North Carolina


        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Bear River Indians. A body of Indians mentioned by Lawson and
        associated with Algonquian tribes. They may have been a part of
        the Machapunga (q. v.). Rights (1947) calls them the Bear River
        or Bay River Indians. Lawson (1709) gives the name of their town
        as Raudauqua-quank and estimates the number of their fighting men
        at 50. Mooney (1928) places them with the Pamlico in his estimate
        as of the year 1600 and gives the two a population of 1,000. (See
        also California for another tribe of the same name.)

        Cape Fear Indians. Named from Cape Fear, their native designation
        being unknown or indeed whether they were an independent tribe or
        a part of some other.

        Connections.- No words of the language of the Cape Fear Indians
        have been preserved, but early references clearly associate them
        with the eastern Siouan tribes, and they may have been a part of
        the Waccamaw, since Waccamaw River heads close to Cape Fear. They
        would then have been connected with the Siouan linguistic family
        and probably with the southern Atlantic division of which Catawba
        is the typical member.

        Location.- On Cape Fear River, as above stated. (See also South
        Carolina.)

                                 Villages

        The only village mentioned by name is Necoes, about 20 miles from
        the mouth of Cape Fear River, probably in Brunswick County. In
        1715 five villages were reported.

        History.- While the Cape Fear Indians were probably met hy
        several of the early voyagers, our first specific notice of them
        comes from the narratives of a New England colony planted on Cape
        Fear River in 1661. These settlers seized some of the Indian
        children and sent them away under pretense of instructing them in
        the ways of civilization and were themselves in consequence
        driven off. In 1663 a colony from Barbados settled here but soon
        left. In 1665 a third colony established itself at the mouth of
        Oldtown Creek in Brunswick County, on the south side of the
        river, on land bought from the Indians, but, though the latter
        were friendly, like the others this attempt at settlement was
        soon abandoned. They were visited by Capt. William Hilton in
        1663. In 1695 they asked to be taken under the protection of
        Governor Archdale. The protection was granted and shortly
        afterward they rescued 52 passengers from a wrecked New England
        vessel who formed the nucleus of Christ Church Parish north of
        Cooper River. A few Cape Fear Indians accompanied Barnwell on his
        Tuscarora expedition in 1711-12. They were active in his behalf
        as scouts and also guarded the region around Port Royal. After
        the Yamasee War they were removed to South Carolina and settled
        inland from Charleston, probably in Williamsburg County (Milling,
        1940). In the latter part of the eighteenth century, a remnant of
        this tribe and the Pedee lived in the Parishes of St. Stephens
        and St. Johns under a chief called King John. By 1808 only a
        half-breed woman remained of these two tribes, though others may
        have removed to the
        Catawba.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates a population of 1,000 Cape
        Fear Indians in 1600. The census of 1715, above mentioned, gives
        206. In 1808 White neighbors remembered when as many as 30 Pedee
        and Cape Fear Indians lived in their old territories.

        Catawba. This tribe occupied parts of southwestern North Carolina
        near Catawba River. (See South Carolina.)

        Ckeraw. Significance unknown. Also called:

                Ani'-Suwa'li, Cherokee name
                Saraw, Suali, synonyms even more common than Cheraw.
                Xuala, Xualla, Spanish and Portuguese forms of the word,
        the x being intended for sh.

        Connections.- The Cheraw are classed on circumstantial grounds in
        the Siouan linguistic family though no words of their tongue have
        been preserved.

        Location.- The earliest known location of the Cheraw appears to
        have been near the head of Saluda River in Pickons and Oconee
        Counties, S. C., whence they removed at an early date to the
        present Henderson, Polk, and Rutherford Counties.

                               Villages

        The names given are always those of the tribe, though we have a
        "Lower Saura Town" and an "Upper Saura Town" on a map dating from
        1760.

        History.- Mooney (1928) has shown that the Cheraw are identical
        with the Xuala province which De Soto entered in 1540, remaining
        about 4 days. They were visited by Pardo at a later date, and
        almost a hundred years afterward Lederer (1912) heard of them in
        the same region. Before 1700 they left their old country and
        moved to the Dan River near the southern line of Virginia, where
        they seem to have had no distinct settlements about 30 miles
        apart. About the year 1710, on account of constant Iroquois
        attacks, they moved southeast and joined the Keyauwee. The
        colonists of North Carolina, being dissatisfied at the proximity
        of these and other tribes, Governor Eden declared war against the
        Cheraw, and applied to Virginia for assistance. This Governor
        Spotswood refused, as he believed the Carolinians were the
        aggressors, but the contest was prosecuted by the latter until
        after the Yamasee War. During this period complaint was made that
        the Cheraw were responsible for most of the deprodations
        committed north of Santee River and they were accused of trying
        to draw the coast tribes into an alliance with them. It was
        asserted also that arms were being supplied them from Virginia.
        The Cheraw were then living upon the upper course of the Great
        Pee Dee, near the line between the two colonies and in the later
        Cheraw district of South Carolina. Being still subject to attack
        by the Iroquois, they finally- between 1726 and 1739- became
        incorporated with the Catawba, with whom at an earlier date they
        had been at enmity. In 1759 a party joined the English in their
        expedition against Fort Duquesne, but the last notice of them is
        in 1768 when the remnant was still living with the Catawba.

        Population.- During the Spanish period the Cheraw appear to have
        been of considerable importance but no estimate of their numbers
        has come down to us. Mooney (1928) gives 1,200 as a probable
        figure for the year 1600. The census of 1715 gives 140 men and a
        total of 510, probably including the Keyauwee and perhaps some
        other tribes. In 1768 the survivors numbered 50 to 60.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Cheran are
        famous as one of the few tribes in the Carolinas mentioned by De
        Soto's chroniclers which can be identified and located with fair
        precision. They were noted later for their persistent hostility
        to the English and have left their name in Suwali Gap in the Blue
        Ridge Mountains, N. C.; in Saura Town Mountains, Stokes County,
        N. C.; in the town of Cheraw, Chesterfield County, S. C.; and
        possibly in the Uwaharrie River and Uwaharrie Mountains of North
        Carolina. There is a locality named Cheraw in Otero County, Colo.

        Cherokee. The Cherokee lived in the mountainous parts of the
        State in the west. (See Tennessee.)

        Chowanoc. Meaning in Algonquian "(people) at the south."

        Connections.- The Chowanoc belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        family and were evidently most nearly allied to the other North
        Carolina Algonquians.

        Location.- On Chowan River about the junction of Meherrin and
        Blackwater Rivers.

                              Villages

        Maraton, on the east bank of Chowan River in Chowan County.

        Ohnnoak, on the west side of Chowan River not far below Nottoway
        River probably in Hertford County.

        Catoking, (probably) near Gateville, in Gates County.

        Metocaum, on Chowan River in the present Bertie County.

        Ramushonok, apparently between the Mehemn and Nottoway Rivers in
        Hertford County.

        History.- In 1584-85, when first known to Europeans, the Chowanoc
        were the leading tribe in northeastern North Carolina. In 1663
        they entered into a treaty with the English by which they
        submitted to the English Crown, but they violated this in 1675
        and after a year of warfare were compelled to confine themselves
        to a reservation on Bennett's Creek which became reduced by 1707
        from 12 square miles to 6. They sided with the colonists in the
        Tuscarora War, and at about the same time were visited by a
        Church of England missionary, Giles Rainsford. In 1723 a
        reservation of 53,000 acres was set aside for them conjointly
        with the Tuscarora and in 1733 they were given permission to
        incorporate with that tribe. They continued to decline in numbers
        until in 1755 Governor Dobbs stated that only 2 men and 3 women
        were left.

        Population.- In 1584-85 one of the Chowanoc towns, Ohanoak, was
        said to contain 700 warriors, and Mooney (1928) estimates their
        numbers at about 1,500 in 1,600. In 1707 they were reduced to one
        town with about 15 fighting men, but at the end of the Tuscarora
        War their numbers were placed at 240. In 1731 less than 20
        families were reported and by 1755 only 5 individuals, as above
        noted.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Chowanoc seem to
        have been the most powerful Algonquian tribe south of the
        Powhatan. Their memory is preserved in the names of Chowan River
        and Chowan County, and in the designation of a small post office
        in the county of the name, all in North Carolina.

        Coree, or Coranine. Meaning unknown.

        Connections.- As the final stage of the Coree existence was
        passed with an Algonquian tribe, some have thought that the
        affiliations of this people were also Algonquian. On the other
        hand Lawson (1960) notes that their language and that of a tribe
        to the north were mutually intelligible and there is reason for
        thinking that this northern tribe belonged to the Iroquois
        Confederacy. At least the Coree were closely associated in many
        ways with the Iroquoian Tuscarora.

        Location.- On the peninsula south of Neuse River in Carteret and
        Craven Counties.

                               Villages

        Coranine, probably on the coast in Carteret County.

        Narhantes, among the Tuscarora, 30 miles from Newbern.

        Raruta, probably on the coast of Carteret County, south of Neuse
        River.

        History. - When the Coree and the Whites first met is unknown, but
        they appear in the records of the Raleigh colony under the name
        Cwarennoc. They were greatly reduced before 1696 in a war with
        another people. They took part with the Tuscarora in their war
        against the colonists, and in 1715 the remnant of them and what
        was left of the Machapunga were assigned a reservation on
        Mattamuskeet Lake in Hyde County, where they occupied one
        village, probably until they became extinct. A few of them appear
        to have remained with the Tuscarora.

        Population.- The population of this tribe and the Neusiok was
        estimated by Mooney (1928) at 1,000 in 1600. In 1707 Lawson says
        they had 25 fighting men and were living in 2 villages No later
        enumeration is known.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Although some
        distance from the Coree country, Core Greek Stalion in Craven
        County, N. C., may perpetuate the name of the Coree.

        Eno. Significance unknown, but Speck suggests i'nare, "to
        dislike," whence, "mean," "contemptible"; yeni'nare, "People
        disliked,"

        Haynokes, synonym from Yardley (1654).

        Connections.- The Eno were probably of the Siouan linguistic
        stock, though, on account of certain peculiarities attributed to
        them, Mooney (1895) casts some doubt upon this. Their nearest
        relatives were the Shakori.

        Location.- On Eno River in the present Orange and Durham
        Counties. (See also South Carolina.)

                                  Villages

        The only village name recorded, distinct from that of the tribe,
        is Adshusheer, a town which they shared with the Shakori. It is
        located by Mooney (1928) near the present Hillsboro. Lawson
        (1860) speaks in one place as if it were a the but as there is no
        other mention of it, it is more likely that it was simply the
        name of the town which the Eno and Shakori occupied.

        History.- The Eno are first mentioned by Governor Yeardley of
        Virginia, who was told that they had valiantly resisted the
        northward advance of the Spaniards. From this it appears possible
        that they had formerly lived upon the Enoree River in South
        Carolina, which lay on the main trail from St. Helena to the
        Cheraw country at the foot of the Appalachian Mountains. Lederer
        (1912) mentions them in 1671 and Lawson (1860) in 1701 when they
        and the Shakori were in the town of Adshusheer. About 1714,
        together with the Shakori, Tutelo, Saponi, Occaneechi, and
        Keyauwee, they began to move toward the Virginia settlements. In
        1716 Governor Spotswood of Virginia proposed to settle the Eno,
        Cheraw, and Keyuawee at Eno town "on the very frontiers" of North
        Carolina but the project was defeated by the latter province on
        the ground that all three tribes were then at war with South
        Carolina. From the records it is not clear whether this Eno town
        was the old settlement or a new one nearer the Albemarle
        colonists. Owing to the defeat of this plan, the Eno moved into
        South Carolina. Presumably they finally united with the Catawba,
        among whom, Adair (1930) states, their dialect was still spoken
        in 1743.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the combined Eno, Shakori,
        and Adshusheer at 1,500 in 1,600. In 1714 the Eno, Shnkori,
        Tutelo, Snponi. Occaneechi, and Keyauwee totaled 750. There is no
        other record of their numbers.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- In marked
        distinction from their neighbors, the Eno had taken to A trading
        life. Their name was given to Eno River in Orange and Durham
        Counties, N. C., and perhaps to a place called Enno in the
        southwestern part of Wake County, and to Enoree River in South
        Carolina (see above), as also to a post village near the last
        mentioned.

        Hatteras. Meaning unknown.

        Connections.- The Hatteras belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        family.

        Location.- Among the sandbanks about Cape Hatteras east of
        Pamlico Sound and frequenting Roanoke Island.

                                  Village

        Sandbanks, on Hatteras Island.

        History.- Lawson (1860) thought the Hatteras showed traces of
        White blood and therefore they may have been the Croatan Indians
        with whom Raleigh's colonists are supposed to have taken refuge.
        They disappeared soon after as a distinct tribe and united with
        the mainland Algonquians. In 1761, the Rev. Alex. Stewart
        baptized 7 Indians and mixed-blood children of the "Attamuskeet,
        Hatteras, and Roanoke" tribes and 2 years later he baptized 21
        more.

        Population.- The Hatteras population has been estimated with the
        Machapunga and other tribes at 1,200 in 1600; they had 16
        warriors in 1701, or a total population of about 80.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The possible
        connection of the Hatteras with the Croatan has been mentioned
        and their name has become perpetuated in the dangerous cape at
        the angle of the outer sand islands of their old country.

        Keyauwee. Meaning unknown.

        Connection.- From the historical affiliations of Keyauwee, they
        are presumed to have been of the Siouan linguistic family.

        Location.- About the points of meeting of the present Guilford
        Davidson, and Randolph Counties. (See also South Carolina.)

                                Villages

        No separately named villages are known.

        History.- The Keyauwee do not appear to have been noted by white
        men before 1701 when Lawson (1860) found them in a palisaded
        village about 30 miles northeast of Yadkin River near the present
        Highpoint, Guilford County. At that time they were preparing to
        join the Saponi and Tutelo for better protection against their
        enemies, and, shortly afterward, together with the last mentioned
        tribes, the Occaneechi, and the Shakori, they moved toward the
        settlements about Albemarle Sound. As mentioned already, Governor
        Spots-wood's project to settle this tribe together with the Eno
        and Cheraw at Enotown on the frontier of North Carolina was
        foiled by the opposition of the latter colony. The Keyauwee then
        moved southward to the Pee Dee along with the Cheraw, and perhaps
        the Eno and Shakori. In the Jefferys atlas of 1761 their town
        appears close to the boundary line between the two Carolinas.
        They do not reappear in any of the historical records but
        probably united ultimately in part with the Catawba, while some
        of their descendants are represented among the Robeson County
        Indians, often miscalled Croatan.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates 500 Keyauwee in 1600. In
        1701 they are said to have numbered approximately as many as the
        Saponi, but the population of that tribe also is unknown. Shortly
        afterward it is stated that the Keyauwee, Tutelo, Saponi,
        Occaneechi, and Shakori totaled 750 souls. This is all the
        information that we have.

        Machapunga. Said to mean "bad dust," or "much dirt," in the
        native Algonquian language.

        Connections.- The Machapunga belonged to the Algonquian
        linguistic stock.

        Loction.- In the present Hyde County and probably also in
        Washington, Tyrrell, and Dare Counties, and part of Beaufort.

                                Villages

        The only village named is Mattamuskeet (probably on Mattamuskeet
        Lake in Hyde County). However, we should probably add Secotan on
        the north bank of Pamlico River in Beaufort County, and perhaps
        the town of the Bear River Indians (q. v.).

        History.- The Machapunga seem to have embraced the larger part of
        the descendants of the Seeotan, who lived between Abemarle and
        Pamlico Sounds when the Raleigh colony was established on Roanoke
        Island (1585-86) though the Pamlico may also have been included
        under the same head. They were reduced to a single village by
        1701, took part with other Indian tribes of the region in the
        Tuscarora War, and at its close were settled on Mattamuskeet Lake
        with the Coree. In 1761 a small number were still living in North
        Carolina, evidently at the same place, and the Rev. Alex. Stewart
        reported that he had baptized seven Indian and mixed-blood
        children belonging to the "Attamuskeet, Hatteras, and Roanoke."
        On a second visit 2 years later he baptized 21 more.

        Population.- The Machapunga are estimated by Mooney (1928) to
        have numbered 1,200, including some smaller tribes, in 1600. In
        1701 Lawson gives 30 warriors, probably less than 100 souls
        (Lawson, 1860). In 1775 there were said to be 8 to 10 on the
        mainland and as many more on the off-shore banks. In 1761 the
        number of warriors was only 7 or 8. The Bear River Indians
        (q. v.) may have combined with these.

        Connection in, which they have become noted.- In the form
        Maehipongo, the name is applied to a post village in Northampton
        County, Va.

        Meherrin. This tribe extended across from Virginia into
        Northampton and Hertford Counties. (See Virginia.)

        Moratok. A place name, but the meaning otherwise unknown.

        Connections.- There is little doubt that the Moratok belonged to
        the Algonquian linguistic stock and were closely related to the
        other Algonquian tribes of the sound region of North Carolina.

        Location.- On Roanoke River and apparently on the north side, and
        estimated to be 160 miles up the river, though the distance is
        evidently reckoned from the Raleigh settlement on Roanoke Island.

                                   Villages

        The village bearing the name of the tribe is the only one known.

        History.- The sole mention of the Moratok is in the narratives of
        the Raleigh expeditions. They were first recognized as an
        independent tribe by Mr. Maurice Mook (1943 a).

        Population.- Unknown but reported as large.

        Natchez. Part of the Natchez Indians sought refuge with the
        Cherokee after their tribe had been broken up by the French, and
        most of them appear to have lived along Hiwassee River. They
        accompanied those Cherokee who moved to Oklahoma and settled on
        the western margin of the Cherokee Reservation, where a few of
        them retained their language long enough to have it recorded.
        (See Mississippi.)

        Neusiok. Probably a place name.

        Connections.- The form of this name suggests that the Neusiok
        were of the Algonquian stock, but they may have been Iroquoian
        like their neighbors the Tuscarora and Coree (?).

        Location. - On lower Neuse River particularly on the south side,
        in Craven and Cartaret Counties.

                                 Villages

        Chattooka, on the site of Newbern, and Rouconk, exact location
        unknown.

        History.- In 1584 Amadas and Barlowe heard of the Neusiok as a
        war with the tribes farther north. The later settlers speak of
        them as Neuse Indians. They dwindled away rapidly after White
        contact and perhaps united finally with the Tuscnrora.

        Population.- With the Coree the Neusiok are estimated by Mooney
        (1928) at 1,000 in the year 1600. In 1709 they numbered but 15
        warriors although occupying two towns.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Neusiok is
        connected with that of the River Neuse in North Carolina, and a
        post village.

        Occaneechi. When the Occaneechi lived on Roanoke River, Va., they
        probably ranged over into Warren, Halifax, and Northampton
        Counties, N. C. In 1701 they were in Orange County, N. C. (See
        Virginia.)

        Pamlico. Meaning unknown.

        Connections.- The Pamlico belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        stock.

        Location.- On Pamlico River.

        History.- The Pamlico are mentioned by the Raleigh colonists in
        1585-86 under the name Pomouik. In 1696 they were almost
        destroyed by smallpox. In 1701 Lawson recorded a vocabulary from
        them which shows their affiliations to have been as given above
        (Lawson, 1860). In 1710 they lived in a single small village.
        They took part in the Tuscarora war, and at its close that part
        of the Tuscarora under treaty with the English agreed to destroy
        them. A remnant of the Pamlico was probably incorporated by the
        Tuscarora as slaves.

        Population.- The Pamlico are estimated by Mooney (1928), together
        with "Bear River" Indians, as 1,000 in 1600. In 1710 they
        numbered about 75.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Pamlico have
        given their name to or shared it with the largest sound in North
        Carolina and a North Carolina county. They are also noteworthy as
        having been almost if not quite the most southerly Algonquian
        tribe on the Atlantic seaboard, and the most southerly one from
        which a vocabulary has been collected.

        Saponi. This tribe lived on Yadkin River and in other parts of
        the State for a certain period. (See Virginia.)

        Shakori. A native name but its significance unknown, though
        perhaps the same as Sugari, "stingy or spoiled people," or "of
        the river-whose-water-cannot-be drunk." Also called:

             Cacores, a misprint.

        Connections.- The Shakori belonged to the Siouan linguistic
        family, their closest connections being evidently with the
        southern division of the Siouan tribes of the East. Barnwell
        (1908) identified them with the Sissipahaw (q. v.).

        Location.- The Shakori moved so frequently and there is so much
        uncertainty regarding their early history, that this is hard to
        give, but, as they usually kept company with the Eno, tenancy of
        the courses of Shocco and Big Shocco Creeks in the present Vance,
        Warren, and Franklin Counties is perhaps the location most
        closely connected with them in historic times. (See South
        Carolina and Virginia.)

        History.- It is possible that tke Shakori gave their name to the
        province of Chicora visited by Ayllon and his companions in 1521.
        If so, we must suppose that they moved north later in the
        sixteenth century or early in the seventeenth, perhaps as a
        result of the Pardo expeditions. In 1650 Edward Blande and his
        associates found the "Nottoway and Schockoores old fields"
        between Meherrin and Nottonay Rivers, but the Indians were not
        there. In 1654 Governor Yeardley of Virginia was told by a
        Tuscarora Indian of an inland people called the "Cacores,"
        probably an attempt to indicate this tribe. In 1672 Lederer found
        them living in a village 14 miles from that of the Eno (Lederer,
        1912), and in 1701 Lawson says these two tribes (the Shakori and
        Eno) were in one village called Adshushecr on Eno River (Lawson,
        1860). The later fortunes of the Shakori were bound up with those
        of the Eno (q. v.).

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the Shakori, Eno, and
        "Adshusheer" at 1,500 in 1600.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The two creeks,
        Shocco and Big Shocco, and a post office 9 miles south of
        Warrenton, Warren County, perpetuate the name of the Shakori. If
        Chicora refers to the same tribe, it appears prominently in
        Spanish narratives of American exploration, particularly because
        of the information regarding Indian customs obtained by Peter
        Martyr from an Indian, Francisco of Chicora.

        Sara, see Cheraw.

        Sissipahaw. Meaning unknown.

        Connections.- The Sissipahaw were probably of the Siouan
        linguistic family though no words of their language are known.

        Location.- The principal Sissipahaw settlement appears to have
        been about the present Saxapahaw on Haw River in thc lower part
        of Alamance County. (See also South Carolina.)

        History.- The name of this tribe is possibly preserved in the
        Sauxpa mentioned by the Spanish officer Vandera in 1569 as a
        place visited by Juan Pardo. Lawson (1860) spoke of them in
        connection with his travels through Carolina in 1701, but he did
        not visit them. Barnwell (1909) identified them with the Shakori
        with whom they were doubtless nearly allied and of whom they may
        have been a branch. They united with other tribes of the region
        against the English in the Yamasee war of 1715, and later with
        other Siouan remnants probably joined the Catawba.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the Sissipahaw at 800 in
        1600. "Haw Old Fields" constituted the largest body of fertile
        land in the region.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The name Sissipahaw
        has been brought down to our times by Haw River and the towns of
        Haw River and Saxapahaw on the same, in Alamance County, N. C.

        Sugeree. This tribe occupied parts of Mecklenburg County. (See
        South Carolina.)

        Tuscarora. From their own name Ska-ru'-ren, signifying according
        to Hewitt (in Hodge, 1910), "hemp gatherers," and applied on
        account of the great use they made of Apocynum cannabinum. Also
        called:

             A-ko-t'as'-ka-ro'-ren', Mohawk name.
             Ani'-Skala'll, Cherokee name.
             A-t'as-ka-lo'-len', Oneida name.
             Tewohomomy (or Keew-ahomomy), Saponi name.

        Connections.- The Tuscarora belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic
        family.

        Location.- On the Roanoke, Tar, Pamlico, and Neuse Rivers. (See
        also Pennsylvania and New York.)

                                 Subdivisions

        The Tusearora should be considered a confederacy with three
        tribes or a tribe with three subtribes as follows:
        Ka'te'nu'a'ka', "People of the submerged pinetree";
        Akawantca'ka', meaning doubtful; and Skaru'ren, "hemp gatheres,"
        i. e., the Tuscarora proper.

                                   Villages

        The following were in North Carolina, A more precise location not
        being possible except in the cases specified:

        Annaooka.

        Chunaneets.

        Cohunche.

        Conauhcare.

        Contahnah, near the mouth of Neuse River.

        Cotechney, on the opposite side of Neuse River from Fort
        Barnwell, about the mouth of Contentnea Creek.

        Coram.

        Corutra.

        Harooka.

        Harutawaqui.

        Kenta.

        Kentanuska.

        Naurheghne.

        Neoheroka, in Greene County.

        Nonawharitse.

        Nursoorooka.

        Oonossoora.

        Tasqui, a day's journey from Cotechney on the way to Nottaway
        village.

        Tonarooka, on a branch of Neuse River between "Fort Narhantes"
        and Cotechney.

        Torhunte, on a northern affluent of Neuse River.

        Tosneoe.

        Ucouhnerunt, on Pamlico River, probably in the vicinity of
        Greenalle, in Pitt County.

        Unanauhan.

