Maine -

 The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Abnaki. Properly Wabanaki, "those living at the sunrise," "those
        living at the east," "easterners." Also called:

                Alnanbal, own name, meaning "Indians," or "men."
                Aquannaque, Wabanaki as pronounced by Huron.
                Bashabas, name given them from a principal chief.
                Gannon-gageh-ronnons, name given by Mohawk.
                Moassones, from a name applied to their country; perhaps
        from Penobscot
                Maweshenook, "berry place."
                Narankamigdok epitsik arenanbak, "villages of the
        Narankamigdog," said to be a collective name for all the Abnaki
                Natio Luporum, "Wolf Nation."
                Natsagana, name given by Caughnawaga Iroquois.
                Onagungees, Onnogonges, Anagonges, or Owenagunges, name
        given by the Iroquois.
                Skacewanilom, name given by the Iroquois.
                Tarrateens, name given by the tribes of southern New

        Connections - The Abnaki belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        family, their closest connections  with their neighbors to
        the east and west. Indeed their name has very commonly been
        extended to include the Malecite, Penobscot, and Pennacook, and
        even the Micmac, though on the other hand the Sokoki have
        sometimes been left out.

        Location - The main body was in western Maine, in the valleys of
        the Kennebec, Androscoggin, and Saco Rivers and on the
        neighboring coast, overlapping also into Carroll County, N.H.
        A single tribe, the Missiassik, was in northwestern Vermont,
        representing probably a late intrusion. (See also New Hampshire
        and Vermont.)


        Amaseconti, on Sandy River, Franklin County.

        Arosaguntacook, on the lower course of Androscoggin River.

        Missiassik, in the valley of Missisquoi River, Franklin County,

        Norridgewock, on Kennebec River.

        Ossipee, on Ossipee River and Lake in Maine and New Hampshire.

        Pequawket, on Lovell's Pond and the headwaters of Saco River,
        Maine and New Hampshire.

        Rocameca, on the upper course of Androscoggin River.

        Sokoki, on Saco River and in the adjacent parts of Cumberland and
        York Counties.

        Wawenoc, on the seacoast of Sagadahoc, Lincoln, and Knox


        Amaseconti; there were two villages of this tribe, at Farmington
        Falls and New Sharon, respectively.

        Aquadocta, westward of Saco.

        Arosaguntacook town, probably near Lewiston.

        Cobbosseecontee, a town or band on the stream of that name, which
        empties into the Kennebec River at Gardiner.

        Ebenecook, at Ebenecook Harbor, Southport Island.

        Kennebec, between Augusta and Winslow.

        Ketangheanycke, near the mouth of Kennebec River.

        Masherosqueck, near the coast and not certainly Abnaki.

        Mecadacut, on the coast between Penobscot and Kennebec Rivers.

        Missiassik, belonging to the Missiassik tribe, on Lake Champlain
        at the mouth of Missisquoi River, Vt.

        Moratiggon, probably on the Maine or New Hampshire coast and
        possibly not Abnaki.

        Moshoquen, on or near the coast.

        Muscongus, on the coast and probably near Muscongus Island.

        Negusset, about the site of Woolwich.

        Ossaghrage, Iroquois name of an Abnaki village.

        Ossipee, probably on Ossipee Lake.

        Ouwerage, probably on Ossipee Lake.

        Pasharanack, probably on the coast.

        Pauhuntanuc, probably on the coast.

        Pemaquid, near Pemaquid, Lincoln County.

        Pequawket town, about Fryeburg.

        Pocopassum, probably on the coast.

        Sabino, at the mouth of the Kennebec River, possibly on the west

        Sagadahoc, at the mouth of the Kennebec River.

        Satquin, on the coast southwest of the Kennebec River.

        Segotago, probably identical with Sagadahoc.

        Sowocatuck, perhaps the chief village of the Sokoki, Saco River.

        Taconnet, at the falls of the Kennebec near Waterville.

        Unyjaware, Iroquois name for an Abnaki village.

        Wacoogo, probably on or near the coast.

        History - The Abnaki and their neighbors claim to have immigrated
        into their historic seats from the southwest. Aside from possible
        Norse visitants in 1000-1010, John Cabot, during his second
        voyage in 1498, probably brought the first white men within sight
        of Abnaki territory, but he seems to have had no dealings with
        the people. From that time on, Breton, Basque, Norman, and
        English fishermen constantly visited the coast. In 1604 Champlain
        passed along it from north to south and visited several Abnaki
        bands, and in 1605 Waymouth penetrated the Wawenoc country. In
        1607-08 came an abortive attempt on the part of the Plymouth
        Company to make a permanent settlement at the mouth of the
        Kennebec River, but it is probable that English fishermen were on
        Monhegan Island almost continuously after that date. Pemaquid was
        also occupied at an early period. The Abnaki were soon afterward
        missionized from Canada and became attached to the French
        interest. For a time they were successful in driving the English
        colonists away but later they suffered several severe
        defeats- particularly the capture of Norridgewock in 1724 and the
        defeat of the Pequawket in 1725 -- were much reduced in numbers,
        and finally withdrew to Canada where they were settled at
        Becancour and Sillery, and later at St. Francis, along with other
        refugee tribes from the south.

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimates this at 3,000 in 1600,
        including the Penobscot and Passamaquoddy. The St. Francis
        Indians, including remnants of other New England tribes, numbered
        395 in 1903, and 280 in 1924.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The activities of
        the missionary Rasles, compilation by him of the Abnaki
        dictionary, the destruction of Norridgewock, and the defeat of
        the Pequawket on Lovell Pond, as mentioned above, have made the
        Abnaki famous.

        Malecite. They extended into the northeastern part of the State
        of Maine from Canada (q.v.).

        Passamaquoddy. Signifying "Those who pursue the pollock," but
        strictly "pollock-plenty-place" (Eckstorm). Also called:

                Machias Tribe, applied to some living on Machias River.
                Quoddy, abbreviation of Passamaquoddy.
                St. Croix Indians, from one of the rivers they inhabited.
                Scotuks, from the name of the Sehoodic Lakes.
                Unchechauge or Unquechauge.

        Connections - The Passamaquoddy belong to the Algonquian
        linguistic family, their closest connections being the Malecite,
        and their more remote relatives the Abnaki, Penobscot, and

        Location - On Passamaquoddy Bay, St. Croix River, and the
        Schoodic Lakes. (See also Canada.)


        Gunasquamekook, on the site of St. Andrews, N.B.

        Imnarkuan, on the site of Pembroke, Washington County.

        Sebaik, at Pleasant Point, Passamaquoddy Bay, near Perry,
        Washington County.

        Other towns were on Lewis Island and at Calais, in Maine, and on
        the New Brunswick side of St. Croix River.

        History - The early history of the Passamaquoddy was identical
        with that of the Malecite (q.v.). When the territory of the 13
        colonies was separated from English rule, the greater part of
        this tribe was left on the south side of the boundary. They
        enjoy, jointly with the Penobscot, the privilege of having a
        representative in the Maine State legislature, though he speaks
        only on matters of concern to the two tribes.

        Population - The population of the Passamaquoddy was estimated
        at about 150 in 1726, 130 in 1804, 379 in 1825, 400-500 in 1859;
        and was enumerated as 386 in 1910. In 1930, 436 Indians were
        returned from Washington County, and practically all of these
        must have belonged to this tribe.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The Passamaquoddy
        have given their name to Passamaquoddy Bay, which forms part of
        the eastern boundary of the State of Maine and are the
        easternmost body of Indians in the United States.

        Pennacook. The Aceominta and Newichawanoc of the extreme
        southwestern part of the State belonged to this tribe. (See New

        Penobscot. Meaning "the rocky place," or "the descending ledge
        place" (Eckstorm), referring to the falls between Oldtown and
        Bangor. Also called:

                Pentagouet, from the name of their principal village near

        Connections - The Penobscot belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        stock, their nearest connections being the Abnaki, Passamaquoddy?
        Malecite, and Pennacook, with whom they were frequently classed
        under the name of the first mentioned.

        Location - On both sides of Penobscot Bay and in the entire
        drainage area of Penobscot River.


        A body of Penobscot on Moosehead Lake were known as "Moosehead
        Lake Indians," but their separation from the rest was probably


        Agguncia, said to have been a small settlement near Brewer,
        Penobscot County, from which the fabulous city of "Norumbega"
        derived its name.

        Asnela, a settlement on an island of the same name in Penobscot

        Catawamtek, at Rockland.

        Kenduskeag, at Bangor, near the site of the Penobscot Exchange

        Mattawamkeag, about Mattawamkeag Point, Penobscot County.

        Meecombe, on the lower course of Penobscot River.

        Negas, in Penobscot County.

        Olamon, on an island in Penobscot River near Greenbush.

        Oldtown, the present village on an island of the same name.

        Passadumkeag, on an island in Penobscot River near the present

        Pentagouet, at or near Castine.

        Precaute, on the southeast coast of Maine; it may have been a
        Passamaquoddy town.

        Segocket, near the mouth of Penobscot River.

        Wabigganus, probably near the mouth of the Penobscot River.

        History - Native tradition brings the Penobscot from the southwest.
        They were encountered by French and English fishermen and
        explorers early in the sixteenth century, and one of their towns
        came to have a European reputation as a city of fabulous size and
        importance under the name of Norumbega. In the seventeenth
        century their chief, known to the Whites as Bashaba, seems to
        have extended his authority, probably his moral authority only,
        over the tribes to the westward as far as the Merrimac. The
        Penobscot were visited by Champlain in 1604 and by numerous later
        explorers. They assisted the French against the English until
        1749, when they made peace and in consequence did not remove to
        Canada with the Abnaki. They have remained in their old country
        to the present day, their principal settlement being on Oldtown
        Island. Conjointly with the Passamaquoddy, they have a
        representative at the sessions of the Maine State legislature
        privileged to speak on tribal affairs only.

        Population - The following are early estimates of the Penobscot
        population: 650 in 1726, 1,000 in 1736, 700 in 1753, 400 in 1759,
        700 in 1765, 360 in 1786. According to the United States Census
        of 1910, there were 266, including 13 scattered outside of the
        State of Maine. The census of 1930 returned 301 Indians from
        Penobscot County, practically all belonging to this tribe.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The Penobscot have
        given their name to a bay, a river, and a county in the State of
        Maine, to a post village in Hancock County, and a branch post
        office in Detroit. The title of the chief above mentioned,
        Bashaba or Besselbes, became the center of a myth among the
        Whites in which he was elevated to the dignity of a local king or
        emperor. The widely quoted myth of Norumbega should also be
        mentioned in this connection. This tribe and the Passamaquoddy
        constitute the only bodies of Indians of any size remaining in
        New England.


Maryland and the District of Columbia

        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Conoy. Probably a synonym of Kanawha, but the meaning is unknown;
        also spelled Canawese, and Ganawese. Also called:

             Piscataway, from a village on Piscataway Creek where the
        Conoy chief resided.

        Connections - The Conoy belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        stock and were probably intermediate between the Nanticoke and
        Powhatan Indians.

        Location - Between the Potomac River and the western shore of
        the Chesapeake.


        Acquintanacsuak, on the west bank of Patuxent River in St. Marys

        Conoy proper or Piscataway, in the southern part of Prince
        Georges County.

        Mattapanient, on Patuxent River, probably in St. Marys County.

        Moyawance, on the West bank of the Potomac River above the Conoy

        Nacotchtank, on the eastern branch of the Potomac, in the
        District of Columbia.

        Pamacocack about the mouth of Mattawoman Creek and the present
        Pomonkey, Charles County

        Patuxent, in Calvert County.

        Potapaco, in the southern and central parts of Charles County.

        Secowocomoco, on Wicomico River in St. Marys and Charles


        The principal settlement of each of the above subdivisions was
        generally known by the same name. In addition we have the

        Catawissa, at Catanwissa, Columbia County, Pa.

        Conejoholo, on the east bank of the Susquehanna on or near the
        site of Bainbridge, Lancaster County, Pa.

        Conoytown, on Susquehanna River betneen Conejoholo and Shamokin
        (Sunbury), Pa.

        Kittamaquindi, at the junction of Tinkers Creek with the
        Piscataway a few miles above the Potomac, Prince Georges County,
        the principal village of the colony proper.

        History - If the name of the Conoy is identical with that of
        Kanawha River, as appears probable, they must have lived at some
        period along that stream. They were found by Smith and the
        Maryland colonists in the location above given and missions were
        established among them by the Jesuits on the first settlement of
        Maryland in 1634. They decreased rapidly in numbers and were
        presently assigned a tract of land on the Potomac, perhaps near
        the site of Washington. In 1675 they were attacked by the
        Susquchanna Indians who had been driven from their own
        territories by the Iroquois, retired up the Potomac River, and
        then to the Susquehanna, where they were finally assigned lands
        at Conejoholo near the Nanticoke and Conestoga. Some of them were
        living with these two tribes at Conestoga in 1742. They gradually
        made their way northward, stopping successively at Harrisburg,
        Shamokin, Catawissa, and Wyoming, and in 1765 were in southern
        New York, at Owego, Chugnut, and Chenango, on the eastern branch
        of the Susquehanna. They moved west with the Mahican and Delaware
        and soon became known only as constituting a part of those
        tribes. They used the Turkey as their signature at a council held
        in 1793.

        Population - The number of Conoy was estimated by Mooney (1928)
        at 2,000 in 1600; in 1765 they numbered only about 150.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The name Conoy is
        perpetuated by Conoy, 2 miles north of Falmouth, Lancaster
        County, Pa., and probably (see above) by the Great and Little
        Knawha Rivers, Kanawha County, Kanawba Ridge, and several places
        in West Virginia, besides post villages in Hancock County, Iowa,
        and Red River County, Tex.

        Delaware. They probably occupied, or at least hunted over, some
        territory in the extreme northeastern part of the State.
        (See New Jersey.)

        Nanticoke. From Nentego, a variant of Delaware Unechtgo, or
        Unalachtigo, "Tidewater people," the neighboring division of
        Delaware being known by the same name. Also called:

                Doegs, Toags, or Taux, by some early writers, probably
        shortened from Tawachguans.
                Canniataratich-rone, Mohawk name.
                Otayachgo, Tawachguans, Mahican and Delaware name,
        meaning "Bridge people."
                Skaniadaradighroonas, "Beyond-the-sea people," Iroquois

        Connection - The Nanticoke belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        family, their closest connections probably being with the
        Unalachtigo Delaware- as the name implies- and also with the

        Location - Although the Nanticoke are frequently more narrowly
        delimited, it will be convenient to group under this head all
        of the Indians of the Eastern Shore of Maryland and southern


        Annamessicks. in the southern part of Somerset County.

        Choptank, on Choptank River.

        Cuscarawaoc, at the head of Nanticoke River in Maryland and

        Manokin, on Manokin River in the northern part of Somerset

        Nanticoke proper, on the lower course of Nanticoke River.

        Nause, in the southern end of the present Dorchester County.

        Ozinies, on the lower course of Chester River; they may have been
        part of or identical with the Wicomese.

        Tocwogh, on Sassafras River, in Cecil and Kent Counties.

        Wicocomoco, on Wicocomoco River in Somerset and Wicocomoco

        Wicomese, in Queen Anne's County.


        Ababco, a subtribe or village of the Choptank on the south side
        of Choptank River in Dorchester County, near Secretary Creek.

        Askimimkansen, perhaps Nanticoke, on an upper eastern branch of

        Pocomoke River, probably in Worcester County.

        Byengeahtein, probably in Dauphin or Lancaster County, Pa.

        Chenango, a mixed population on Chenango River about Binghamton,

        Hutsawap, a village or subtribe of the Choptank, in Dorchester

        Locust Necktown, occupied by a band of Nanticoke proper known as

        Wiwash, on Choptank River, in Dorchester County.

        Matchcouchtin, consisting of Nanticoke proper, probably in

        Matcheattochousie, Nanticoke proper, probably in Pennsylvania.

        Natahquois, Nanticoke proper, probably on the eastern shore of
        Maryland or on the Susquehanna, Pennsylvania.

        Nause, belonging to the tribe of the same name, on the north bank
        of Nanticoke River near its mouth.

        Pekoinoke, Nanticoke proper, still existing in Maryland in 1755.

        Pohemkomeati, on lower Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania.

        Teahquois, Nanticoke proper, probably on lower Susquehanna River,

        Tequassimo, a subtribe or village on the Choptank, on the
        southern shore of Choptank River.

        Tocwogh, the principal village of the tribe of that name, said to
        be on the south side of Chester River in Queen Anne County, but,
        unless this is a later location, probably on the south side of
        Sassafras River in Kent County.

