, Sewickley, and other points in Pennsylvania. (See Tennessee.) Susquehanna. A shortened form of Susquehannock, meaning unknown. Akhrakouaehronon, given in Jesuit Relations, from a town name. See Atra'kwae ronnons' below. Andaste or Conestoga, from Kanastoge, "at the place of the immersed pole." Atra'kwae'ronnons, from the name of a town, and probably signifying "at the place of the sun," or "at the south." Minqua, from an Algonquian word meaning "stealthy," "treacherous." White Minqua, to distinguish them from the Black Minqua. (See Honniasont above.) Connections.- The Susquehanna belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic stock. Location.- On the Susquehanna River in New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland. Subdivisions Originally Susquehanna may have been the name of a confederacy of tribes rather than a single tribe. Hewitt (in Hodge, 1910) suggests that the Wyoming (in the territory about the present Wyoming) may have been such a subtribe. The barely mentioned Wysox, on a small creek flowing into the Susquehanna at the present Wysox, was perhaps another. Mention is made of the Turtle, Fox, and Wolf "families," evidently clans, and of the Ohongeeoquena, Unquehiett, Kaiquariegahsga, Usququhaga, and Seconondihago "nations," also perhaps clans. Villages Smith (1884) mentions several, but Hewitt (in Hodge, 1910) is of the opinion that the names really belong to independent tribes. Champlain says that there were more than 20 villages, though the only one named is Carantouan, thought to have been on the site of the present Waverly, N. Y. History.- When encountered by the English, French, and Dutch early in the seventeenth century, the Susquehanna were a numerous people, but even then they were at war with the Iroquois by whom they were conquered in 1676 and forced to settle near the Oneida in New York. Later they were allowed to return to the Susquehanna River and reoccupy their ancient country, but they wasted away steadily and in 1763 the remnant, consisting of 20 persons, was massacred by Whites inflamed with accounts of Indian atrocities on the far frontier. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that the Susquehanna numbered 5,000 in 1600. In 1648 they are said to have had 550 warriors. Connection in which they have become noted.-The name Susquehanna is perpetuated in that of the Susquehanna River and in the names of a county and a town. Conestoga is the designation of two places in Lancaster County, Pa., and one in Ghester County, and was given to a widely used type of wagon. Tuscsrora. These Indians on their way to join the Iroquois bands of New York stopped from time to time in the Susquehanna Valley. (See North Carolina.) Tutelo. Most of these Indians lived at Shamokin with the Saponi and accompanied them to the Iroquois Nation. (See Virginia.) Wenrohronon. This tribe occupied some parts of the State along the northwestern border. (See New York.)
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Narraganset. Their name means "people of the small point." Connections.- The Narraganset belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family and spoke an n-dialect like the neighboring Massachuset, Wampanoag, and probably the Niantic (East and West) and the Nauset. Location.- The Narraganset occupied the greater part of Rhode Island west of Narragansett Bay, between Providence and Pawcatuck Rivers. At one time they dominated the Coweset (see Nipmuc) north of them and the Eastern Niantic, and they drove the Wampsnoag from the island which gives its name to the State of Rhode Island and the Pequot from some territory they held in the west. (See also Massachusetts and Connecticut.) Subdivisions There are said to have been eight chiefs over as many territorial divisions, all under one head chief. Villages Chaubatick, probably within a few miles of Providence. Maushapogue, in Providence County. Mittaubscut, on Pawtuxet River, 7 or 8 miles above its mouth. Narraganset, above the site of Kingston. Pawchauquet, in western Rhode Island. Shanomet, near Warwick. History.- The Narraganset traced their origin to the Southwest. They escaped the great pestilence of 1617 and were in fact increased in numbers by bands of refugees. In 1633 the Narraganset lost 700 in n smallpox epidemic. In 1636 Roger Williams settled among them and through their favor was enabled to lay the foundations of the present State of Rhode Island. They remained on good terms with the Whites until King Philip's war (1675-76), into which they threw their whole strength. In the celebrated swamp fight at Kingston they lost nearly 1,000 killed and captured, and the remnants of the tribe were soon forced to abandon the country. Some probably joined the Mahican and Abnaki or even got as far as Canada and never returned to their own people, but others obtained permission to come back and were settled among the Eastern Niantic who had taken no part in the contest. From that time on the combined tribes were known as Narraganset. In 1788 many of these united with the Brotherhood Indians in New York, and a few have gone to live with the Mohegan in Connecticut. The remainder are near Charlestown, R.I. Population.- The Narraganset are estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 4,000 in 1600, including the Eastern Niantic, and were perhaps as numerous in 1675. Along with the Eastern Niantic, they had a total population of about 140 in 1812, and 80 in 1832, while the census of 1910 returned 16. The same year, however, 284 Indians all told were returned from Rhode Island, and in 1930, 130. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Narraganset were famed as the most powerful tribe of southern New England and became noted also on account of Roger Williams' dealings with them and his report regarding them. Narragansett Bay, the Town of Narragansett in Washington County, and Narragansett Pier, the well-known summer resort, were named after them. Niantic, Eastern. The word Niantic signifies, according to Trumbull (1818) "at a point of land on a (tidal) river or estuary." Connections.- The Eastern and the Western Niantic were parts of one original tribe split in two perhaps by the Pequot; the nearest relatives of both were probably the Narraganset. Location.- The western coast of Rhode Island and neighboring coast of Connecticut. Village Wekapaug, on the great pond near Charlestown. History.- As has just been stated, the Eastern Niantic were closely connected with the Narraganset, but they refused to join them in King Philip's war and at its close the remnants of the Narraganset were settled among them. Their subsequent history has been given under Narraganset. Population.- (See Narraganset.) Connection in which they have become noted.- Niantic, in the town of Westerly, Washington County, R. I., perpetuates the name. (See Niantic, Western, under Connecticut.) Nipmuc. The Coweset and some other bands of Nipmuc extended into the northwestern part of the State but most of these were under the domination of the Narraganset. (See Massachusetts.) Pequot. The Pequot originally occupied some lands in the western part of Rhode Island of which the Narraganset dispossessed them. (See Connecticut.) Wampanoag. The Wampanoag occupied the mainland sections of Rhode Island east of Narragansett Bay and Providence River. At one period they also held the island which gives this State its name but they were driven from it by the Narraganset. (See Massachusetts.)