        Barnwell, with 33 white men and about 500 Indians, marched
        against the hostiles, by direction of the colony of South
        Carolina, drove them from one of their towns with great loss, and
        invested Hencock's own town, Cotechney. But having suffered
        severely in two assaults upon the place and fearing lest the
        white captives in the hands of the Indians would be killed, he
        made peace and returned home. Dissatisfied with the treatment
        accorded him by the North Carolina authorities, however, he
        violated the treaty during his retreat by seizing some Indians and
        sending them away as slaves. This brought on the second Tuscarora
        War, 1712-13. South Carolina was again appealed to for
        assistance, and Colonel James Moore set out for the north with
        about 900 Indians and 33 white men, a number which was
        considerably swelled before he reached the seat of trouble. March
        20 to 23 he stormed the palisaded town of Neoheroka, inflicting a
        loss upon the enemy of about 950. The Tuscarora became so
        terrified at this that part of them abandoned Fort Cohunche,
        situated at Hencock's town and started north to join their
        relatives, the Iroquois. This was only the beginning of the
        movement, bands of Tuscarora being noted at intervals as moving
        north or as having arrived among the Five Nations. They were
        adopted by the Oneida but, contrary to the general impression,
        were not granted coordinate rights in the League before September
        1722. A part of the Tuscarora under a chief named Tom Blunt (or
        Blount), had, however, remained
        neutral. They received recognition by the government of North
        Carolina, and continued in their former homes under their own
        chiefs. In 1766, 155 removed to New York, and the 105 remaining
        were brought north in 1802 while a deputation of northem
        Tuscarora were in Carolina to obtain payment for the lands they
        had formerly occupied. When the Tuscarora first moved north they
        were settled at various places along the Susquehanna in
        Pennsylvania and in New York, some in the Oneida country itself.
        In 1875, by the treaty of Fort Herkimer, the Oneida sold to the
        State of New York, the lands in which their adopted children, the
        Tuscarora, had settled, and for a time the Tuscarora were
        dispersed in various settlements in New York State, and even in
        Pennsylvania. At the outbreak of the American Revolution, the
        majority of Tuscarora and Oneida espoused the cause of the
        colonists and in consequence they were attacked by Indians in the
        British interest, including even some of their Iroquois brethren,
        their houses were burned, their crops and other property
        destroyed, and they themselves scattered. A large band of them
        settled, however, at a place called Oyonwayea or Johnson's
        Landing, on Lake Ontario. Later a party from this settlement
        discovered a place in the northeastern part of the present
        Tuscarora Reservation which pleased them so much that they
        decided to winter there and they were presently joined by the
        rest of the inhabitants of Oyonwayea. At the treaty held at
        Genesee, September 15, 1797, between Robert Morris and the Seneca
        tribe, Morris reserved to the tribe, by grant, 2 square miles,
        covering their new settlements, and the Seneca there-upon granted
        them an additional square mile. As a result of their appeal to
        the legislature of North Carolina above mentioned, they were able
        to lease lands in the south, and they devoted the proceeds to the
        purchase of 4,329 acres adjoining their New York reserve. The
        Tuscarora who had sided with Great Britain were granted lands
        in severalty on Crand River, Ontario.

        Population.- There were 5,000 Tuscarora in 1600 according to an
        estimate by Mooney (1928). In 1708, Lawson gives 15 towns and
        1,200 warriors (Lawson, 1860). Barnwell in 1712 estimates 1,200
        to 1,400 fighting men (Barnwell, 1908); Chauvignerie in 1736, 250
        warriors, not including those in North Carolina, and on the
        Susquehanna and Juniata Rivers (Chauvignerie, in Schoolcraft,
        1851-57, vol. 3, p. 556). In 1752 the southern Tuscarora were
        said to number 300 men; in 1754 there were said to be 100 men and
        200 women and children and these figures are repeated in 1761. In
        1766 there were said to be 220 to 230 all told in the south; next
        year we read that 155 southern Tuscarora had removed and that 105
        remained. Other estimates place the total Tuscarora population at
        1,000 in 1765, 2,000 in 1778, 1,000 in 1783, and 400 in 1796. In
        1885 there were 828 (evenly divided between New York and Canada).
        In 1909 there were 364 in New York and a year later 416 in
        Canada, a total of 780. In 1910, 400 were reported in the United
        States and in 1923, 376 in New York alone. The number in Canada
        is not separately given.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- This tribe is noted
        historically for its prominence among the peoples of eastern
        North Carolina, for the two wars which it waged with the
        colonists, and for the rather spectacular migration of the
        greater part to the north and its union with the Five Iroquois
        Nations. The name Tuscarora occurs applied to settlements in
        Frederick County, Md.; Craven County, North Carolina; Schuylkill
        County, Pennsylvania; Livingston County, N. Y.; Elko County,
        Nev.; and Ontario; and to a creek and mountain in Pennsylvania.

        Tutelo. This tribe lived for a while on the upper Yadkin and
        later in Bertie County. (See Virginia.)

        Waccamaw. They probably ranged across into North Carolina from
        the head of Waccamaw River. (See South Carolina.)

        Wateree. According to Lederer (1912) they were living in 1670 on
        the upper Yadkin. (See South Carolina.)

        Waxhaw. They extended over into Union County from South
        Carolina. (See South Carolina.)

        Weapemeoc. Meaning unknown, but evidently a place name. Also
        called:

             Yeopim, a shortened and more usual form.

        Connections.- The Weapemeoc were almost certainly of the
        Algonquian linguistic family and related to the Powhatan Indians
        to the north and the Chowan, Machapunga, and Pamlico to the
        south.

        Location.- Most of the present Currituck, Camden, Pasquotank, and
        Perquimans Counties, and part of Chowan County north of Albemarle
        Sound.

                           Subdivisions

        In the same section in later times are given the following tribes
        which must be regarded as subdivisions of the Weapemeoc:

        Pasquotank, on Pasquotank River.

        Perquiman, on Perquimans River.

        Poteskeet, location uncertain.

        Yeopim, or Weapemeoc proper, on Yeopim River.

                             Villages

        Chepanoc, on Albemarle Sound in Perquimans County.

        Mascoming, on the north shore of Albemarle Sound, in Chownn
        County.

        Metachkwem, location unknown.

        Pasquenock, perhaps identical with Pasquotank, on the north shore
        of Albemarle Sound, perhaps in Camden County.

        Weapemeoc, probably in Pasquotank County.

        History.- The Weapemeoc first appear in history in the narratives
        of the Raleigh colony of 1585-86. Later they are spoken of under
        the various subdivisional names. They parted with some of their
        land in 1662. In 1701, according to Lawson (1860) only 6 of the
        Ycopim survived though there were 40 warriors of the other
        subdivisions, including 10 Pasquotank and 30 Potekeet.

        Population.- In the time of the Raleigh colony the Weapemeoc are
        said to have had between 700 and 800 warriors. They were
        estimated by Mooney (1928) at 800 in 1600. From their number as
        given by Lawson in 1701 Rights (1947) estimates 200 at that date.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- In the form Yeopim
        the name has been preserved in that of a railroad station in
        Perquimans County, N. C.

        Woccon. Significance unknown.

        Connections.- The Woccon belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock,
        their closest relations being the Catawba.

        Location.- Between Neuse River and one of its affluents, perhaps
        about the present Goldsboro, Wayne County.

                                Villages

        Tooptatmeer, supposed to have been in Greene County.

        Yupwauremau, supposed to have been in Greene County.

        History.- The first mention of the Woccon appears to be by Lawson
        writing about 1701, who recorded 150 words of their language.
        These show that it was nearer Catawba than any other known
        variety of speech. Lack of any earlier mention of such a large
        tribe lends strength to the theory of Dr. Douglas L. Rights that
        they were originally Waccamaw (q. v., under South Carolina) They
        took part against the Whites in the Tuscarora Wars and were
        probably extinguished as a tribe at that time, the remnant
        fleeing north with the Tuscarora, uniting with the Catawba, or
        combining with other Siouan remnants in the people later known as
        Croatan.

        Population.- The number of Woccon was estimated by Mooney (1928)
        at 600 in 1600. Lawson (1860) gives 120 warriors in 1709.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The sole claim of
        the Woccon to distinction is from the fact that it is the only
        one of the southern group of eastern Siouan tribes other than the
        Catawba from which a vocabulary has been preserved.

        Yadkin. Meaning unknown.

        Connections.- The Yadkin probably belonged to the Siouan
        linguistic family.

        Location.- On Yadkin River.

        History.- The Yadkin first appear in history in a letter by the
        Indian trader, Abraham Wood, narrating the adventures of two men,
        James Needham and Gabriel Arthur, whom he had sent on an
        exploring expedition lo the west. They passed this tribe and
        town, which they call "Yattken," in the summer of 1674. Lawson
        (1860) gives the name as Reatkin but applies it to the river, and
        there is no later mention of the people.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Their name Yadkin is
        perpetuated by the Yadkin River, Yadkin County, and the towns and
        villages of Yadkin College, Yadkin Falls, Yadkin Valley, and
        Yadkinville, all in the State of North Carolina.

        Yeopim, see Weapemeoc.




        

North Dakota -

 The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Arapaho. Certain traditions indicate that the Arapaho at one time
        lived in the Red River Valley in what is now Minnesota and North
        Dakota, but they had left before the historic period.
        (See Wyoming.)

        Arikara. Signifying "horns," or "elk," and having reference to
        their ancient manner of wearing the hair with two pieces of bone
        standing up, one on each side of the crest; -ra is the plural
        suffix. Also called:

             A da ka' da ho, Hidatsa name
             Ah-pen-ope-say, or A-pnn-to'-pse, Crow name
             Corn eaters, given as their own name.
             Ka'-nan-in, Arapaho name, meaning "people whose jaws break
        in pieces."
             O-no'-ni-o, Cheyenne name.
             Padani, Pani, applied to them by various tribes.
             Ree, abbreviation of Arikara.

        Sanish, "person," their own name, according to Gilmore (1927).

             S'ques'tshi, Salish name.
             Star-rah-he' [tstarahi], their own name, according to Lewis
        and Clark (1904-05).
             Tanish, their own name, meaning "the people," according to
        Hayden (1862). Perhaps a misprint of Sanish.
             Wa-zi'-ya-ta Pa-da'-nin, Yankton name, meaning "northern
        Pawnee."

        Connections - The Arikara belonged to the Caddoan linguistic
        stock and were a comparatively recent offshoot of the Skidi
        Pawnee.

        Location - In historic times they have occupied various points
        on the Missouri River between Cheyenne River, South Dakota, and
        Fort Berthold, North Dakota. (See also Montana and Nebraska.)

                           Subdivisions and Villages

        The Arikara are sometimes spoken of as a confederacy of smaller
        tribes each occupying its own village, and one account mentions
        10 of these, while Gilmore (1927) furnishes the names of 12,
        including 4 of major importance under which the others were
        grouped. These were as follows:

        Awshu, associated with which were Hokat and Scirihauk.

        Hukawirat, with which were associated Warihka and Nakarik.

        Tukatuk, with which were associated Teininatak and Witauk.

        Tukstanu, with which were associated Nakanusts and Nispst.

        Earlier sources give other names which do not agree with these:

             Hachepiriinu.
             Hia.
             Hosukhaunu, properly the name of a dance society.
             Hosukhaunukarerihu, properly the name of a dance society.
             Kaka.
             Lohoocat, the name of a town in the time of Lewis and Clark.
             Okos.
             Paushuk.
             Sukhutit.

        History - After parting from the Skidi in what is now Nebraska,
        the Arikara gradually pushed north to the Missouri River and on
        up that stream.

             In 1770 when French traders opened relations with them they
        were a little below Cheyenne River. Lesser and Weltfish (1932)
        suggest that they may have been the Harahey or Arahey of whom
        Coronado was told rather than the Pannee (q. v.) . Lewis and
        Clark found them, reduced considerably in numbers, between Grand
        and Cannonball Rivers. In 1823 they attacked the boats of an
        American trader, killing 13 men and wounding others, and in
        consequence of this trouble they abandoned their country and went
        to live with the Skidi on Loup River. Two years later they
        returned to the Missouri, and by 1851 they had pushed as far
        north as Heart River. Meantime wars with the Dakota and the
        smallpox had reduced them so much that they were glad to open
        friendly relations with two other tribes, similarly reduced, the
        Hidatsa and Mandan. In 1862 they moved to Fort Berthold. In 1880
        the Fort Berthold Reservation was created for the three tribes,
        and the Arikara have ever since lived upon it, though they are
        now allotted land in severalty, and on the approval of the
        allotments, July 10, 1900, they became citizens of the United
        States.

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1780 there were
        about 3,000 Arikara. In 1804 Lewis and Clark gave 2,600. In 1871
        they numbered 1,660; in 1888 only 500; and in 1904, 380. The
        census of 1910 returned 444 of whom 425 were in North Dakota. In
        1923 the United States Indian Office gave 426. The census of 1930
        returned 420, and the United States Indian Office in 1937, 616.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The Ariknra are
        noted merely as the most northerly of the Caddoan tribes and from
        their probable influence in introducing a knowledge of
        agriculture to the people of the upper Missouri. Arickaree in
        Washington County Colo., perpetuates the name.

        Assiniboin. In early days the Assiniboin were constantly coming
        across from Canada to fight and trade with the tribes of the
        upper Missouri, but they did not settle within the limits of
        North Dakota for any considerable period. (See Montana, and also
        Dakota under South Dakota.)

        Cheyenne. When they left Minnesota the Cheyenne settled for a
        while on the Sheyenne fork of Red River after which they moved
        beyond the limits of the State of North Dakota. (See South
        Dakota.)

        Chippewa. After they had obtained guns the Chippewa pushed
        westward as far as the Turtle Mountains which gave their name to
        a Chippewa band. There were 2,966 Chippewa in North Dakota
        in 1910. (See Minnesota.)

        Dakota. While working their way west from Minnesota, bands of
        Dakota occupied at various times parts of the eastern, southern,
        and southwestern margins of North Dakota and a part of the
        Standing Rock Agency is within the limits of the State. In 1910
        1,190 Dakota were making their homes on its soil. (See South
        Dakota.)

        Hidatsa. Derived from the name of a former village and said, on
        somewhat doubtful authority, to signify "willows." Also called:

             A-gutch-a-ninne-wug, Chippewa name, meaning "the settled
        people."
             A-me-she', Crow name, meaning "people who live in earth
        houses."
             Gi-aucth-in-in-e-wug, Chippewa name, meaning "men of the
        olden time."
             Gros Ventres of the Missouri, traders' name, probably
        derived from the sign for them in the sign language.
             Hewaktokto, Dakota name.
             Minitari, meaning "they crossed the water," said to have
        been given to them by the Mandan, from the tradition of their
        first encounter with the tribe on the Missouri.
             Wa-nuk'-e-ye'-na, Arapaho name, meaning "lodges planted
        together."
             Wetitsaan, Arikara name.

        Connections - The Hidatsa belonged to the Siouan linguistic
        stock, their closest relations within it being the Crow.

        Location - They lived at various points on the Missouri between
        the Heart and Little Missouri Rivers. (See also Montana and
        Canada.)

                               Villages

        Lewis and Clark (1804-5) give the following three names:

             Amahami or Mahaha, on the south bank of Knife River, formerly
        an independent but closely related tribe.
             Amatiha, on the south bank of Knife River.
             Hidatsa, on the north bank of Knife River.

        The band names given by Morgan are rather those of social
        divisions.







        History - According to tradition, the Hidatsa formerly lived by a
        lake northeast of their later country, one sometimes identified
        with Devil's Lake. They moved from there to the mouth of Heart
        River, where they met and allied themselves with the Mandan, and
        from them they learned agriculture. As we have seen, Lewis and
        Clark found them on Knife River. In 1837 a terrible smallpox
        epidemic wasted them so completely that the survivors
        consolidated into one village which was moved in 1845 to the
        neighborhood of Fort Berthold, where the tribe has ever since
        continued to reside. They have now been allotted lands in
        severalty and are citizens of the United States.

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimates the Hidatsa and Amahami
        together as numbering 2,100 in 1780. Lewis and Clark give 600
        warriors, or about 2,100 people. In 1905 they totaled 471, and
        the census of 1910 gives 547, a figure repeated hy the United
        States Indian Office in 1923. In 1930, 528. were returned and in
        1937, 731.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The Hidatsa appear
        most prominently, along with the Mandan, in connection with the
        ascent of the Missouri by Lewis and Clark and later expeditions
        into the same region. The name of Minatare, Scotts Bluff County,
        Nebr., probably refers to this tribe.

        Mandan. Probably a corruption of the Dakota word applied to
        them, Mawatani. Also called:

             A-rach-bo-cu, Hidatsa name (Long, 1791).
             As-a-ka-shi, Us-suc-car-shay. Crow name.
             How-mox-tox-sow-es, Hidatsa name (?).
             Kanit', Arikara name
             Kwowahtewug, Ottawa name
             Metutahanke, own name since 1837, after their old village.
             Mo-no'-ni-o, Cheyenne name.
             Numakaki, own name prior to 1837, meaning "men," "people."
             U-ka'-she, Crow name, meaning "earth houses."

        Connections - The Mandan belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock.
        Their connections are with the Tutelo and Winnebago rather than
        the nearer Siouan tribes.

        Location - When known to the Whites, the Mandan were on the
        same part of the Missouri River as the Hidatsa, between Heart and
        Little Missouri Rivers. (See also South Dakota.)

                          Subdivisions and Villages

        The division names given by Morgan (1851) appear to have been
        those of their former villages and are as follows: Horatamumake,
        Mntonumake, Seepoosha, Tunatsuka, Kitanemake, Estapa, and
        Neteahke. In 1804 Lewis and Clark found two villages in
        existence, Metutshanke and Ruptari, about 4 miles below the mouth
        of Knife River. They were divided socially into two moieties
        named like those of the Hidatsa, the Four-Clan Moiety and Three-
        Clan Moiety, and many of the clans constituting these bear
        village names. One of Dr. Lowie's (1917) informants gave the
        Prairie-chicken people, Young white-headed Eagle, People all in a
        bunch, and Crow people, as clans of the first Moiety; and the
        Maxi'`kina, Tami'sik, and Nu'pta as clans of the second. Another
        informant gave the following clans altogether: Si'pucka,
        Xtata'nu'make, Village above, Maxi'`kina, Tami'sik, Seven-
        different-kinds, Hilltop village, Scattered village, White-
        bellied mouse people, and Nuptare. Curtis (1907-9) and Maximilian
        (1843) give a Badger clan; Curtis, Red Butte and Charcoal clans;
        Maximilian, Bear and Cactus villages, perhaps intended for clans
        d Morgan, Wolf, Good Knife, Eagle, and Flathead clans. Some of
        Lowie's informants substituted other names for Nu'pta, which
        latter is also the name of a village.

        History - When first visited by the Whites, the Mandan had
        distinct traditions of an eastern origin, and they may have come
        from the neighborhood of the Winnebago or from the Ohio country.
        Tradition also affirms that they first reached the Missouri at
        the mouth of White River, South Dakota, whence they moved to
        Moreau River and thence to Heart River, where the Whites found
        them. The first recorded visit to them was by Varendrye in 1738.
        The nine villages which they had in 1750 were merged into two by
        1776 which were about 4 miles below the mouth of Knife River when
        Lewis and Clark visited them in 1804. In 1837 they were almost
        destroyed by smallpox, only 31 souls being left out of 1,600,
        according to one account. In 1845 some Mandan accompanied the
        Hidatsa to Fort Berthold, others followed at intervals, and the
        tribe has continued to reside there down to the present time,
        though lands are now allotted to them in severalty and they are
        citizens of the United States.

        Population - Mooney's (1928) estimate of Mandan population for
        1780 is 3,600. In 1804 Lewis and Clark estimated there were
        1,250, and in 1837, just before the great smallpox epidemic,
        there were supposed to be 1,600. In 1850 the total number was
        said to be 150, but in 1852 it had apparently increased to 385.
        In 1871 there were 450; in 1877, 420; in 1885, 410; and 1905,
        249; while the census of 1910 returned 209, and the United States
        Indian Office Report of 1923, 273. The census of 1930 gives 271,
        and the Indian Office Report for 1937, 345.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The Mandan attained
        wide notoriety among the Whites (1) from their intimate dealings
        with the early White explorers and traders in the upper Missouri
        region; (2) from the fact that their customs and ceremonies were
        made particular matters of record by Maximilian (1843), Catlin
        (1844), and other White visitors; (3) from the reputation these
        Indians acquired of an unusually light skin color and theories of
        Welsh or, at least European, origin based upon these characters;
        and (4) from the tragic decimation of the tribe by smallpox as
        above mentioned. The name has been adopted as that of a city in
        North Dakota, the capital of Morton County.




        

Nebraska

 

        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Arapaho. The Arapaho ranged for a considerable period over the
        western part of this State. (See Wyoming.)

        Arikara. This tribe lived in the territory now included in
        Nebraska with the Skidi Pawnee at some prehistoric period, and
        after 1823 they returned to the same tribe for 2 years. (See
        North Dakota.)

        Cheyenne. Like the Arapaho, the Cheyenne ranged to some extent
        over the western territories of the State. (See South Dakota.)

        Comanche. At an early day the Comanche must have lived in or
        near the western part of Nebraska, before moving south. (See
        Texas.)

        Dakota. The Dakota had few settlements of any permanency in the
        territory of Nebraska but they were constantly riding into and
        across it from the north. (See South Dakota.)

        Foxes. The Foxes were parties to a land cession made in 1830.
        (See Wisconsin.)

        Iowa. When the Omaha lived about the Pipestone Quarry in
        Minnesota, they were accompanied by the Iowa, who afterward went
        with them to South Dakota and thence to Nebraska. They, however,
        continued southeast into the territory of the present State of
        Iowa (q. v.).

        Kansas. They were parties to a cession of Nebraska land made in
        1825. (See Kansas.)

        Kiowa. The Kiowa were at one time on the western margin of
        Nebraska and later followed the Comanche south. (See Oklahoma.)

        Missouri. After they had been driven from Missouri by the Sauk
        and Fox, the remnant of this tribe lived for a while in villages
        south of Platte River. (See Missouri.)

        Omaha. Meaning "those going against the wind or current";
        sometimes shortened to Maha. Also called:

             Ho'-man-han, Winnebago name.
             Hu-umui, Cheyenne name.
             Oni'hao, Cheyenne name, meaning "drum beaters" (?).
             Puk-tis, Pawnee name.
             U'-aha, Pawnee name.

        Connections - The Omaha belonged to that section of the Siouan
        linguistic stock which included also the Ponca, Kansa, Osage, and
        Quapaw, and which was called by J. 0. Dorsey (1897) Dhegiha.

        Location - Their principal home in historic times was in
        northeastern Nebraska, on the Missouri River. (See also Iowa,
        Minnesota, Missouri, and South Dakota.)

        History - According to strong and circumstantial traditions, the
        Omaha and others belonging to the same group formerly lived on
        the Ohio and Wabash Rivers. It is usually said that the Quapaw
        separated from the general body first, going down the
        Mississippi, but it is more likely that they were left behind by
        the others and later moved out upon the great river. The Osage
        remained on Osage River, and the Kansa continued on up the
        Missouri, but the Omaha, still including the Ponca, passed north
        inland as far as the Pipestone Quarry in Minnesota, and were
        afterward forced west by the Dakota, into what is now the State
        of South Dakota. There the Ponca separated from them and the
        Omaha settled on Bow Creek, in the present Nebraska. They
        continued from that time forward in the same general region, the
        west side of the Missouri River between the Platte and the
        Niobrara, but in 1855 made their last movement of consequence to
        the present Dakota County. In 1854 they sold all of their lands
        except a portion kept for a reserve, and they gave up the
        northern part of this in 1865 to the Winnebago. (See Wisconsin.)
        In 1882, through the efforts of Miss Alice C. Fletcher, they were
        granted lands in severalty with prospects of citizenship, and
        Miss Fletcher was given charge of the ensuing allotment.
        Citizenship has now been granted them.

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimates that there were about
        2,800 Omaha in 1780. In 1802 they were reduced by smallpox to
        about 300. In 1804 the estimated number was 600; in 1829, 1,900;
        in 1843, 1,600. Schoolcraft (1851-57) gives 1,349 in 1861;
        Burrows, 1,200 in 1857; and the same number appears in the census
        returns for 1880. In 1906 the United States Indian Office
        returned 1,228, and the census of 1910 gave 1,105. The Report of
        the United States Indian Office for 1923 showed an increase to
        1,440. The census of 1930 gave 1,103, principally in Nebraska.
        The United States Indian Office reported 1,684 in 1932.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The Omaha will be
        remembered particularly from the fact that its name has been
        adopted by the City of Omaha, Nebr. It has also been given to
        small places in Boone County, Ark.; Stewart County, Ga.; Gallatin
        County, Ill.; Morris County, Tex.; Knott County, Ky.; and
        Dickenson County, Va.

        It will be remembered furthermore as the scene of the
        humanitarian labors of Miss Alice C. Fletcher and the
        ethnological studies of Miss Fletcher and Dr. Francis La Flesche.

        Oto. From Wat'ota, meaning "lechers." It often appears in a
        lengthened form such as Hoctatas or Octoctatas. Also called:

             Che-wae-rae, own name.
             Matokatagi, Shawnee name.
             Motutatak, Fox name.
             Wacutada, Omaha nnd Ponca name.
             Wadotata, Kansa name.
             Watohtata, Dakota name.
             Watutata, Osage name.

        Connections - The Oto formed, with the Iowa and Missouri, the
        Chiwere group of the Siouan linguistic family and were closely
        connected with the Winnebago.

        Location - The Oto moved many times, but their usual location in
        the historic period was on the lower course of the Platte or the
        neighboring banks of the Missouri. (See also Iowa, Kansas,
        Minnesota, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.)

        History - From the maps of the Marquette expedition it would seem
        that at the time when they were drawn, 1673, the Oto were some
        distance up Des Moines River. Their name was often coupled with
        that of the related Iowa who lived north of them, but they always
        seem to have occupied a distinct area. Shortly after this time
        they moved over to the Missouri and by 1804 had established their
        town on the south side of the Platte River not far from its
        mouth. According to native traditions, this tribe, the Iowa, and
        the Missouri were anciently one people with the Winnebago, but
        moved southwest from them, and then separated from the Iowa at
        the mouth of Iowa River and from the Missouri at the mouth of
        Grand River. Their language proves that they were closely related
        to these tribes whether or not the separations occurred in the
        manner and at the places indicated. Their split with the Missouri
        is said to have been brought about by a quarrel between two
        chiefs arising from the seduction of the daughter of one by the
        son of the other, and from this circumstance the Oto are
        supposed to have derived their name. In 1700 they were, according
        to Le Sueur, on Blue Earth River near the Iowa and it is probable
        that they moved into the neighborhood of the Iowa or Missouri at
        several different times, but their usual position was clearly
        intermediate along a north-south line. In 1880 two Oto chiefs
        came to visit La Salle in Illinois and reported that they had
        traveled far enough west to fight with people using horses, who
        were evidently the Spaniards, a fact which proves their early
        westward range.