        Witichquaom, Nanticoke proper, near Susquehanna River in southern

        History - Traditionally, the Nanticoke arc supposed to have come
        from the west at about the same time as the Delaware, but they
        were found in the location above given by the earliest white
        explorers and settlers. They were at war with the Maryland
        colonists from 1642 to 1678. In 1698 reservations were set aside
        for them. Soon after 1722 the greater part of them began to move
        north, stopping for a time on the Susquehanna at its junction
        with the Juniata. In 1748 the greater part of the tribe went
        farther up, and, after camping temporarily at a number of places,
        settled under Iroquois protection at Chenango, Chugnut, and
        Oswego. In 1753 part of these joined the Iroquois in western New
        York, and they were still living with them in 1840, but the
        majority, in company with the remnants of the Mahican and
        Wappinger, emigrated west about 1784 and joined the Delaware in
        Ohio and Indiana, with whom they soon became incorporated,
        disappearing as a distinct tribe. Yet a part did not leave their
        old country. Some were living in Maryland in 1792 under the name
        of Wiwash, and some mixed-bloods still occupy a small territory
        on Indian River, Delaware. The Choptank, or a part of them, also
        remained in their old country on the south of Choptank River,
        Dorchester County, where a few of their descendants, their blood
        much mixed with that of Negroes, were to be found in 1837. Some
        Wicocomoco must also have stayed about their ancient seats, since
        a few mongrels are said to retain the name.

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimated a total Indian population on
        the eastern shore of Maryland in 1600 of 2,700, including 700
        Toewogh and Ozinies, 400 Wicocomoco, and 1,600 Nanticoke and
        their more immediate neighbors. In 1722 they are said to have
        numbered about 500 and in 1765 those who had emigrated to New
        York were supposed to count about 500 more. In 1792 the Nanticoke
        proper left in Maryland were said to comprise only 30 persons,
        but in 1911 Speck (1915) estimated their descendants in southern
        Maryland at 700.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The name Nanticoke
        is perpetuated in that of Nanticoke River between Wicomico and
        Dorchester Counties, and by the town of Nanticoke in the former.
        There are also places of the name in Broome County, N.Y., and
        Luzerne County, Pa.

        Powhatan. The Accohanoc Indians of the panhandle of Virginia, who
        extended over into Worcester County, were the only representative
        of the Powhatan Indians in Maryland, though the Conoy were
        closely related to them. (See Virginia.)

        Shawnee. Shawnee Indians settled temporarily in western Maryland
        near the Potomac and in the northeastern part of the State
        on the Susquehanna. (See Tennessee.)

        Susquchanna. They lived along and near the Susquehanna River.
        (See Pennsylvania.)



        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Mahican. The Mahican extended over most of Berkshire County,
        where they were represented mainly by the Housatonic or
        Stockbridge Indians. (See New York.)

        Massachuset. Meaning "at the range of hills," by which is meant
        the hills of Milton.

        Connections.- The Massachuset belonged to the Algonquian
        linguistic stock, their tongue being an n-dialect, and formed one
        group with the Narraganset, Niantic (East and West), and
        Wampanoag, and probably the Nauset.

        Location.- In the region of Massachusetts Bay between Salem on
        the north and Marshfield and Brockton on the south. Later they
        claimed lands beyond Brockton as far as the Great Cedar Swamp,
        territories formerly under the control of the Wampanoag.


        Johnson (1881) says that there were "three kingdoms or
        sagamoreships having under them seven dukedoms or petty
        sagamores." Some of these undoubtedly correspond to the divisions
        recently worked out by Speck (1928) by means of provincial
        documents. He identifies six main divisions, two of them further
        subdivided, all called by the names of their chiefs, as follows:

        (1) Band of Chickataubut (including the later bands of Wampatuck
        and some other of his heirs and a district and band earlier
        controlled by Obatinnewat or Obtakiest), all of the Massachuset
        territory south of Charles River and west of the neighborhood of
        Ponkapog Pond.

        (2) Band of Nanepashemet, all the Massachuset territory north of
        Charles River. Nanepashemet's domain was afterward divided among
        his three sons: Winnepurkit, owning about Deer Island and in
        Boston Harbor; Wonohaquaham, owning about Chelsea and Saugus; and
        Montowampate, owning about Lynn and Marblehead.

        (3) Band of Manatahqua, about Nahant and Swampscott.

        (4) Band of Cato, a tract 5 miles square east of Concord River.

        (5) Band of Nahaton, around Natick.

        (6) Band of Cutshamakin, Cutshamequin, or Kutchamakin, about
        Dorchester, Sudbury, and Milton.


        Conohasset, about Cokasset.

        Cowate, "Praying Indians," at the Falls of Charles River.

        Magaehnak, probably "Praying Indians," 6 miles from Sudbury.

        Massachuset, location uncertain.

        Mishawum, at Charlestown.

        Mystic, at Medford.

        Nahapssumkeck, in the northern part of Plymouth County, probably
        on the coast.

        Natick, "Praying Indians," near the present Niatick.

        Neponset, on Neponset River about Stoughton.

        Nonantum, on Nonantum hill Newton.

        Pequimmit, "Praying Indians," near Stoughton.

        Pocspawmet, on the south shore of Massachusetts Bay.

        Punkapog, "Praying Indians," near Stoughton.

        Sagoquas, south of Cohnsset.

        Saugus, near Lynn.

        Seccasaw, in the northern part of Plymouth County.

        Titicut, "Praying Indians," possibly Wampanoag, in Middleborough

        Topeent, on the north coast of Plymouth County.

        Totant, at or near Boston.

        Totheet, on the north coast of Plymouth County.

        Wessagusset, near Weymouth.

        Winnisimmet, at Chelsea.

        Wonasquam, near Annisquam, Essex; County, perhaps a later

        History.- The Massachuset were visited by several voyagers,
        beginning at least as far back as the time of John Cabot but were
        first particularly noted by Captain John Smith, who coasted their
        territory in 1614. In 1617 they were much reduced by a pestilence
        and about the same time they were depleted by wars with their
        north-eastern neighbors. The Puritans settled in their country in
        1629, and mission work was soon begun among them, and was pursued
        with particular zeal by John Eliot. Tho converts were gathered
        into separate villages, where they gradually declined in numbers
        and presently disappeared as distinct bodies, though a few
        descendants of the Punkapog town people are still living in
        Canton, Mattapan, and Mansfield.

        Population.- The number of Massachuset is estimated by Mooney
        (1928) to have been 3,000 in 1600. In 1631 it was reduced to
        about 500, and soon considerably below that figure by smallpox.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Massachuset gave
        their name to Massachusetts Bay and through that to the present
        Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The Massachuset are also noted as
        the tribe in which the famous apostle to the Indians, Jolm Eliot,
        labored, through whom a large part of them were gathered into
        villages of "Praying Indians." The "Eliot Bible" and other works
        by him have preserved a knowledge of the Massachuset language to
        our own day. Crispus Attucks, who was killed in the Boston
        massacre and is generally regarded as the first victim of the
        American Revolution, was of mixed Negro-Massachuset ancestry. The
        marriage of Winnepurkit, a Massachuset chief whose lands were
        about Boston Harbor, to the daughter of Passaconaway, chief
        sachem of the Pennacook, was made by Whittier the subject of a
        poem, "The Bridal of Pennacook."

        Nauset. Meaning unknown. Also called:

                Cape Indians, from their situation.

        Connections.- (See under discussion of the Massachuset.)

        Location.- All of Cape Cod except the extreme western end.


        Speck (1928) has identified the following: Iyanough, Wiananno, or
        Hyannis (centering about Barnstable); Manomoy, or Monomoy (about
        Chatham); auset (from Easthan- to Truro).


        Aquetnet, at Skauton Neck, Sandwich, Barnstable County.

        Ashimut or Ashimuit, at a large spring near the junction of
        Falmouth, Mashpee, and Sandwich Townships, Barnstable County.

        Coatuit, near Oslerville, Barnstable County.

        Codtaumut or Cataumut, in Mashpee Township.

        Cummaquid, at Cummaquid Harbor.

        Manamovili, near Chatham.

        Mashpee, on the coast of Mashpee Township.

        Mattakees or Mattakeset, in Barnstaible and Yarmouth Townships.

        Meeshawn, in Provincetown or Truro Township.

        Nausei, near Eastham.

        Nemskaket, on or near Nemskaket Creek.

        Nobsqussit or Nobscussct, near Dennis.

        Pamet, near Truro.

        Pawpoesit, near Barnstable.

        Pispogutt or Pispoqutt, in the western part of Barnstable County,
        near Buzzards Bay.

        Poponesset, near Poponesset Bay

        Potanurnaquut, on Pleasant Bay near Harwich.

        Punonaknit, at Billingsgate near Wellifleet.

        Satuit, on Cotuit River near Mashpee.

        Sawkatuket or Satucket, in Brewster or Harwich.

        Skauton, near Sandwich, probably on Bazzards Bay.

        Sokones or Succonessct, near Falmouth.

        Wakoquet, or Waquoit, near Waquoit or Weequakit, in Barnstable

        Wessquobs or Weesquobs, near Pocasset.

        Many of these contained Wampanoag Indians and some Indians of
        other tribes.

        History.- From the exposed position of the Nauset on Cape Cod
        their territory came under the observation of many of the
        earliest explorers, but actual contact with the people was not so
        simple a matter. In 1606 Champlain had an encounter with them. In
        1614 Hunt carried off 7 Nauset Indians and 20 Patuxet of the
        Wampanoag tribe whom he sold into slavery. They seem to have
        escaped the great New England pestilence of 1617. Although they
        behaved in a hostile manner toward the Pilgrims at their first
        landing in 1620, they soon became firm friends and even rendered
        some assistance against King Philip (1675-76). Most of them had
        been Christianized before this time and collected into churches.
        In 1710 many died of fever, but the number of Indians in Nauset
        territory was increased by additions from other tribes driven
        from their proper territories, so that the population of the
        principal Indian settlement at Mashpee has not fallen below 200
        down to the present day, though a great deal of mixture with
        other races has taken place.

        Population.- The number of the Nauset was estimated by Mooney
        (1928) at 1,200 in 1600. In 1621 they were believed to number
        500; in 1674, 462 were reported in the various inhabited centers
        on Cape Cod, containing Nauset, Wampanoag, and other Indians. In
        1698, 515 Indians were reported from Mashpee, mainly Nauset and
        Wampanoag. In 1767, 292 were reported at the same place and the
        number has varied between 200 and 300 down to 1930. The United
        States Census of 1910 reported 206 Indians of this band, all but
        5 in Massachusetts. Speck (1928) estimates that there were 230 in
        1920, all of whom were mixed-bloods. The census of 1930 returned
        only 38 Indians from Barnstable County and 54 from Massachusetts,
        but it may be incomplete.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- As already remarked,
        it was in the Nauset temtory and in considerable measure through
        their blood that the Massachusetts aborigines maintained their
        existence longest. Nauset Beach, Nauset Harbor, and Nauset Light
        perpetuate the name.

        Nipmuc. From Nipmaug, "fresh water fishing place."

        Connections.- The Nipmuc belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        family, their language being an l-dialect. Their nearest
        relatives were the other tribes of Massachusetts and the tribes
        of Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the Hudson River Valley.

        Location.- The Nipmuc occupied the central plateau of
        Massachusetts, particularly the southern part of Worcester
        County, but they extended into northern Rhode Island and
        Connecticut. (See also Connecticut and Rhode Island.)

                                 Subdivisions and Villages

        Acoomemeck, location uncertain.

        Attawaugan, near Attawaugan in the town of Killingly, Conn.

        Chabanakongkomun, near Dudley.

        Chachaubunkkakowok, location uncertain.

        Coweset, in northern Rhode Island west of Blackstone River.

        Hassanamesit, at Grafton.

        Magunkaquog, at Hopkinton.

        Manchaug, near Oxford.

        Manexit, near Thompson, Conn.

        Mashapaug, at Mashapaug Pond in the town of Union, Conn.

        Medfield, at Medfield, native name unknown.

        Menemesseg, near New Braintree.

        Metewemesick, near Sturbridge.

        Missogkonnog, location uncertain.

        Muskataquid, location uncertain.

        Nasbobnh, near Magog Pond, in Littleton.

        Nichewaug, about Nichewaug, near Petersham.

        Okommakamesit, near Marlborough.

        Pakachoog, near Worcester, probably in Millbury.

        Quabaug, near Brookfield.

        Quadick, near the present Quadick Reservoir, Thompson County,

        Quantisset, on Thompson Hill, near Thompson, Conn.

        Quinebaug, on Quinebaug River near Quinebaug Station, town of
        Thompson, Conn.

        Quinetusset, near Thompson in northeast corner of Connecticut.

        Segunesit, in northeastern Connecticut.

        Tatumasket, west of Mendon, in the southern part of Worcester

        Wabaquasset, about 6 miles from Quinebaug River, south of
        Woodstock, Conn., sometimes regarded as an independent tribe.

        Wacuntug, on the west side of Blackstone River, near Uxbridge.

        Wenimesset, at New Braintree.

        History.- There was no coherence among the people bearing the
        name of Nipmuc and some of them were from time to time attached
        to the more powerful tribes in their neighborhood, such as the
        Massachuset, Wampanoag, Narraganset, and Mohegan. The Whites
        first met them after Plymouth and the Massachusetts Bay were
        settled. In 1674 there were seven villages of Christian Indians
        among the Nipmuc but in 1675 practically all took part with King
        Philip against the colonists and at its close fled to Canada or
        to the tribes on Hudson River.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 500
        independent Nipmuc in 1600. If we consider as Nipmuc the Indians
        returned from Worcester County, Mass., and Windham and Tolland
        Counties, Conn., in 1910, there were then 81.

        Pennacook. The following bands of Pennacook lived in the
        northeastern part of Massachusetts: Agawam, Nashua, Naumkeag,
        Pentucket, Wachuset, Wamesit, and Weshacum. (See New Hampshire.)

        Pocomtuc. Meaning unknown.

        Connections.- The Pocomtuc belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        family, and spoke an r-dialect, their nearest relatives probably
        being the Wappinger.

        Location.- The Pocomtuc home was in the present counties of
        Franklin, Hampshire, and Hampden, Mass., and in the neighboring
        parts of Connecticut and Vermont.

                               Subdivisions and Villages

        Agawam, about Springfield, their principal village of the same
        name being on Long Hill.

        Mayawaug, near W. Suffield, town of Suffield, Conn.

        Nameroke, in the town of Enfield, east of Thompsonville, Conn.

        Nonotuc, a division and village about Northampton.

        Pocomtuc, a division in Deerfield River Valley and the adjacent
        parts of the Connecticut River Valley, the principal town of the
        same name being near Deerfield. (See also Vermont.)

        Scitico, near the place of that name in the eastern part of the
        town of Enfield, Conn.

        Squawkeag, on both sides of Connecticut River in the northern
        part of Franklin County, their principal village, of the same
        name, being near Northfield.

        History.- The fort of the Pocomtuc proper, on Fort Hill near
        Deerfield, was destroyed by the Mohawk in 1666. The Pocomtuc
        combined with the Narraganset and Tunxis in attacks on the
        Mohegan chief, Uncas, and later joined the hostile Indians under
        King Philip. At the close of the war they fled to Scaticook on
        the Hudson, where some of them remained until 1754, going then to
        St. Francis, Canada.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 1,200
        Pocomtuc in 1600. If we count as Pocomtuc the Indians returned
        from Hampden and Hampshire Counties in 1910, there were then 23
        left, but they may have been of quite other origin.

        Wampanoag. The name has the same meaning as Abnaki, "eastern
        people." Also called:

                Massasoits, from the name of their famous chief.
                Philip's Indians, from King Philip.

        Connection.- The Wampanoag belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        stock, speaking an n-dialect like the neighboring Massachuset,
        Narranganset, Niantic (East and West), and the Nauset.

        Location.- The Wampanoag occupied Rhode Island east of
        Narragansett Bay; Bristol County, Mass., the southern part of
        Plymouth County, below Marshfield and Brockton; and the extreme
        western part of Barnstable. The Indians of Martha's Vineyard
        should also be added to them, and it will be convenient to treat
        under the same head those of Nantucket and the Saconnet, or
        Sakonnet, of Sakonnet Point, R. I., whose connection was more
        remote. They controlled Rhode Island in Narragansett Bay until
        the Narraganset tribe conquered it from them. (See also Rhode


        Speck (1928) gives the following mainland subdivisions:

        (1) Band of Massasoit, in a territory called Sowwams on the east
        side of Narragansett Bay; the western part of Bristol County,
        Mass.; all of Bristol County, R. I.; and the eastern part of
        Providence County, R. I.

        (2) Band of Annawon, about Squannaconk swamps in Rehoboth

        (3) Band of Weetamoe, a chieftainess, their territory being
        called Pocasset, in southeastern Rhode Island, about Tiverton and
        adjacent parts of Bristol County, Mass.

        (4) Band of Corbitant or Caunbatant, about Swansea.

        (5) Band of Tispaquin in or Tuspaquin, lands called Assawampset,
        about Assawampset Pond.

        (6) Band of Tyasks or Tyashk, about Rochester and Acushnet.

        (7) Band of Totoson, in a territory centering about Mattapoisett
        and Rochester.

        (8) Band of Coneconarn or Cawnacome, in a territory known as
        Manomet, extending from Manomet to Woods Hole.

        (9) Band of Piowant or Piant, between Assonet Bay and Taunton

        There were several vacant tracts not occupied by any of the
        above. In 1861 there were bands of Wampanoag at Herring Pond,
        Dartmouth, Mamatakesett Pond, Tumpum Pond, and Watuppa Pond.
        Speck (1928) gives the following bands on Martha's Vineyard, but
        the classification applies to a time when Indians from various
        parts of the mainland had begun to settle there:

        (1) Band of Nohtooksaet who came from Massachusetts Pay, about
        Gay Head.

        (2) Band of Mankutquet (including the bands of Wannamanhut who
        came from near Boston (Christian town) and Toohtoowee, on the
        north shore of Chilmark), in the western part of Martha's
        Vineyard excluding the preceding.

        (3) Band of Tewanticut (including the bands of Cheesehahchamuk,
        about Hornes' Hole; Warnpamag, of Sanchakankachet; and Tom Tyler,
        about Edgartown), in the eastern section of Martha's Vineyard.

        (4) Band of Pahkepunnasso, on the island of Chappaquiddick.

        There were two bands on Nantucket, the names of which are
        unknown, and we must also add the Sakonnet, on Sakonnet Point,
        R. I., and the Indians of the Elizabeth Islands.



        Acushnet, about Acushnet.        Mattapoiset, near Mattapoiset,
        Agawam, about Wareham.            Plymouth County.
        Assameekg, probably near         Munponset, location unknown.
          Dartmouth.                     Namasket, about Middleboro.
        Assawompset, in Middleborough    Nasnocomacack, on the coast and
          Township.                        probably a few miles north of
        Assonet, conjectural village     Plymouth.
          near the present Assonet.      Nukkehkummees, near Dartmouth.
        Coaxet, near Little Compton,     Pachade, near Middleboro.
          R. I.
        Cohannet, about Fowling Pond     Patuxet, at Plymouth.
          near Taunton.                  Pocasset, near Tiverton, R. I.
        Comassakumkanit or Herring       Pokanoket, on Bristol
          Pond, Herring Pond, Plymouth      Peninsula, R. I.
          County.                        Quittaub, in the southwestern
                                            part of Plymouth County.
        Cooxissett, probably in
          Plymouth County.
        Cowsumpsit, in Rhode Island.     Saltwater Pond, in
                                            Plymouth County
        Jones' River, in Kingston        Shawonet, near Somerset.
        Kitteaumut, near Monument Pond,  Wauchimoqut, probably near
          Plymouth County.                  Seekonk.
        Loquasquscit, near Pawtucket,    Wawayontat, on Weweantitt River
          R. I.                             near Wareham
        Mattakeset, near Duxbury.

        Martha's Vineyard:
                                         Nantucket- Continued
        Chaubaqueduck, on the              Quays,a district and probably
            main island or on                village.
            Chappquidick Island.           Sasacackeh, a district and
                                             probably village.

        Gay Head, at Gay Head.
        Nashamoiess, in the southeastern   Shaukimmo, a district and
          part of the island.                probably village, south of
                                             Nantucket Harbor.
        Nashanekammuck, at Chilmark.       Siasconsit, a district and
        Nunnepoag, location uncertain.       probably village, including
                                             the site of the
        Ohkonkemme, near Tisbury.            present Siasconset.
        Sanchecantacket, near Edgartown.   Squam, a district and
        Seconchqut, location uncertain       probably village.

        Nantucket:                         Talhanio, location uncertain
                                           Tetaukimmo, a district
        Miacomit, location uncertain.        and probably village.
        Podpis, a district and probably    Toikiming, location uncertain.

        History. - With many older writers on the Norse voyages to
        America, Mount Hope Bay, in the territory of the Wampanoag, was a
        favorite site for the supposed Icelandic colony (ca. 1000-1010),
        but the theory is now less popular. In 1602 Gosnold touched at
        Martha's Vineyard and was kindly treated by the natives. Soon
        after the Pilgrims had established themselves at Plymouth in 1620
        they made a treaty of friendship with the Wampanoag head chief,
        Massasoit, who played a great part in the early history of the
        colony. He died in 1662 and was succeeded by two sons in
        succession, the second of whom, Metacomet or Metacom, is the King
        Philip of history. Observing the steady influx of White colonists
        into Indian land, King Philip organized a native confederacy
        against them and a bloody war followed (1675-76), in which King
        Philip was killed and the power of the tribes of southern New
        England finally destroyed. The Wampanoag survivors settled with
        the Sakonnet, who had remained neutral, and formed towns with the
        Nauset in the western part of Barnstable County. In 1763 they
        suffered severely from an epidemic, but a number of bands have
        preserved their autonomy, in a much mixed condition, to the
        present day. The Indians of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, like
        the Sakonnet, had refused to join the confederacy and
        consequently maintained their numbers relatively intact for a
        longer period. They continued to decline, however, and in 1764
        two-thirds of the Nantucket Indians were destroyed by a fever.
        Two or three mixed-bloods were left in 1809, and in 1855 Abram
        Quary, the last of these, died. The Indians of Martha's Vineyard,
        on the other hand, received considerable accessions from the
        mainland and have maintained themselves down to our day though,
        like the mainland Indians, much mixed with other tribes and other

        Population.- Of Wampanoag proper Mooney (1928) estimated that
        there were 2,400 in 1600. They probably suffered severely in the
        epidemic of 1617, but in 1630 they are said to have had about 30
        villages. In 1700 the Sakonnet Indians, including most of the
        Wampanoag remnants, were estimated at 400. In 1861 a partial
        census gives 258, and we may suppose that the total was about

             Martha's Vineyard: The estimates of the Indian population of
        Martha's Vineyard vary greatly. Mooney (1928) estimated the
        number of Indians at 1,500 in 1600, perhaps taken from an
        estimate of 1642, which gives the same figure, while n later
        writer places their number as "not less than 3,000" (Hare, 1932,
        p. 44). An estimate made in 1648 gave 1,000. In 1764, 313 were
        resumed; in 1807, 360, only about 40 of whom were full-bloods. In
        1861, 393 were returned, but in 1910 only 147. Nantucket: Mooney
        estimates the Indian population of Nantucket to have been 1,500
        in 1600 and Mayhew (Speck, 1928) gives the same number in 1642.
        Hare (1932, p. 44) also estimates the Indian population to have
        been 1,500. In 1763 there were 358; in 1790, 20; in 1809, 2 or 3.
        An informant of Dr. Speck gives the total number of Indians in
        Barnstable, Plymouth, and Bristol Counties in 1928 as 450.

        Connection, in which they have become noted.- The Wampanoag made
        their mark in history chiefly through the activities of their
        chiefs, Massasoit and King Philip. One of the two largest bodies
        of Indians in southern New England to maintain their identity
        down to the present day were the Wampanoag of Martha's Vineyard.




        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Chippewa. At a very early period, Chippewa lived about the Sault
        St. Marie and on the northern shore of Lake Michigan. (See

        Foxes. Since the Sauk are known to have lived in Michigan at an
        early period, it is probable that the Foxes did also, but this is
        still uncertain. (See Wisconsin.)

        Hurons, see Wyandot.

        Kickapoo. The same probability of an early residence in Michigan
        applies to the Kickapoo as to the Foxes and for a similar reason.
        (See Wisconsin.)

        Menominee. This tribe ceded its claim to a portion of the upper
        peninsula of Michigan in 1836. (See Wisconsin.)

        Miami. The Miami, or a portion of them, at one time occupied the
        valley of St. Joseph River and other parts of the southern
        Michigan border. (See Indiana.)

        Neutrals. Bands of the Neutral Nation extended, in the
        seventeenth century, into what is now southeastern Michigan. (See
        New York.)

        Noquet. Meaning probably "bear foot," another name for the Bear
        gens in Chippewa. The Bear gens may have been prominent in
        this tribe.

        Connections - The Noquet are thought to have been related to the
        Menominee of the Algonquian linguistic family.

        Location - About Big Bay de Noquet and Little Bay de Noquet
        and extending across the northern peninsula of Michigan to Lake
        Superior. (See also Wisconsin.)

        History - In 1659 the Noquet was one of the tribes attached to
        the mission of St. Michel. The;y were never prominent and were
        probably absorbed at a very early date by the Menominee or

        Population - Unknown.

        Connetion in which they have become noted - The name Noquet is
        perpetuated in the two bays above mentioned.

        Ottawa. From a native word signifying "to trade," because they
        were noted as middlemen. It occurs shortened to Tawa. Also

             Andatahouats, Ondatawnwat, Huron name
             Udawak, Penobscot name.
             Ukua'-yata, Huron name, according to Gatschet (1877).
             Waganha's, Iroquois name, meaning "stammerers".
             Watawawininiwok, Chippewa name, meaning "men of the
        bulrushes", from the many bulrushes in Ottawa River.
             Wdowo, Abnaki name.

        Connections - The Ottawa belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        stock and were related most closely with the Chippewa and

        Location - The earliest known home of this tribe was Manitoulin
        Island and neighboring parts of the north shore of Georgian Bay.
        Their connection with Michigan came later. (See also Illinois,
        Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Wisconsin, and

                          Subdivisions and Villages

        The following four main divisions are given by early writers:
        The Kishkakon or Bear Gens, the Nassauaketon, or Fork People, the
        Sable Gens and the Sinago or Gray Squirrel Gens, to which a
        fifth, the Keinouche or Pickerel Gens, is sometimes added. The
        Kishkakon, Sinago, and Keinouche were closely associated.


        Aegnkotcheising, in Michigan.

        Anamiewatigong, in Emmet County, lower Michigan.

        Apontigoumy, probably in Ontario.

        Machonee, near the mouth Au of Au Vaseau River which flows into
        Lake St. Clair, in lower Michigan.

        Manistee, in Michigan, perhaps near the village of Weganakisi
        on Little Traverse Bay.

        Menawzbetaunaung, on an island in the Lake of the Woods.

        Meshkemau, on Maumee Bay, Lucas County, Ohio.

        Michilimackinac, on Mackinac Island.

        Middle Village, location unknown.

        Obidgewong, with Chippewa, on the western shore of Lake Wolseley,
        Manitoulin Island, Ontario.

        Oquanoxa, on the west bank of the Little Auglaize, at its mouth,
        in Paulding County, Ohio.

        Roche de Boeuf, on the northwestern bank of Maumee River, near
        Waterville, Lucas County, Ohio.

        Saint Simon, a mission on Manitoulin Island.

        Shabawywyagun, apparently on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan.

        Tushquegan, on the south bank of Maumee River opposite Toledo,

        Waganakisi, on the site of Harbor Springs, Emmet County, Mich.

        Walpole Island, on the island of that name, Ontario.

        Waugau, near the mouth of Maumee River, in Lucas County, Ohio.

        Wolf Rapids, on Maumee River, Ohio, about the boundary of Wood
        and Henry Counties.
        Additional bands:

             Maskasinik, position uncertain, mentioned in Jesuit Relation
        of 1657-58 with
             Nikikouek and Missisauga.
             Nikikouek, position uncertain, associated with Missisauga
        and dwelling east of them on the north shore of Lake Huron.
             Outaouakamigouk, on the northeast coast of Lake Huron in
        1648 probably Ottawa.
             Sagnitaouigama, in 1640 southeast of Ottawa River, perhaps
        same as Sinago.

        History - It is uncertain whether the Ottawa River in Ontario
        received its name because the Ottawa once lived upon it or
        because the Ottawa had obtained a monopoly of the trade passing
        up and down it. When the French actually came among them they
        were in the region above indicated. After the destruction of
        their allies, the Hurons, in 1648-49, the Iroquois attacked the
        Ottawa in turn, who fled to the islands at the entrance of Green
        Bay, part of them later passing to Keweenaw Bay, while the rest
        accompanied the Hurons to an island near the entrance of Lake
        Pepin on the Mississippi. Harassed by the Dakota, the Ottawa
        settled on Chequamegon Bay but in 1670-71 were induced by the
        French to return to Manitoulin Island. By 1680 most of them had
        left Manitoulin Island and joined the Hurons about the mission
        station at Mackinaw. About 1700 the Hurons removed to Detroit,
        and a portion of the Ottawa seem to have obtained a foothold on
        the west shore of Lake Huron between Saginaw Bay and Detroit,
        but they returned to Mackinaw about 1706. Soon afterward the
        chief seat of a portion of the tribe was fixed at L'Arbre Croche
        in Emmett County, whence they spread down the east side of Lake
        Michigan to St. Joseph River, a few finding their way into
        Wisconsin and northeastern Illinois. At the same time some of
        them were living in their old country on Manitoulin Island and
        about Georgian Bay, and others were scattered along the southern
        shore of Lake Erie from Detroit to the vicinity of Beaver Creek,
        Pa. They took part successively against the English and the
        American colonists in all wars during the latter half of the
        eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth until the
        end of the War of 1812. The famous chief Pontiac was an Ottawa.
        The Canadian Ottawa are on Manitoulin and Cockburn Islands and
        the adjacent shores of Lake Huron. In 1831 two bands of Ottawa
        known as the Ottawa of Blanchard's Fork of Great Auglaize River
        and the Ottawa of Roche de Boeuf on Maumee River were
        granted lands on Marais des Cygnes River, Kans., but they
        re-ceded the greater part of these lands in 1846, and in 1862
        they agreed to allotment in severalty and to the relinquishment
        of their remaining territory. Further treaties regarding the
        disposal of their lands were made in 1867 and 1872. In 1867 they
        received a plot of lands in Oklahoma which had been ceded by the
        Shawnee. A few Ottawa went west with the Prairie Potauatomi but
        were soon fused with them or scattered to other places. A few
        others have continued to occupy parts of Kansas down to the
        present day but after 1888 most of them removed to Oklahoma. A
        still larger body of Ottawa remained in Michigan, scattered among
        a number of small villages.

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1600 there were of
        the combined Algonkin and Ottawa about 6,000. The scattered
        condition of the tribe during their earlier history prevented
        their contemporary chroniclers from obtaining satisfactory
        figures. In 1906 the Chippewa and Ottawa on Manitoulin and
        Cockburn Islands numbered 1,497, of whom about half were Ottawa;
        there were 197 under the Seneca School, Okla.; and in Michigan
        there were 5,587 in 1900 of whom about two-thirds were Ottawa.
        According to the census of 1910, there were 2,717 Ottawa in the
        United States, 2,454 being in Michigan, 170 in Oklahoma, and the
        rest in Wisconsin, Nebraska, Kansas, and Pennsylvania. In 1923
        there were 274 in Oklahoma and a much larger number in Michigan
        and Canada. The United States Census of 1930 gives 1,745, of whom
        1,469 were in Michigan, 167 in Oklahoma, and 84 in Wisconsin. In
        1937 there were 422 in Oklahoma.

        Connection in which they have become noted - Although a prominent
        tribe in early times, the Ottawa will now be especially
        remembered from the fact that they have given their name to the
        most important branch of the St. Lawrence River and the city on
        its banks which became the capital of the Dominion of Canada.
        Their name is also borne by counties in Kansas, Michigan, and
        Ohio, and the province of Quebec; by important cities in La Salle
        County, Ill., and Franklin County, Kans.; and by smaller places
        and streams in Rockcastle County, Ky.; Waukesha County, Wis.; Le
        Sueur County, Minn.; Putnam County, Ohio; Boone County, Wis.;
        Boone County, Va.; and Ottawa Beach in Ottawa County, Mich., and
        Ottawa Lake in Monroe County in the same State. The tribe will be
        noted furthermore as that to which belonged the famous Indian
        patriot, Pontiac.