             By treaties signed July 15, 1830, and October 15, 1836, they
        and the Missouri ceded all claims to land in Missouri and Iowa,
        and  by another signed September 21, 1833, the two ceded all
        claims to land south of the Little Nemaha River. By a treaty
        signed March 15, 1854, they gave up all their lands except a
        strip 10 miles wide and 25 miles long on the waters of Big Blue
        River, but when it was found that there was no timber on this
        tract it was exchanged on December 9 for another tract taken from
        the Kansas Indians. In a treaty sighed August 15, 1876, and
        amended March 3, 1879, they agreed to sell 120,000 acres off the
        western end of their reserve. And finally, a treaty signed on
        March 3, 1881, provided, the consult of the tribe being obtained,
        for the sale of all of the remainder of their land in Kansas and
        Nebraska, and the selection of a new reservation. Consent to the
        treaty was recorded May 4 following, and the tribe removed the
        following year to the new reservation which was in the present
        Oklahoma southwest of Arkansas River on Red Rock and Black Bear
        Creeks, west of the present Pawnee. The first removal to Oklahoma
        is said to have been due to a fission in the tribe resulting in
        the formation of two bands, a conservative band called Coyotes
        and the Quakers, who were progressives. The Coyotes moved in 1880
        and the Quakers joined them 2 years later.

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1780 the Oto
        numbered about 900. In 1805 Lewis and Clark estimated 500 then
        living, but Catlin in 1833 raised this to 1,300, a figure which
        includes the Missouri Burrows in 1849 gives 900, and the United
        States Indian Office in 1843, 931. This and all later
        enumerations include both the Oto and the Missouri. In 1862 they
        numbered 708; in 1867, 511; in 1877, 457; in 1886, 334; in 1906,
        390; and by the census of 1910, 332. The census of 1930, however,
        showed a marked increase to a total of 627, all but 13 of whom
        were in Oklahoma, 376 in Nobls County, 170 in Pawnee, 34 in Kay,
        and 17 in Osage. There were 7 in California, 1 in Kansas, and 1
        in Nebraska. In 1937, 756 were reported in Oklahoma.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The name Oto has
        been applied to some small settlements in Woodbury County, Iowa,
        and in Missouri, and in the form Otoe to a county and post
        village in Nebraska.

        Pawnee. The name is derived by some from the native word pariki,
        "a horn," term said to be used to designate their peculiar manner
        of dressing the scalp lock; but Lessor and Weltfish (1932)
        consider it more likely that it is from parisu, "hunter," as
        claimed by themselves. They were also called Padani and Panana by
        various tribes. Also known is:

             Ahthinin, Arapaho name, meaning "wolf people."
             Awahi, Caddo and Wichita name.
             Awahu, Arikara name.
             Awo, Tonkawa name, originally used by the Wichita.
             Chahiksichahiks, meaning "men of men," applied to themselves
        but also to all other tribes whom they considered civilized.
             Darazhazh, Kiowa Apache name.
             Harahey, Coronndo documents (somewhat uncertain).
             Ho-ni'-i-tani-o, Cheyenne name, meaning "little wolf
        people."
             Kuitare-i, Comanche name, meaning "wolf people."
             Paoneneheo, early Cheyenne name, meaning "the ones with
        projecting front teeth."
             Payin, Kansa form of the name.
             Pi-ta'-da, name given to southern tribes (Grinnell, 1923).
             Tie-sa do hpa ka, Hidatsa name meaning "wolf people."
             Wohesh, Wichita name.
             Xaratenumanke, Mandan name.

        Connections - The Pawnee were one of the principal tribes of the
        Caddoan linguistic stock. The Arikara (q.v.) were an offshoot,
        and the Wichita were more closely related to them than were the
        Caddo.

        Location - On the middle course of Platte River and the
        Republican fork of Kansas River. (See also Kansas, Oklahoma, and
        Wyoming.)

                                Subdivisions

        The Pawnee consisted in reality of four tribes, or four known in
        historic times, viz: The Chaui or Grand Pawnee, the Kitkehahki or
        Republican Pannee, the Pitahauerat or Tapage Pawnee, and the
        Skidi or Skiri Pawnee, the first three speaking the same dialect
        and being otherwise more closely connected with one another than
        with the last. The Kitkehahki embraced two divisions, the
        Kitkehahki proper and the Little Kitkehuhki. Murie gives two
        others, the Black Heads and Karikisu, but Lesser nnd Weltfish
        (1932) state that the first was a society and the second the name
        of the women's dance or ceremony before corn planting. The
        Pitahauerat consisted of the Pitahauerat proper and the
        Kawnrakis, sometimes said to he villages.

        History - Some of the Pawnee trace their origin to the southwest,
        some to the east, and some claim always to have lived in the
        country with which later history associates them. The first White
        men to meet any members of these tribes were the Spaniards under
        Coronado in 1541. French explorers heard of them again early in
        the eighteenth century and French traders were established among
        them before the middle of it. The Spaniards of New Mexico became
        acquainted with them at about the same time on account of the
        raids which they conducted in search of horses. They lay somewhat
        out of the trail of the first explorers from the east, and in
        consequence suffered less diminution in numbers through White
        influences than did many of their neighbors, but they were
        considerably reduced through wars with the surrounding tribes,
        particularly with the Dakota. Although some of the early traders
        and trappers were treated harshly by them, their relations with
        the United States Government were friendly from the first, and
        they uniformly furnished scouts for the frontier armies. By
        treaties negotiated in 1833, 1848, and 1857, they ceded all of
        their lands in Nebraska except one reservation and in 1876 this
        tract was also surrendered and the entire tribe given new lands
        in Oklahoma, where they still live. The land has been allotted to
        them in severalty and they are now citizens of the United States.

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimates 10,000 Pawnee in 1780. In
        1702 Iberville estimated 2,000 families. In 1838 they numbered
        about 10,000 according to an estimate of Dunbar and Allis
        (1880-82), and one authority places the figure as high as 12,500.
        In 1849, after the cholera epidemic, they were reported at 4,500;
        in 1856, 4,686 were returned, but in 1861, only 3,416. In 1879,
        after suffering severely in consequence of the removal to Indian
        Territory, they had dropped to 1,440, and by 1906 they had fallen
        to 649. The census of 1910 returned 633, but according to the
        Report of the United States Indian Office for 1923, they had then
        increased to 773. The census of 1930 gave 730. In 1937, 959 were
        reported.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The Pawnee tribe is
        distinguished (1) for its peculiar language and culture; (2)
        because of its numbers and warlike prowess, its constant
        hostility to the Dakota, and consistent assistance to the
        American forces operating upon the Plains; and (3) as having
        given its name to a city in Oklahoma; to counties in Oklahoma,
        Kansas, and Nebraska; to streams in Colorado and Kansas; and to
        places in Morgan County, Colo.; Sangamon County, Ill.; Montgomery
        County, Ind.; Pawnee City in Pawnee County, Nebr.; Pawnee Rock in
        Barton County, Kans.; Pawnee Station in Bourbon County, Kans.;
        and a creek and buttes in northeastern Colorado.

        Ponca. Own name, meaning unknown. Also called.

             Dihit, Li-hit' or Rihit, Pawnee name
             Kan'kan, Winnebago name.
             Tchiaxsokush, Caddo name.

        Connections - The Ponca spoke practically the same language as
        the Omaha and formed with them, the Osage, Kansa, and Quapaw,
        the Dhegiha group of the Siouan linguistic family.

        Location - On the right bank of the Missouri at the mouth of the
        Niobrara. (See also Iowa, Minnesota, Oklahoma, and South Dakota.)

        History - The early life of the Ponca seems to have run parallel
        with that of the Omaha (q.v.). They are said to have separated
        from the latter at the mouth of White River, S. Dak., and to have
        moved west into the Black Hills but to have rejoined the Omaha a
        little later. These two tribes and the Iowa then descended the
        Missouri together as far as the mouth of the Niobrara, where the
        Ponca remained while the Omaha established themselves below on
        Bow Creek. They remained in approximately the same situation
        until 1877 when the larger part of them were forcibly removed to
        Indian Territory. This action was the occasion for a special
        investigation, as a result of which about three-quarters
        continued in the Territory while the remainder preferred to
        remain in their old country. Their lands have now been allotted
        to them in severalty.

        Population - Mooney (1928) gives 800, as the probable size of the
        Ponca tribe in 1780. In 1804 Lewis and Clark estimate only 200
        but they had been greatly reduced just before by smallpox. In
        1829 they had increased to 600 and in 1842 to about 800. In 1871
        they numbered 747. In 1906 the Ponca in Oklahoma numbered 570 and
        those in Nebraska 263; total, 833. The census of 1910 gave 875 in
        all, including 619 in Oklahoma and 193 in Kansas. The Report of
        the United States Indian Office for 1923 was 1,381, evidently
        including other tribes. The census of 1930 returned 939. In 1937
        the United States Indian Office gave 825 in Oklahoma and 397 in
        Nebraska.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The name Ponca is
        preserved by a river in South Dakota, Ponca City in Kay County,
        Okla., and places in Newton County, Ark., and Dixon County, Nebr.
        Sauk. Like the Foxes, they were parties to the land cession of
        1830 involving territories in this State. (See Wisconsin.)

        Winnebago. Part of the Winnebago settled close to the Omaha
        after they had been driven from Minnesota following the Dakota
        outbreak of 1862. A reservation was later assigned them there
        and in course of time they were allotted land in severalty upon
        it. (See Wisconsin.)




        

Nevada

 

        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Koso. This is properly a California tribe, though it sometimes
        ranged into Nevada. (See California.)

        Paiute, Northern. The significance of the word "Paiute" is
        uncertain, though it has been interpreted to mean "water Ute" or
        "true Ute." Also called:

             Monachi, Yokuts name.
             Monozi, Maidu name.
             Mono-Paviotso, name adopted in the Handbook of American
        Indians (Hodge, 1907, 1910), from an abbreviated form of the
        above and Paviotso.
             Nutaa, Chukohansi Yokuts name, signifying that they were
        east or upstream.
             Paviotso, a native term applied by Powell (1891) to a part
        of the Nevada Indians of this group.
             Snake, name commonly given to the Northern Paiute of Oregon.

        Connections.- With the Bannock, the Northern Paiute constituted
        one dialectic group of the Shoshonean Branch of the Uto Aztecan
        stock.

        Location.- The Northern Paiute were not properly a tribe, the name
        being used for a dialectic division as indicated above. They
        covered western Nevada southeastern Oregon, and a strip of
        California east of the Sierra Nevada as far south as Owens Lake
        except for territory occupied by the Washo. According to the
        students of the area, they were pushed out of Powder River Valley
        and the upper course of John Day River in the nineteenth century
        by Shahaptian tribes and the Cayuse. (See also Idaho.)

                            Subdivisions and Villages

        There were no true tribes or bands except in the extreme western
        and northeastern parts of the area covered, but topography
        enforced concentration into certain valleys. Aside from the
        detached Bannock, the Northern Paiute were divided by the Sierra
        Nevada Mountains into a widely spread eastern division and a
        small division confined to California, the Eastern and Western
        Mono of Kroeber. Kroeber (1925) distinguishes six divisions of
        the latter as follows:

        Balwisha, on the Kaweah River, especially on its south side.

        Holkomn, on a series of confluent streams- of which Big Burr and
        Sycamore Creeks are the most important- entering Kings River
        above Mill Creek.

        Northfork Mono, for whom no native name has survived, on the
        North Fork of San Joaquin River.

        Posgisa or Poshgisha, of the San Joaquin, on Big Sandy Creck, and
        toward, if not on, the heads of Little and Big Dry Creeks.

        Waksachi, on Limekiln and Eshom Creeks and the North Fork of
        Kaweah River.

        Wobonuch, at the head of Mill Creek, a southern affluent of Kings
        River, and in the pine ridges to the north.

        Away from Owens Valley and the immediate neighborhood the Paiute
        have been divided into a large number of bands with names which
        usually signify that they were "eaters" of some particular kind
        of food. Although the entire area has been filled in with such
        names, they have been given largely by Indians from areas outside
        those of tke supposed bands; different names are given by
        different informants, the same name occurs in a number of places,
        at times widely separated, and there is lack of agreement among
        informants, including Steward (1933), Kelly (1937), Park (1938),
        and Blyth (1938), as to the numbers, names, and locations of the
        groups under consideration. Instead of attempting any sort of
        classification, therefore, I will simply insert a miscellaneous
        list of villages and local settlements though these were almost
        as fluctuating and impermanent as the larger groups. In most
        cases, however, it may be assumed that the location was
        determined by economic factors and mention of such a site has,
        therefore, some permanent value however often the name may have
        changed or the composition of the village fluctuated.

             Gifford (1932) gives the following hamlets belonging to
        Kroeber's Northfork Mono besides 83 fishing places and campsites,
        the exact locations of which are entered in his report and
        accompanying map:

        Apasoraropa.           Homohomineu.
        Apayiwe.               Howaka.
        Asiahanyu.             Kodiva.
        Bakononohoi.           Konahinau.
        Dipichugu.             Kotuunu.
        Dipichyu.              Kunugipi.
        Ebehime.               Monolu.
        Homenadobema.          Moyopaso.

        Muchupiwe.                  Sihuguwe.
        Musawati.                   Sikinobi.
        Nakamayuwe.                 Sipineu.
        Napasiat.                   Siugatu.
        Noboihawe.                  Soyakanim.
        Nosidop.                    Sukuunu.
        Ohinobi.                    Supanaminau.
        O'oneu.                     Takapiwe.
        Oyonagatu.                  Takatiu.
        Pahabitima.                 Tasineu.
        Pakasanina.                 Tiwokiiwe.
        Papavagohira.               Topochinatu.
        Pasawspu.                   Tobipakwina.
        Pasiaputka.                 Tulcweninewe.
        Pausoleu.                   Tumuyuyu.
        Payauta.                    Tupipasaguwe.
        Pekeneu.                    Waapuwee.
        Pimishineu.                 Wadakhanau.
        Poniaminau.                 Wegigoyo.
        Poniwinyu.                  Wiakwu.
        Ponowee.                    Wokoiinaha.
        Saganiu.                    Wokosolna.
        Saiipu.                     Yatsayau.
        Saksakadiu.                 Yauwatinyu.
        Sanita.                     Yauyau.
        Sigineu.

        Steward enumerates the following "districts" of Owens Valley and
        neighboring valleys, each with communistic hunting and seed
        rights, political unity, and a number of villages:

        Kwina patu, Round Valley.

        Panatu, the Black Rock territory, south to Taboose Creek.

        Pitana patu, extending from the volcanic tableland and Norton
        Creek in the Sierra to a line running out into Onrens Valley from
        Waucodayavi, the largest creek south of Rawson Creek.

        Tovowahamatu, centering at Big Pine, south to Big Pine Creek in
        the mountains, but with fishing and seed rights along Owens River
        nearly to Fish Springs.

        Tunuhu witu, of uncertain limits.

        Utu'utu witu, from the warm springs, now Keough's, south to
        Shannon Creek.

        The people of Deep Springs Valley called their valley Patosabaya
        and themselves Patosabaya nunemua; the Fish Lake Valley people to
        the north of these did not constitute a unified band but were
        distributed into the following villages:

        Ozanwin, on the east or south slope of the Sylvania Mountains and
        near Tu'nava.

        Pau'uva, in the vicinity of McNett ranch.

        Sohoduhatu, at the present Oasis ranch.

        Suhuyoi, at the Patterson ranch.

        Tuna'va, the present Geroux ranch, marked McFee on the United
        States Geological Survey.

        Tu'nava, at Pigeon Spring at the east end of Fish Lake Valley.

        Watuhad, Moline raneh on Moline Creek.

        Yogamatu, several miles from the mountains at the present
        Chiatovich ranch.

        Steward (1933) gives the following village names in and near
        Owens Valley:

        An unnamed site west of Deep Springs Lake.

        Ahagwa, on Division Creek.

        Antelope Springs, native nanne not recorded.

        Hudu matu, on Cottonwood Creek.

        Hunadudugo, camp near Wyman Creek.

        Ka'nasi, camp at Dead Horse Meadow on Wyman Creek.

        Mogahu' pina, scattered along Hogback, Lone Pine, Tuttle, and
        Diez Creeks.

        Mogohopinan watu, on Richter Creek.

        Muhu witu, on Tinnemaha Creek.

        Nataka' matu, at Independence.

        Nuvahu' matu, near Thibaut Creek.

        Oza'n witu, southeast of Deep Springs Lake.

        Padohahu matu, on Goodale Creek.

        Pahago watu, on Tuttle Creek.

        Pakwazi' natu, at Olancha.

        Pa'natu, on Owens River, near mouth of Birch Creek.

        Pau'wahapu, at Hines Spring.

        Pawona witu, on Bishop Creek below Bishop.

        Pa'yapo'o'ha, south of Bishop.

        Pazi'wapi'nwuna, at Independence.

        Posi'da witu, on Baker Creek.

        Suhubadopa, at Fish Springs Creek, at least in prehistoric times.

        Suhu'budu mutu, on Carroll Creek.

        Suhuvakwazi natu, on Wyman Creek.

        Tanova witu, south of Independence.

        Ti'numaha witu, on Tinnemaha Creek.

        To'owiawatu, at Symmes Creek.

        Totsitupi, on Thibaut Creek.

        To'vowaha'matu, at Big Pine on Big Pine Creek.

        Tsagapu witu, at Shepherd Creek.

        Tsaki'shaduka, near Old Fort Independence.

        Tsaksha witu, at Fort Independence.

        Tsa'wawua'a, on Bishop Creek.

        Tsigoki, beyond Owens ranch, east of Bishop.

        Tuhunitogo, near upper course of Birch Creek.

        Tuinu'hu, on Sawmill Creek.

        Tunwa'pu, at the mouth of Taboose Creek.

        Tupico, on Birch Creek, west of Hunadudugo.

        Tupuzi witu, at George's Creek.

        Waushova witu, on Lone Pine Creek.

        Steward gives the following village; in Figh Lake Valley:

        Oza'nwin, on the east or south slope of the Sylvania Mountains
        and near Tu'nava.

        Pau'uva, in the vicinity of McNett ranch.

        Sohoduhatu, at the present Oasis ranch.

        Suhuyoi, at the Patterson ranch.

        Tuna' va, at the present Geroux ranch.

        Tu' nava, at Pigeon Springs at east end of Fish Lake Valley.

        Watuhad, at Moline ranch.

        Yogamatu, several miles from the mountains at the present
        Chiatovich ranch.

        The following are miscellaneous local groups of Northern Baiute,
        the names drawn from various sources:

        Agaivauma, at Summit Lake, western Nevada.

        Duhutcyatikadu, on Silver and Summer Lakes, Oreg.

        Genega's Band, at the mouth of Truckee River

        Gidutikadu, in Surprise, Calif.; Coleman; Warner, Oreg.; and
        probably also Long Valleys, in California, Nevada, and Oregon.

        Goyatikendu, at Yainax and Beatty, Oreg., brought from Silver
        Lake.

        Hadsapoke's Band, at Gold Canyon, Carson River.

        Hoonebooey, east of the Cascades and south of the Blue Mountains
        of Oregon.

        Itsaatiaga, about Unionville, Nev.

        Knivaningavidukw, in Surprise Valley, northeastern California.

        Koeats, in north central Nevada.

        Kosipatuwiwagaiyu, about Carson Sink.

        Koyuhow, about McDermitt, Nev.

        Kuhpattikutteh, on Quinn River, Nev.

        Kuyuidika, near the site of Wadsworth on Truckee River.

        Kuyuitikadu, at Pyramid Lake, Nixon, Nev.

        Kwinaduvaa, at McDermitt, Nev.

        Laidukatuwiwait, about the sink of the Humboldt.

        Lohim, an 1solated Shoshonean band, probably of this connection,
        on Willow Creek, a southern affluent of the Columbia, Oreg.

        Loko, on or near Carson River, Nev.

        Nogaie (with 4 subbands), in the vicinity of Robinson District,
        Spring Valley, Duckwater, and White River Valley.

        Odukeo's Band, around Carson and Walker Lakes.

        Oualuck's Band, in Eureka Valley, Oreg.

        Pamitoy, in Mason Valley.

        Paxai-dika, in Bridgeport Valley, Calif.

        Petodseka, about Carson and Walker Lakes.

        Piattuiabbe (with 5 bands), near Belmont, Nev.

        Pitanakwat or Petenegowat, in Owens Valley, but formerly in
        Esmeralda County, Nev.

        Poatsituhtikuteh, on the north fork of Walker River.

        San Joaquin's Band, at the forks in Carson Valley.

        Sawagativa, about Winnemucca.

        Shobarboobeer, probably of this connection, in the interior of
        Oregon.

        Shuzavi-dika, in Mono Valley, Calif.

        Togwingani, about Malbeur Lake, Oreg.

        Tohaktivi, about the White Mountains, near the head of Owens
        River, Calif.

        Toitikadu, at Fallon and Yerington, Nev.

        Toiwait, about the lower Sink of the Carson.

        Tonawitsowa (with 6 bands), in the vicinity of Battle Mountain
        and Unionville.

        Tonoyiet's Band, below Big Meadows, Truckee River.

        Torepe's Band, near the lower crossing of Truckee River.

        Tosarke's Band, near Carson and Walker Lakes.

        Tsapakah, in Smith Valley.

        Tubianwapu, about Virginia City.

        Tubuwitikadu, east of Steens Mountain, Oreg.

        Tupustikutteh, on Carson River.

        Tuziyammos, about Warner Lake, Oreg.

        Wahi's Band, at the big bend of Carson River.

        Wadatikadu, at Burns, Malheur District, Oregon, and Susanville,
        Calif.

        Wahtatkin, east of the Cascade Mountains and south of the Blue
        Mountains Oreg.

        Walpapi, on the shores of Goose, Silver, Warner, and Harney
        Lakes, Oregon.

        Warartika, about Honey Lake, northeastern California.

        Watsequeorda's Band, on Pyramid Lake.

        Winemucca's Band, said to have had a specific location on Smoke
        Creek near Honey Lake, northeastern California, but to have been
        extended to other northern Paiute living west of the Hot Springs
        Mountains in Nevada, who do not seem to have been united into one
        body until brought together to defend themselves against the
        Whites.

        Wobonuch, at the head of Mill Creek, California, and in the pine
        ridges to the north.

        Yahuskin, about the shores of Goose, Silver, and Harney Lakes,
        Oreg.

        Yammostuwiwagaiya, in Paradise Valley, Nev.

        History.- Although the territory of the Northern Paiute has been
        occupied for a long period by human beings and has been modified
        from time to time along its margins by neighboring cultures,
        there seem to have been few fundamental changes in the culture of
        the region taken as a whole, the economic life having been based
        on hunting and gathering. Contacts with Europeans began at a
        comparatively late period, probably with the entrance of trappers
        about 1825. Jedediah Smith made journeys across Nevada in 1825
        and Old Greenwood may have visited it still earlier. Peter Skene
        Ogden visited the Paiute of eastern Oregon between 1926 and 1828
        and probably reached Humboldt River in Nevada. These men were
        followed by Walker (1833), Russell (1834-43), and many others.
        During this period relations with the Indians seem to have been
        uniformly friendly, but clashes became more numerous with the
        great stream of immigration which began about 1840 and swelled to
        tidal proportions with the discovery of gold in California. The
        Paiute in the remote valleys, however, remained for a long time
        little affected. Descriptions of Indian life in the numerous
        reports of travelers are disappointing. A great crisis in the
        affairs of the Indians was brought about by the discovery of thc
        Comstock lode at Virginia City, Nev., since in the next 10 years
        prospectors penet rated every part of the territory, says
        Steward, "and boom towns sprang up in the midst of sheer desert."
        A greater menace to the lives of the Indians was the introduction
        of livestock and consequent destruction of native food plants.
        Pinyon trees were also cut down for fuel. By this time the
        natives had both guns and horses and were in consequence much
        more capable of inflicting damage in the clashes which began
        about 1860 and in consequence of which several military posts
        were established. With the completion of the first
        transcontinental railroad in 1869, the native period came
        practically to an end. On October 1, 1863, the United States
        Government extended its authority without formal purchase over
        the territory of the "Western Shoshoni" and included within it
        the northern part of the lands occupied by the Northern Paiute
        under discussion. The Government assumed "the right of
        satisfying their claim by assigning them such reservations as
        might seem essential for their occupancy, and supplying them in
        such degree as might seem proper with necessaries of life"
        (Royce, 1899). By virtue of the authority thus granted, a mill
        and timber reserve was created on Truckee River by Executive
        order, April 24, 1864, for the Pyramid Lake Indians. In December
        1864 Eugene Monroe surveyed a reservation for the Paiute at
        Walker River, and in January 1865 he surveyed another at Pyramid
        Lake. The former was set aside by Executive order March 19, 1874,
        and the latter 4 days later. "The remainder of the Pai Ute
        country," says Royce, "[was] taken possession of by the United
        States without formal relinquishment by the Indians." On the
        other hand, the Indians by no means confined themselves to these
        reservations.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that this division, i. e.,
        the tribes embraced under the name of Northern Paiute, and the
        true or Southern Paiute numbered 7,500 in 1845. The figures given
        in the Report of the Indian Office for 1903 indicate a population
        of about 5,400 for the group. The Census of 1910 reports 1,448
        "Mono" and 3,038 Paviotso, a total of 4,486, but the United
        States Indian Office Report of 1923 seems to give a total of more
        than 13,000. This is evidently erroneous since the United States
        Census of 1930 reported 4,420. The figures of the United States
        Indian Office in 1937 seem to yield 4,108, after substracting
        270, which plainly belonged to the Southern Paiute.