        Potawatomi. Meaning "people of the place of the fire," and hence
        sometimes known as the Fire Nation. Also called:

             Atsistarhonon, Huron name.
             Kunu-hayanu, Caddo name, meaning "watermelon people."
             NdatonSatendi, Undatomatendi, Huron name
             Peki'neni, Fox name, meaning "grouse people."
             Tcashtalalgi, Creek name, meaning "watermelon people."
             Wah-ho'-na-hah, Miami name, meaning "fire makers."
             Wahiucaxa, Omaha name.
             Wahiuyaha, Kansa name.
             Woraxa, Iowa, Oto, and Missouri name.
             Woraxe, Winnebago name.

        Connections.- The Potawatorni belonged to the Algonquian
        linguistic family, being most closely affiliated with the
        Chippewa and Ottawa.

        Location.- The ancient home of this tribe was evidently in the
        lower peninsula of Michigan. (See also Illinois, Indiana, Iowa,
        Kansas, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.)

                           Subdivisions and Villages

        In the course of their later history, the Potawatomi became
        separated into several distinct bands but these do not seem to
        have corresponded to any old, well-determined classification.


        Abercronk, not certainly Potawatomi, in northeastern Porter
        County, Ind.

        Ashkum's Village, on the north side of Eel River, about Denver,
        Miami County, Ind.

        Assiminehkon, probably Potawatomi, in Lee County, Ill.

        Aubbeenaubbee's Village, in Aubbeenaubbee Township in Fulton
        County, Ind.

        Checkawkose's Village, on the south side of Tippecanoe River,
        about Harrison Township, Kosciusko County, Ind.

        Chekase's Village, on the west side of Tippecanoe River between
        Warsaw and Monoquet, Kosciusko, Ind.

        Chichipe Outipe, near South Bend, St. Joseph County, Ind.

        Chippoy, on Big Shawnee Creek, in Fountain County, Ind.

        Comoza's Village, on Tippecanoe River in Fulton County, Ind.

        Kinkash's Village, on Tippecanoe River, Kosciusko County, Ind.

        Little Rock Village, on the north bank of Kankakee River about
        the boundary of Kankakee and Will Counties, Ill.

        Macon, location unknown.

        Macousin, on the west bank of St. Joseph River, Berrien County,

        Mangachqua, on Peble River in southern Michigan.

        Maquanago, probably Potawatomi, near Waukesha, in southeastern

        Masac's Village, on the west bank of Tippecanoe River in the
        northeastern part of Fulton County, Ind.

        Matchebenashshewish's Village, on Kalamazoo River probably in
        Jackson County, Mich.

        Maukekose's Village, near the head of Wolf Creek in Marshall
        County, Ind.

        Menominee's Village, on the north side of l:win Lakes near the
        site of Plymouth, Marshall County, Ind.

        Menoquet's Village, on Cass River, lower Michigan.

        Mesheketeno's Village, on Kankakee River, a short distance above
        the present Kankakee in northeastern Illinois.

        Mesquawbuck's Village, near Oswego, Kosciusko County, Ind.

        Mickkesawbee, at the site of the present Coldwater, Mich.

        Milwaukee, with Foxes and Mascouten, at or near the present
        Milwaukee, Wis.

        Minemaung's Village, near Grantpark, Kankakee County, Ill.

        Mota's Village, just north of Tippecanoe River near Atwood,
        Kosciusko County, Ind.

        Muskwawasepeotan, near Cedarville, Allen Gounty, Ind.

        Natowasepe, on St. Joseph River about the present Mendon, St.
        Joseph County, Mich.

        Nayonsay's Village, probably Potawatomi, in the northeastern part
        of Kendall County, Ill.

        Pierrish's Village, on the north bank of Eel River, just above
        Laketon, Wabash County, Ind.

        Pokagon, in Berrien County, near the west bank Of St. Joseph
        River just north of the Indiana line.

        Prairie Ronde, about the boundary of Cass and Van Buren Counties,

        Rock Village in northeastern Illinois.

        Rum's Village, about 4 miles south of South Bend, St. Joseph
        County, Ind.

        Saint Joseph, a mission on St. Joseph River near the south end of
        Lake Michigan.

        Saint Michael, a mission in southern Wisconsin.

        Sawmehnaug, on Fox River, Ill.

        Seginsavin's Village, on Rouge River near Detroit, Mich.

        Shaytee's Village, probably Potawatomi on Fox River, Ill.

        Shobonier's Village, near the present Shabbona, De Kalb
        County, Ill.

        Soldier's Village, in northern Illinois.

        Tassinong, probably Potawatomi, in Porter County, Ind.

        Toisa's Village, on the west bank of Tippecanoe River, nearly
        opposite Bloomingsburg, Fulton County, Ind.

        Tonguish's Village, near Rouge River in the southern part of
        Oakland County, or the northern part of Wayne County, Mich.

        Topenebee's Village, on St. Joseph River opposite Niles, Berrien
        County, Mich.

        Waisuskuck's Village, in northeastern, Illinois.

        Wanatah, in La Porte County, Ind., n short distance east of the
        present Wanatah.

        Wimego's Village, on the north bank of Indian Creek, in the
        northern part of Cass County, Ind.

        Winamac's Village, near the present Winamac, Pulaski County, Ind.

        Wonongoseak, probably Potawatomi, between the northern and
        southern branches of Elkhart River, apparently in Noble County,

        History.- Shortly before the Potawatomi were encountered by the
        French they seem to have been living in the lower peninsula of
        Michigan. According to native traditions, the Ottawa, Chippewa,
        and Potawatomi reached the upper end of Lake Huron in company
        from some region farther east, and the Potawatomi crossed from
        that point into the peninsula. By 1670 they had been driven to
        the neighborhood of Green Bay west of Lake Michigan, whence they
        slowly moved south until by the end of the century they had
        established themselves on Milwaukee River, at Chicago, and on St.
        Joseph River. After the conquest of the Illinois Indians about
        1765, they took possession of still more of what is now the
        northern part of the State of Illinois and extended their
        settlements eastward over southern Michigan as far as Lake Erie.

        After 1795, against the protests of the Miami, they moved down
        the Wabask and advanced their occupancy as far as Pine Creek.
        They sided actively first with the French against the English
        and then with the English against the Americans until a general
        peace was brought about in 1815. As White settlers increased in
        numbers in their neighborhood, the Potawatomi gradually parted
        with their lands, the greatest cessions being made between 1836
        and 1841, and most of them retired beyond tke Mississippi. Part
        of the Prairie band of Potawatomi returned to Wisconsin, while
        another band, the Potawatomi of Huron, are in lower Michigan. A
        few escaped into Canada and are now on Walpole Island in St.
        Clair County. Part of the Potawatomi living in Wisconsin sold
        their lands and received in exchange a reservation in
        southwestern Iowa. These received the name of Prairie Potauatomi.
        In 1846 they also disposed of their Iowa territory and in 1847-48
        passed over into Kansas and established themselves just east of
        the Potawatomi of the Woods, who had come from Indiana in 1840 to
        occupy a reserve on Osage River, in Kansas. In 1846, however, the
        latter re-ceded this and settled the following year between the
        Shawnee and Delaware Indians in the present Shawnee County, Kans.
        The Potawatomi of the Prairie remained in Kansas and received
        allotments there, but the Potawatomi of the Woods went to a
        new reservation in Oklahoma in 1869-71 near the Kickapoo. A few
        have accompanied the Kickapoo to Mexico.

        Population.- Mooney's (1928) estimate for the Potawatomi, as of
        the year 1650, is 4,000. Estimates made between 1765 and 1843
        vary from 1,200 to 3,400, but it would seem that they must have
        averaged 2,000 to 2,500. In 1908, 2,522 Potawatomi were reported
        in the United States, distributed as follows: Citizen Potawatomi
        in Oklahoma, 1,768; Prairie band in Kansas, 676; and Potawatomi
        of Huron, in Calhoun County, Mich., 78. A few besides these were
        scattered through their ancient territory and at various other
        points. Those in Canada are all in the Province of Ontario and
        number about 220, of whom 176 are living with Chippewa and Ottawa
        on Walpole Island and the remainder, no longer officially
        reported, are divided between Caradoc and Riviere aux Sables,
        where they reside by permission of the Chippewa and Munsee. The
        United States Census of 1910 returned 2,440, of whom 866 were
        living in Oklahoma, 619 in Kansas, 461 in Michigan, and 245 in
        Wisconsin, while the remainder were scattered in 11 other States.
        The United States and Canadian Indian Office Reports of 1923-24
        give 2,227 in Oklahoma, 803 in Kansas, and 170 on Walpole Island,
        Ontario, but those in Michigan are not separately entered. The
        United States Census of 1930 returned 1,854, of whom 654 were in
        Kansas, 636 in Oklahoma, 425 in Wisconsin, and 89 in Michigan. In
        1937 there were 142 in Michigan, 311 in Wisconsin, 1,013 in
        Kansas, and 2,667 in Oklahoma: total 4,133.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- In the form
        Pottawatomie the name of this tribe is used as a designation of
        counties in Kansas and Oklahoma and a post township of Coffey
        County, Kans., and in the form Pottawattamie as the designation
        of a county in Iowa.

        Sauk. At some time shortly before European contact the Sauk lived
        about Saginaw Bay and the present name of the bay is derived from
        them. They were probably driven beyond Lake Michigan by the
        Ottawa allied with the Neutral Nation. (See Wisconsin.)

        Wyandot. After the disruption of their nation by the Iroquois
        these people lived for limited periods at several different
        points in the territory now included in the State of Michigan.
        They were temporarily at Michilimackinac, Detroit, and other
        places. (See Ohio.)



        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Arapaho. There are traditions that they once lived along Red
        River, in the present North Dakota and Minnesota, (See Wyoming.)

        Cheyenne. The earliest known home of this tribe was in that part
        of Minnesota bounded roughly by the Mississippi, Minnesota, and
        upper Red Rivers. From here they moved to the Sheyenne branch
        of Red River, North Dakota. (See South Dakota.)

        Chippewa or Ojibwa. Traditional significance of name in their
        own language, "to roast until puckered up," referring to the
        puckered seam in their moccasins. Also called:

             An-ish-in-aub-ag, another native term meaning "spontaneous
             Axshissaye-runu, Wyandot name.
             Bawichtigouek, name in Jesuit Relations.
             Bedzaqetcha, Tsattine name, meaning "long hairs."
             Bedzietcho, Kawchodinne name.
             Bungees, so called by Hudson Bay traders.
             Cabellos realzados, the Spanish translation of French
             De-wa-ka-nha, Mohawk name.
             Dshipowe-haga, Caughnawaga name.
             Dwa-ka-nen, Onondaga name.
             Eskiaeronnon, Huron name, meaning "people of the falls."
             Hahatonwan, Dakota name.
             Hahatonway, Hidatsa name, meaning "leapers."
             Jumpers, incorrect rendering of Saulteurs.
             Kutaki, Fox name.
             Leapers, same as Jumpers.
             Ne-a-ya-og, Cree name, meaning "those speaking the same
             Ne-ga-tce, Winnebago name.
             Nwa'-ka, Tuscarora name.
             Ostiagahoroones, Iroquois name.
             Paouichtigouin, name in Jesuit Relations.
             Saulteurs, or Saulteaux, given to part of the tribe from the
        falls at Sault Ste. Marie.
             Sotoes, Anglicization of above.
             Wah-kah-towah, Assiniboin name, according to Tanner.

        Connections.- The Chippewa are the type tribe of one of the two
        largest divisions of the Algonquian linguistic stock.

        Location.- The earliest accounts of the Chippewa associate them
        particularly with the region of Sault Ste. Marie, but they came
        in time to extend over the entire northern shore of Lake Huron
        and both shores of Lake Superior, besides well into the northern
        interior and as far west as the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota.
        (See also Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Montana,
        North Dakota, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Canada.)


        There were a number of major and numerous minor divisions of this

        According to Warren, there were 10 major divisions, as follows:

             Betonukeengainubejig, in northern Wisconsin.
             Kechegummewininewug, on the south shore of Lake Superior.
             Kechesebewininewug, on the upper Mississippi in Minnesota.
             Kojejewininewug, on Rainy Lake and River, about the northern
        boundary of Minnesota.
             Mukmeduawininewug, or Pillagers, on Leech Lake, Minn.
             Munominikasheenhug, at the headwaters of St. Croix River in
        Wisconsin and Minnesota.
             Ottawa Lake Men, on Lac Courte Oreilles, Wis.
             Sugwaundugahwininewug, north of Lake Superior.
             Wahsuahgunewininewug, at the head of Wisconsin River.
             Wazhush, on the northwest side of Lake Superior at the
        Canadian border.

                         Villages and Small Bands

             Amikwa, on the north shore of Lake Huron, opposite
        Manitoulin Island.
             Angwassag, near St. Charles, Saginaw County, Mich.
             Anibiminanisibiwininiwak, a band, on Pembina River in the
        extreme northern part of Minnesota and the adjacent part of
             Bagoache, a band, about the northern shore of Lake Superior.
             Bay du Noc, perhaps Chippewa, probably on Noquet Bay in
        upper Michigan.
             Beaver Island Indians, on the Beaver Islands of Lake
        Michigan, at the outlet.
             Big Rock, the location of a reservation in lower Michigan.
             Blackbird, on Tittibawassee River, Saginaw County, Mich.
             Burnt Woods, Chippewa, on Bois Brule River near the west end
        of Lake Superior, northern Wisconsin.
             Chetac Lake, on the lake of the same name in Sawyer County,
             Crow Wing River, at the mouth of Crow Wing River in north
        central Minnesota.
             Doki's Band, at the head of French River where it leaves
        Lake Nipissing, Ont.
             Epinette, on the north shore of Lake Superior, east of
        Michipicoton River, Ont.
             Flying Post, about the post of that name in Ontario.
             Fond du Lac, on St. Louis River near Fond du Lac, Minn.
             Gamiskwakokawininiwak, about Cass Lake, near the head of the
        Mississippi, in Minn.
             Gasakaskuatchimmekak, location uncertain.
             Gatagetegauning, on Lac (Vieux) Desert or Gatagetegauning on
        the Michigan-Wisconsin State line.
             Gawababiganikak, about White Earth Lake, Minn.
             Grand Portage, at Grand Portage on the northern shore of
        Lake Superior in Minn.
             Gull Lake Band, on Gull Lake on the upper Mississippi, in
        Cass County, Minn.
             Kahmetahwungaguma, on Sandy Lake, Cass County, Minn.
             Kawkawling, location uncertain.
             Kechepukwaiwah, on the lake of the same name near Chippewa
        River, Wis.
             Ketchenaundaugenink, on Shiawassee River on the trail
        between Detroit and Saginaw Bay, Mich.
             Kishkawbawee, on Flint River in lower Michigan.
             Knife Lake, location uncertaim
             Lac Courte Oreilles, on the lake of the same name at the
        headwaters of Chippewa River, in Sawyer County, Wis.
             Little Forks, a reservation on Tittibawassee River, in lower
             Long Lake, on Long Lake north of Lake Superior, between
        Nipigon and Pic River, Ont.
             Matawachkirini, Matachewan, about Fort Matachewan, Ont.
             Mattagami, about Mattagami Lake.
             Mekadewagamitigweyawininiwak, on Black River, Mich.
             Menitegow, on the east bank of Saginaw River in lower
             Menoquet's Village, on Cass River, lower Michigan.
             Michilimackinac, on Mackinac Island, Mich.
             Michipicoten, a band on Michipicoten River, Ont.
             Midinakwadshiwininiwak, a band in the Turtle Mountain
        region, N. Dak.
             Misisagaikaoiwininiwak, a band on Mille Lacs, Minn.
             Miskwagamiwisagaigan, a band about Red Lake River, Minn.
             Nabobish, at the mouth of Saginaw River, Mich.
             Nagonabe, in lower Michigan.
             Nameuilni, a band northwest of Lake Superior, between Rainy
        Lake and Lake Nipigon in Algoma, Ont.
             Nibowisibiwininiwak, in Saakatchewan north of Lake Winnipeg.
             Nipissing, about Lake Nipissing.
             Obidgewong, with Ottawa, on the west shore of Lake Wolseley,
        Manitoulin Island, Ont.
             Ommunise, or Ottawa, on Carp River, Mich.
             Onepowesepewenenewak, in Minnesota.
             Ontonagon, a band on Ontonagon River in upper Michigan.
             Oschekkamegawenenewak, 2 bands: (1) near Rainy Lake (1753);
        (2) east of Mille Lacs.
             Ouasouarini, on Georgian Bay, Ont.
             Oueschekgagamiouilimy, the Caribou gens of Rainy River,
             Outchougai, on the east side of Georgian Bay and probably
        south of French River, connected with the Amikwa.
             Otusson, on upper Huron River in Sanilac County, Mich.
             Pawating, at Sault Ste. Marie, on the south bank of St.
        Mary's River, Chippewa County, Mich.
             Pic River, at the mouth of Pic River on the north shore of
        Lake Superior, Ont.
             Pokegama, on Pokegama Lake, Pine County, Minn.
             Portage du Prairie, in Manitoba.
             Rabbit Lake Chippewa, a band on Rabbit Lake, Minn.
             Reaum's Village, in Flint River, Mich., about the boundary
        of Genesee and Saginaw Counties.
             Red Cedar Lake, on Red Cedar Lake, Barron County, Wis.
             Red Cliff, near the west end of Lake Superior, in Wisconsin
        or Minnesota.
             Rice Lake Band, on Rice Lake, Barron County, Wis.
             Saginaw, with Ottawa, near Saginaw, Mich.
             Saint Francis Xavier, a mission, on Mille Lacs, Aitkin
        County, Minn.
             Shabwasing, a band, probably in lower Michigan.
             Shsugawaumikong, on Long Island, on the west coast of Lake
        Superior, in Ashland County, Wis.
             Sukaauguning, on Pelican Lake, Oneida County, Wis.
             Thunder Bay, Chippewa or Ottawa, a band on Thunder Bay,
        Alpena County, Mich.
             Timagimi, about Lake Timagimi.
             Trout Lake, location uncertain.
             Turtle Portage, in Wisconsin.
             Wabasemowenenewak, near a white rock perhaps in Minnesota.
             Walpole Island, with other tribes, Ontario.
             Wanamakewajejenik, near the Lake of the Woods.
             Wapisiwisibiwininiwak, a band, on Swan Greek, near Lake St.
        Clair, Mich.
             Wauswagiming, on Lac du Flambeau, Lac du Flambeau
        Reservation, Wisconsin.
             Wequadong, near L'Anse at the head of Keweenaw Bay, Baraga
        County, Mich.
             Whitefish, on Sturgeon River.
             Wiaquahhechegumeeng, at the head of Lake Superior in
        Douglass County, Wis.
             Winnebegoshishiwininewak, a band on Lake Winnibigashish,
             Yellow Lake, on Yellow Lake, Burnett County, Wis.

        History - According to tradition, the Chippewa were part of a
        large body of Indians which came from the east -- how much east of
        their later homes is uncertain- and after reaching Mackinaw
        separated into the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi. The Chippewa
        afterward pushed their way west along both shores of Lake
        Superior, and in the eighteenth century, assisted by the adoption
        of firearms, drove the Dakota from Mille Lacs, and spread over
        the northern part of Minnesota and southern Manitoba as far as
        the Turtle Mountains. They also flowed back around Lake Huron.
        During the nineteenth century they were gradually gathered into
        reservations on both sides of the International Boundary, but
        none were ever removed from their original country except two
        small bands and some scattered families which went to Kansas
        early in 1839, and in 1866 agreed to settle among the Cherokee in

        Population - Mooney (1928) considered that there were 35,000
        Chippewa in 1650. The tribe was so large and has so many
        ramifications that few early estimates are very close to the
        truth. The principal are: In 1764, about 25,000; in 1783 and
        1794, about 15,000; in 1843, about 30,000; in 1851, about 28,000.
        In 1884 there were in Dakota 914; in Minnesota, 5,885; in
        Wisconsin, 3,666; in Michigan, 3,500 returned separately and
        6,000 combined Chippewa and Ottawa, of whom perhaps one-third
        were Chippewa; in Kansas, 76 Chippewa and Munsee. In Canada the
        Chippewa of Ontario, including the Nipissing, numbered at the
        same time about 9,000, while in Manitoba and the Northwest
        Territories there were 17,129 Chippewa and Cree on reservations
        under the same agencies. The census of 1910 gave 20,214 in the
        United States, of whom 8,234 were in Minnesota, 4,299 in
        Wisconsin, 3,725 in Michigan, 2,966 in North Dakota, and the
        balance scattered among 18 States. The United States Indian
        Office Report for 1923 gave 22,599. In Canada there were probably
        somewhat less than 25,000, giving a total for the tribe of about
        45,000. It must, however, be remembered that the present
        population of Chippewa includes thousands of mixed-bloods, partly
        representing mixtures with other tribes and partly mixtures with
        Whites. The United States Census of 1930 gives 21,549, including
        9,495 in Minnesota, 4,437 in Wisconsin, 3,827 in North Dakota,
        1,865 in Michigan, and 1,549 in Montana. In 1937, 16,160 were
        returned from Minnesota, 4,303 from Wisconsin, 6,613 from North
        Dakota, and 481 from Montana; a total in the United States of

        Connection in which they have become noted - From early times the
        Chippewa were one of those tribes most prominent in the minds of
        writers on American Indians. This fact they owed in the first
        place to their numbers and the extent of country covered by their
        bands; secondly, to their central position and the many White men
        who became acquainted with them; and, thirdly, to the
        popularization given them by Henry M. Schoolcraft (1851-57), and
        the still wider popularity which they and their myths attained
        through the use of Schoolcraft's material by Longfellow in his
        famous poem of Hiawatha, for while the name Hiawatha is drawn
        from Iroquois sources, the stories are nearly all Chippewa. The
        name is preserved by streams in Wisconsin, Ohio, Michigan,
        Minnesota, and Ontario; by counties in Michigan, Wisconsin, and
        Minnesota; by various places in Pennsylvania, New York,
        Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario; and by Chippewa Bay, St.
        Lawrence County, N. Y.; Chippewa Falls, Chippewa County, Wis.;
        Chippewa Lake, Mecosta County, Mich.; Chippewa Lake, Medina
        County, Ohio; and Ojibwa in Sawyer County, Wis.

        Dakota. When first known to Europeans the Dakota were mainly
        in southern Minnesota. They gradually moved westward but
        did not cede all of their lands in Minnesota until 1863, and
        even then retained rights to the famous Red Pipestone Quarry.
        (See South Dakota.)

        Foxes. In 1830 representatives of this tribe were a party to a
        treaty ceding Minnesota lands to the Whites. (See Wisconsin.)

        Iowa. According to tradition, this tribe lived for a time near
        the famous Red Pipestone Quarry in southwestern Minnesota, and
        were at the mouth of Minnesota River when the Dakota reached that
        country. They appear to have been near the mouth of Blue Earth
        River just before Le Sueur arrived there in 1701. Dakota informed
        him that Blue Earth River belonged to the Dakota of the West, the
        Iowa, and the Oto. (See Iowa.)

        Missouri. Representatives of this tribe were a party to the treaty
        of 1830, ceding Minnesota lands to the Whites. (See Missouri.)

        Omaha. At one time the Omaha lived about the Red Pipestone
        Quarry in Minnesota. (See Nebraska.)

        Oto. As noted above (under Iowa), the Oto are reported to have
        shared at one time the ownership of Blue Earth River with the
        Iowa and the Western Dakota. (See Nebraska.)

        Ottawa. A band of Ottawa, in company with some Wyandot, once
        wintered on Lake Pepin. (See Michigan.)

        Ponca. This tribe was probably in southwestern Minnesota at the
        same time as the Omaha. (See Nebraska.)

        Sauk. In 1830 Sauk representatives were a party to a treaty
        ceding Minnesota lands to the Whites. (See Wisconsin.)

        Winnebago. A part of the Winnebago lived in Minnesota from 1848
        to 1862 after surrendering their reservation in Iowa Territory.
        (See Wisconsin.)

        Wyandot. This tribe visited the borders of Minnesota for a short
        period in company with the Ottawa (see Ottawa, above, and



        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Acolapissa. When first known to Europeans, this tribe lived on
        Pearl River, partly in what is now Mississippi, partly in
        Louisiana, but they were more closely associated with Louisiana
        in later times and will be treated among the tribes of that
        State. (See Louisiana.)

        Biloxi. Apparently a corruption of their own name Taneks anya,
        "first people," filtered over the tongues of other Indians. Also

        Ananis, Anaxis, Annocchy, early French spellings intended for
        Taneks. Polu'ksalgi, Creek name.

        Connections.- They belonged to the Siouan linguistic family.

        Location.- Their earliest historical location was on the lower
        course of Pascagoula River. (See also Louisiana, Oklahoma, and


        None are known except those bearing the name of the tribe, unless
        we assume the "Moctobi" or "Capinans" to be a part of them.
        These, however, may have been merely synonyms of the tribal name.

        History.- It is possible that the Biloxi are the Capitanesses who
        appear west of Susquehanna River on early Dutch charts. On the De
        Crenay map of 1733, a Biloxi town site appears on the right bank
        of the Alabama River, a little above the present Clifton in
        Wilcox County, Ala. This was probably occupied by the Biloxi
        during their immigration from the north. Individuals belonging to
        the tribe were met by Iberville on his first expedition to
        Louisiana in 1699, and in June of the same year his brother
        Bienville visited them. In 1700 Iberville found their town
        abandoned and does not mention encountering the people them-
        selves, though they may have been sharing the Pascagoula village
        at which he made a short stop. A few years later, Penicaut says
        (1702-23), St. Denis persuaded the Biloxi to abandon their
        village and settle on a small bayou near New Orleans but by 1722
        they had returned a considerable distance toward their old home
        and were established on the former terrain of the Acolapissa
        Indians on Pearl River. They continued in this neighborhood and
        close to the Pascagoula until 1763, when French government east
        of the Mississippi came to an end. Soon afterward, although we do
        not know the exact date, they moved to Louisiana and settled not
        far from Marksville. They soon moved farther up Red River and
        still later to Bayou Boeuf. Early in the nineteenth century they
        sold their lands, and, while part of them remained on the river,
        a large body migrated to Texas and settled on Biloxi Bayou, in
        Angelina County. All of these afterward left, either to return to
        Louisiana or to settle in Oklahoma. A few Biloxi are still living
        in Rapides Parish, La., and there are said to be some in the
        Choctaw Nation, but the tribe is now practically extinct. In 1886
        the Siouan relationship of their language was established by Dr.
        Gatschot of the Bureau of American Ethnology, and a considerable
        record of it was obtained by Mr. James D. Dorsey of the same
        institution in 1892-93. (See Dorsey and Swanton, 1912.)

        Population.- On the basis of the imperfect records available, I
        have made the following estimates of Biloxi population at
        different periods: 420 in 1698, 175 in 1720, 105 in 1805, 65 in
        1829, 6-8 in 1908. Mooney (1928) estimated that this tribe, the
        Pascagoula, and the "Moctobi" might number 1,000 in 1650.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Biloxi are
        remarkable (1) as having spoken a Siouan dialect unlike all of
        their neighbors with one possible exception; (2) as the tribe
        first met by Iberville when he reached the coast of Louisiana and
        established the French colony of that name; (3) as having
        furnished the names of the first two capitals of Louisiana, Old
        and New Biloxi; that of the present Biloxi, Miss.; and the name
        of Biloxi Bay.

        Capinans. The name of a body of Indians connected in French
        references with the Biloxi and Pascagoula and probably a branch
        of one of them.

        Chakchiuma. Proper spelling Shatci homma, meaning "Red Crawfish

        Connections.- They spoke a dialect closely related to Choctaw and
        Chickasaw. Their nearest relatives were the Houma (q. v.), who
        evidently separated from them in very recent times.

        Location.- In the eighteenth century on Yalobusha River where it
        empties into the Yazoo but at an early period extending to the
        head of the Yalobusha and eastward between the territories of the
        Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes as far as West Point.


        A French map dated about 1697 seems to call that section of the
        tribe on Yazoo River, Sabougla, though these may have been a
        Branch of the Sawokli. (See Georgia.)

        History.- According to tradition, this tribe came from the west
        at the same time as thc Chickasaw and Choctaw and settled between
        them. When De Soto was among the Chickasaw, an expedition was
        directed against the Chakchiuma "who the [Chickasaw] Cacique said
        had rebelled," but their town was abandoned and on fire. It was
        claimed that they had planned treachery against the Spaniards.
        The chief of the tribe at this time was Miko Lusa (Black Chief).
        After the French settlement of Louisiana a missionary was killed
        by these people and in revenge the French stirred up the
        neighboring tribes to attack them. They are said to have been
        reduced very considerably in consequence. Afterward, they
        remained closely allied with the French, assisted them after the
        Natchez outbreak, and their chief was appointed leader of the
        Indian auxiliaries in the contemplated attack upon the Chickasaw
        in 1739. The animosity thus excited probably resulted in their
        destruction by the Chickasaw and absorption into the Chickasaw
        and Choctaw tribes. From De Crenay's map it appears that a part
        had gone to live with the Chickasaw by 1733. The rest may have
        gone to the Choctaw, for a band bearing their name constituted an
        important division of that nation. Tradition states that they
        were destroyed by the united efforts of the Chickasaw and
        Choctaw, but the latter were uniformly allied with the French and
        hostile to the Chickasaw when this alliance is supposed to have
        been in existence.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates 1,200 souls among the
        Chakchiuma, Ibitoupa, Taposa, and Tiou in 1650; exclusive of the
        Tiou, my own would be 750. In 1699 they are said to have occupied
        70 cabins. In 1702 it is claimed that there were 400 families,
        which in 1704 had been reduced to 80, but probably the first
        figure is an exaggeration. About 1718-30 where were 50 Chakchiuma
        cabins and in 1722 the total population is placed at 150.

        Chickasaw. Meaning unknown, though the ending suggests that it
        might have been a place name. Also called:

             Ani'-Tsi'ksu, Cherokee name.
             Kasaha unun, Yuchi name.
             Tchaktchan, Arapaho name.
             Tchikasa, Creek name.
             Tci'-ka-sa', Kansa name.
             Ti-ka'-ja, Quapaw name.
             Tsi'-ka-ce, Osage name.

        Connections.- Linguistically the Chickasaw were closely connected
        with the Choctaw and one of the principal tribes of the
        Muskhogean group.

        Location.- In northern Mississippi, principally in Pontotoc and
        Union Counties. (See South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas,
        Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Tennessee.)


        Aside from some incorporated tribes such as the Napochi and
        Chakchiuma, no major subdivisions other than towns are mentioned
        until late in Chickasaw history when we hear of three such
        subdivisions: those of Tishomingo, Sealy, and McGilvery, named
        after their chiefs. These, however, were probnbly superficial and



        Alaoute, mentioned only by Iberville.



        Apile faplimengo (Iberville).


        Ayebisto (Iberville).


        Chinica (Iberville).



        Coui loussa, (French Memoir of 1755).

        Eatcha Hoa, on Latcha Hoa Run, an affluent of Ahoola Ihalchubba,
        a western tributary of Tombigbee River, northeastern Mississippi.

        Etoukouma (De Batz).


        Gouytola (Iberville).

        Ogoula-Tchetoka (Do Batz).

        Onthaba atchosa (Iberville).

        Ooe-asa, in Creek Nation near Sylacauga.

        Oucahata (Iberville).

        Oucthambolo (Iberville).

        Outanquatle (French Memoir of 1756).

        Tanyachilca (Iberville).

        Thanbolo (Iberville).




        All of the above, with one or two exceptions noted, were close to
        one another in the general location given above.