        Paiute, Southern. Also called:

             Auolasus, Pima name.
             Chemegue Cuajala, by Garces in 1776, the first name on
        account of their association with the Chemehucvi (see under
        California; for Cuajala, see Kohoaldje below).
             Da-da'-ze ni'-ka-cin'-ga. Kansa name, signifying
        "grasshopper people."
             Diggers, a popular name sometimes used for them.
             Hogapa'goni, Shoshoni name, signifying "rush-arrow people."
             Kohoaldje, originally Mohave name of Virgin River Paiute.
             Numa, own name, signifying "people," "Indians."
             Pa'gonotch, Southern Ute name.
             Pah-ru-sa-pah, Chemehuevi name.
             Snake Diggers, or Ute Diggers, by Simpson (1859).
             Yabipai Cajuala, by Garces in 1776.

        Connections.- The Southern Paiute belonged to the Ute-Chemehuevi
        group of the Shoshonean branch of the Uto-Aztecan stock.

        Location.- In western Utah, northwestern Arizona, southeastern
        Nevada, and parts of southeastern California.

                                Subdivisions

        Powell and Ingalls give the following "tribes" which, as Steward
        (1933) suggests, were more likely villages or restricted local
        groups:

        Ho-kwaits, in the vicinity of Ivanspaw ("Ivanpah Mountain").

        I'-chu-ar'-rum-pats, in Moapa Valley, "probably in Overton-St.
        Thomas vicinity" (Kelly, 1932).

        Kai'vav-wits, in the vicinity of Kannb ("Kaibab Plateau"- Kelly).

        Kau-yai'-chits, at Ash Meadowa but actually in Shoshoni territory.

        Kwai-an'-tikwok-ets, east of Colorado, which is perhaps what the
        name means (Palmer, 1928).

        Kwi-en'-go-mats, at Indian Springs.

        Kwi-um'-pus, in the vicinity of Beaver.

        Mo-a-pa-ri'-ats, in Moapa Valley (on Moapa Creek).

        Mo-quats, in Kingston Mountains.

        Mo-vwi'-ats, at Cottonwood Island.

        Nau-wan'-a-tats, in Moapa Valley.

        No-gwats, in the vicinity of Potosi ("in Spring Mountains"-
        Kelly).

        Nu-a'gun-tits, in Las Vegas Valley.

        Pa-ga'-its, in the vicinity of Colville.

        Pa-gu'its, at Pagu Lake.

        Pa-ran-i-guts, in Pa-ran-i-gut Valley.

        Pa-room'-pai-ats, in Moapa Valley "head of Moapa Creek, at Home
        ranch."

        Pa-room'-pats, at Pa-room Spring.

        Pa-ru'-guns, in the vicinity of Parawau "Paragonah Lakes" (Kelly,
        1932).

        Pa-spi'-kai-vats, in the vicinity of Toquerville, "a district on
        lower Ash Creek" (Kelly).

        Pin'-ti-ats, in Moapa Valley.

        Sau-won'-ti-atst in Moapa Valley.

        Shi'-vwits, on Shi'-vwits Plateau.

        Tim-pa-shau'-wa-got-sits, at Providence Mountains.

        Tsou-wa'-ra-its, in Meadow Valley.

        U'-ai-Nu-ints, in the vicinity of St. George.

        U-in-ka'-rets, in Mountains ("Mount Trumbull"- Kelly).

        Un-ka-ka'-ni-guts, in Long Valley.

        Un-ka'-pa-Nu-kuints', in the vicinity of Cedar (perhaps "second
        creek south of Kanarra . . . slightly southeast of New Harmony"-
        Kelly).

        U-tum'-pai-ats, in Moapa Valley ("site of Wiser Ranch, near
        Glendale, Nevada"- Kelly).

        Ya'-gats, at Armagoza ("spring just north of Tocopa, in Armagosa
        Valley"- Kelly).

        Kelly (1932) reduces the number of "tribes" or "bands" to 14,
        some of which agree with those given by Powell, while others seem
        to contain the remnants of a number of his "tribes." She also
        gives two not appearing in his list, viz: the Kaiparowits and a
        band at Gunlock.

        History.- The Southern Paiute came in contact with the Spaniards
        in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries but were little
        disturbed by them. The first attempt to describe them
        systematically seems to have been made by Father Escalante, who
        traversed their territory in 1776. After the annexation of
        Californin and New Mexico to the United States, their country was
        slowly but steadily encroached upon, and they were in part
        removed to reservations though by far the greater number remained
        scattered through the, country. There has been comparatively
        little friction between these Indians and the Whites.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) gives the population of the Southern
        Paiute, and Northern Paiute together as 7,500 in 1845. In 1906
        there were reported to be 129 Indians at Moapa Reservation, 267
        at Duck Valley, and those not under an agent in Nevada were
        estimated 6 years before to number 3,700, but this includes the
        Northern Paiute; in Utah there were 76 Kaibab, 154 Shivwits, and
        370 not under an agency; and in Arizona there were 350 Paiute,
        under the Western Nevada School Superintendent, altogether
        slightly more than 5,000. Even allowing for the Northem Paiute,
        this figure must be too high or the enumerators of 1910 missed a
        great many Indians, for the census of that date, reports only 780
        Paiute altogether. The Indian Office Report for 1923 gives 226 in
        Nevada and southwestorn Utah, but others in Utah aro onumerated
        with the, Ute. The census of 1930 enumerates 294 exclusive of the
        Chemehuevi. According to the Report of the United States Indian
        Office for 1937, there seem to have been 439 in that year.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The name Paiute has
        becomo identified with the name "Diggers." Both have been used in
        a contemptuous sense. A county of south-central Utah is named
        Paiute.

        Panamint, see Paiute, Northern.

        Pueblo. In historic times none of the Pueblo Indians havo
        occupied any part of Nevada, but remains in the southern section
        of the State testify to former occupancy by these Indians. (See
        New Mexico and Arizona.)

        Shoshoni. The Western Shoshoni occupied northeastern Nevada as
        far as, and including, Reese River Valley. (See Idaho.)

        Ute. The Ute claimed a small part of eastern Nevada. (See Utah.)

        Washo. From the native term Washiu, signifying "person." Also
        called:

        Tsaisuma, name given them hy the northeastern Maidu.

        Connections.- Until recently the Washo were rcgarded as
        constituting a distinct linguistic stock, but it is now believed
        that they were related to some of the tribes of California. J. P.
        Harrington has announced a linguistic connection between them and
        the Chumash, but other students place them in the Hokan
        linguistic family.

                                Subdivisions

        Lowie gives the following:

        Ha'nale'lti, about Woodfords and in Antelope Valley.

        Pa'walu, near Minden and Gardnerville.

        We'lmelti, about Reno.

        Location.- On Truckee River as far down as the Meadows, though
        their right to the latter was disputed by the Northern Paiute
        tribes; Carson River down to the first large canyon below Carson
        City; the borders of Lake Tahoe; and Sierra and other valleys as
        far as the first range south of Honey Lake, Calif.

        History.- There is some evidence that the Washo were once
        established in valleys farther east than the location above given
        and were driven thence by Northern P&iute tribes. In 1860-62,
        according to Mooney (1928), the Northern Paiute conquered them in
        a contest over the site of Carson and forbade them thenceforth to
        own horses. They had little contact with Whites until very recent
        years. In later times they lived between Reno and a point a short
        distance south of Carson City, where they adopted a parasitic
        mode of life, depending almost entirely on the towns and ranches.
        In 1865 it was proposed to set aside two reservations for these
        Indians in Carson and Washoe Valleys, but white settlers had
        already occupied the territory and the plan was abandoned.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) made an ostimate of 1,000 as of 1846.
        In 1859 they numbered about 900. In 1907, 300 were reported. The
        census of 1910 reported 819; that of 1930, 668. In 1937, 629 were
        reported.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The name Washo is
        preserved in the names of Washoe County, Washoe Lake, Washoe
        Valley, and Washoe, a post hamlet, all in Nevada. Another
        locality called Washoe is in Carbon County, Montana.


        

New Hampshire -


        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Abnaki. Parts of Grafton County were occupied by thc Ossipee and
        Pequawket bands, affiliated with the Sokoki of the Abnaki tribe.
        (See Maine.)

        Pennacook. Gerard (Hodge, 1910) says the name is "cognate with
        Abnaki penakuk, or penankuk, `at the bottom of the hill or
        highland,'" but Speck says simply "down hill." Also called:

                Merrimac, from the river of that name.
                Nechegansett, name given by Gookin (1792)
                Owaragees, Iroquois name (fide Colden (1747).

        Connections.- The Pennacook belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        stock, their nearest relatives being the Abnaki, with whom they
        were frequently classed, and thc Penobscot, Passamaquoddy. and
        Malecite.

        Location.- In southern and central New Hampshire, northeastern
        Massachusetts, and the southernmost part of Maine. (See also
        Maine, Massachusetts, and Vermont.)

                         Subdivisions and Villages

        Accominta, at or near the site of York, Maine.

        Agawam, at Ipswich, Mass.

        Amoskeag, at Amoskeag Falls on the Merrimack River.

        Coosuc, a division along Connecticut River between Upper and
        Lower Ammonoosuc Rivers, the principal village apparently near
        the mouth of the latter.

        Nashua, a division along the upper course of Nashua River, the
        village being near Leominster, Mass.

        Naumkeag, at Salem, Mass.

        Nenichawanoc, a division on upper Piscataqua River and Salmon
        Falls River in Maine and New Hampshire, the principal village
        being near Berwick, Maine.

        Pennacook, a division on both banks of Merrimack River above and
        below Concord, the village of the same name being on the site of
        Concord.

        Pentucket, at Haverhill, Mass.

        Pinataqua, on Piscataqua River near Dover.

        Souhegan, a division on Souhegan River, Hillsborough County, with
        the village of the same name probably near Amherst, formerly
        called Souhegan.

        Squamscot, on Exeter River near Exeter, Rockingham County.

        Wachuset, a division on the upper Nashua River, Mass., the
        village of the same name being located probably near Princeton.

        Wamesit, a division on the south bank of Merrimack River below
        the mouth of Concord River, Mass., the village of the same name
        being near Lowell.

        Weshacum, at Weshacum Ponds, near Sterling, Mass.

        Winnecowet, in Rockingham county.

        Winnipesaukee, around the lake of the same name.

        History.- The early history of the Pennacook was like that of the
        Abnaki except that they were earlier affected by the English
        settlements on Massachusetts Bay. In King Philip's War (1675-76)
        the Nashua and Wachuset tribes joined the hostiles, but the
        greater part of the Pennacook, under Wannalancet, remained on
        friendly terms until the treacherous seizure of about 200 of
        their number by Waldron in 1676 They then abandoned their country
        an{l the greater part removed to Canada, where they ultimately
        joined the Abnaki and other Indians of St. Francis. The remainder
        were finally settled at Scaticook, Rensselaer County, N. Y.

        Population.- The number of Pennacook is estimated by Mooney
        (1928) at 2,000 in 1600 and 1,250 in 1676. The remnant is
        included among the 250 St. Francis Indians returned in 1924.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The town of Penacook
        and Lake Penacook, Merrimack County, are named after the
        Pennacook, as well as a branch station of the Concord Post
        Office, and their name also appears in Whittier's poem "The
        Bridal of Pennacook."





        

New Jersey


        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Delaware. The name is derived from that of Delaware River. which
        in turn, was named for Lord Delaware, second governor of
        Virginia. Also called:

                Abnaki or Wabanaki, "Easterners," from their position
        relative to many other Algonquian tribes. (See Abnaki under
        Maine, Wampanoag under Massachusetts, and Wappinger under New
        York.)
                A-ko-tca-ka'nea, "One who stammers in his speech," the
        Mohawk name. The Oneida and Tuscarora names were similar.
                Anakwanoki, Cherokee name, an attempt at Wabanaki.
                Lenni Lenape (their own name), meaning "true men," or
        "standard men".
                Loup, "wolf," so called by the French.
                Mochomes, "grandfather," name given by those Algonquian
        tribes which claimed descent from them.
                Nar-wah-ro, Wichita name.
                Renni Renape, a form of Lenni Lenape.
                Tca-ka'nea, shortened form of Mohawk name given above.
        (The names in the languages of the other four Iroquois tribes are
        about the same).

        Connections.- The Delaware belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        stock, their closest relatives being the Nanticoke, Conoy, and
        Powhatan Indians to the south and the Mahican, Wappinger, and
        southern New England Indians on the north. The dialect of the
        northernmost of their major divisions, the Munsee, differed
        considerably from that of the southern groups.

        Location.- The Delaware occupied all of the State of New Jersey,
        the western end of Long Island, all of Staten and Manhattan
        Islands and neighboring parts of the mainland, along with other
        portions of New York west of the Hudson, and parts of eastern
        Pennsylvania, and northern Delaware. (See also Delaware,
        Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Maryland and the District of Columbia,
        Missouri, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Oklahoma, and the Munsee
        under Kansas, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.)

                                 Subdivisions

        There were three major divisions or subtribes, the Munsee in
        northern New Jersey and adjacent portions of New York west of the
        Hudson, the Unalachtigo in northern Delaware, southeastern
        Pennsylvania, and southern New Jersey, and the Unami in the
        intermediate territory, extending to the western end of Long
        Island. Each comprised a great many minor divisions which it is
        not always easy to classify under the three main heads. As Munsee
        may probably be reckoned the following.

        Catskill, on Catskill Creek, Greene County, N. Y.

        Mamekoting, in Mamakating Valley, west of the Shawangunk
        Mountains, N. Y.

        Minisink, on the headwaters of Delaware River in the southwestern
        part of Ulster and Orange Counties, N. Y., and the adjacent parts
        of New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

        Waranawonkong, in the country watered by the Esopus, Wallkill,
        and Shawangunk Creeks, mainly in Ulster County, N. Y.

        Wawarsink, centered about the junction of Wawarsing and Rondout
        Creeks, Ulster County, N. Y.

        We may class as Unami the following:

             Aquackanonk, on Passaic River, N. J., and lands back from it
        including the tract called Dundee in Passsaic.
             Assunpink, on Stony Creek near Trenton.
             Axion, on the eastem bank of Delaware River between Rancocas
        Creek and Trenton.
             Calcefar, in the interior of New Jersey between Rancocas
        Creek and Trenton.
             Canarsee, in Kings County, Long Island, on the southern end
        of Manhattan Island, and the eastern end of Staten Island, N. Y.
             Gachwechnagechga, on Lehigh River, Pa.
             Hackensack, in the valleys of Hackensack and Passaic Rivers.
             Haverstraw, on the western bank of the lower Hudson, in
        Rockland County, N. Y.
             Meletecunk, in Monmouth County.
             Mosinan, on the eastern bank of Delaware River about
        Trenton.
             Navasink, on the highlands of Navesink, claiming the land
        from Barnegst to the Raritan.
             Pompton, on Pompton Creek.
             Raritan, in the valley of Raritan River and on the left bank
        of Delaware River as far down as the falls at Trenton.
             Reckgawawanc, on the upper part of Manhattan Island and the
        adjacent mainland of New York west of the Bronx.
             Tappan, on the western bank of Hudson River in Rockland
        County, N. Y., and Bergen County.
             Waoranec, near Esopus Creek, Ulster County, N. Y.

        The following may be considered as Unalachtigo, though I am in
        some doubt about the Neshamini:

             Amimenipaty, at site of a large pigment plant of the Du Pont
        Company at Edgemoor, Del.
             Asomoche, on the eastern bank of Delaware River between
        Salem and Camden.
             Chikohoki, at site of Crane Brook Church, on west side of
        Delaware River near its junction with the Christanna River.
             Erinonec, about Old Man's Creek in Salem or Gloucester
        County.
             Hopokohacking, on site now occupied by Wilmington, Del.
             Kahansuk, about Low Creek, Cumberland County.
             Manta, about Salem Creek.
             Memankitonna, on the present site of Claynnont, Del., on
        Naaman's Creek.
             Nantuxet, in Pennsylvania and Delaware.
             Naraticon, in southern New Jersey, probably on Raccoon
        Creek.
             Neshamini, on Neshaminy Creek, Bucks County, Pa.
             Okahoki, on Ridley and Crum Creeks, Delaware County, Pa.
             Passayonk, on Schuylkill River, Pa., and along the western
        bank of Delaware River, perhaps extending into Delaware.
             Shackamaxon, on the site of Kensington, Philadelphia, Pa.
             Siconesse, on the eastern bank of Delaware River a short
        distance above Salem.
             Tirans, on the northern shore of Delaware Bay about Cape May
        or in Cumberland County.
             Yacomanshaghking, on a small stream about the present
        Camden.

                                 Villages

        It will not be practicable to separate the villages belonging to
        the three great divisions in all cases. The following are entered
        in the Handbook of American Indians (Hodge, 1907, 1910):

        Achsinnink, Unalachtigo village on Hocking River, Ohio, about
        1770.

        Ahasimus, probably Unami, in northern New Jersey.

        Alamingo, a village, probably Delaware, on Susquehanna River.

        Allaquippa, possible name of a settlement at the mouth of the
        Youghiogheny River, Pa., in 1755.

        Anderson's Town, on the south side of White River about Anderson,
        Ind.

        Au Glaize, on a southeastern branch of Maumee River, Ohio.

        Bald Eagle's Nest, on the right bank of Bald Eagle Greek near
        Milesburg, Pa.

        Beaversville, near the junction of Buggy Creek and Canadian
        River, Okla.

        Beavertown, on the east side of the extreme eastern head branch
        of Hocking River near Beavertown, Ohio.

        Black Hawk, probably Delaware, about Mount Auburn, Shelby County,
        Ind.

        Black Leg's Village, probably Delaware, on the north bank of
        Conemaugh River in the southeastern part of Armstrong County, Pa.

        Buckstown, probably Delaware, on the southeast side of White
        River, about 3 miles east of Anderson, Ind.

        Bulletts Town, probably Delaware, in Coshocton County, Ohio, on
        Muskingum River about halfway between Walhonding River and
        Tomstown.

        Cashiehtunk, probably Munsee, on Delaware River near the point
        where it is met by the New Jersey State line.

        Catawaweshink, probably Delaware, on or near Susquehanna River,
        near Big Island, Pa.

        Chikohoki, a Manta village on the site of Burlington, Burlington
        County, N. J.

        Chilohocki, probably Delaware, on Miami River, Ohio.

        Chinklacamoose, probably Delaware, on the site of Clearfield, Pa.

        Clistowacka, near Bethlehem, Pa.

        Communipaw, village of the Hackensack, at Communipaw.

        Conemaugh, probably Delaware, about Conemaugh, Pa.

        Coshocton, on the site of Coshocton, Ohio.

        Crossweeksung, in Burlington County, probably about Crosswicks.

        Custaloga's Town, Unalachtigo, two villages, one near French
        Creek, opposite Franklin, Pa., the other on Walhonding River,
        near Killbucks Creek in Coshocton County, Ohio.

        Edgpiiliik, in western New Jersey.

        Erinonee, about Old Man's Creek in Salem or Gloucester County.

        Frankstown, probably Delaware, about Frankstown, Pa.

        Friedenshutten, a Moravian mission town on Susquehanna River a
        few miles below Wyalusing, probably in Wyoming County, Pa.

        Friedensstadt, in Beaver County, Pa., probably near Darlington.

        Gekelemukpechuenk, in Ohio, and perhaps identical with White
        Eyes' Town.

        Gnadenhutten, three Moravian Mission villages, one on the north
        side of Mahoning Creek near its junction with the Lehigh about
        the present Lehighton; a second on the site of Weissport, Carbon
        County, Pa.; and a third on the Muskingum River near the present

        Gnadenhutten, Ohio. (Brinton (1885) says there were two more
        towns of the same name.)

        Goshgoshunk, with perhaps some Seneca, on Allegheny River about
        the upper part of Venango County, Pa.

        Grapevine Town, perhaps Delaware, 8 miles up Captina River,
        Belmont County, Ohio.

        Greentown, on the Black Fork of Mohican River near the boundary
        of Richland and Ashland Counties, Ohio.

        Gweghkongh, probably Unami, in northern New Jersey, near Staten
        Island, or on the neighboring New York mainland.

        Hespatingh, probably Unami, apparently in northern New Jersey,
        and perhaps near Bergen or Union Hill.

        Hickorytown, probably about East Hickory or West Hickory, Pa.

        Hockhocken, on Hocking River, Ohio.

        Hogstown, between Venango and Buffalo Greek, Pa., perhaps
        identical with Kuskuski.

        Jacobs Cabins, probably Delaware, on Youghiogheny River, perhaps
        near Jacobs Creek, Fayette County, Pa.

        Jeromestown, near Jeromesville, Ohio.

        Kalbauvane, probably Delaware, on the headwaters of the west
        branch of Susquehanna River, Pa.

        Kanestio, Delaware and other Indians, on the upper Susquehanna
        River, near Kanestio Creek in Steuben County, N. Y.

        Kanhangton, about the mouth of Chemung River in the northern part
        of Bradford County, Pa.

        Katamoonchink, perhaps the name of a Delaware village near West
        Whiteland, Chester County, Pa.

        Kickenapawling, probably Delaware and Iroquois, at the junction
        of Stony Creek with Conemaugh River, approximately on the site of
        Johnstown, Pa.

        Kiktheswemud, probably Delaware, near Anderson, Ind., perhaps
        identical with Buckstown or Little Munsee Town.

        Killbuck's Town, on the east side of Killbuck Creek, about 10
        miles south of Wooster, Ohio.

        Kishakoquilla, two towns successively occupied by a chief of the
        name, one about Kishacoquillas, Mifflin County, Pa., the other
        on French Creek about 7 miles below Meadville, Crawford County, Pa.

        Kiskiminetas, on the south side of lower Kiskiminetas Creek, near
        its mouth, Westmoreland County, Pa.

        Kiskominitoes, on the north bank of Ohio River between the
        Hocking and Scioto Rivers, Ohio.

        Kittanning, divided into several settlements and mixed with
        Iroquois and Caughnawaga, near Kittanning on Allegheny River,
        Armstrong County, Pa.

        Kohhokking, near "Painted Post" in Steuben County, N. Y., or
        Elmira, Chemung County, N. Y.

        Kuskuski, with Iroquois, on Beaver Creek, near Newcastle, in
        Lawrence County, Pa.

        Languntennenk, Moravian Delaware near Darlington, Beaver County,
        Pa.

        Lawunkhannek, Moravian Delaware on Allegheny River above
        Franklin, Venango County, Pa.

        Lichtenau, Moravian Delaware on the east side of Muskingum River,
        3 miles below Coshocton, Ohio.

        Little Munsee Town, Munsee, a few miles east of Anderson, Ind.

        Macharienkonck, Minisink, in the bend of Delaware River, Pike
        County, Pa., opposite Port Jervis.

        Macocks, some distance north of Chikohoki, which was probably at
        Wilmington, Del., perhaps the village of thc Okahoki in
        Pennsylvania.

        Mahoning, on the west bank of Mahoning River, perhaps between
        Warren and Youngstown, Ohio.

        Mechgachkamic, perhaps Unami, probably near Hackensack, N. J.

        Meggeckessou, on Delaware River at Trenton Falls, N. J.

        Meniolagomeka, on Aquanshicola Creek, Carbon County, Pa.

        Meochkonck, Minisink, on the upper Delaware River in southeastern
        New York.

        Minisink, Minisink, in Sussex County, N. J., near where the State
        line crosses Delaware River.

        Munceytown, Munsee, on Thames River northwest of Brantford,
        Ontario, Canada.

        Muskingum, probably Delaware, on the west bank of Muskingum
        River, Ohio.

        Nain, Moravian Indians, principally Delaware, near Bethlehem, Pa.

        Newcomerstown, village of Chief Newcomer, about the site of New
        Comerstown, Tuscarawas County, Ohio.

        Newtown, the name of three towns probably of the Delaware and
        Iroquois, one on the north bank of Licking River, near the site
        of the present Zanesville, Ohio, a second about the site of
        Newtown, Ohio; and a third on tbe west side of Wills Creek near
        the site of Cambridge, Ohio.

        Nyack, probably Canarsee, about the site of Fort Hamilton, Kings
        County, Long Island, afterward removed to Staten Island.

        Nyack, Unami probably, on the west bank of Hudson River about the
        present Nyack, N. Y.

        Ostonwackin, with Cayuga, Oneida, and other Indians, on the site
        of the present Montoursville, Pa.

        Outaunink, Munsee, on the north bank of White River, opposite
        Muncie, Ind.

        Owl's Town, probably Delaware, on Mohican River, Coshocton
        County, Ohio.

        Pakadasank, probably Munsee, about the site of Crawford, Orange
        County, N. Y.

        Papagonk, probably Munsee, in Ulster County, N. Y,, also placed
        near Pepacton, Delaware County, N. Y.

        Passycotcung, on Chemung River, N. Y.

        Peckwes, Munsee or Shawnee, about 10 miles from Hackensack.

        Pematuning, probably Delaware, near Shenango, Pa.

        Pequottink, Moravian Delaware, on the east bank of Huron River,
        near Milan, Ohio.

        Playwickey, probably Unalachtigo, in Bucks County, Pa.

        Pohkopophunk, in eastern Pennsylvania, probably in Carbon County.

        Queenashawakee, on the upper Susquehanna River, Pa.

        Rarncock, Rancocas, in Burlington County.

        Raystown, (?).

        Remahenone, perhaps Unami, near New York City.

        Roymount, near Cape May.

        Salem, Moravian Delaware, on the west bank of Tuscarawas River, 1
        1/2 miles southwest of Port Washington, Tuscarawas County,
        Ohio.

        Salt Lick, probably Delaware, on Mahoning River near Warren,
        Ohio.

        Sawcunk, with Shawnee and Mingo, near tbe mouth of Beaver Creek,
        about the site of the present Beaver, Pa.

        Sawkin, on the east bank of Delaware River in New Jersey.

        Schepinaikonck, Minisink, perhaps in Orange County, N. Y.