        History.- Like most of the other Muskhogean peoples, the
        Chickasaw believed they had come from the west. They thought that
        they had settled for a time at a spot in northern Alabama on the
        north side of the Tennessee River long known as Chickasaw Old
        Fields. There is little doubt that Chickasaw had once lived at
        that place whether or not the whole tribe was so located. The
        first Europeans to become acquainted with the tribe were the
        Spaniards under De Soto, who spent the months of January,
        February, and March 1541, in the Chickasaw country, nnd in the
        latter month were attacked by the tribe with such fury that they
        were nearly destroyed. Little is heard of the Chickasaw from this
        time until French explorers and colonists arrived, at the end of
        the seventeenth century They found the tribe in approximately the
        position in which De Soto had encountered them, and they found
        them as warlike as before. Although the French tried to make
        peace with them, English traders had effected establishments in
        their country even before the settlement of Louisiana, and they
        remained consistent allies of England while England and France
        were fighting for the possession of North America. In the south
        their alliance meant much the same to the English as Iroquois
        friendship meant to them in the north. As practically all of the
        surrounding peoples were devoted to the French, and the Chickasaw
        were not numerous, they were obliged to maintain a very unequal
        struggle until the final victory of England in 1763, and they
        suffered severely in consequence. They supported the Natchez when
        they revolted in (1729) and when French expeditions from the
        north and south were hurled upon them simultaneously in 1736,
        they beat both off with heavy losses. In 1740 a gigantic attempt
        was made to conquer them, but the greater part of the force
        assembled dissolved without accomplishing anything. A small
        French expedition under Celoron succeeded in obtaining a treaty
        of peace advantageous to the French but this soon became a dead
        letter, and French communications up and down the Mississippi
        River were constantly threatened and French voyageurs constantly
        attacked in the period following. In 1752 and 1753 the French
        commanders Benoist and Reggio were defeated by the Chickasaw. At
        an earlier period, shortly before 1715, they and the Cherokee
        together drove the Shawnee from their settlements on the
        Cumberland, and in 1745 they expelled another Shawnee band from
        the same region. In 1769 they utterly routed the Cherokee on the
        site of the Chickasaw Old Fields. In 1793-95 war broke out with
        the Creeks, who invaded their territories with 1,000 men, but
        while they were attacking a small stockade, a band of about 200
        Chickasaw fell upon them, whereupon an unaccountable terror took
        possession of the invaders, and they fled precipitately. There
        was at one time a detached body of Chickasaw on the lower
        Tennessee not far from its mouth. They also had a town among the
        Upper Creeks for a brief period (Ooe-asa), and a settlement near
        Augusta, Ga., from about 1723 to the opening of thc American
        Revolution. Thc Chickasaw maintained friendship with the American
        Government after its establishment, but, being pressed upon by
        white settlers, parted with their lands by treaties made in 1805,
        1816, 1818, and 1832. The actual migration to new homes in what
        is now Oklahoma began in 1837 and extended to 1847. The Chickasaw
        and Choctaw mingled rather indiscriminately at first but their
        lands were separated in 1855 and the Chickasaw set up an
        independent government modeled on that of the United States which
        lasted until merged in the new State of Oklahoma.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were about 8,000
        in 1600. In 1702 Iberville estimated that there were 2,000
        families of Chickasaw, but in 1715 a rather careful enumeration
        made by the colony of South Carolina, gave 6 villages, 700 men,
        and a population of 1,900. In 1761, a North Carolina estimate
        gives about 400 men; in 1766, about 350. Most of the subsequent
        estimates of the number of warriors made during the eighteenth
        century vary between 250 and 800. In 1817 Morse (1822) places the
        total population at 3,625; in 1829 General Peter B. Porter
        estimates 3,600 (in Schoolcraft, 1851-57, vol. 3); and a more
        accurate report in Schoolcraft gives 4,715 in 18,33. The figures
        of the United States Indian Office between 1836 and the present
        time vary from 4,500 for 1865 to 1870 to nearly 11,000 in 1923,
        but this latter figure includes more than 5,000 freedmen and
        persons intermarried in the tribe, and, when we allow for mixed
        bloods, we shall find that the Chickasaw population proper has
        usually stood at between 4,500 and 5,500 during the entire
        period. There has probably been a slow decline in the absolute
        amount of Chickasaw blood owing to constant intermixture with
        other peoples. The 1910 census returned 4,204 Chickasaw and that
        of 1930, 4,745.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Chickasaw were
        noted (1) as one of the most warlike tribes of the Gulf area, (2)
        as the tribe of all those encountered by the Spaniards who came
        nearest putting an end to De Soto's army, (3) as the constant
        allies of the English without whom the control of the Gulf region
        by the latter would many times have been jeopardized. There are
        post villages of the name in Mobile County, Ala., and Mercer
        County, Ohio, and Chickasha, a variant form, is the name of the
        county seat of Grady County, Okla.

        Choctaw. Meaning unknown, though Halbert (1901) has suggested
        that they received their name from Pearl River, "Hachha". Also

             Ani'-Tsa'ta, Cherokee name.
             Flat Heads, from their custom of flattening the heads of
             Henne'sh, Arapaho name.
             Nabuggindehaig, probably the Chippewa name for this tribes
        signifying "flat heads."
             Pans falaya, "Long Hairs," given by Adair.
             Sanaklwa, Cheyenne name, meaning "feathers sticking up above
        the ears."
             Ta-qta, Quapaw name.
             Tca-qta an-ya-di, or Tca-qta han-ya, Biloxi name.
             Tca-ta, Kansa name.
             Tetes Plates, French equivalent of "Flat Heads."
             Tsah-tu, Creek name.

        Connections.- This was the largest tribe belonging to the
        southern Muskhogean branch. Linguistically, but not physically,
        it was most closely allied with the Chickasaw and after them with
        thc Alabama.

        Location.- Nearly all of the Choctaw towns were in the
        southeastern part of Mississippi though they controlled the
        adjoining territory in the present State of Alabama. The small
        tribes of Mobile were sometimes called Choctaw. (See also
        Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, Alabama, and Arkansas.)

                           Subdivisions and Villages

        From the earliest times of which we have any knowledge the
        Choctaw villages were distributed into three divisions: a
        southern, a northeastern, and a western, though a central group
        may also be distinguished. The southern division is fairly well
        defined by our several informants, but there is considerable
        disagreement with reference to the others. One authority gives
        but two divisions, an eastern and a western, and even cuts up the
        southern group between them. The following locations were
        established largely by Mr. H. S. Halbert (1901):

        Southern or Sixtown Division:

             Bishkun, in the northern part of Jasper County.
             Bissasha, on the west side of Little Roek Creek, in Newton
        County, sect. 23, tp. 8, range 12, east.
             Boktoloksi, on Boguetuluksi Creek, a southwest affluent of
        Chickasawhay River.
             Chickasawhay, on Chickasawhay River about 3 miles south of
        Enterprise, Clarke County.
             Chinakbf, on the site of Garlandville, in Jasper County.
             Chiskilikbacha, probably in Jasper County.
             Coatraw, 4 miles southwest of the town of Newton in sect.
        17, tp. 5, range 11, east, Newton County.
             Inkillis tamaha, in the northeastern part of Jasper County.
             Nashobawenya, in the southwestern part of Jasper County.
             Okatalaia, in the eastern part of Smith County or the
        western part of Jasper County.
             Oktak chito tamaha, location unknown.
             Oskelagna, probably in Jasper County.
             Puskustakali, in the southwest corner of Kemper County or
        the proximate part of Neshoba County.
             Siniasha, location uncertain.
             Tala, in the southern part of Newton County, between Tarlow
        and Bogue Felamma Creeks.
             Talahoka, in Jasper County.
             Yowani, on the east side of Chickasawhay River, in the
        southern part of Clarke County.

        Western Division:

             Abissa, location uncertain.
             Atlantchitou, location unknown.
             Ayoutakale, location unknown.
             Bok chito, probably on Bogue Chitto, in Neshoba and Kemper
             Bokfalaia, location uncertain.
             Bokfoka, location unknown.
             Boktokolo, location unknown.
             Cabea Hoola, location unknown.
             Chunky, on the site of Union, Newton County.
             Chunky chito, on the west bank of Chunky Creek, about half a
        mile below the confluence of that creek with Talasha Creek- later
        this belonged to the southern district.
             East Kunshak chito, near Moscow, in Kemper County.
             Filitamon, location unknown.
             Halunlawi asha, on the site of Philadelphia, in Neshoba
             Hashuk chuka, location unknown.
             Hashuk homa, location unknown.
             Imokasha, on the headwaters of Talasha Creek, in Neshoba
        County, in sections 4, 9, and 16, tp. 9, range 13, east.
             Iyanabi, on Yannubbee Creek, about 8 miles southwest of De
        Ealb, in Kemper County.
             Itichipota, between the headwaters of Chickasawhay and
        Tombigbee Rivers.
             Kafitalaia, on Owl Creek, in section 21, tp. 11, range 13,
        east, in Neshoba County.
             Kashtasha, on the south side of Custusha Creek, about 3
        miles a little south of West Yazoo Town.
             Konshak osapa, somewhere west of West Imoklasha.
             Koweh chito, northwest of De Kalb, in Kemper County.
             Kushak, on Lost Horse Creek, 4 miles southeast of Lazelia,
        Lauderdale County.
             Kunshak bolukta, in the southwestern part of Kemper County
        some 2 miles from Nieshoba County line and 1 1/2 miles from the
        Lauderdale County line.
             Kunshak chito, on or near the upper course of Oktibbeha
             Lushapa, perhaps on Lussalaka Creek, a tributary of
        Kentarcky Creek, in Neshoba County.
             Oka Chippo, location unknown.
             Oka Coopoly, on Ocobly Creek, in Neshoba County.
             Oka hullo, probably on or near the mouth of Sanoote Creek,
        which empties into Petickfa Creek in Kemper County.
             Oka Kapassa, about Pinckney Mill, in sect. 23, tp. 8, range
        11, east, in Newton County- possibly in the southern section.
             Okalusa, in Romans' time on White's Branch, Kemper County.
             Okapoola, location unknown.
             Okehanea tamaha, location unknown.
             Oklabalbaha, location unknown.
             Oklatanap, location unknown.
             Oony, south of Piuckney Mill, in Newton County- possibly in
        the southern division.
             Osak talaia, near the line between Neshoba and Kemper
             Osapa chito, on the site of Dixon Post Office, in Neshoba
             Otuk falaia, location unknown.
             Pante, at the head of Ponta Creek, in Lauderdale County.
             Shinuk Kaha, about 7 miles a little north or east of
        Philadelphia, in Neshoba County.
             Shumotakali, in Kemper County, between the two head prongs
        of Black Water Creek.
             Tiwaele, location unknown.
             Tonicahaw, location unknown.
             Utapacha, location unknown.
             Watonlula, location uncertain.
             West Abeka, location unknown.
             West Kunshak chito, in Neshoba County, near the headwaters
        of Oktibbeha Creek.
             Wiatakali, about 1 mile south of the De Kalb and Jackson
        road, in Neshoba County.
             Yazoo, or West Yazoo, in Neshoba County, near the headwaters
        of Oktibbeha Creek, in sections 13 and 24, tp. 10, range 13,

        Northeastern Division:

             Alamucha, 10 miles from Sukenatcha Creek, in Kemper County.
             Athlepele, location unknown.
             Bolitokolo chito, at the confluence of Running Tiger and
        Sukenatcha Creeks, about 4 miles northwest of De Kalb.
             Chichatalys, location unknown.
             Chuka hullo, on the north side of Sukenatcha Creek,
        somewhere between the mouths of Running Tiger and Straight
        Creeks, in Kemper County.
             Chuka lusa, location unknown.
             Cutha Aimethaw, location unknown.
             Cuthi Uckehaca, probably on or near the rnouth of Parker's
        Creek, which empties into Petickfa, in sect. 30, tp. 10, range
        17, east.
             East Abeka, at the junction of Straight Creek with the
        Sukenatcha, in Kemper County.
             Escooba, perhaps on or near Petickfa Creek, in Kemper
             Hankha Ula, on a flat-topped ridge between the Petickfa and
        Blaok Wate Creeks, in Kemper County.
             Holihta asha, on the site of De Kalb, in Kemper County.
             Ibetap okla chito, perhaps on Straight Creek, in Kemper
             Ibetap okla iskitini, at the head of the main prong of Yazoo
        Creek, in Kemper County.
             Imoklasha iskitini, on Flat Creek, the eastern prong of
        Yazoo Creek, in Kemper County.
             Itokchako, near East Abeka, in Kemper County.
             Kunshaktikpi, on Coonshark Creek, a tributary of Kentarky
        Creek, in Neshoba County.
             Lukfata, on the headwaters of one of the prongs of
        Sukenatcha River.
             Oka Altakala, probably at the confluence of Petickfa and
        Yannubbee Creek, in Kemper County.
             Osapa issa, on the north side of Blackwater Creek, in Hemper
             Pachanucha, location unknown.
             Skanapa, probably on Running Tiger Creek, in Kemper County.
             Yagna Shoogawa, perhaps on Indian branch of Running Tiger
             Yanatoe, probably in southwest Kemper County.
             Yazoo iskitini, on both sides of Yazoo Creek.

        The following were outside the original town cluster:

             Bayou Chicot, south of Cheneyville, St. Landry Parish, La.
             Boutte Station, in St. Charles Parish, La.
             Cahawba Old Towns, in Perry County, Ala., and probably on
        Cahawba River.
             Cheponta's Village, on the west bank of the Tombigbee River
        in the extreme southeastern part of Choctaw County, Ala.
             Chisha Foka, on the site of Jackson.
             Coila, in Carroll County, probably occupied by Choctaw.
             Heitotowa, at the site of the later Sculleyville, Choctaw
        Nation, Okla.
             Shukhata, on the site of Columbus, Ala.
             Teeakhaily Ekutapa, on the lower Tombigbee River.
             Tombigbee, on or near Tombigbee River.

        A few other names of towns placed in the old Choctaw country
        appear on various maps, but most of these are probably intended
        for some of the villages given above.

        History.- After leaving the ruins of Mabila, De Soto and his
        followers, according to the Gentleman of Elvas (see Robertson,
        1933), reached a province called Pafallaya, but, according to
        Ranjel, to a chief river called Apafalaya. Halbert is undoubtedly
        right in believing that in these words we have the old name of
        the Choctaw, Pansfalaya, "Long Hairs," and this is the first
        appearance of the Choctaw tribe in history. We hear of them
        again, in Spanish Florida documents of the latter part of the
        seventeenth century, and from this time on they occupied the
        geographical position always associated with them until their
        removal beyond the Mississippi. The French of necessity had
        intimate dealings with them from the time when Louisiana was
        first colonized, and the relations between the two peoples were
        almost invariably friendly. At one time an English party was
        formed among the Choctaw, partly because the prices charged by
        the Carolina traders were lower than those placed upon French
        goods. This was led by a noted chief named Red Shoes and lasted
        for a considerable time, one of the principal Choctaw towns being
        burned before it came to an end with the defeat of the British
        party in 1750. In 1763,, after French Government had given way to
        that of the English east of the Mississippi, relations between
        the latter and the Choctaw were peaceful though many small bands
        of Indians of this tribe crossed the Mississippi into Louisiana.
        The American Revolution did not alter conditions essentially,
        and, though Tecumseh and his emissaries endeavored to enlist the
        Choctaw in his favor, only about 30 individuals joined the
        hostile Creeks. The abstinence of the tribe as a whole was due
        very largely to the personal influence of the native statesman,
        Pushmataha, whose remains lie in the Congressional Cemetery in
        Washington, surmounted by an impressive monument. Meanwhile bands
        of Choctaw continued moving across the Mississippi, but the great
        migration occurred after the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit, September
        30, 1830, by which tke tribe ceded their old lands. However, a
        considerable body of Choctaw did not leave at this time. Many
        followed, it is true, at the time of the allotment in Oklahoma,
        but upward of a thousand still remain, principally in the
        neighborhood of Philadelphia, Miss. The western Choctaw
        established a government on the model of those of the other
        civilized tribes and that of the United States, and it was not
        given up until merged in the State of Oklahoma early in the
        present century.

        Population.- Estimates of the number of Choctaw warriors between
        1702 and 1814 vary between 700 and 16,000. A North Carolina
        estimate made in 1761 says they numbered at least 5,000 men.
        Common estimates are between 4,000 and 5,000, but even these
        figures may be a trifle low since the first reliable census, that
        of Armstrong, in 1831, gave 19,554. However, there may have been
        a slight increase in population after the beginning of the
        nineteenth century, when an end was put to intertribal wars.
        Figures returned by the Indian Office since that time show a
        rather unusual constancy. They go as low as 12,600, and at the
        other extreme reach 22,707, but the average 13 from 18,000 to
        20,000. The census of 1910 gave 15,917, including 1,162 in
        Mississippi, 14,551 in Oklahoma, 115 in Louisiana, 57 in Alabama,
        and 32 in other States, but the United States Indian Office
        Report for 1923 has 17,488 Choctaw by blood in Oklahoma, 1,600
        "Mississippi Choctaw" in Oklahoma, and 1,439 in the State of
        Mississippi, not counting about 200 in Louisiana, Alabama, and
        elsewhere. A few small tribes were gathered into this nation, but
        only a few. The census of 1930 returned 17,757, of whom 16,641
        were in Oklahoma, 624 in Mississippi, 190 in Louisiana, and the
        rest in more than 14 other States. In 1937 the Mississippi
        Choctaw numbered 1,908, from which it seems that many of the
        Mississippi Choctaw were missed in 1930 unless the "Mississippi
        Choctaw" already in Oklahoma are included.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Choctaw were
        noted (1) as the most numerous tribe in the Southeast next to the
        Cherokee, (2) as depending more than most other tribes in the
        region on agriculture, (3) for certain peculiar customs such as
        head deformation, extensive use of ossuaries for the dead, and
        the male custom of wearing the hair long, (4) as faithful allies
        of the French against the English but always at peace with the
        United States Government, (5) as having furnished the names to
        counties in Alabama, Mississippi, and Oklahoma, and settlements
        in the same States, and in Van Buren County, Ark.