        Schipston, probably Delaware, at the head of Juniata River, Pa.

        Schoenbrunn, Moravian Munsee, about 2 miles below the site of New
        Philadelphia, Ohio.

        Seven Houses, near the ford of Beaver Creek just above its mouth,
        Beaver County, Pa.

        Shackamaxon, on the site of Kensington, Philadelphia, Pa.

        Shamokin, with Shawnee, Iroquois, and Tutelo, on north sides of
        Susquehanna River including the island at the site of Sunbury,
        Pa.

        Shannopin's Town, on Allegheny River about 2 miles above its
        junction with the Monongahela.

        Shenango, with other tribes, the name of several towns, one on
        the north bank of Ohio River a little below Economy, Pa.; one at
        the junction of Conewango and the Allegheny; and one some
        distance up Big Beaver, near Kuskuski (q. v.).

        Sheshequin, with Iroquois, about 6 miles below Tioga Point,
        Bradford County, Pa.

        Soupnapka, on the east bank of Delaware River in New Jersey.

        Three Legs Town, named from a chief, on the east bank of
        Muskingum River a few miles south of the mouth of the Tuscarawas,
        Coshocton County, Ohio.

        Tioga, with Nanticoke, Mahican, Saponi, Tutelo, etc., on the site
        of Athens, Pa.

        Tom's Town, on Scioto River, a short distance below the present
        Chillicothe and near the mouth of Paint Creek, Ohio.

        Tullihas, with Mahican and Caughnawaga, on the west branch of
        Muskingum River, Ohio, about 20 miles above the forks.

        Tuscarawas, with Wyandot, on Tuscarawas River, Ohio, near the
        mouth of Big Sandy River.

        Venango, with Seneca, Shawnee, Wyandot, Ottawa, etc., at the site
        of Franklin, Venango County, Pa.

        Wechquetank, Moravian Delaware, about 8 miles beyond the Plue
        Ridge, northwest from Bethlehem, Pa., probably near the present
        Mauch Chunk.

        Wekeeponall, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River, about the
        mouth of Loyalstock Creek in Lycoming County, Pa., probably
        identical with Queen Esther's Town.

        Walagsmika, on the site of Nazareth, Lehigh County, Pa.

        White-eyes Village, named from a chief, on the site of Duncan's
        Falls, 9 miles below Zanesville, Ohio.

        White Woman's Town, near the junction of Walhonding and Killbuck
        Rivers about 7 miles northwest of the forks of the Muskingum
        River, in Coshocto County, Ohio.

        Will's Town, on the east bank of Muskinyum River at the mouth of
        Wills Creek, Muskingum County, Ohio.

        Woapikamikunk, in the valley of White River, Ind.

        Wyalusing, Munsee and Iroquois, on the site of Wyalusing,
        Bradford County Pa.

        Wyoming, with Iroquois, Shawnee, Mahican, and Nanticoke; later
        entirely Delaware and Munsee; principal settlement at the site of
        Wilkes-Barre, Pa.

        History.- The traditional history of the Delaware set forth in
        the famous Walam Olum (see Brinton, 1882-85, vol. 5), gave them
        an origin somewhere northwest of their later habitat. They were
        found by the earliest white voyagers in the historic seats above
        given. The Dutch came into contact with the Unami and Munsee
        Delaware in 1609 and the Swedes with the Unalachtigo in 1637.
        Both were succeeded by the English in 1664, but the most notable
        event in Delaware history took place in 1682 when these Indians
        held their first council with William Penn at what is now
        Germantown, Philadelphia. About 1720 the Iroquois assumed
        dominion over them and they were gradually crowded west by the
        white colonists, reaching the Allegheny as early as 1724, and
        settling at Wyoming and other points on the Susquehanna about
        1742. In 1751, by invitation of the Huron, they began to form
        villages in eastern Ohio, and soon the greater part of them were
        on the Muskingum and other Ohio streams. Backed by the French and
        by other western tribes, they now freed themselves from Iroquois
        control and opposed the English settlers steadily until the
        treaty of Greenville in 1795. Notable missionary work was done
        among them by the Moravians in the seventeenth and eighteenth
        centuries. About 1770 they received permission from the Miami and
        Piankashaw to settle between the Ohio and White Rivers, Ind. In
        1789, by permission of the Spanish government, a part moved to
        Missouri and later to Arkansas, along with a band of Shawnee, and
        by 1820 they had found their way to Texas. By 1835 most of the
        bands had been gathered on a reservation in Kansas, but in 1867
        the greater part of these removed to the present Oklahoma, where
        some of them occupied a corner of the Cherokee Nation. Others are
        with the Caddo and Wichita in southwestern Oklahoma, a few Munsee
        are with the Stockbridges in Wisconsin, and some are scattered in
        other parts of the United States. In Ontario, Canada, are three
        bands- the Delawares of Grand River, near Hagersville; the
        Moravians of the Thames, near Bothwell; and the Munceys of the
        Thames, near Muncey- nearly all of whom are of the Munsee
        division.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 8,000
        Delaware  in  1600  not including the Canarsee  of  Long  Island;
        estimates made during tbe eighteenth century vary between 2,400
        and 3,000; nineteenth-century estimates are much lower, and the
        United States Census of 1910 returned 914 Delawares and 71
        Munsee, or a total of 985, to which must be added the bands in
        Canada, making perhaps 1,600 all together. 140 Delaware were
        reported on the Wichita Reservation, Okla., in 1937.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Delaware are
        noted as one of the very few tribes which have come to be known
        by an English term, and as one of the chief antagonists of the
        Whites while the latter were forcing their way westward, but in
        later years as furnishing the most reliable scouts in White
        employ. A different sort of fame has been attained by one of
        their early chiefs, Tamenend, whose name, in the form Tammany,
        was applied to a philanthropic society, a place of meeting, and a
        famous political organization. Delaware chiefs signed the famous
        treaty with Penn under the oak at Shackamaxon, and their tribes
        occupied Manhattan Island and the shores of New York Harbor at
        the arrival of the Dutch. The name Delaware has been used for
        postoffices in Arkansas, Iowa, Kentucky, Missouri, New Jersey,
        Ohio, and Oklahoma, besides the State of Delaware. Lenape is a
        post village in Leavenworth County, Kans., and Lenapah in Nowata
        County, Okla.



        

New Mexico


        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Apache. Probably from apachu, "enemy," the Zuni name for the
        Navaho who were designated "Apaches de Nabaju" by the early
        Spaniards in New Mexico. The name has also been applied to
        some Yuman tribes, the Apache Mohave (Yavapai) and the Apache
        Yuma. Also called:

             Ahadje, Havasupai name for at least Tonto and White Mountain
        Apache.
             Ai-a'-ta, Panamint name.
             Atokuwe, Kiowa name.
             Awatch or Awatche, Ute name.
             Chah'-shm, Santo Domingo Keres name.
             Chishye, Laguna name.
             Ha-ma-kaba-mitc kwa-dig, Mohave name, meaning "far-away
        Mohave."
             H'iwana, Taos name.
             Igihua'-a, Havasupai name.
             Inde or N'de, own name.
             Jarosoma, Pima name (from Kino).
             Mountain Comanche, by Yoakum (1855-56).
             Muxtsuhintan, Cheyenne name.
             Oop, Papago name.
             Op, or Awp, Pima name.
             Poanln, Sandia and Isleta name (Hodge, 1895).
             P'onin, Isleta name (Gatschet, MS., B. A. E.).
             Shis-Inday, own name meaning "men of the woods," because
        their winter quarters were always in the forest.
             Ta-ashi, Comanche name, meaning "turned up," and having
        reference to their moccasins.
             Tagui, Old Kiowa name.
             Tagukeresh, Pecos name.
             Tashin, Comanche name (Mooney, 1898).
             Taxkahe, Arapaho name.
             Thah-a-i-nin', Arapaho name, meaning "people who play on
        bone instruments," meaning two bison ribs, one notched, over
        which the other is rubbed.
             Tinna'-ash, Wichita name.
             Tshishe, Laguna name.
             Utce-ci-nyu-muh or Utsaamu, or Yotche-eme, Hopi name.
             Xa-he'-ta-no', Cheyenne name meaning "those who tie their
        hair back."

        Connections.- Together with the Navaho, the Apache constituted
        the western group of the southern division of the Athapascan
        linguistic stock (Hoijer, 1938).

        Location.- In southern New Mexico and Arizona, western Texas,
        and southeastern Colorado, also ranging over much of northern
        Mexico. (See also Kansas, Oklahoma, and Mexico.)

                                 Subdivisions

        On linguistic grounds Hoijer (1938) divides the southern
        Athapascans into two main groups, a western and an eastern. The
        latter includes the Jicarilla, Lipan, and Kiowa Apache, the two
        former being more closely related to each other than either is to
        the Kiowa Apache. In the western group Hoijer again distinguishes
        two major subdivisions, the Navaho, and the San
        Carlos-Chiricahua-Mescalero. The Navaho are always regarded as a
        distinct tribe and will be so treated here. Separate treatment is
        also being given to the Jiearilla, Lipan, and Kiowa Apache.
        The rest of the southern Athapascans will be placed under the
        present head, it being freely admitted at the same time that such
        treatment is mainly a matter of convenience and that it is
        impossible to say how many and what southern Athapascan divisions
        should be given tribal status. What is here called the Apache
        Tribe may be classified as follows with the locations of the
        divisions, basing the scheme on the classifications of Hoijer and
        Goodwin (1935):

        1. San Carlos Group:

        San Carlos proper:

             Apache Peaks Band, in the Apache Mountains, northeast of
        Globe.
             Arivaipa Band, on Arivaipa Creek.
             Pinal Band, between Salt and Gila Rivers in Gila and Pinal
        Counties.
             San Carlos Band, in the region of San Carlos River between
        Cila and Salt Rivers.

        White Mountain Group:

             Eastern White Mountain Band, in the region of the upper Gila
        and Salt Rivers in southeastern Arizona.
             Western White Mountain Band, in the same region between the
        Eastern Band and the San Carlos Band.

        Cibecue Group:

             Canyon Creck Band, centering on Canyon Creck in Gila and
        Navajo Counties.
             Carrizo Band, on Carrizo Creek in Gila County.
             Cibicue Band, on Cibecue Creek between the two last.

        Southern Tonto Croup:

             Mazatzal Band, about the Mazatzal Mountains.

        Six semibands: north of Roosevelt Lake; on the upper Tonto Creek;
        between the upper Tonto and the East Verde; west of the preceding
        between the East Verde, Tonto, and Verde; north of the East
        Verde; and from Cherry Creek to Clear Creek.

        Northern Tonto Group:

             Bald Mountain Band, about Bald Mountain, south of Camp
        Verde.
             Fossil Creek Band, on Fossil Creck between Gila and Yavapai
        Counties.
             Mormon Lake Band, centering on Mormon Lake south of
        Flagstaff.
             Oak Creek Band, about Oak Creek south of Flagstaff.

        2. Chiricahua-Mescalero Group:

        Gilenos Group:

             Chiricahua Band, about the Chiricahna Mountains in
        southwestern Arizona.
             Mimbreno Band, centered in the Mimbres Mountains in
        southwestern New Mexico.
             Mogollon Band, about the Mogollon Mountains in Catron and
        Grant Counties, N. Mex.
             Warm Spring Band, at the head of Gila River.

        Mescalero Group:

        Faraon or Apache Band of Pharaoh, a southern division of the
        Mescalero. Mescalero Band, mainly between the Rio Grande and
        Pecos Rivers, N. Mex.

        The term Querecho, as well as Vaquero, was applied rather
        generally to Apache by the Spaniards but probably more
        particularly to the Mescslero and their allies Under Lianero were
        included Mescalcro, Jicarilla, and even some Comanche. The term
        Coyotero has been applied to some of the San Carlos divisions
        and recently by Murdock (1941) to all.

        History.- The Apache tribes had evidently drifted from the north
        during the prehistoric period, probably along the eastern flanks
        of the Rocky Mountains. When Coronado encountered them in 1540
        under the name Querechos, they were in eastern New Mexico and
        western Texas, and they apparently did not reach Arizona until
        after the middle of the sixteenth century. They were first called
        Apache by Onate in 1598. After that time their history was one
        succession of raids upon the Spanish territories, and after the
        United States Government had supplanted that of Mexico in the
        Southwest, the wars with the Apache constituted some of the most
        sensational chapters in our military annals. Except for some
        Apache in Mexico and a few Lipans with the Tonkawa and Kiowa in
        Oklahoma, these people were finally gathered into reservations in
        New Mexico and Arizona.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that all of the Apache
        proper numbered 5,000 in 1680. The census of 1910 gives 6,119
        Apache of all kinds, excluding only the Kiowa Apache, and the
        Report of the United States Indian Office for 1923 enumerates
        6,630. If an increase has actually occurred, it is to be
        attributed to the captives taken by these people from all the
        surrounding tribes and from the Mexicans. The census of 1930
        returned 6,537 but this includes the Jicarilla and Lipan. The
        Apache proper would number about 6,000. However, the Indian
        Office Report for 1937 gives 6,916 exclusive of the Jicarilla.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Apache is one of the
        best-known Indian tribal names. This is due (1) to the warlike
        character of the people bearing it, (2) to their constant
        depredations along the Spanish and American frontiers, and (3) to
        the severe and difficult fighting made necessary before they were
        forced to give up their ancient raiding proclivities. The word
        has, therefore, been taken over to some extent into literature
        when it is desired to describe fierce and ruthless individuals,
        and in this sense it has been given local application to some of
        the criminal elements of Paris. The name Apache is given to
        villages in Cochise County, Ariz., and Caddo County, Okla., and
        Apache Creek is a place in Catron County, N. Mex.

        Comanche. In the Spanish period, the Comanche raided into and
        across the territory of New Mexico repeatedly. (See Texas.)

        Jemez. Corrupted from Ha'-mish or Hae'-mish, the Keresan name
        of the pueblo. Also spelled Amayes, Ameias, Amejes, Emeges,
        Gemes, etc. Also called:

             Mai-dec-kiz-ne, Navaho name, meaning "wolf neck."
             Tu'-wa, own name of pueblo.
             Uala-to-hua or Walatoa, own name of pueblo, meaning "village
        of the bear. "
             Wong'-ge, Santa Clara and Ildefonso name, meaning "Navaho
        place."

        Connections.- With the now extinct Pecos, the Jemez constituted
        a distinct group of the Tanoan linguistic family now a part of
        the Kiowa-Tanoan stock.

        Location.- On the north bank of Jemez River, about 20 miles
        northwest of Bernalino.

                                Villages

        The following names of villages have been recorded as formerly
        occupied by the Jemez but the list may contain some duplication:

        Amushungkwa, on a mesa west of the Hot Springs, about 12 miles
        north of Jemez pueblo.

        Anyukwinu, north of Jemez pueblo.

        Astialakwa, on the summit of a mesa that separates San Diego and
        Guadalupe Canyons at their mouths.

        Bulitzequa, exact site unknown.

        Catroo, site not identified.

        Ceca, not identified.

        Guatitruti, not identified.

        Guayoguia, not identified.

        Gyusiwa, one-half mile north of Jemez Hot Springs, on a slope
        descending to the river from the east in Sandoval County.

        Hanakwa, not identified.

        Kiashita, in Guadalupe Canyon, north of Jemez pueblo.

        Kiatsukwa, not identified.

        Mecsstria, not identified.

        Nokyuntseleta, not identified.

        Nonyishagi, not identified.

        Ostyalakwa, not identified.

        Patoqua, on a ledge of the mesa which separates Guadalupe nnd San
        Diego Canyons, 6 miles north of Jemez pueblo.

        Pebulikwa, not identified.

        Pekwiligii, not identified.

        Potre, not identified.

        Seshukwa, not identified.

        Setokwa, about 2 miles south of Jemez pueblo.

        Towakwa, not identified.

        Trea, not identified.

        Tyajuindena, not identified.

        Uahatzae, not identified.

        Wabakwa, on a mesa north of Jemez pueblo.

        Yjar, not identified.

        Zolatungzezhii, not identified.

        History.- The Jemez came from the north, according to tradition,
        settling in the valleys of the upper tributaries of the Jemez
        River and at last in the sandy valley of the Jemez proper.
        Castaneda, the chronicler of Coronado's expedition, mentions
        seven towns belonging to the Jemez tribe besides three in the
        region of Jemez Hot Springs. After they had been missionized they
        were induced to abandon their towns by degrees until about 1622
        they became concentrated into the pueblos of Gyusiwa and probably
        Astialakwa. Both pueblos contained chapels, probably dating from
        1618, but before the Pueblo revolt of 1680 Astialakwa was
        abandoned and another pueblo, probably Patoqua, established.
        About the middle of the seventeenth century, in conjunction with
        the Navaho, the Jemez twice plotted insurrection against the
        Spaniards. After the insurrection of 1680 the Jemez were attacked
        by Spanish forces led successively by Otermin, Cruznte, and
        Vargas, the last of whom stormed the mesa in July 1694, killed 84
        Indians, and after destroying Patoqua and two other pueblos,
        returned to Santa Fe with 361 prisoners and a large quantity of
        stores. Gyusiwa was the only Jemez pueblo reoccupied, but in 1696
        there was a second revolt and the Jemez finally fled to the
        Navaho country, where they remained for a considerable time
        before returning to their former home. Then they built their
        present village, called by them Walatoa, "Village of the Bear."
        In 1728, 108 of the inhabitants died of pestilence. In 1782 Jemez
        was made a visita of the mission of Sia. In 1838 they were joined
        by the remnant of their relatives, the Pecos Indians from the
        upper Rio Pecos. Their subsequent history has been uneventful.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the Jemez population at
        2,500 in 1680. In 1890 it was 428; in 1904, 498, including the
        remnant of Pecos Indians; in 1910, 499. In 1930 the entire Tanoan
        stock numbered 3,412. In 1937 the Jemez Indians numbered 648.

        Jicarilla. An Apache tribe which ranged over the northeastern
        corner of New Mexico. (See Colorado.)

        Keresan Pueblos. Keresan is adapted from K'eres, their own
        designation. Also called:

             Biernl'n, Sandia name.
             Cherechos, Onate in 1598.
             Drinkers of the Dew, Zuni traditional name.
             Ing-we-pi'-ran-di-vi-he-man, San Ildefonso Tewa name.
             Pabierni'n, Isleta name.

        Connections.- These Indians constituted an independent stock
        having no affiliations with any other.

        Location.- On the Rio Grande, in north central New Mexico,
        between the Rio de los Frijoles and the Rio Jemez, and on the
        latter stream from the pueblo of Sia to its mouth.

                             Subdivisions and Villages

        The Keresan Indians are divided dialectically into an Eastern
        (Queres) Group and a Western (Sitsime or Kawaiko) Group,
        comprising the following pueblos:

        Eastern (Queres) Group:

             Cochiti, on the west bank of the Rio Grande, 27 miles
        southwest of Santa Fe.
             San Felipe, on the west bank of the Rio Grande about 12
        miles above Bernalillo.
             Santa Ana, on the north bank of the Rio Jemez.
             Santo Domingo, on the east bank of the Rio Grande about 18
        miles above Bernalillo.
             Sia, on the north bank of Jemez River about 16 miles
        northwest of Bernalillo.

        Western (Sitsime or Kawaiko) Group:

             Acoma, on a rock mesa or penol, 357 feet in height, about 60
        miles west of the Rio Grande, in Valencia Gounty.
             Laguna, on the south bank of San Jose River, in Valencia
        County.

        In addition to the above principal towns, we have the following
        ancient towns and later out-villages recorded:

        Former towns of Cochiti and San Felipe:

             At the Potrero de las Vacas.
             At Tyuonyi or Rito de 109 Frijoles.
             Haatze, near the foot of the Sierra San Miguel, about
        Cochiti Pueblo.
             Hanut Cochiti, about 12 miles northwest of Cochiti Pueblo.
             Kuapa, in the Canada da de Cochiti, 12 miles northwest of
        Cochiti Pueblo.

        Former towns of Santo Domingo:

             At the Potrero de la Canada Quemada
             Gipuy, two towns on the bands of the Arroyo de Galisteo,
        more than a mile east of the present station of Thornton; (2)
        west of No. 1.
             Huashpatzena, on the Rio Grande.

        Former towns of Sia:

             Opposite Sia are the ruins of a town called Kakanatzia and
        south of it another called Kohasaya which may have been former
        Sia settlements.
             Former towns of Acoma
             Kashkachuti, location unknown.
             Katzimo or the Enchanted Mesa, about 3 miles northeast of
        the present Acoma Pueblo.
             Kowina, on a low mesa opposite the spring at the head of
        Cebollita Valley, about 15 miles west of Acoma.
             Kuchtya, location unknown.
             Tapitsiama, on a mesa 4 or 5 miles northeast of their
        present pueblo.
             Tslama, the ruins are situated at the mouth of Cahada de la
        Cruz, at or near the present Laguna village of Tsima.

        Later villages:

             Acomita, about 15 miles north of Acoma.
             Heashkowa, about 2 miles southeast of Acoma.
             Pueblito, about 15 miles north of Agoma.

        History.- Like the other Pueblo peoples of New Mexico, the
        Keresims traced their origin to the underworld, whence they had
        emerged at an opening called Shipapu. According to the tradition,
        they afterward drifted south slowly to the Rio Grande, where they
        took up their residence in the Rito de 109 Frijoles, or Tyuonyi,
        and constructed the cliff dwellings found there today excavated
        in the friable volcanic tufa. Long before the coming of
        Europeans, they had abandoned the Rito and moved farther south,
        separating into a number of autonomous village communities.
        Coronado, who visited them in 1540, reported seven of these. In
        1583 Espejo encountered them and in 1598 Onate. Missions were
        established in most of the principal towns early in the
        seventeenth century, but they were annihilated and Spanish
        dominion temporarily brought to an end by the great Pueblo
        rebellion of 1680, which was not finally quelled until about the
        end of the eighteenth century. Afterward, missionary work was
        resumed but without pronounced success, while the native
        population itself gradually declined in numbers. Although some of
        the most conservative pueblos belong to this group, they will not
        be able indefinitely to resist the dissolving force of American
        civilization in which they are immersed.

        Population.- In 1760 there were 3,956 Keresans; In 1790-93,
        4,021; in 1805, 3,653; in 1850, 3,342; in 1860, 2,676; in 1871,
        3,317; in 1901-5, 4,249; in 1910, 4,027; in 1930, 4,134; in 1937,
        5,781.

        Kiowa. The Kiowa raided into and across New Mexico in the Spanish
        and early American period. (See Oklahoma.)

        Kiowa Apache. The Kiowa Apache were an Athapascan tribe
        incorporated into and accompanying the Kiowa. (See Oklahoma.)

        Lipan. The Lipan were the easternmost of the Apache tribes. (See
        Apache and also Texas.)

        Manso. A Spanish word meaning "mild." Also called:

             Gorretss, by Zarate-Salmeron.
             Lanos, by Perea (1632-33).

        Connections.- The Manso belonged to the Tanoan division of the
        Kiowa-Tanoan linguistic stock.

        Location.- About Mesilla Valley, in the vicinity of the present
        Las Cruces, N. Mex.

                                 Villages

        The mission of Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe de los Mansos was
        founded among them but none of the native names of their villages
        are known.

        History- Shortly before the appearance of the Spaniards in their
        country, the Manso lived in substantial houses like the Pueblo
        Indians generally but changed these to dwellings of reeds and
        wood. They were relocated at a spot near El Paso in 1659 by Fray
        Garcia de San Francisco, who established the above-mentioned
        mission among them. The remnant of the Manso are now associated
        in one town with the Tiwa and Piro.

        Population.- In 1668, when the mission of Nuestra Senora de
        Guadalupe de los Mansos was dedicated, Vetancourt states that it
        contained upward of 1,000 parishioners. Very few of Manso blood
        remain.

        Navaho, Navajo. From Tewa Navahu, referring to a large area of
        cultivated land and applied to a former Tewa pueblo, and by
        extension to the Navaho, known to the Spaniards as "Apaches de
        Navajo," who intruded on the Tewa domain or who lived in the
        vicinity, to distinguish them from other so-called Apache bands.
        Also called:

             Bagowits, Southern Ute name.
             Dacabimo, Hopi name.
             Davaxo, Kiowa Apache name.
             Dine', own name.
             Djene, Laguna name.
             Hua'amhu'u, Havasupai nnme.
             I'hl-dene, Jicarilla name.
             Moshome, Keresan name.
             Oop, Oohp, Pima name.
             Pagowitch, southern Ute name, meaning "reed knives."
             Ta-cab-ci-nyu-muh, Hopi name.
             Ta'hli'mnin, Sandia name.
             Tasamewa, Hopi name (Ten Kate, 1885) meaning "bastards."
             Te'liemnim, Isleta name.
             Tenye, Laguna name.
             Wild Coyotes, Zuni nickname translated.
             Yabipais Nsbajay, Garces (1776).
             Yatilatlavi, Tonto name.
             Yoetaha or Yutaha, Apache name, meaning "those who live on
        the border of the Ute."
             Yu-i'-ta, Panamint name.
             Yutilap, Yavapai name.
             Yutilatlawi, Tonto name

        Connections.- With the Apache tribes, the Navaho formed the
        southern division of the Athapascan linguistic family.

        Location.- In northern New Mexico and Arizona with some extension
        into Colorado and Utah.

        History.- Under the loosely applied name Apache there may be a
        record of this tribe as early as 1598 but the first mention of
        them by the name of Navaho is by Zarate-Salmeron about 1629.
        Missionaries were among them about the middle of the eighteenth
        century, but their labors seem to have borne no fruits. For many
        years previous to the occupation of their country by the United
        States, the Navaho kept up an almost constant predatory war with
        the Pueblo Indians and the White settlers. A revolution in their
        economy was brought about by the introduction of sheep. Treaties
        of peace made by them with the United States Government in 1846
        and 1849 were not observed, and in 1863, in order to put a stop
        to their depredations, Col. "Kit" Carson invaded their country,
        killed so many of their sheep as to leave them without means of
        support, and carried the greater part of the tribe as prisoners
        to Fort Sumner and the Bosque Redondo on the Rio Pecos. They were
        restored to their country in 1867 and given a new supply of sheep
        and goats, and since then they have remained at peace and
        prospered greatly, thanks to their flocks and the sale of their
        famous blankets.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 8,000 Navaho
        in 1680. In 1867 an incomplete enumeration gave 7,300. In 1869
        there were fewer than 9,000. The census of 1890, taken on a
        faulty system, gave 17,204. The census of 1900 returned more than
        20,000 and that of 1910, 22,455. The report of the United States
        Indian Office for 1923 gives more than 30,000 on the various
        Navaho reservations, and the 1930 census 39,064, while the Indian
        Office Report for 1937 entered 44,304.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- This tribe has
        acquired considerable fame from its early adoption of a shepherd
        life after the introduction of sheep and goats, and from the
        blankets woven by Navaho women and widely known to collectors and
        connoisseurs. The name has become affixed, in the Spanish form
        Navajo, to a county, creek, and spring in Arizona; a post village
        in Apache County, Ariz.; a mountain in New Mexico; and a place in
        Daniels County, Mont. In southwestern Oklahoma is a post village
        known as Navajoe. The tribe has attracted an unusual amount of
        attention from ethnologists and from writers whose interests are
        purely literary.

        Pecos. From P'e'-a-ku', the Keresan name of the pueblo. Also
        called:

             Acuye, Cicuye, probably the name of a former pueblo,
        Tshiquite or Tgiquite.
             Aqiu, Pecos and Jemez name.
             Hiokuo'k, Isleta Tiwa name
             K'ok'-o-ro-t'u'-yu, Pecos name of pueblo.
             Los Angeles, mission name.
             Nuestra Senora de los Angeles de Porciuncula, full church
        name.
             Paego, Keresan name of Pueblo.
             Paequiu or Paequiuala, Keresan name of tribe.
             P'a-qu-lah, Jemez name.
             Peahko, Santa Ana name.
             Peakuni, Laguna name of Pueblo.
             Tamos, from Espejo.

        Connections.- The Pecos belonged to the Jemez division of the
        Tanoan linguistic family, itself a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan
        stock.

        Location.- On an upper branch of Pecos River, about 30 miles
        southeast of Santa Fe.

                                Villages

        The following are names of ruined Pecos villages:

             Kuuanguala, a few miles southeast of Pecos, near Arsoyo
        Amarillo, at the present site of Rowe.
             Pomojoua, near San Antonio del Pueblo, 3 miles southeast of
        San Miguel, San Miguel County.
             San Jose, modern Spanish name of locality.
             Seyupa, a few miles southeast of Pecos, at the site of the
        village of Fulton, San Miguel County.
             Tonchuun, 5 miles southeast of Pecos Pueblo.

        History.- According to tradition, the Pecos came originally from
        some place to the north of their historic seats, but their last
        migration was from the southeast where they occupied successively
        the now ruined pueblos at San Jose and Kingman before locating at
        their final settlement. Pecos was first visited by Coronado in
        1540 and afterward by Espejo in 1583, Castaho de Sosa in 1590-91,
        and Onate in 1598. During the governorship of Onate, missionaries
        were assigned to Pecos, and the great church, so long a landmark
        of the Santa Fe Trail, was erected about 1617. The town suffered
        severely from attacks of the Apache of the Plains and afterward
        from the Comanche. In the Pueblo revolts of 1680-96 it took an
        active part and suffered proportionately. In 1782 the Pecos
        mission was abandoned, the place becoming a visita of Santa Fe. A
        few years later nearly every man in the Pecos tribe is said to
        have been killed in a raid by the Comanche, epidemics decreased
        the numbers of the remainder, and in 1838, the old town of Pecos
        was abandoned. The 17 surviving Pecos Indians moved to Jamez,
        where their descendants still live.

        Population.- At the time of Coronado's visit in 1540 the
        population was estimated as 2,000-2,500. In 1630 and 1680 there
        were 2,000 Pecos; in 1760, 599 (including Galisteo); in 1790-93,
        152; in 1805, 104; in 1838, 17; in 1910, 10.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Pecos seems
        assured of permanent preservation as applied to Pecos River,
        Tex., the largest branch of the Rio Grande, as well as to Pecos
        County, Tex., and its principal town, and also to a place in San
        Miguel County, New Mex., adjacent to the ruins of the aboriginal
        village. The latter are well known as a result of the
        archeological work done there by Dr. A. V. Eidder for the
        Department of Archeology, Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass.

        Piro Pueblos. Significance of Piro unknown. Also called:

             Nortenos, "northerners" in Spanish, because inhabiting the
        region of El Paso del Norte (may also refer to Tiwa).
             Tukahun, Isleta Tiwa name for all pueblos below their
        village, meaning "southern pueblos."

        Connections.- They were a division of the Tanoan linguistic
        family, which in turn is a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan stock.

        Location and major subdivisions.- In the early part of the
        seventeenth century the Piro comprised two divisions, one
        inhabiting the Rio Grande Valley from the present town of San
        Marcial, Socorro County, northward to within about 50 miles of
        Albuquerque, where the Tiwa settlements began; and the other,
        sometimes called Tompiros and Salineros, occupying an area east
        of the Rio Grande in the vicinity of the salt lagoons, or
        salinas, where they adjoined the eastern group of Tiwa
        settlements on the south.

                                  Towns

        Abo, on the Arroyo del Empedradillo, about 25 miles east of the
        Rio Grande and 20 miles south of Manzano, in Valencia County

        Agua Nueva, on the Rio Grande between Socorro and Servilleta.

        Alamillo, on the Rio Grande about 12 miles north of Socorro.

        Barrancas, on the Rio Grande near Socorro.

        Qualacu, on the east bank of the Rio Grande near the foot of the
        Black Mesa, on or near the site of San Marcial.

        San Felipe, on the Rio Grande, probably near the present San
        Marcial, Socorro County.

        San Pascual, on the east bank of the Rio Grande, opposite the
        present San Antonio village, Socorro County

        Senecu, on the west bank of the Rio Grande, at the site of the
        present village of San Antonio, 13 miles below Socorro.

        Senecu del Sur (also Tiwa), on the southeast bank of the Rio
        Grande, a few miles below El Paso, in Chihuahua, Mexico.

        Sevilleta, on the east bank of the Rio Grande about 20 miles
        above Socorro.

        Socorro or Pilabo, on the site of the present Socorro.

        Socorro del Sur, on both sides of the Rio Grande a few miles
        below El Paso, Tex.

        Tabira, at the southern apex of the Mesa de log Jumanos,
        northeast of the present Socorro.

        Tenabo, probably at the Siete Arroyos, northeast of Socorro and
        east of the Rio Grande.

        Teypana, nearly opposite the present town of Socorro, on the east
        bank of the Rio Grande, in Socorro County.

        Tenaquel (?).

        Following are names of deserted pueblos near the lower Rio Crande
        which were also in all probability occupied by the Piro:

        Amo.                        Pueblo de la Parida, same location as
        Aponitre.                   Pueblos Blanco and Colorado.
        Aquicsbo.                   Pueblo del Alto, on
                                      the east side of the Rio Grande,
        Atepua.                       6 miles south of Belen.
        Ayqui.                      Queelquelu.
        Calciati.                   Quialpo.
        Canocan.                    Quiapo.
        Cantensapue.                Quiomaquf.
        Cunquilipinoy.              Quiubaco.
        Encaquiagualaaca.           Tecahanqualahamo.
        Huertas, 4 miles            Teeytraan.
          below Socorro.
        Peixoloe.                   Tercao.
        Pencoana.                   Texa.
        Penjeacu.                   Teyaxa.
        Pesquis.                    Trelagu.
        Peytre.                     Trelaquepu.
        Polooca.                    Treyey.
        Preguey.                    Treypual.
        Pueblo Blanco, on the       Trula.
           west rim of the Medano,
           or great sand-flow,
           east of the              Tuzahe.
           Rio Grande.
                                    Vumahein.

        Pueblo Colorado, same       Yancomo.
           locationas Pueblo
           Blanco.                  Zumaque.

        The following deserted pueblos were inhabited either by the Piro
        or the Tiwa:

        Acoli.                           Axauti.
        Agpey.                           Chein.
        Alie.                            Cizentetpi.
        Amaxa.                           Couna.
        Apena.                           Dhiu.
        Atuyama.                         Hohota.
        Mejia, 5 leagues below Isleta.   San Francisco, on the lower
                                           Rio Grande between
        Quanquiz.                          El Paso, Tex, and San
        Salineta, 4 leagues from           Lorenzo.
          Guadelupe Mission at
          El Paso, Tex.                  Xatoe.
        San Bautista, on the
          Rio Grande, 16                 Xiamela (?).
          miles below Sevilleta.         Yonalus.

        All the above pueblos not definitely located were probably
        situated in the Salinas in the vicinity of Abo.

        History.- The western or Rio Grande branch of the Piro was
        visited by members of Coronado's Expedition in 1540, by
        Chamuscado in 1580, by Espejo in 1583, by Onate in 1598, and by
        Santa Fe to the mouth of the Rio Chama, including also Hano; and
        began in 1626, and the efforts of the monks combined with the
        threats of Apache raids to induce the Indians to concentrate into
        a smaller number of towns. The first actual mission work among
        the Piros of the Salinas began in 1629 and was prosecuted
        rapidly, but before the Pueblo rebellion of 1680 Apache raids had
        become so numerous that all of the villages of the Salinas region
        and Senecu on the Rio Grande were abandoned. The Piro were not
        invited to take part in the great rebellion and when Governor
        Otermin retreated to El Paso nearly all of them joined him, while
        the few who remained subse quently scattered. Those who
        accompanied the governor were settled at Senecu del Sur and
        Socorro del Sur, where their descendants became largely
        Mexicanized.

        Population.- The Piro populntion was estimated at 9,000 early in
        the sixteentb century, but is non about 60. (See Tewa.)

        Pueblo Indians. A general name for those Indians in the Southwest
        who dwelt in stone buildings as opposed to the tribes living in
        more fragile shelters, pueblo being the word for "town" or
        "village" in Spanish. It is not a tribal or even a stock name,
        since the Pueblos belonged to four distinct stocks. Following is
        the classification of Pueblos made by F. W. Hodge (1910) except
        that the Kiowa have since been connected with the Tanoans and a
        few minor changes have been introduced:

        Kiow-Tanoan linguistic stock:

         Tewa Group:

               Northern Division: Nambe, Tesuque, San Ildefonso, San
        Juan, Santa Clara, Pojoaque (recently extinct), Hano.
               Southern Division: Tano (practically extinct) .

         Tiwa Group: Isleta, Isleta del Sur (Mexicanized), Sandia, Taos,
        Picuris.

        Jemez Group: Jemez, Pecos (extinct)

        Piro Group: Senecu, Senecu del Sur (Mexicanized).

        Keresan linguistic stook:

        Eastern Group: San Felipe, Santa Ann, Sia, Cochiti, Santo
        Domingo.

        Western Group: Acoma, Laguna, and outlying villages.

        Zuhian linguistic stock:

        Zuffi Group: Zuni and its outlving villages.

        Shoshonean linguistic stock, part of the Uto-Aztecan stock:

        Hopi Group: Walpi, Sichomovi, Mishongnovi, Shipaulovi,
        Shongopovi, Oraibi.

        The Pueblo Indians in New Mexico are being considered at length
        under the following heads: Jemez, Keresan Pueblos, Piro Pueblos,
        Tewa Pueblos, Tiwa Pueblos, and Zuni; the Hopi are considered
        under Arizona. (See also Colorado, Nevada, and Texas.)

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Pueblo Indians
        have become famous from the fact that, unlike all of their
        neighbors, they lived in communal stone houses and in stone
        dwellings perched along the canyon walls; from their peculiar
        customs and ceremonies, such as the Snake Dance; and from their
        real and supposed connection with the builders of the stone ruins
        with which their country and neighboring parts of the Southwest
        abound. In recent years they have been subjects of interest to
        artists and writers and an attempt has been made to base a style
        of architecture upon the type of their dwellings. They are of
        historic interest as occupants of one of the two sections of the
        United States first colonized by Europeans.

        Shuman. The Shuman lived at various times in or near the southern
        and eastern borders of New Mexico. (See Texas.)

        Tewa Pueblos. The name Tewa is from a Kercs uord meaning
        "moccasins. " Also called:

             Tu'-ba-na, Taos name.
             Tu'-ven, Isleta and Sandia name.

        Connections.- They constituted a major division of the Tanoan
        linguistic family, itself a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan stock.

        Location.- Along the valley of the Rio Grande in the northern
        part of Nen Mexico, except for one pueblo, Hano, in the Hopi
        country, Arizona.

                             Subdivisions

        They consisted of two main branches, the Northern Tewa, from near
        Santa Fe to the mouth of the Rio Chama, including also Hano; and
        the Southern Tewa or Tano, from Santa Fe to the neighborhood of
        Golden, back from the Rio Grande.

                                Towns

        Northern Tewa towns nnd villages still occupied:

             Hano, the easternmost pueblo of Tusayan, Ariz.
             Nambe, about 16 miles north of Santa Fe, on Nambe River, a
        small tributary of the Rio Grande.
             San Ildefonso, near the eastern bank of the Rio Grande,
        about 18 miles northwest of Santa Fe.
             San Juan, near the eastern bank of the Rio Grande 25 miles
        northwest of Santa Fe.
             Santa Clara, on the western bank of the Rio Grande, about 30
        miles above Santa Fe.
             Tesuque, 8 miles north of Santa Fe.

        Towns and villages formerly occupied by the Northern Tewa:

             Abechiu, at a place called Le Puente, on a bluff close to
        the southern bank of Rio Chams, 3 miles southeast of the present
        town of Abiquiu, Rio Arriba County.
             Agawano, in the mountains about 7 miles east of the Rio
        Grande, on Rio Santa Cruz.
             Analco, at the place where there is now the so-called
        "oldest house," adjacent to San Miguel Chapel, in Santa Fe.
             Axol, location uncertain.
             Camitria, in Rio Arriba County.
             Chipiinuinge, on a small but high detached mesa between the
        Canones and Polvadera Creek, 4 miles south of Chama and about 14
        miles southwest of Abiquiu, Rio Arriba County.
             Chipiwi, location uncertain.
             Chupadero, location uncertain.
             Cuyamunque, on Tesuque Creek, between Tesuque and Pojoaque,
        about 15 miles northwest of Santa Fe.
             Fejiu, at the site of the present Abiquiu on the Rio Chama,
        Rio Arriba County.
             Fesere, on a mesa west or south of the Rio Chama, near
        Abiquiu, Rio Arriba County.
             Homayo, on the west bank of Rio Ojo Caliente, a small
        western tributary of the Rio Grande, in Rio Arriba County.
             Howiri, at the Rito Colorado, about 10 miles west of the Hot
        Springs, near Abiquiu, Rio Arriba County.
             Ihnmba, on the south side of Pojoaque River, between
        Pojoaque and San Ildefonso Pueblos.
             Jacona, a short distance west of Nambe, on the south side of
        Pojoaque River, Santa Fe County.
             Junetre, in Rio Arriba County.
             Kaayu, in the vicinity of the "Santuario" in the mountains
        about 7 miles east of the Rio Grande, on Rio Santa Cruz, Santa Fe
        County.
             Keguayo, in the vicinity of the Chupaderos, a cluster of
        springs in a mountain gorge, about 4 miles east of Nambe Pueblo.
             Kuapooge, with Analco occupying the site of Santa Fe.
             Kwengyauinge, on a conical hill about 15 feet high,
        overlooking Chama River, at a point known as La Puenta, about 3
        miles below Abiquiu, Rio Arriba County.
             Luceros, partially Tewa.
             Navahu, in the second valley south of the great pueblo and
        cliff village of Puye, west of Santa Clara Pueblo, in the
        Pajarito Park.
             Navawi, between the Rito de 109 Frijoles and Santa Clara
        Canyon, southwest of San Ildefonso.
             Otowi, on a mesa about 5 miles west of the point where the
        Rio Grande enters White Rock Canyon, between the Rito de los
        Frijoles and Santa Clara Canyon, in the northeastern corner of
        Sandoval County.
             Perage, a few rods from the west bank of the Rio Grande,
        about 1 mile west of San Ildefonso Pueblo.
             Pininicangui, on a knoll in a valley about 2 miles south of
        Puye and 3 miles south of Santa Clara Creek, on the Pajarito
        Plateau, Sandoval County.
             Pojiuuingge, at La Joya, about 10 miles north of San Juan
        Pueblo.
             Pojoaque, on a small eastern tributary of the Rio Grande,
        about 18 miles northwest of Santa Fe.
             Ponyinumbu, near the Mexican settlement of Santa Cruz, in
        the northern part of Santa Fe County.
             Ponyipakuen, near Ojo Caliente and El Rito, about the
        boundary of Taos and Rio Arriba Counties.
             Poseuingge, at the Rito Colorado, about 10 miles west of the
        hot springs near Abiquiu.
             Potzuye, on a mesa west of the Rio Grande in northern New
        Mexico, between San Ildefonso Pueblo on the north and the Rito de
        los Frijoles on the south.
             Pueblito, opposite San Juan Pueblo, on the west bank of the
        Rio Grande in Rio Arriba County.
             Pueblo Quemado (or Tano), 6 miles southwest of Santa Fe.
             Puye, on a mesa about 10 miles west of the Rio Grande and a
        mile south of Santa Clara Canyon, near the intersection of the
        boundaries of Rio Arribs, Sandoval, and Santa Fe Counties.
             Sajiuwingge, at La Joya, about 10 miles north of San Juan
        Pueblo, Rio Arriba County.
             Sakeyu on a mesa west of the Rio Grande in northern New
        Mexico, between San Ildefonso Pueblo and Rito de los Frijoles.
             Sandia, not the Tiwa pueblo of that name.
             Santa Cruz, east of the Rio Grande, 30 miles northwest of
        Santa Fe, at the site of the present town of that name.
             Sepawi, in the valley of El Rito Creek, on the heights above
        the Ojo Caliente of Joseph, and 5 miles from the Mexican
        settlement of El Rito.
             Shufina, on a castle-like mesa of tufa northwest of Puye and
        separated from it by Santa Clara Canyon.
             Teeuinge, on top of the mesa on the south side of Rio Chama,
        about 1/4 mile from the river and an equal distance below the
        mouth of Rio Oso, in Rio Arriba County.
             Tejeuingge Ouiping, on the southern slope of the hills on
        which stands the present pueblo of San Juan, on the Rio Grande.
             Tobhipangge, 8 miles northeast of the present Nambe Pueblo.
             Triapf, location uncertain.
             Triaque, location uncertain.
             Troomaxiaquino, in Rio Arriba County.
             Tsankawi, on a lofty mesa between the Rito de los Frijoles
        on the south and Los Alamos Canyon on the north, about 5 miles
        west of the Rio Grande.
             Tsawarii, at or near the present hamlet of La Puebla, or
        Pueblito, a few miles above the town of Santa Cruz, in
        southeastern Rio Arriba County.
             Tseweige, location uncertain.
             Tshirege, on the northern edge of the Mesa del Pajarito
        about 6 miles west of the Rio Grande and 7 miles south of San
        Ildefonso Pueblo.
             Yugeuingge, on the west bank of the Rio Grande, opposite the
        present pueblo of San Juan, near the site of the village of
        Chamita.

        The following extinct villages are either Tewa or Tano:

             Chiuma, location uncertain.
             Guia, on the Rio Grande in the vicinity of Albuquerque.
             Guika, on the Rio Grande near Albuquerque.
             Penas Negras, on an eminence west of Pecos Road, near the
        edge of a forest, 8 miles south-southeast of Santa Fe.

        The following were inhabited by either the Tiwa or the Tewa:

             Axoytre, perhaps the same as Axol above?
             Camitre, perhaps the same as Camitria above?
             Paniete, location uncertain.
             Piamato, location uncertain.
             Quiotraco, probably in Rio Arriba County.

        So far as known the following pueblos belonged to the Southern
        Tawa:

             Cienega (also contained Keresan Indians), in the valley of
        Rio Santa Fe, 12 miles southwest of Santa Fe.
             Dyapige, southeast of Lamy, "some distance in the
        mountains."
             Galisteo, 1 1/2 miles southeast of the present hamlet of the
        name and about 22 miles south of Santa Fe.
             Guika (or Tewa), on the Rio Grande near Albuquerque.
             Kayepu, about 5 miles south of Galisteo, Santa Fe County.
             Kipana, south of the hamlet of Tejon, in Sandoval County.
             Kuakaa, on the south bank of Arroyo Hondo, 5 miles south of
        Santa Fe.
             Ojana, south of the hamlet of Tejon, Sandoval County.
             Paako, south of the mining camp of San Pedro, Santa Fe
        County.
             Pueblo Blanco, on the west rim of the Medano, or great
        sand-flow, east of the Rio Grande.
             Pueblo Colorado, on the south border of the Galisteo plain.
             Pueblo de los Silos, in the Galisteo Basin, between the
        Keresan pueblos of the Rio Grande and Pecos.
             Pueblo Largo, about 5 miles south of Galisteo.
             Pueblo Quemado (or Tewa), 6 miles southwest of Santa Fe.
             Puerto (or Keresan).
             San Cristobal, between Galisteo and Pecos.
             San Lazaro, 12 miles southwest of the present Lamy, on the
        south bank of the Arroyo del Chorro, Santa Fe County.
             San Marcos, 18 miles south-southwest of Santa Fe.
             Sempoai, near Golden, Santa Fe County.
             She, about 5 miles south of Galisteo in Santa Fe County.
             Tuerto, near the present Golden City, Santa Fe County.
             Tungge, on a bare slope near the banks of a stream called in
        the mountains farther south Rio de San Pedro; lower down, Uha de
        Gato; and in the vicinity of the ruins Arroyo del Tunque, at the
        northeastern extremity of the Sandia Mountains, in Sandoval
        County.
             Tzemantuo, about 5 miles south of Galisteo, Santa Fe County.
             Tzenatay, opposite the little settlement of La Bajada, on
        the declivity sloping from the west toward the bed of Santa Fe
        Creek, 6 miles east of the Rio Grande and 20 miles southwest of
        Santa Fe.
             Uapige, east of Lamy Station on the Atchison, Topeka, and
        Santa Fe Railway, some distance in the mountains.

        History.- When Coronado passed through the southern end of Tewa
        territory in 1540, he found it had been nearly depopulated by the
        Teya, a warlike Plains tribe, perhaps Apache, about 16 years
        before. The Tewa were next visited by Espejo. In 1630 there were
        but five Southern Tewa towns remaining and those were entirely
        broken up during the Pueblo revolts of 1680-96, most of the
        Indians removing to the Hopi in Arizona, after 1694. The greater
        part of the remainder were destroyed by smallpox early in the
        nineteenth century, though there are still a few descendants of
        this group living in the other pueblos along the Rio Grande,
        particularly Santo Domingo. The history of the Northern Tewa was
        similar to that of the Southern but they suffered much less and
        remain a considerable body at the present day though with a
        stationary population. The Pueblo of Hano was established among
        the Hopi as a result of the rebellion of 1680-92.

        Populations.- The population of the Northern Tewa is given as
        follows: In 1680, 2,200; in 1760, 1,908; in 1790-93, 980; in
        1805, 929; in 1850, 2,025; in 1860, 1,161; in 1871, 979, in
        1901-05, 1,200; in 1910, 968. In 1930 the entire Tanoan stock
        numbered 3,412. In 1937, 1,708 were returned from the Tewa
        excluding the Hano, which were enumerated with the Hopi.

        In 1630 Benavides estimated the Southern Tewa population at
        4,000; in 1680 Galisteo, probably including San Cristobal, had an
        estimated population of 800 and San Marcos of 600. No later
        separate figures are available.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Tano, the
        alternative name of the Southern Tewa, has been used as a
        designation of the stock to which the entire group -- Tewa, Tiwa,
        Piro, Pecos, and Jemez -- belong, a stock now merged with the
        Kiowa-Tanoan.

        Tiwa Pueblos. The name Tiwa is from Ti'wan, pl. Tiwesh', their
        own name. Also spelled Tebas, Tigua, Tiguex, Tihuas, Chiguas.
        Also called:

             E-nagh-magh, a name given by Lane (in Schoolcraft, 1851-57)
        to the language of "Taos, Picuris, Tesuqua, Sandia," etc.

        Connection.- The Tiwa Pueblos are a division of the Tanoan
        linguistic family, itself a part of the Kiowa-Tanoan stock.

        Location and Subdivisions.- The Tiwa Pueblos formed three
        geographic divisions, one occupying Taos and Picuris (the most
        northerly of the New Mexican Pueblos), on the upper waters of the
        Rio Grande; another inhabiting Sandia and Isleta, north and south
        of Albuquerque respectively; and the third living in the pueblos
        of Isleta del Sur and Senecu del Sur, near El Paso, Tex., in
        Texas and Chihuahua, Mexico, respectively.

                            Towns and Villages
                            (As far as known)

        Alameda, on the east side of the Rio Grande about 10 miles above
        Albuquerque.

        Bejuftuuy, near the southern limit of the Tiwa habitat on the Rio
        Grande, at the present Los Lunas.

        Carfaray, supposed to have been east of the Rio Grande beyond the
        saline lakes.

        Chilili, on the west side of the Arroyo de Chilili, about 30
        miles southeast of Albuquerque.

        Isleta, on the west bank of the Rio Grande about 12 miles south
        of Albuquerque.

        Isleta del Sur, on the northeast side of the Rio Grande, a short
        distance below El Paso, Tex.

        Kuaua, north of the present bridge across the Rio Grande above
        Bernalillo.

        Lentes, on the west bank of the Rio Grande near Los Lunas.

        Manzano, near the present village so called, 6 miles northwest of
        Quarai and about 25 miles east of the Rio Grande.

        Mojualuna, in the mountains above the present Taos Pueblo.