        Choula. Bernard de La lIarpe gives this as the name of a small
        tribe of 40 individuals on the Yazoo River. There is some reason
        to think it was applied to a part of the Ibitoupa tribe (q. v.).
        The name means "fox" in Chicliasaw and Choctaw.

        Grigra. Said to have been given them from the frequent occurrence
        of these two syllables in their speech. They sometimes appear as
        the "Gray Village" of the Natchez.

        Connections.- The fact that the language of this tribe contained
        an r suggests a probable relationship with the tribes of the
        Tunican group.

        Location.- When first known to us, is formed one of the Natchez
        villages on St. Catherines Creek, Miss.


        Only one village is mentioned called by A shorter form of the
        name given to the tribe, Gris or Gras.

        History.- The Grigra had been adopted by the Natchez at an
        earlier period than the Tiou (q. v.) and, like them, may once
        have resided on Yazoo River, but there is no absolute proof of
        this. They are mentioned as one of three Natchez tribes belonging
        to the anti-French faction. Other vise their history is identical
        with that of the Natchez.

        Population.- One estimate made about 1720-25 gives about 60

        Houma. Literally "red," but evidently an abbreviation of saktci
        homma, "red crawfish."

        Connections.- They spoke a Muskhogean language very close to
        Choctaw, and it is practically certain from the fact that their
        emblem was the red crawfish that they had separated from the
        Chakchiumn (q. v.).

        Location.- The earliest known location of the Houma was on the
        east side of the Mississippi River some miles inland and close to
        the Mississippi-Louisiana boundary line, perhaps near the present
        Pinckney, Miss. (See also Louisiana.)


        At one time the people of this tribe were distributed between a
        Little Houma village 2 leagues below the head of Bayou La Fourche
        and a Great Houma village half a league inland from it. This was
        after they had moved from their earlier home.

        History.- La Salle heard of the Houma in 1682, but he did not
        visit them. Tonti made an alliance with them 4 years later, and
        in 1699 their village was the highest on the Mississippi reached
        by Iberville before returning to his ships. In 1700 Iberville
        visited them again and left a missionary among them to build a
        church, which was an accomplished fact when Gravier reached the
        tribe in November of the same year. A few years later the Tunica,
        who had been impelled to leave their old town, were hospitably
        received hy this tribe, but in 1708 they rose upon their hosts,
        destroyed part of them, and drove the rest down the Mississippi.
        These reestablished themselves on Bayou St. John near New
        Orleans, but not long afterward they re-ascended the river to the
        present Ascension Parish and remained there for a considerable
        period. In 1776 they sold a part at least of their lands to two
        French Creoles but seem to have remained in the neighborhood
        until some years after the purchase of Louisiana by the United
        States. By 1805 some had gone to live with thc Atakapa near Lake
        Charles. Most of the remainder appear to have drifted slowly
        across to the coast districts of Terrebonne and La Fourche
        Parishes, where their descendants, with Creole and some Negro
        admixture, still live.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates a Houma population in 1650
        of 1,000. In 1699 Iberville gives 140 cabins and about 350
        warriors, while the Journal of the second vessel in this
        expedition gives a population of 600-700. In 1718, after the
        tribe had suffered from both pestilence and massacre, La Harpe
        estimates 60 cabins and 200 warriors. In 1739 a French officer
        who passed their town rates the number of their warriors at 90 -
        100 and the whole population at 270-300. In 1758 there is an
        estimate of 60 warriors and in 1784 one of 25 while, in 1803, the
        total Houma population is placed at 60. In 1907 the native
        estimate of mixed-blood population calling itself Houma was 800 -
        900, but the census of 1910 returned only 120 Indians from
        Terrebonne. To these there should probably be added some from La
        Fourche but not a number sufficient to account for the
        discrepancy. In 1920, 639 were returned and in 1930, 936 from
        Terrebonne besides 11 from La Fourche. Speck estimates double the

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Houma, the capital
        of Terrebonne Parish, preserves the name.

        Ibitoupa. Meaning probably, people "at the source of" a stream or

        Connections.- No words of this language are known unless the
        tribal name itself is native, but from this and Le Page du
        Pratz's (1758) statement that their language, unlike that of the
        Tunica group, was without an r, there is every reason to class it
        as Muskhogean and closely related to Chackchiuma, Chickasaw, and

        Location.- On Yazoo River in the present Holmes County, perhaps
        between Abyatche and Chicopa Creeks.


        Only one village is known, and that called by the tribal name,
        though it is possible that the Choula, (q. v.) mentioned by La
        Harpe were an offshoot.

        History. - The Ibitoupa are mentioned in 1899 by Iberville, and
        in Coxe's Carolana (1705). Before 1722 they had moved higher up
        and were 3 leagues above the Chalkchiuma (q.v.), who were then
        probably at the mouth of the Yalobusha. They probably united with
        the Chickasaw soon after the Natchez War, though they may first
        have combined with the Chakchiuma and Taposa. They were perhaps
        related to the people of the Choctaw towns called Ibetap okla.

        Population. - All that we know of the population of the Ibitoupa
        is that in 1722 it occupied 6 cabins; in the same year there are
        said to have been 40 Choula, a possible offshoot.

        Connection in which their name has become noted.- It seems to
        have been the original of the name of Tippo Bayou, Miss.

        Koasati. A band of Koasati moved from Alabama to Tombigbee River
        in 1763 but returned to their old country a few years later
        impelled by the hostilities of their new neighbors. (See

        Koroa. Meaning unknown. Also called:

        Kulua, Choctau name, the Muskhogcan people being unable to
        pronounce r readily.

        Connections.- The name and associations, together with Le Page du
        Pratz's (1758) statement that their language possessed an r
        sound, are practically conclusive proof that this tribe belonged
        to the Tunican linguistic group.

        Location.- The Eoroa appear often in association with the
        Yazoo on the lower course of Yazoo River, but at the very
        earliest period they were on the banks of the Mississippi or in
        the interior of what is now Louisiana on the other side of that
        river. (See also Louisiana.)


        None are known under any other name.

        History.- In the De Soto narratives a people is mentioned called
        Coligua and Colima which may be the one under discussion. If not,
        the first appearance of the Koroa in history is on Marquette's
        map applying to 1673, though they are there misplaced. The La
        Salle narratives introduce us, apparently, to two tribes of the
        name, one on Yazoo River, the other below Natchez, but there arc
        reasons for thinking that the latter was the tribe elsewhere
        called Tiou. In Tonti's account of his expedition overland to the
        Red River in 1690 we learn of a Koroa town west of the
        Mississippi, and also of a Koroa River. In 1700 Bienville also
        learned of a trans-Mississippi Koroa settlement. From the time of
        Tonti's expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi in 1686 there
        seems to have been a Koroa town on or near the lower Yazoo, as
        mentioned above. When the Natchez out-break occurred, this tribe
        and the Yazoo joined them and destroyed the French post on Yazoo
        River, but they suffered severely from Indians allied with the
        French and probably retired soon afterward to the Chickasaw,
        though part, and perhaps all of them, ultimately settled among
        the Choctaw. The Choctaw chief Allen Wright claimed to be of
        Koroa descent.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 2,000 Koroa,
        Yazoo, Tunica, and Ofo in 1650. Le Page du Pratz places the
        number of Koroa cabins in his time at 40. In 1722 the total
        population of the Koroa. Yazoo nnd Ofo is given as 250, and in
        1730 the last estimate of the Koroa and Yazoo together gives 40
        warriors, or perhaps 100 souls.

        Moctobi. This name appears in the narratives of the first
        settlement of Louisiana, in 1699, applied to a tribe living with
        or near the Biloxi and Pascagoula. It is perhaps the name of the
        latter in the Biloxi language, or a subdivision of the Biloxi
        themselves, and is best treated in connection with the latter.

        Natchez. Meaning unknown (the z should not be pronounced).

        Also called:

             Ani'-Na'tsi, Cherokee name.
             Sunset Indians, given by Swan (in Schoolcraft (1851-57)).
             Theloel or Thecoel, name used by the Natchez but seemingly
        derived from that of a town.

        Connections.- The Natchez were the largest of three tribes
        speaking closely related dialects, the other two being Taensa and
        Avoyel, and this group was remotely related to thc great
        Muskhogcan family.

        Location.- The historic scat of the Natchez Indians was along St.
        Catherines Creek, and a little east of the present city of
        Natchez. (See also Alabama, Louisiana, North Carolina, Oklahoma,
        South Carolina, and Tennessee.)


        Iberville gives the following list of Natchez villages- "Natches,
        Pochougoula, Ousagoucoulas, Cogoucoulas, Yatanocas, Ymacachas,
        Thoucoue, Tougoulas, and Achougoulas." This list was obtained
        through the medium of the Mobilian trade language and part of the
        names are undoubtedly translated into it. Thus we find the
        Mobilian and Choetaw word for people, okla, "ougoula," or
        "oucoula," in five of these. The term Tougoulas probably
        designates the town of the Tiou (q. v.), an adopted tribe, and
        one of the others is perhaps a designation for the adopted tribe
        of Grigrn (q. v.). Later writers usually speak of but five
        settlements, including that of the Grigra. One of these, the town
        of the "walnuts," is evidently the Ousagoucoulas of Iberville's
        informants, meaning, in reality, the town of the Hickories. The
        Great Village was probably the town called Naches or Natchez, and
        Poehougoula, the Flour Village, but the others mentioned,
        Jenzenaque or Jensenac and the White Apple or Apple Village
        cannot be identified. A White-earth village is mentioned by one
        writer, probably intended for the White Apple village. The
        Natchez among the Cherokee lived for a time at a town called

        History.- Undoubtedly tribes of the Natchez group were
        encountered by De Soto and his companions in 1541-43, and it is
        highly probable that the chief Quigaltanqui, who figures 60
        prominently in the pursuit of the Spaniards when they took to the
        Mississippi, was leader of the tribe in question or of one of its
        divisions. The name Natchez appears first, however, in the
        narratives of La Salle's descent of the Mississippi in 1682.
        Relations between the French and Natchez were at first hostile,
        but peace was soon made and in 1699 a missionary visited the
        latter with a view to permanent residence. The next year
        Iberville, who had stopped short of the Natchez in his earlier
        ascent of the Mississippi, opened negotiations with the Natchez
        chief. A missionary was left among them at this time and the
        mission was maintained until 1706. In 1713 a trading post was
        established. The next year four Canadians, on their way north,
        were killed by some Natchez Indians and this resulted in a war
        which Bienville promptly ended. Immediately afterward a stockaded
        fort was built on a lofty bluff by the Mississippi and named Fort
        Rosalie. Several concessions were granted in the neighborhood and
        settlers flowed in until this was one of the most flourishing
        parts of the new colony. Between 1722 and 1724 there were slight
        disturbances in the good relations which had prevailed between
        the settlers and Indians, but they were soon smoothed over and
        harmony prevailed until a new commandant named Chepart, who seems
        to have been utterly unfit for his position, was sent to take
        command of Fort Rosalie. In consequence of his mismanagement a
        conspiracy was formed against the French and on November 28,
        1729, the Indians rose and destroyed both post and settlement,
        about 200 Whites being slain. Next year the French and their
        Choctaw allies attacked the forts into which the Natchez had
        retired and liberated most of their captives but accomplished
        little else, and one night their enemies escaped across the
        Mississippi, where they established themselves in other forts in
        the marshy regions of northeastern Louisiana. There they were
        again attacked and about 400 were induced to surrender, but the
        greater part escaped during a stormy night and withdrew to the
        Chickasaw, who had been secretly aiding them. Later they divided
        into two bands, one of which settled among the Upper Creeks while
        the other went to live with the Cherokee. Afterward each followed
        the fate of their hosts and moved west of the Mississippi with
        them. Those who had lived with the Creeks established themselves
        not far from Eufaula, Okla., where the last who was able to speak
        the old tongue died about 1890. The Cherokee Natchez preserved
        their language longer, and a few are able to converse in it at
        the present day (1925).

        Population.- Mooney's (1928) estimate of Natchcz population in
        1650 is 4,500; my own, as of 1698, 3,500. In 1731, after the
        losses suffered by them during their war with the French, Perrier
        estimated that they had 300 warriors. In 1735, 180 warriors were
        reported among the Chickasaw alone. During the latter half of the
        eighteenth century estimates of the warriors in the Creek band of
        Natchez vary from 20 to 150, and in 1836 Gallatin conjectures
        that its numbers over all were 300, which is probably above the
        fact. There are no figures whatever for the Cherokee band of

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Natchez have
        become famous in a number of ways: (1) because they were the
        largest and strongest tribe on the lower Mississippi when
        Louisiana was settled by the French, (2) on account of their
        monarchical government and the peculiar institution of the Sun
        caste, (3) on account of the custom of destroying relatives and
        companions of a dead member of the Sun caste to accompany hum or
        her into the world of spirits, (4) for the massacre of the French
        post at Natchez and the bitter war which succeeded it, (5) from
        the name of the city of Natchez, Miss., adopted from them. The
        name is also borne by post villages in Monroe County, Ala.; and
        Natchitoches Parish, La.; and a post hamlet in Martin County,

        Ofo, or Ofogoula, see Mosopelea under Ohio.

        Okelousa. A tribe living at one time in northem Mississippi. (See

        Pascagoula. "Bread people." Also called:

             Miskigula, Biloxi name.

        Connections.- They were probably Muskhogeans although closely
        associated with the Siouan Biloxi.

        Location.- Their earliest known location was on the river which
        still bears their name, about 16 French leagues from its mouth.
        (See also Louisiana and Texas.)


        Unknown, but see Biloxi.

        History.- Iberville heard of the Pascagoula in 1699 when he made
        the first permanent settlement in Louisiana. That summer his
        brother Bienville visited them, and the following winter another
        brother, Sauvolle, who had been left in charge of the post,
        received several Pascagoula visitors. Some Frenchmen visited the
        Pascagoula town the next spring and Penicaut (in Margry) 1875-85,
        vol. 5) has left an interesting account of them. In Le Page du
        Pratz's time (early eighteenth century) they were on the coast,
        but they did not move far from this region as long as France
        retained possession of the country. When French rule ended the
        Pascagoula passed over to Louisiana and settled first on the
        Mississippi River and later on Red River at its junction with the
        Rigolet du Bon Dieu. In 1795 they moved to Bayou Boeuf and
        established themselves between a band of Choctaw and the Biloxi.
        Early in the nineteenth century all three tribes sold these
        lands. A part of the Pasengoula remained in Louisiana for a
        considerable period, Morse mentioning two distinct bands, but a
        third group accompanied some Biloxi to Texas and lived for a time
        on what came to be called Biloxi Bayou, 15 miles above its
        junction with the Neches. I have been able to find no Indians in
        Louisiana claiming Pascagoula descent, but in 1914 there were two
        among the Alabama who stated that their mother was of this tribe,
        their father having been a Biloxi.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1650 there were
        1,000 all told of the Biloxi, Pascagoula, and Moctobi. My own
        estimate for about the year 1698 is 875 of whom I should allow
        455 to the Pascagoula. In 1700 Iberville states that there were
        20 families, which would mean that they occupied the same number
        of cabins, but Le Page du Pratz raises this to 30. In 1758 the
        Pascagoula, Biloxi, and Chatot are estimated to have had about
        100 warriors. In 1805 Sibley (1832) gives 25 among the Pascagoula
        alone. Morse (1822) estimates a total Pascagoula population of
        240, and Schoolcraft (1851-57) cites authority for 111 Pascagoula
        in 1829. This is the last statement we have bearing upon the

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Pasengoula tribe
        is of some note as a constant companion of the Siouan Biloxi, and
        from the fact that it has bequeathed its name to Pascagoula
        River, Pascagoula Bay, and Pascagoula Port, Miss.

        Pensacola. This tribe moved inland from Pensacola Bay near the
        end of the seventeenth century and in 1725-26 had established
        themselves near the Biloxi on Pearl River. (See Florida.)

        Quapaw. When the French discovered this tribe in 1673 one town
        was on the east side of the Mississippi, but before 1700 it moved
        to the western bank. (See Arkansas.)

        Taposa. Meaning unknown.

        Connections.- As this tribe is said to have been allied with the
        Chickasaw and, unlike the Tunica and Tiou, did not have an r
        sound in their language, there is every reason to suppose that
        they belonged to the Muskhogean stock. Probably they were most
        closely affiliated with their neighbors, the Chakchiuma and

        Location.- Their earliest known location was on Yazoo River a few
        miles above the Chakchiuma.