        Nabatutuei, location unknown.

        Nachurituei, location unknown.

        Pahquetooai, location unknown.

        Picuris, inhabited, about 40 miles north of Santa Fe.

        Puaray, on a gravelly bluff overlooking the Rio Grande in front
        of the southern portion of the town of Bernalillo.

        Puretuay, on the summit of the round mesa of Shiemtuai, or Mesa
        de las Padillas, 3 miles north of Isleta.

        Quarai, about 30 miles straight east of the Rio Grande, in the
        eastern part of Valencia County.

        San Antonio, east of the present settlement of the same name,
        about the center of the Sierra de Gallego, or Sierra de Carnue,
        between San Pedro and Chilili, east of the Rio Grande.

        Sandia, inhabited, on the east bank of the Rio Grande, 12 miles
        north of Albuquerque.

        Santiago, probably about 12 1/2 miles above Bernalillo, on the
        Mesa del Cangelon.

        Senecu del Sur, including Piro Indians, on the southeastern bank
        of the Rio Grande, a few miles below El Paso, in Chihuahua,
        Mexico.

        Shumnac, east of the Rio Grande in the vicinity of the present
        Mexican settlements of Chilili, Tajique, and Manzano.

        Tajique, about 30 miles northeast of Belen, close to the present
        settlement of the same name, on the southern bank of the Arroyo
        de Tajique.

        Taos, inhabited, on both sides of Taos River, an eastern
        tributary of the Rio Grande, in Taos County.

               The following pueblos now extinct were probably also Tiwa:

        Locations entirely unknown:          Locations known:

         Acacafui.                  Ranchos, about 3 miles from Taos
         Guayotrf.                      Pueblo.
         Henicohio.                 Shinana, on the Rio Grande near
         Leyvia.                        Albuquerque.
         Paniete.                   Tanques, also on the Rio Grande near
         Poxen.                         Albuquerque.
         Trimati.                   Torreon, at the modern town of the
         Tuchiamas.                     same name, about 28 miles east of
         Vareato                        Belen.

        History.- The first two Tiwa divisions above mentioned occupied
        the same positions when Coronado encountered the Tiwa in
        1640-42. Relations between his followers and the Indians soon
        became hostile and resulted in the capture of two pueblos by his
        army. In 1581 three missionaries were sent to the Tiwa under an
        escort but all were killed as soon as the escort was withdrawn.
        In 1583 Espejo approached Puaray, which Coronado had attacked,
        but the Indians fled. Castano de Sosa visited the Tiwa in 1598
        and Onate in 1598. Missionary work was begun among them early in
        the seventeenth century, and the Indians were withdrawn
        progressively until only four pueblos were occupied by them at
        the time of the great rebellion of 1680, in which they took part.
        In 1681 Governor Otermin stormed Isleta and captured 500 Indians
        most of whom he settled near El Paso. Part of the Isleta fled to
        the Hopi country and remained there until 1709 or 1718, when the
        people of Isleta returned and reestablished their town. The
        Sandia Indians, however, remained away until 1742, when they were
        brought back by some missionaries and settled in a new pueblo
        near their former one. Since then there have been few
        disturbances of importance, but the population until very lately
        slowly declined.

        Population.- In 1680 there were said to be 12,200 Tiwa; in 1760,
        1,428 were reported; in 1790-93, 1,486; in 1805, 1,491; in 1850,
        1,575; in 1860, 1,163; in 1871, 1,478; in 1901-5, 1,613; in 1910,
        1,650; in 1937, 2,122. (See Tewa Pueblos.)

        Ute. The Ute were close to the northern border of New Mexico,
        extending across it at times and frequently raiding the tribes of
        the region and the later white settlements. (See Utah.)

        Zuni. A Spanish adaptation of the Keresan Sunyyitsi, or Su'nyitsa
        of unknown meaning. Also spelled Juni. Synonyms are:

             A'shiwi, own name, signifying "the flesh."
             Cibola, early Spanish rendering of A'swiwi.
             La Purfsima de Zuni, mission name.
             Nai-te'-zi, Navaho name.
             Narsh-tiz-a, Apache name.
             Nashtezhe, Navaho name.
             Nuestra Seffora de Guadalupe de Zuni, mission name.
             Saraf, Isleta and Sandia name of the pueblo; Saran, Isleta
        name of the people.
             Saray, Tiwa name of the pueblo.
             Sa'u'u, Havasupai name.
             Siete Ciudades de Gibola, or Seven Cities of Cibola.
             Su'nyitsa, Santa Ana name of the pueblo.
             Sunyitsi, Laguna name.
             Taa Ashiwani, sacred name of tribe, signifying "corn
        peoples."
             Xaray, the Tiwa name.
             Ze-gar-kin-a, given as Apache name.

        Connections.- The Zuni constitute the Zunian linguistic stock.

        Location.- On the north bank of upper Zuni River, Valencia
        County.

                                 Villages

        Halona (extinct), on both sides of Zuni River, on and opposite
        the site of Zuni Pueblo.

        Hampasawan (extinct), 6 miles west of Zuni Pueblo.

        Hawikuh (extinct), about 15 miles southwest of Zuni Pueblo, near
        the summer village of Ojo Caliente.

        Heshokta (extinct), on a mesa about 5 miles northwest of Zuni
        Pueblo.

        Heshota Ayathltona (extinct), on the summit of Taaiyalana, or
        Seed Mountain, commonly called Thunder Mountain, about 4 miles
        southeast of Zuni Pueblo.

        Heshota Hluptsina (extinct), between the "gateway" and the summer
        village of Pescado, 7 miles east of Zuni Pueblo.

        Heshota Imkoskwin (extinct), near Tanryakwin, or Nutria.

        Heshotapathltale, or Kintyel, on Leroux Wash, about 23 miles
        north of Navaho Station, on the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe
        Railway, Ariz.

        Heshota Uhla (extinct), at the base of a mesa on Zuni River,
        about 5 miles west of the summer village of Ojo Pescado, or
        Heshotatsina.

        Kechipauan (extinct), on a mesa east of Ojo Caliente, or
        Kyapkwainakwin, 15 miles southwest of Zuni Pueblo.

        Kiakima (extinct), at the southwestern base of Thunder Mountain,
        4 miles southeast of Zuni Pueblo.

        Kwakina (extinct), 7 miles southwest of Zuni Pueblo.

        Kwnkinawan (extinct), south-southeast of Thunder Mountain, which
        lies 4 miles east of Zuni Pueblo.

        Matsaki (extinct), near the northwestern base of Thunder Mountain
        and 3 miles east of Zuni Pueblo.

        Nutria, at the headwaters of an upper branch of Zuni River, about
        23 miles northeast of Zuni Pueblo.

        Ojo Caliente, about 14 miles southwest of Zuni Pueblo.

        Pescado, about 15 miles east of Zuni Pueblo.

        Pinawan (extinct), about 1 1/2 miles southwest of Zuni Pueblo, on
        the road to Ojo Caliente.

        Shopakin (extinct), 5 miles north of Zuni Pueblo.

        Wimian (extinct), 11 miles north of Zuni Pueblo.

        History.- According to Cushing (1896), the Zuni are descended
        from two peoples, one of whom came originally from the north and
        was later joined by the second, from the west or southwest (from
        the country of the lower Colorado), who resembled the Yuman and
        Piman peoples in culture. Although indefinite rumors of an Indian
        province in the far north, containing seven cities, were afloat
        in Mexico soon after its conquest, the first definite information
        regarding the Zuni was supplied by Fray Marcos de Niza, who set
        out in 1539, with a Barbary Negro named Estevanico as guide, to
        explore the regions of the northwest. In the present Arizona he
        learned that Estevanico who, together with some of his Indian
        companions, had been sent on ahead, had been killed by the
        natives of "Cibola," or Zuni. After approaching within sight of
        one of the Zuni pueblos, Fray Marcos returned to Mexico with such
        glowing accounts of the "Kingdom of Cibola" that the expedition
        of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado was fitted out the next year.
        The first Zuni Indians were encountered near the mouth of Zuni
        River, and the Spaniards later carried the Zuni pueblo of Hawikuh
        by storm, but it was discovered that the Indians had already
        moved their women and children, together with the greater part of
        their property, to their stronghold on Taaiyalone Mesa. Thither
        the men also escaped. The invaders u ere bitterly disappointed in
        respect to the riches of the country, and, after the arrival of
        the main part of the army, they removed to the Rio Grande to go
        into winter quarters. Later, Coronado returned and subjugated the
        Zuni.

             In 1580 the Zuni were visited by Francisco Sanchez
        Chamuscado, and in 1583 by Antonio de Espejo, the first to call
        them by the name they commonly bear. By this time one of the
        seven original pueblos had been abandoned. In 1698, the Zuni were
        visited by Juan de Onate, the colonizer of New Mexico. The first
        Zuni mission was established by the Franciscans at Hawikuh in
        1629. In 1632 the Zuni murdered the missionaries and again fled
        to Taaiyalone Mesa, where they remained until 1635. On August 7,
        1670, the Apache or Navaho raided Hawikuh, killed the missionary,
        and burned the church. The mission was not reestablished, and it
        is possible that the village itself was not rebuilt. In 1680 the
        Zuni occupied but three villages, excluding Hawikuh, the central
        mission being at Halona, on the site of the present Zuni pueblo.
        They took part in the great rebellion of 1680 and fled to
        Taaiyalone Mesa, where they remained until their reconquest by
        Vargas in 1692. From this time on the people were concentrated in
        the single village now known as Zuni, and a church was erected
        there in 1699. In 1703 they killed the missionary and again fled
        to their stronghold, returning in 1705. A garrison was maintained
        at Zuni for some years after this, and there were troubles with
        the Hopi, which were finally composed in 1713. The mission
        continued well into the nineteenth century, but the church was
        visited only occasionally by priests and gradually fell into
        ruins. In recent years the United States Government has built
        extensive irrigation works and established a large school, where
        the younger generation are being educated in the ways of
        civilization.

        Population.- In 1630 the Zuni population was estimated at 10,000,
        probably much too high a figure; and in 1680, at 2,500. In 1760
        it was given as 664; in 1788, 1,617; in 1797-98, 2,716; in 1805,
        1,470; in 1871, 1,530; in 1889, 1,547; in 1910, 1,667; in 1923,
        1,911; in 1930, 1,749; in 1937, 2,080.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The Zuni have
        become widely known (1) from their association with the "Kingdom
        of Cibola"; (2) from the size of the pueblo and the unique
        character of the language spoken there; and (3) from the close
        study made of them by Cushing, Mrs. Stevenson, Kroeber, and
        others. The name Zuni is borne by a detached range of mountains
        in the northwestern part of New Mexico. Besides Zuni post village
        in McKinley County, N. Mex., there is a place named Zuni in Isle
        of Wight County, Va.



        

New York


        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Delaware. Bands of two of the main divisions of the Delaware
        Indians, thc Munsee and Unami, extended into parts of New York
        State, including the island of Manhattan. (See New Jersey.)

        Erie. The Erie occupied parts of Chautauqua and Cattaraugus
        Counties. (See Ohio.)

        Iroquois. From Algonkin Irinakhoiw, "real adders," with the
        French suffix -ois. Also called:

                Ongwanoansiofini', their own name, meaning "We are of the
        extended lodge," whence comes the popular designation, "People of
        the longhouse."
                Canton Indians.
                Confederate Indians.
                Five Nations, from the five constituent tribes.
                Mat-che-naw-to-waig, Ottawa name, meaning "bad snakes."
                Mingwe, Delaware name.
                Nadowa, name given by the northwestern Algonquians and
        meaning "adders."
                Six Nations, name given after the Tuscarora had joined
        them.

        Connections.- The Iroquois belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic
        stock, their nearest relations being the Tuscarora, Neutral
        Nation, Huron, Erie, and Susquehanna.

        Location.- In the upper and central part of the Mohawk Valley and
        the lake region of central New York. After obtaining guns from
        the Dutch, the Iroquois acquired a dominating influence among the
        Indians from Maine to the Mississippi and between the Ottawa and
        Cumberland Rivers. (See also Indiana, Kansas, Ohio, Oklahoma,
        Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Canada.)

                                     Subdivision

        There were five tribes, as follows: Cayuga, about Cayuga Lake;
        Mohawk, in the upper valley of Mohawk River; Oneida, about Oneida
        Lake; Onondaga, in Onondaga County and the neighboring section;
        Seneca, between Luke Seneca and Genesee River. Later there were
        added to these, for thc most part not on terms of perfect
        equality, the Tuscarora from North Carolina, some Delaware,
        Tutelo, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy, New England Indians, and other
        fragments of tribes, besides entire towns from the Huron, Erie,
        Andaste, and other conquered peoples.

                                       Villages

        Cayuga:

                Chondote, on the east side of Cayuga Lake a few miles
        south of Cayuga.
                Gandasetaigon, near Port Hope, Ont.
                Ganogeh, at Canoga.
                Gayagaanhe, near the east shore of Cayuga Lake 3 1/2
        miles south of Union Springs.
                Gewauga, at Union Springs, town of Springport.
                Goiogouen, on the east side of Cayuga Lake on Great Gully
        Brook, about 4 miles south of the present Union Springs, and 4
        leagues from the town of Tiohero.
                Kawauka, (?), Kente, on Quinte Bay, Lake Ontario, Ont.
                Neodakheat, at Ithaca.
                Oneniote, at Oneida on Cayuga Lake.
                Onnontare, probably east of Seneca River and at Bluff
        Point, near Fox Ridge, Cayuga County.
                Owego, on the right bank of Owego Creek, about 2 miles
        from the Susquehanna River, in Tioga County.
                Skannayutenate, on the west side of Cayuga Lake,
        northeast of Canoga, Seneca County.
                Tiohero, 4 leagues from Goiogouen.

        Mohawk:

                Canajoharie, on the east bank of Otsquago Creek nearly
        opposite Fort Plain.
                Canastigaone, on the north side of Mohawk River just
        above Cohoes Falls.
                Canienga, near the bank of Mohawk River.
                Caughnanaga, on Mohawk River near the site of
        Auriesville.
                Chuchtononeda, on tke south side of Mohawk River- named
        from a band.
                Kanagaro, on the north side of Mohawk River in Montgomery
        County or Herkimer County.
                Kowogoconnughariegugharie, (?).
                Nowadaga, at Danube, Herkimer County.
                Onoalagona, at Schenectady.
                Osquake, at Fort Plain and on Osquake Creek, Montgomery
        County.
                Saratoga, about Saratoga and Stillwater.
                Schaunactada, at and south of Albany.
                Schoharie, near Schoharie.
                Teatontaloga, on the north side of Mohawk River and
        probably near the mouth of Schoharie Creek in Montgomery County.
                Tewanondadon, in the peninsula formed by the outlet of
        Otsego Lake and Shenivas Creek.

        Oneida:

                Awegen.
                Cahunghage, on the south side of Oneida Lake.
                Canowdowsa, near junction of Lackawanna and Susquehanns
        Rivers.
                Chittenango, on Chittenango Creek, Madison County.
                Cowassalon, on creek of same name in Madison County.
                Ganadoga, near Oneida Castle, Oneida County.
                Hostayuntwa, at Camden.
                Oneida, name of several of the main towns of the tribe,
        in the valleys of Oneida Creek and Upper Oriskany Creek.
                Opolopong, on the east branch of Susquehannn, about 30
        miles above Shamokin and 10 miles below Wyoming, Pa.
                Oriska, near Oriskany in Oneida County.
                Ossewingo, a few miles above Chenango, Broome County.
                Ostogeron, probably above Toskokogie on the Chenango
        River.
                Schoherage, probably on the west branch of Chenango River
        (?) below Tuskokogie.
                Sevege, a short distance above Owego on the west side of
        the east branch of the Susquehanna River.
                Solocka, about 60 miles above Shamokin, on a creek
        issuing from the Great Swamp north of the Cashuetunk Mountains,
        Pa.
                Tegasoke, on Fish Creek in Oneida County.
                Teseroken, (?).
                Teiosweken, (?).
                Tkanetota, (?).

        Onondaga:

                Ahaouet, (?).
                Deseroken, traditional.
                Gadoquat, at Brewerton, Onondaga County
                Gannentaha, a mission on Onondaga Lake about 5 leagues
        from Onondaga.
                Gistwiahna, at Onondaga Valley.
                Onondaga, the principal town of the tribe, which occupied
        several distinct sites, the earliest known probsbly 2 miles west
        of Cazenovia and east of West Limestone Greek, Madison County.
                Onondaghara, on Ononduga River 3 miles east of Onondaga
        Hollow.
                Onondahgegahgeh, west of Lower Ebenezer, Erie County.
                Onontatacet, on Seneca River.
                Otiahanague, at the mouth of Salmon River, Oswego County.
                Teionontatases, (?).
                Tgasunto, (?).
                Touenho, south of Brewerton, at the west end of Lake
        Oneida.
                Tueadasso, near Jamesville.

        Seneca:

                Buckaloon, on the north side of Allegheny River near the
        present Irvine, Warren County, Pa.
                Ganadasaga, near Geneva.
                Canandaigua, near Canandaigua.
                Caneadea, at Caneadea.
                Catherine's Town, near Catherine.
                Cattaraugus, on a branch of Cattaraugus Creek.
                Chemung, probably near Chemung.
                Cheronderoga, (?).
                Chinklacamoose, probably mainly Delaware but frequented
        by Seneca, on the site of Clearfield, Pa. Chinoshahgeh, near
        Victor.
                Condawhaw, at North Hector.
                Connewango, 2 villages, one at Warren, Pa., and one on
        the left bank of Allegheny River above the site of Tionesta, Pa.
                Dayoitgao, on Genesee River near Fort Morris.
                Deonundagae, on Livingston River west of Genesee River.
                Deyodeshot, about 2 miles southeast of East Avon, on the
        site of Keinthe.
                Deyohnegano, 2 villages: one near Caledonia; one on
        Allegheny Reservation, Cattaraugus County.
                Deyonongdadagana, on the west bank of Genesee River near
        Cuylerville.
                Dyosyowan, on Buffalo Creek, Erie County, Pa.
                Gaandowanang, on Genesee River near Cuylerville.
                Gadaho, at Castle.
                Gahato, probably Seneca, in Chemung County.
                Gahayanduk, location unknown.
                Ganagweh, near Palmyra.
                Ganawagus, on Genesee River near Avon.
                Ganeasos, (?).
                Ganedontwan, at Moscow.
                Ganos, at Cuba, Allegany County.
                Ganosgagong, at Dansville.
                Gaonsagaon, (?).
                Gaousge. probably Seneca, on Niagara River.
                Gaskosada, on Cayuga Creek west of Lancaster.
                Gathtsegwaro hare, (?).
                Geneseo, near Geneseo.
                Gistaquat, (?).
                Goshgoshunk, mainly Munsee and Unami, 3 villages on
        Allegheny River in the upper part of Venango County, Pa.
                Hickorytown, mainly Munsee and Unami, probably about East
        Hickory or West Hickory, Forest County, Pa.
                Honeoye, on Honeoye Creek, near Honeoye Lake.
        Joneadih, on Allegheny River nearly opposite Salamanca.
                Kanagaro, 2 villages, one on Boughton Hill, directly
        south of Victor, N. Y.; one with several different locations from
        1 1/2 to 4 miles south from the first, and southeast from Victor,
        on the east side of Mud Creek.
                Kanaghsaws, about 1 miie northeast of Conesus Center.
                Kannassarago, between Oneida and Onondaga.
                Kashong, on Kashong Creek at its entrance into Lake
        Seneca.
                Kaskonchiagon, (?).
                Kaygen, on the south bank of Chemung River below Kanestio
        River.
                Keinthe, on the north shore of Lake Ontario, later
        transferred to Bay of Quinte.
                Lawunkhannek, mainly Delaware, on Allegheny River above
        Franklin, Venango County, Pa.
                Mahusquechikoken, with Munsee and other tribes, on
        Allegheny River about 20 miles above Venango, Pa.
                Middle Town, 3 miles above the site of Chemung.
                New Chemung, at or near the site of Chemung.
                Newtown, on Chemung River near Elmira.
                Oatka, at Scottsville, on the west bank of Genesee River.
                Old Chemung, about 3 miles below New Ghemung.
                Onnahee, on the east side of Fall Brook, in the western
        part of lot 20, town of Hopewell, Ontario County.
                Onoghsadago, near Conewango (?).
                Onondarka, north of Karaghyadirha on Guy Johnson's map of
        1771.
                Owaiski, near Wiscoy on the west bank of Genesee River,
        Allegheny County.
                Sheshequin, about 6 miles below Tioga Point, Bradford
        County, Pa.
                Skahasegao, at Lima, Livingston County.
                Skoiyase, at Waterloo.
                Sonojowauga, at Mount Morris, Livingston County.
                Tekisedaneyout, in Erie County.
                Tioniongarunte, (7).
                Tonawanda, on Tonawanda Creek, Niagara County.
                Totiakton, on Honeoye outlet not far from Honeoye Falls
        in Monroe County.
                Vennngo, at Franklin, at the mouth of French Creek,
        Venango County, Pa.
                Yorkjough, about 12 miles from Honeoye and 6 from New
        Genesee, probably in Livingston County.
                Yoroonwago, on upper Allegheny River near the present
        Corydon, Warren County, Pa.

        Iroquoinan villages of unspecified tribes:

                Adjouquay, (?).
                Anpuaqun, (?).
                Aratumquat, (?).
                Cahunghage, on the south side of Oneida Lake.
                Caughnawaga, on Sault St. Louis, Quebec Province, Canada.
                Chemegaide, (?).
                Churamuk, on the east side of Susquehanna River, 18 miles
        above Owego.
                Codocararen, (?).
                Cokanuk, (?).
                Conaquanosshan, (?).
                Conihunta, 14 miles below Unadilla.
                Connosomothdian, (?).
                Conoytown, of mixed Conoy and Iroquois, on Susquehanna
        River between Bainbridge and Sunbury, Pa.
                Coreorgonel, of mixed Tutelo and Iroquois, on the west
        side of Cayuga Lake inlet and on the border of the Great Swamp 3
        miles from the south end of Cayuga Lake.
                Cowawago, (?).
                Cussewago, principally Seneca, on the site of the present
        Waterford, Erie County, Pa.
                Ganadoga, near Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
                Ganagarahhare, at Venango, Crawford County, Pa.
                Ganeraske, at the mouth of Trent River, Ontario, Canada.
                Ganneious, at the site of Napanee, Ontario, Ganada.
                Glasswanoge, (?).
                Indian Point, at Lisbon, N. Y.
                Janundat, on Sandusky Bay, Erie County, Ohio.
                Jedakne, Iroquois or Delaware, on the west branch of
        Susquehanna River, probably at Dewart, Northumberland County, Pa.
                Johnstown, location not given.
                Jonondes, location unknown.
                Juaniata, on Duncan Island in Susquehanna River, near the
        mouth of the Juniata.
                Juraken, 2 villages, one on the right bank of the
        Susquehanna at Sunbury, Pa., the other on the left bank of the
        east branch of the Susquehanna.
                Kahendohon, location unknown.
                Kannghsaws, about 1 mile northwest of Conesus Center,
        N. Y.
                Kannawalohalla, at Elmira, N. Y.
                Kanesadageh, a town of the Turtle Clan mentioned in the
        Iroquois Book of Rites
                Karaken, location unknown.
                Karhationni, location unknown.
                Karhawenradonh, location unknown.
                Kayehkwarageh, location unknown.
                Kickenapawling, mixed Delaware (?) and Iroquois, 5 miles
        north of the present Stoyestown, Pa., at the fork of Quemahoning
        and Stony Creeks.
                Kittanning, mixed Iroquois, Delaware, and Caughnawaga,
        about the present Kittanning, Armstrong County, Pa.
                Kuskuski, mixed Delaware and Iroquois, on Beaver Creek,
        near Newcastle, Pa.
                La Montagne, on a hill on Montreal Island, Quebec
        Province, Canada.
                La Prairie, at La Prairie, Quebec, Canada.
                Logstown, Shawnee, Delaware, and Iroquois, on the right
        bank of the Ohio River, 14 miles below Pittsburgh.
                Loyalhannon, on Loyalhanna Greek, Pa.
                Manckatawangum, near Barton, Bradford County, Pa.
                Matchasaung, on the left bank of the east branch of the
        Susquehanna River, about 13 miles above Wyoming, Pa.
                Mingo Town, near Steubenville, Ohio.
                Mohanet, probably Iroquois, on the east branch of the
        Susquehanna River, Pa.
                Nescopeck, mixed Iroquois, Shawnee, and Delanare,
        formerly at the mouth of Nescopeck River, Luzerne County, Pa.
                Newtown, 4 towns: one, probablv of the Seneca, on Chemung
        River near Elmira, N. Y.; one, probably of Iroquois and Delaware,
        on the north bank of Licking River, near Zanesville, Ohio; one,
        probably of Iroquois and Delaware, on Muskingum River near
        Newtown, Ohio; and one, probably of Iroquois and Delaware, on the
        west side of Wills Creek, near Cambridge, Ohio.
                Newtychanning, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River
        and the north side of Sugar Creek, near North Towanda, Pa.
                Ohrekionni, (?).
                Oka, mixed Iroquois, Nipissing and Algonkin, on Lake of
        the Two Mountains, near Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
                Onaweron, location unknown.
                Onkwe Iyede, location unknown.
                Opolopong, on the east branch of the Susquehanna River
        about 30 miles above Shamokin and 10 miles below Wyoming, Pa.
                Oskanwaserenhon, location unknown.
                Ostonwackin, Delaware and Iroquois, at the mouth of
        Loyalstock Creek on the west branch of the Susquehanna River, at
        Montoursville, Pa.
                Oswegatchie, at Ogdensburg, N. Y.
                Otsiningo, on Chenango River, Broome County, N. Y.
                Otskwirakeron, location unknown.
                Ousagwentera, "beyond Fort Frontenac."
                Pluggy's Town, a bfmd of marauding Indians, chieffy
        Mingo, at Delaware, Ohio.
                Runonvea, near Big Flats, Chemung County, N. Y.
                Saint Regis, on the south bank of the St. Lawrence River
        at the international boundary and on both sides.
                Sault au Recollet, near the mouth of the Ottawa River,
        Two Mountains County, Quebec, Canada.
                Sawcunk, mixed Delaware, Shawnee, and Mingo, on the north
        bank of the Ohio River near the mouth of Beaver Creek and the
        present town of Beaver, Pa.
                Schohorage, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River, a
        short distance above the Indian town of Oquaga, Pa.
                Sconassi, on the west side of the Susquehanna River below
        the west branch, probably in Union County, Pa.
                Scoutash's Town, Mingo or Shawnee, near Lewistown, Logan
        County, Ohio.
                Seneca Town, Mingo, on the east side of Sandusky River in
        Seneca County, Ohio.
                Sevege, a short distance above Owego on the west side of
        the east brsnch of Susquehanna River, N. Y.
                Sewickley, a Shawnee town occupied in later years by a
        few Mingo and Delaware, on the north side of Allegheny River
        about 12 miles above Pittsburgh, near Springdale, Pa.
                Shamokin, Delaware, Shawnee, and Iroquois, a short
        distance from the forks of the Susquehanna and on the northeast
        branch.
                Shenango, 3 towns: one, on the north bank of the Ohio
        River a short distance below the present Economy, Pa.; one, at
        the junction of the Conewango and Allegheny Rivers; and one, some
        distance up the Big Beaver nenr Kuskuski (see above).
                Sheshequin, Iroquois and Delaware, about 8 miles below
        Tioga Point, Pa.
                Sittawingo, in Armstrong County, Pa.
                Skenandowa, at Vernon Center, Oneida County, Pa.
                Solocka, about 60 miles above Shamokin on a creek issuing
        from the Great Swamp north of the Cashuetunk Mountains, Pa.
                Swahadowri, (?).
                Taiaiagon, near Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
                Tioga, at Athens, Pa.
                Tohoguses Town, at junction of Plum and Crooked Creeks,
        Armstrong County, Pa.
                Tonihata, on an island in the St. Lawrence River supposed
        to be Grenadier Island Leeds County, Ontario, Canada.
                Tullihas, mixed Delaware, Mahican, and Caughnawaga, on
        the west branch of the Muskingum River, Ohio, above the forks.
                Tuskokogie, just above Schoherage (q. v.) on Chenango
        River (?).
                Unadilla, near Unadilla, Otsego County.
                Wakerhon, (?).
                Wauteghe, on upper Susquehanna Rivcr between Teatontaloga
        and Oquaga.
                Youcham, (?).

        History.- In Cartier's time the five Iroquois tribes seem to have
        been independcnt and in a state of constant mutual warfare. At a
        later period, not before 1570 according to Hewitt (1907), they
        were induced by two remarkable men, Dekanawida and Hiawatha, to
        form a federal union. While the immediate object of the league
        was to bring about peace between these and other neighboring
        tribes, the strength which the federal body acquired aod the fact
        that they were soon equipped with guns by the Dutch at Albany
        incited them to undertake extensive wars and to build up a rude
        sort of empire.

             The related Tuscarora of North Carolina joined them in
        successive migrations, the greater part between 1712 and 1722,
        and the remainder in 1802. In the French-English wars they took
        the part of the English and were a very considerable factor in
        their final victory. Later all but the Oneida and part of the
        Tuscarora sided against the American colonists and as a result
        their principal towns were laid waste by Sullivan in 1779. The
        Mohawk and Cayuga, with other Iroquoian tribes in the British
        interest, were given a reservation on Grand River, Ontario. The
        remainder received reservations in New York except the Oneida,
        who were settled near Green Bay, Wis. The so-called Seneca of
        Oklahoma consist of remnants from all of the Iroquois tribes, the
        Conestoga, Hurons, and perhaps others, which Hewitt (in. Hodge,
        1910) thinks were gathered around the Erie and perhaps the
        Conestoga as a nucleus.

        Population.- In 1600 the Iroquois are estimated by Mooney (1928)
        to have numbered 5,500; in 1677 and 1685 their numbers were
        placed at about 16,000; in 1689 they were estimated at about
        12,850; in 1774, 10,000 to 12,500; in 1904 they numbered about
        16,100, of whom 10,418 were in Canada; in 1923 there were 8,696
        in the United States and 11,355 in Canada; total, 20,051. By the
        census of 1910 there were reported in the United States 2,907
        Seneca, 2,436 Oneida, 365 Onondaga, 368 Mohawk, 81 Cayuga, 1,219
        St. Regis, and 61 unspecified, a total of 7,437, besides 400
        Tuscarora. In 1930 the figure, including Tuscarora, was 6,866. In
        1937, 3,241 Oncida were living in Wisconsin and 732 "Seneca" in
        Oklahoma.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The group of tribes
        known as the Iroquois is famous from the fact that it had
        attained the highest form of governmental organization reached by
        any people north of the valley of Mexico. It is also noted,
        largely in consequence of the above fact, for the dominating
        position to which it attained among the Indian tribes of
        northeastern North America, and for its long continued alliance
        with the English in their wars with the French. Hiawatha, the
        name of one of the founders of the confederation, was adopted by
        Longfellow as that of his hero in the poem of the name, though
        the story centers about another people, the Chippewa. Lewis H.
        Morgan (1851) based his theories regarding the nature of
        primitive society, which have played a very important part in
        ethnology and sociology, on studies of Iroquois organization. The
        name Iroquois has been given to a branch of the Kankakee River,
        Ill., to an Illinois County and a village in the same, and to
        villages in South Dakota and Ontario. The names of each of the
        five constituent tribes have also been widely used.

        Mahican. The name means "wolf." This tribe tS not to be confused
        with the Mohegan of Connecticut (q. v.), though the names are
        mere varieties of the same word. Also called:

                Akochakaneh, meaning "Those who speak a strange tongue."
        (Iroquois name.)
                Canoe Indians, so called by Whites.
                Hikanagi or Nhikana, Shawnee name.
                Loups, so called by the French.
                Orunges, given by Chauvignerie (1736), in Schoolcraft
        (1851-57, vol. 3, p. 554).
                River Indians, butch name.
                Uragees, given by Colden, 1747.

        Connections.- The Mahican belonged to the Algonquian lingistic
        family, and spoke an r-dialect, their closest connections being
        with the southern New England Indians to the east.

        Location.-  On both banks of the upper Hudson from Catskill Creek
        to Lake Champlain and eastward to include the valley of the
        Housatonic. (See also Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, and
        Wisconsin.)

                               Subdivision

        Mahican proper, in the northern part of the territory.

        Mechkentowoon, on the west bank of Hudson River above Catskill
        Creek.

        Wawyachtonoc, in Dutchess and Columbia Counties and eastward to
        the Housatonic River in Connecticut.

        Westenhuck (or Housatonic?), near Great Barrington, Mass.

        Wiekagjoc, on the eastern bank of the Hudson River near Hudson.

                                 Villages

        Aepjin, at or near Schodac.

        Kaunaumeek, in New York about halfway betwecn Albany and
        Stockbridge, Mass.

        Kenunckpacook, on the east side of Housatonic River a little
        above Scaticook.

        Maringoman's Castle, on Murderer's Creek, at Bloominggrove,
        Ulster County.

        Monemius, on Haver Island, in Hudson River near Cohoes Falls,
        Albany County.

        Nepaug, on Nepaug River, town of New Hartford, Litchfield County,
        Conn.

        Peantam, at Bantam Lake, Litchfield County, Conn.

        Potic, west of Athens, Greene County.

        Scaticook, 3 villages in Dutchess and Rensseler Counties, and in
        Litchfield County, Conn., the last on Housatonic River near the
        junction with Ten Mile River.

        Wequadnack, near Sharon, Litchfield County, Conn.

        Wiatiac, near Salisbury, Litchfield County, Conn.

        Wiltmeet, on Esopus Creek, probably near Kingston.

        Winooskeek, on Lake Champlain, probably at the mouth of Winooski
        River, Vt.

        Wyantenuc, in Litchfield County, Conn.

        History.- The traditional point of origin of the Mahican was in
        the West. They were found in occupancy of the territory outlined
        above by the Dutch, and were then at war with the Mohawk who, in
        1664, compelled them to move their capital from Schodac near
        Albany to the present Stockbridge. They gradually sold their
        territory and in 1721 a band was on Kankakee River, Ind., while
        in 1730, a large body settled close to the Delaware and Munsee
        near Wyoming, Pa., afterward becoming merged with those tribes.
        In 1730 those in the Housatonic Valley were gathered mto a
        mission at Stockbridge and were ever afterward known as
        Stockbridge Indians. In 1756 a large body of Mahican and
        Wappinger, along with Nanticoke and other people, settled in
        Broome nnd Tioga Counties under Iroquois protection. In 1788
        anothcr body of Indians drawn from New York, Connecticut, and
        Rhode Island, including Mahican, settled near the Stockbridges at
        Marshall, N. Y. The Stockbridge and Brotherton Indians later
        removed to Wisconsin, where they were probably joined by part at
        least of the band last mentioned. A fear Mahican remained about
        their old home on Hudson River for some years after the
        Revolution but disappeared unnoticed.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were about 3,000
        Mahican m 1600; the Stockbridg's among the Iroquois numbered 300
        in 1796, and 606 in 1923, including some Munsee. The census of
        1910 gave 533 Stockbridges and 172 Brotherton. The census of 1930
        indicated about 813.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Mahican tribe
        has probably attamed more fame from its appearance in the title
        of Cooper's novel. "The Last of the Mohegans," than from any
        circumstance directly connected with its history. There is a
        village called Mohegan in the northem part of Westchester County,
        N. Y., and another, known as Mohican in Ashland County, Ohio,
        while an affluent of the Muskingum also bears the same name.

        Mohegan. (See Connecticut.)

        Montauk. Meaning "uncertain."

        Connections.- The Montauk belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        family and spoke an r-dialect like that of the Wappinger.

        Location.- In the eastern and central parts of Long Island.

                              Subdivisions

        Cochaug, in Riverhead and Southold Townships.

        Manhasset, on Shelter Island.

        Massapequa, in the southern part of Oyster Bay and Huntington
        Townships.

        Matinecock, in the townships of Flushing, North Hempstead, the
        northern part of Oyster Bay and Huntington, and the western part
        of Smithtown.

        Merric, in the eastern part of Hempstead Township.

        Montauk proper, in Southampton Township.

        Nesaquake, in the eastern part of Smithtown and the territory
        east of it.

        Patchogne, on the southern coast from Patchogue to Westhampton.

        Rockaway, in Newtown, Jamaica, and Hempstead Townships.

        Secatogue, in Islip Township.

        Setauket, on the north shore from Stony Brook to Wading River.

        Shinnecock, on the coast from Shinnecock Bay to Montauk Point.

                                Villages

        Aquebogue, on a creek entering the north side of Great Peconic
        Bay.

        Ashamomuck, on the site of a White town of the same name in
        Suffolk County.

        Cutchogue, at Cutchogue in Suffolk County.

        Massapequa, probably at Fort Neck.

        Mattituck, on the site of the present Mattituck, Suffolk County.

        Merric, on the site of Merricks, Queens County.

        Montauk, above Fort Pond, Suffolk County.

        Nesaquake, at the present Nissequague, about Smithtown, Suffolk
        County.

        Patchogue, near the present Patchogue, Sulfolk County.

        Rechqunakie, near the present Rockaway.

        There were also villages at Flushing, Glen Cove, Cold Spring,
        Huntington, Cow Harbor, Fireplace, Mastic, Moriches, Westhampton,
        and on Hog Island in Rockaway Bay.

        History.- The Montauk were in some sense made tributary to the
        Pequot, until the latter were destroyed, when they were subjected
        to a series of attacks by the Narraganset and took refuge, about
        1759, with the Whites at Easthampton. They had, meanwhile, lost
        the greater part of their numbers by pestilence and, about 1788,
        most of those that were left went to live with the Brotherton
        Indians in New York. A very few remained on the island, whose
        mixed-blood descendants are still officially recognized as a
        tribe by the State of New York, principally under the name
        Shinnecock.

        Population.- Including Canarsee, the Montauk are estimated by
        Mooney (1928) at 6,000 in 1600. In 1658-59 an estimate gives
        about 500; in 1788, 162 were enumerated; in 1829, 30 were left on
        Long Island; in 1910, 167 "Shinnecock," 29 "Montauk," and 1
        "Possepatuck." In 1923, 250 were returned, including 30 Montauk,
        200 Shinnecock, and 20 Poospatock (Patchoag).

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name of the
        Montauk is perpetuated in that of the easternmost point of land
        on Long Island, a post village in the same county, and one in
        Dent County, Mo. They were among those tribes most active in the
        manufacture of siwan or wampum.

        Neutrals. So called by the French because they remained neutral
        during the later wars between the Iroquois and Huron. Also
        called:

             Hatiwanta-runh, by Tuscarora, meaning "Their speech is
        awry"; in form it is close to the names applied by the other
        Iroquois tribes and more often quoted as Attiwandaronk.

        Connections.- The Neutrals belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic
        stock; their position within this is uncertain.

        Location.- In the southern part of the province of Ontario, the
        westernmost part of New York, in northeastern Ohio, and in
        southeastern Michigan. (See also Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and
        Canada.)

                                Subdivisions

        It seems impossible to separate these from the names of the
        villages, except perhaps in the cases of the Aondironon (in
        Ontario bordering Huron territory), and the Ongniaahra (see
        below).

                                  Villages

        There were 28, but only the names of the following have been
        preserved:

        Kandoucho, in Ontario near the Euron country, i. e., in the
        northern part of Neutral territory.

        Khioetoa, apparently a short distance east of Sandwich, Ontario.

        Ongniaahra, probably on the site of Youngstown, N Y.

        Ounontisaston, not far from Niagara River.

        Teotongniaton, in Ontario.

        History.- Shortly after the destruetion of the Huron, the
        Noutrals became involved in hostilities with the Iroquois and
        were themselves destroyed in 1650-51, most of them evidently
        being incorporated with their conquerors, though an independent
        body is mentioned as wintering near Detroit in 1653.

        Population.- The Neutrals were estimated by Mooney (1928) to
        number 10,000 in 1600; in 1653 the independent remnant included
        800. They were probably incorporated finally with the Iroquois
        and Wyandot.

        Connection in which they have liecome noted.- The chief claim of
        the Neutrals to permanent fame is the fact that the name of one
        of their subdivisions, the Ongniaahra, became fixed, in the form
        Niagara, to the world-famous cataract between New York and
        Ontario.

        Saponi. Some years after leaving Fort Christanna, Va., the Saponi
        settled among the Iroquois and were formally adopted by the
        Cayuga tribe in 1753. (See Virginia.)

        Tuscarora. After their defeat in the Tuscarora War, 1712-13,
        bands of this tribe began moving north and in course of time the
        majority settled in New York so that the Iroquois came to be
        known afterwards as the "Six Nations" instead of the "Five
        Nations." (See North Carolina.)

        Tutelo. The Tutelo accompaniod the Saponi from Virginia and were
        adopled by the Cayuga at the same time. (See Virginia.)

        Wappinger. From the same root as Abnaki and Wampanoag, and
        meaning "Easterners"

        Connections.- The Wappinger belonged to tho Algonquian linguistic
        family and spoke an r-dialect, their nearest allies being the
        Mahican, the Montauk, and next the New England tribes.

        Location.- The east bank of the Hudson River from Manhattan
        Island to Poughkeepsie and the territory eastward to the lower
        Connecticut Valley. (See also Connecticut.)

                          Subdivisios or "Sachemship"

        Hammonasset, west of the Connecticut River Conn., at its mouth.

        Kitchawank, in the northern part of Westchester County beyond
        Croton River and between Hudson River and the Connecticut.

        Massaco, in the present towns of Simsbury and Canton on
        Farmington River, Conn.

        Menunkatuck, in the present town of Guilford, Conn.

        Nochpeem, in the southern part of Dutchess County, N. Y.

        Paugusset, in the eastern part of Fairfield County and the
        western edge of New Haven County, Conn.

        Podunk, in the eastern part of Hartford County, Conn., east of
        Connecticut River.

        Poquonock, in the towns of Windsor, Locks, and
        Bloomfield, Hartford County, Conn.

        Quinnipiac, in the central part of New Haven County, Conn.

        Sicaog, in Hartford and West Hartford, Conn.

        Sintsink, between Hudson, Croton, and Pocantico Rivers.

        Siwanoy, in Westchester County and part of Fairfield County,
        Conn., between the Bronx and Five Mile River.

        Tankiteke, mainly in Fairfield County, Conn., between Five Mile
        River and Fairfield and extending inland to Danbury and even into
        Putnam and Dutchess Counties, N. Y.

        Tunxis, in the southwestern part of Hartford County, Conn.

        Wangunk, on both sides of Connecticut River from the Hartford
        city line to about the southern line of the town of Haddam.

        Wappinger proper, about Poughkeepsie in Dutchess County, N. Y,

        Wecquaesgeek, between the Hudson, Bronx, and Pocantico Rivers.

                                 Villages

        Alipconk, in the Weckquasgeek sachemdom, on the site of
        Tarrytown, N. Y.

        Appaquag, on the Hockanum River east of Hartford, Conn., in the
        Podunk sachemdom.

        Aspetuck, near the present Aspetuck in Fairfield County, Conn.,
        in the Tankiteke sachemdom.

        Canopus, in Canopus Hollow, Putnam County.

        Capage, near Beacon Falls on Naugatuck River, Conn., in the
        Paugusset sachemdom.

        Cassacuhque, near Minnus in the town of Greenwich, Conn., Siwanoy
        sachemdom.

        Cockaponset, near Haddam in Middlesex County, Conn., in the
        Wangunk sachemdom.

        Coginchaug, near Durham, Conn., in the Wangunk sachemdom.

        Cossonnacock, near the line between the towns of Haddam and Lyme,
        Conn., in the Wangunk sachemdom.

        Cupheag, given as the probable name of a town at Stratford,
        Conn., but this was perhaps Pisguheege.

        Hockanum, at the mouth of Hockanum River, Hartford County, Conn.,
        in the Podunk sachemdom.

        Keskistkonk, probably on Hudson River, south of the highlands, in
        Putnam County, in the Nochpeem sachemdom.

        Kitchiwank, about the mouth of Croton River, N. Y., in the
        Kitchiwank sachemdom.

        Machamodus, on Salmon River in Middlesex County, Conn., in the
        Wangunk sachemdom.

        Massaco, near Simsbury on Farmington River, Conn., in the Massaco
        sachemdom.

        Mattabesec, on the site of Middletown, Conn., in the Wangunk
        sachemdom.

        Mattacomacok, near Rainbow in the town of Windsor, Conn., in the
        Wangunk sachemdom.

        Mattianock, at the mouth of Farmington River in the Poquonock
        sachemdom.

        Menunketuck, at Guilford, Conn., in the Menunketuck sachemdom.

        Meshapock, near Middlebury, Conn., in the Paugussett sachemdom.

        Mioonktuck, near New Haven, Conn., in the Quinnipiac sachemdom.

        Namaroake, on Connecticut River in the town of East Windsor,
        Conn., in the Podunk sachemdom.

        Naubuc, near Glastonbury, Conn., in the Podunk sachemdom.

        Naugatuck, near Naugatuck, Conn., in the Paugussett snchemdom.

        Newashe, at the mouth of Scantic River, in the Podunk sachemdom.

        Nochpeem, in the southern part of Dutchess County.

        Noroaton, at the mouth of Noroton River, in the Siwanoy
        sachemdom.

        Norwauke, at Norwalk, Conn., in the Siwanoy sachemdom.

        Ossingsing, at the site of Ossining, N. Y.

        Pahquioke, near Danbury, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom.

        Pashesauke, on Lyndes Neck at the mouth of the Connecticut River
        in the Hammonassett sachemdom.

        Pasquasheck, probably on the bank of Hudson River in Dutchess
        County.

        Pataquasak, near Essex Post Office, Conn., in the Hammonassett
        sachemdom.

        Pattaquonk, near Chester, Conn., in the Hammo,nassett sachemdom.

        Paugusset, on the bank of Housatonic River about 1 mile above
        Derby, Conn., in the Paugusset sachemdom.

        Pauquaunuch, in Stratford Township, Fairfield County, Paugusset
        sachemdom, apparently the same town as Pisquheege.

        Pequabuck, near Bristol, Conn., in the Tunxis sachemdom.

        Pisquheege, near Stratford, Fairfield County, in the Paugusset
        sachemdom.

        Pocilaug, on Long Island Sound near Westbrook, Conn., in the
        Hammonassett sachemdom.

        Pocowset, on Connecticut River opposite Middletown, Conn., in the
        Wangunk sachemdom.

        Podunk, at the mouth of Podunk River, Conn., in the Podunk
        sachemdom.

        Pomeraug, near Woodbury, Conn., in the Paugussett sachemdom.

        Poningo, near Rye, N. Y, in the Siwanoy sachemdom.

        Poquannuc, near Poquonock in Hartford County, Conn., in the
        Poquonock sachemdom.

        Potatuck, the name of one or two towns on or near Potatuck River,
        in the town of Newtown, Fairfield County, Conn., in the Paugusset
        sachemdom.

        Pyquag, near Wethersfield, Conn., in the Wangunk sachemdom.

        Quinnipiac, on Quinnipiac River north of New Haven, Conn., in the

        Quinnipiac sachemdom.

        Ramapo, near Ridgefield, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom.

        Sackhoes, on the site of Peekskill, N. Y., in the Kitchawank
        sachemdom.

        Saugatuck, at the mouth of Saugatuck River, Conn., in the
        Tankiteke sachemdom.

        Scanticook, on Scantic River near its junction with Broad Brook,
        Hartford County, Conn., in the Podunk sachemdom.

        Senasqua, at the mouth of Croton River, in the Kitchawank
        sachemdom.

        Shippan, near Stamford, Conn., in the Siwanoy sachemdom.

        Sioascauk, near Greenwich, Conn., in the Siwanoy sachemdom.

        Squantuck, on the Housatonic River, above Derby, Conn., in the
        Paugussett sachemdom.

        Suckinuk, near W. Hartford, Conn., in the Sicaog sachemdom.

        Titicus, near Titicus in the town of Ridgefield, Conn., in the
        Tankiteke sachemdom.

        Totoket, near Totoket in the town of N. Branford, New Haven
        County, Conn., in the Quinnipiac sachemdom.

        Tunxis, in the bend of Farmington River near Farmington, Conn.,
        in the Tunxis sachemdom.

        Turkey Hill, near Derby, Conn., in the Paugussett sachemdom,
        perhaps given under another name.

        Unkawa, between Danbury and Bethel, Conn., in t,he Tankiteke
        sachemdom.

        Weantinock, near Fairfield, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom.

        Wecquaesgeek, at Dobbs Ferrg, in the Wecquaesgeek sachemdom.

        Weataug, near Weatogue in the town of Simsbury, Conn., in the
        Massaoo sachemdom.

        Wepowaug, near Milford, Conn., in the Paugusset sachemdom.

        Werawaug, near Danbury, Conn., in the Tankiteke sachemdom.

        Woodtick, near Woodtick in the town of Wolcott, New Haven County
        Conn., in the Tunxis sachemdom.

        Woronock, near Milford, Conn., in the Paugusset sachemdom,
        evidently another name for Wepowaug.

        History.- The Wappinger were found by Henry Hudson in 1609 in
        occupancy of the lands above mentioned. The Connecticut bands
        gradually sold their territory and joined the Indians at
        Scaticook and Stockbridge. The western bands suffered heavily in
        war with the Dutch, 1640-45, but continued to occupy a tract
        along the coast in Westchester County until 1756, when most of
        those who were left joined the Nanticoke at Chenango, Broome
        County, N. Y., and were finally merged, along with them, into the
        Delaware. Some joined the Moravian and Stockbridge Indians while
        a few were still living in Dutchess County in 1774, and a few
        mixed-bloods live now on Housatonic River below Kent. These
        belong to the old Scaticook settlement founded by a Pequot Indian
        named Mauwehu or Mahwee, and settled mainly by individuals of the
        Paugusset, Unkawa, and Potatuck towns of the Paugusset sachemdom.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates the population of the New
        York divisions of Wappinger at about 3,000 in 1600, and places
        that of the various Connecticut bands at 1,750, a total of 4,750.
        The war with the Dutch is said to have cost the western bands
        1,600, but we have no estimates of their population at a later
        date, except as parts of the Stockbridge, Brotherton, and
        Iroquois Indians, and a few mixed-bloods at Scaticook, Conn., a
        few miles below Kent.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Wappinger bands
        were among those particularly engaged in the manufacture of siwan
        or wampum. They occupied much of the mainland territory of the
        present Greater New York but not Manhattan Island. Wappingers
        Falls in Dutchess County, N.Y., preserves the name.

        Wenrohronon. Probably meaning "The people or tribe of the place
        of floating scum," from the famous oil spring of the town of
        Cuba, Allegany County.

        Connections.- The Wenrohronon belonged to the Iroquoian
        linguistic stock. Their closest affiliations were probably with
        the Neutral Nation, which part of them finally joined, and with
        the Erie, who bounded them on the west.

        Location.- Probably originally, as indicated in the explanation
        of their name, about the oil spring at Cuba, N. Y. (See also
        Pennsylvania.)

        History.- The Wenrohronon maintained themselves for a long time
        in the above territory, thanks to an alliance with the Neutral
        Nation, but when the protection of the latter was withdrawn, they
        left their country in 1639 and took refuge among the Hurons and
        the main body of the Neutrals, whose fate they shared.

        Popultion.- Before their decline Hewitt (in Hodge, 1910)
        estimates the Wenrohronon at between 1,200 and 2,000. Those who
        sought refuge with the Hurons in 1639 numbered more than 600.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Wenrohronon are
        noted merely on account of their association with the oil spring
        above mentioned.



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