        History.- The Taposa are first mentioned by Iberville and the
        missionary De Montigny, in 1699. On the De Crenay map of 1733
        (1910) their village is placed very close to that of the
        Chakchiuma, whose fortunes they probably followed.

        Population.- The only hint as to the size of this tribe is given
        by Le Page du Pratz who says that the Taposa had about 25 cabins,
        half the number he assigns to the Chakchiuma. Other writers
        usually include them with the Chakchiuma (q. v.).

        Tiou. Meaning unknown. The name has occasionally been misprinted
        "Sioux," thus causing confusion with the famous Sioux or Dakota
        of Minnesota and the Dakotas.

        Connections.- The Tiou are proved by a statement of Diron
        d'Artaguiette (1916) to have belonged to the Tunica linguistic
        group of the Tunican family.

        Location.- Their earliest location was near the upper course of
        Yazoo River; later they lived a little south of the Natchez and
        then among them.

        History.- Shortly before 1697 the Tiou appear to have been in the
        locality first mentioned, and a map of that date seems to give
        two towns of Tiou, one above the Tunica and one below them. By
        1699 part had settled among the Natchez, having been driven from
        their former homes, according to Le Page du Pratz (1758), by the
        Chickasaw. Before establishing themselves finally with the
        Natchez, they seem to have lived for a time a short distance
        below them on the Mississippi River, where La Salle and his
        companions speak of them as Koroa. Part of the tribe appears to
        have remained on the Yazoo for some years after the rest had
        left. At a later period the Bayogoula called in Tiou and
        Acolapissa to take the places of the Mugulasha with whom they had
        formerly lived and whom they had destroyed. Soon after Fort
        Rosalie had been built, the Tiou sold the lands upon which they
        had settled to the Sieur Roussin and moved elsewhere. After the
        Natchez massacre the hostile Indians sent them to the Tunica in a
        vain endeavor to induce thc latter to declare against the French.
        In 1731, if we may trust a statement by Charlevoix, they were
        utterly cut off by the Quapaw, and while the completeness of this
        destruction may well be doubted, we hear nothing of them

        Population.- No estimate of Tiou population separate from that of
        the Natchez is known.

        Tunica. Meaning "the people," or "those who are the people."

        Also called:

             Yoron, their own name.

        Connections.- They were the leading tribe of the Tunica group of
        the Tunican stock, the latter including also the Chitimacha and

        Location.- On the lower course of Yazoo River, on the south side
        about 4 French leagues from its mouth. (See also Arkansas.)

        History.- There is evidence that tribes belonging to the Tunica
        group were encountered by De Soto west of the Mississippi and
        very probably the name of the tribe is preserved in that of the
        town of Tanico mentioned by Elvas (in Robertson, 1933), where
        people made salt, for in later years we find the Tunica engaged
        in the making and selling of this commodity. An early location
        for them on the eastern side of the Mississippi is indicated by
        the "Tunica Oldfields" near Friar Point, not many miles below
        Helena, Ark. Thc name appears on Marquette's map (1673) but there
        they are wrongly placed. In 1682 La Salle and his companions
        learned of this tribe, than located as given above, but neither
        he nor his lieutenant Tonti visited them on this or any
        subsequent expedition, though they learned of Tunica villages in
        the salt-making region of northeastern Louisiana. The Yazoo town
        of the tribe was first seen, apparently, by three missionary
        priests from Canada, one of whom, Father Davion, established
        himself among them in 1699. In 1702 he fled from his charges, but
        two or three years later was induced by them to return, and he
        remained among them for about 15 years more. In 1706 this tribe
        left the Yazoo and were received into the Houma town nearly
        opposite the mouth of Red River, but later, according to La Harpe
        (1831), they rose upon their hosts and killed more than half of
        them, and for a long period they continued to live in the region
        they had thus appropriated. They were firm friends of the French
        and rendered them invaluable service in all difficulties with thc
        tribes higher up, and particularly against the Natchez, but in
        1719 or 1720 Davion was so much discouraged at the meager results
        of his efforts that he left them. The anger excited against them
        by their support of the French resulted in an attack by a largo
        party of Natchez and their allies in 1731 in which both sides
        suffered severely and the head chief of the Tunica was killed.
        The Tunica remained in the same region until some time between
        1784 and 1803, when they moved up Red River and settled close to
        the present Marksville, La., on the land of the Avoyel Indian
        village which they claimed to have bought from the Avoyel tribe.
        Before this event took place, in company with the Ofo, Avoyel,
        and some Choctaw, they attacked the pirogues of a British
        expedition ascending the Mississippi, killed six men, wounded
        seven, and compelled the rest to turn back. A few families
        descended from the Tunica are still settled on the site just
        mentioned, which forms a small reservation. Sibley (1832) says
        that in his time Tunica had settled among the Atakapa, and it was
        perhaps some of their descendants of whom Dr. Gatsehet heard as
        living near Beaumont, Tex., about 1886. Mooney (1928) learned of
        some Tunica families in the southern part of the Choctaw Nation,
        Okla., but they had lost their old language.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1650 the total
        population of the Tunica, Yazoo, Koroa, and Ofo was 2,000, and
        this very figure, except that it does not include the Koroa, is
        given by the missionary De Montigny in 1699. My own figure for
        the same date is somewhat higher, 2,450, out of which I estimate
        about 1,575 were Tunica. In 1719 the number of Tunica was
        conjectured to be 460 and in 1803, 50 to 60, though a second
        statement of about the same period gives 25 warriors. Morse
        (1822) reports 30 Tunica in Louisiana. The census of 1910 gives
        43 Tunica in all, but among these are included some Indians of
        other tribes and there were many mixed-bloods. The census of 1930
        gives only 1, he being the only one who could speak the old

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Tunica were
        prominent in history (1) from the fact that their language was
        the principal dialect of a stock on the lower Mississippi which
        received its name from them, (2) for their sedentary character,
        (3) for their devotion to the French interest and their part in
        the Natchez wars, (4) from the perpetuation of their name in
        Tunica County, and Tunica Oldfields, Miss., and & post village of
        the name in West Feliciana Parish, La.

        Yazoo. Meaning unknown.

        Connections.- The associations of this tribe with the Koroa and
        the fact that their language contained an r sound make it
        reasonably certain that they belonged to the Tunican group and

        Location.- On the south side of Yazoo River about 4 French
        leagues above its mouth. (See also Arkansas.)

        History.- The Yazoo appear to have been the first of the tribes
        living on the lower part of the Yazoo River to have established
        themselves there, and hence it was from them that the stream
        received its name. They are mentioned by La Salle and his
        companions in connection with their voyage to the mouth of the
        Mississippi in 1682. A French post was established near them in
        1718, and in 1727 a Jesuit missionary, Father Seuel, settled
        nearby. In 1729, however, the Yazoo joined the Natchez in their
        uprising, murdered the missionary, and massacred the French
        garrison. Their subsequent fortunes were identical with those of
        the Koroa, and they were probably absorbed into the Chickasaw or
        Choctaw. It is not improbable that there is some connection
        between the name of this tribe and that of two of the Yazoo towns
        among the Choctaw, but if so it goes back beyond recorded

        Population.- I have estimated that in 1698 there were somewhat
        more than 600 Yazoo and Koroa together. In 1700 Gravier reported
        30 Yazoo cabins, but a quarter of a century later Le Page du
        Pratz (1758) estimated 100. In 1722 the Yazoo, Koroa, and Ofo
        together are said to have numbered 260. In 1730, however, the
        number of Yazoo and Koroa warriors is placed at 40.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Yazoo are noted
        principally from the fact that they have transmitted their name
        to Yazoo River, Miss., and secondarily to Yazoo County and its
        capital city, in the same State.



        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Arapaho. The Arapaho proper occupied, or camped in, parts of
        southeastern Montana at various periods of their history. (See

        Arikara. Some Arikara hunted in eastern Montana. In 1869 and
        1880, together with the Hidatsa and Mandan, they relinquished
        rights to land in the southeastern part of the State. (See North

        Assiniboin. From a Chippewa term signifying "one who cooks by
        the use of stones."

             E-tans-ke-pa-se-qua, Hidatsa name, from a word signifying
        "long arrows" (Long, 1823).
             Guerriers de pierre, French nnme.
             Hohe, Dakota name, signifying "rebels."
             Sioux of the Rocks, English name.
             Stonies, or Stone Indians, English name translated from the
             Tlu'tlama'eka, Kutenai name, signifying "cutthroats," the
        usual term for Dakota derived from the sign language.
             Weepers, given by Henry (1809).

        Connections - The Assiniboin belonged to the Siouan linguistic
        family, and were a branch of the Dakota (see South Dakota),
        having sprung traditionally from the Yanktonai whose dialect they

        Location - The Assiniboin were most prominently associated
        historically with the valleys of the Saskatchewan and Assiniboin
        Rivers, Canada. In the United States they occupied the territory
        north of the Milk and Missouri Rivers as far east as the White
        Earth. (See also North Dakota.)


        The latest list is that given by Professor Lowie (1939). He
        states that, anciently, there were three principal tribal
        divisions, viz: Ho'ke (Like-Big-Fish),Tu-wan'hudan
        (Looking-like-Ghosts), and Sitcon'-ski (Trieksters, lit. "
        Wrinkled-Ankles"). Lowie obtained the names of the following
        smaller bands: Tcanxta'dan, Unska'ha (Roamers),
        Wazl'a wintca'cta, (Northern People), Wato'paxna-on wan or
        Wato'paxnatun, Tcan'xe wintca'cta (People of the Woods), Tanin'ta
        bin (Buffalo-Hip), Hu'deca'bine (Red-Butt), Waci'azi hyabin
        (Fat-Smokers), Witci'-abin, In'yanton'wanbin (Rock People),
        Wato'pabin (Paddlers), Cuntce'bi (Canum Mentulae), Cahi'a
        iye'skabin (Speakers of Cree (Half-Crees)), Xe'natonwan (Mountain
        People), Xe'bina (Mountain People), Icna'umbisa,
        (Those-who-stay-alone), and Ini'na u'mbi. Hayden (1862) mentions
        a band called Min'-i-shi-nak'-a-to, or Lake People, which does
        not seem to be identifiable with any of the above. This last may
        be the band called by Henry (1809) Those-who-have-water-for-
        themselves-only. The following bands cited by Henry are wholly
        unidentifiable: Red River, Rabbit, Eagle Hills, Saskatchewan,
        Foot, and Swampy Ground Assiniboin.

        History - According to tradition, this tribe separated from the
        Wazikute band of Yanktonai. The separation evidently took place
        before contact with the Whites, but there is evidence that when
        Europeans first heard of the tribe they were south of their later
        habitat, probably in the vicinity of the Lake of the Woods and
        Lake Nipigon. Thence they moved northwest toward Lake Winnipeg
        and later to the banks of the Assiniboin and Saskatchewan Rivers.
        In the mean time they had allied themselves with the Cree and had
        become enemies of their own southern relatives with whom they
        were afterward almost constantly at war. This northward movement
        and alliance with the Cree was due in large measure to the
        establishment of British posts on Hudson Bay and the desire of
        the Assiniboin Indians to have access to them and thus supply
        themselves with firearms and other European articles. The
        Assiniboin in the United States were gathered under the Fort
        Belknap and Fort Peck agencies; those in Canada under the
        Battleford, Edmonton, and Assiniboin agencies, at Moose Mountain,
        and on Stoney Reservation.

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 10,000
        Assiniboin in 1780. In 1829 Porter gave 8,000, and Drake (in
        Church, 1826) thought that there were 10,000 before the smallpox
        epidemic of 1836, when 4,000 died. The United States Indian
        Office Report of 1843 gave 7,000; in 1890 they numbered 3,008;
        and in 1904, 1,234 in the United States, and 1,371 in Canada, a
        total of 2,605. The census of 1910 gave 1,235 in the United
        States, and the United States Indian Office Report for 1923 gave
        1,400, while there was an approximately equal number in Canada.
        The United States Census of 1930 gave 1,581. In 1937, 2,232 were
        returned in the United States.

        Connections in which they have become noted - The Assiniboin
        attained prominence during the dealings of explorers and traders
        with the Indians along the upper Missouri. The Assiniboin or
        Assiniboine, the name has been adopted for an important affluent
        of the Red River of the North in Manitoba and Saskatchewan
        Provinces. Mount Assiniboin is in the Rocky Mountains near the
        boundary between British Columbia and Alberta, about 20 miles
        south of Banff.

        Atsina. Probably from Blackfoot at-se'-na, supposed to mean "gut
        people." Also called:

             Acapatos, by Duflot de Mofras (1844).
             A-re-tear-o-pan-ga, Hidatsa name.
             Bahwetego-weninnewug, Chippewa name, signifying "fall
             Bot-k'in'ago, signifying "belly men."
             Fall Indians, common early name.
             Gros Ventres des Plaines, derived from an incorrect
        interpretation of the tribal sign and the qualifying phrase "des
        Plaines" to distinguish them from the Hidatsa, the Gros Ventres
        de la Riviere.
             Haaninin or Aa'ninena, own name, said to signify "white-clay
        people," "lime-men," or "chalk-men."
             His-tu-i'-ta-ni-o, Chevenne name.
             Hitunena, Arapaho name, signifying "beggars" or "spongers."
             Minnetarees of the Plains, Minnetarees of the Prairies, so
        called to avoid confusion with the Hidatsa (q. v. under North
             Rapid Indians, from Harmon (1820).
             Sa'paui, Shoshoni name, signifying "bellies."
             Sku'tani, Dakota name.

        Connections - The Atsina were a part of the Arapaho, of which
        tribe they are sometimes reckoned a division, and both belong to
        the Algonquian linguistic family.

        Location - On Milk River and adjacent parts of the Missouri,
        in what is now Montana, ranging northward to the Saskatchewan.
        (See also Canada.)


        Kroeber (1908 b) has recorded the following names of bands or
        clans, some of which may, however, be duplications:

        Names of clans whose position in the camp circle is known,
        beginning at the south side of the opening at the east: Frozen or
        Plumes, "Those-who-water-their-horses-once-a-day"; Tendons,
        "Those-who-do-not-give-away," or "Buffalo-humps"; Opposite (or
        Middle) Assiniboin, "Ugly-ones or Tent-poles worn smooth
        [from travel]"; Bloods, "Fighting-alone."

        Other clan names: Berry-eaters, Breech-cloths, Coffee,
        Dusty-ones, Gray-ones or Ash-colored, Kanhutyi (the name of a
        chief), Night-hawks, Poor-ones, Torn-trousers, Weasel-skin

        History - If the Arapaho once lived in the Red River country, the
        Atsina were probably with them. At least, the languages of both
        point to the region of the Algonquian tribes northeast of the
        Plains for their origin. At the same time Kroeber (1900 b) thinks
        that they must have been separated for at least 200 years.
        According to Hayden (1860), they were south of the Saskatchewan
        about 1800. In 1818 they joined the Arapaho and remained with
        them until 1823 when they returned to the location given above in
        the neighborhood of Milk River. For a long time they maintained
        an alliance with the Blackfeet but later joined the Crow against
        them and in the course of the ensuing war, in 1867, suffered a
        severe defeat. Later they were placed on Fort Belknap
        Reservation, Mont., with the Assiniboin.

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimates that the Atsina numbered
        3,000 in 1780. In 1904 there were 535. The census of 1910
        reported 510, and the United States Office of Indian Affairs in
        1923 reported 586; 631 were reported by the census of 1930, and
        809 in 1937.

        Bannock. The Bannock ranged into the western part of the State.
        (See Idaho.)

        Cheyenne. The Cheyenne frequently entered the eastern part of
        Montana and the Northern Cheyenne were ultimately assigned a
        reservation within the State. (See South Dakota.)

        Chippewa. The Chippewa had little contact with the region now
        included in Montana until very recent times when a considerable
        number came to live there, 486 according to the census of 1910.
        (See Minnesota.)

        Cree. The original homes of the Cree were north of the present
        United States, though their war parties frequently came into the
        territory now occupied by this country to fight the Dakota,
        Blackfoot, and other tribes. In comparatively late times a
        number, given by the census of 1910 as 309, settled in Montana,
        and others were reported from Washington (91), Michigan, Oregon,
        North Dakota, Idaho, Kansas, and Minnesota. (See also Canada.)

        Crow. A translation, through the French gens des corbeaux, of
        their own name Absaroke, "crow-, sparrowhawk-, or bird-people."
        Also called:

             Hahderuka, Mandan name.
             Haideroka, Hidatsa name.
             Hounena, Arapaho name, signifying "crow men."
             Issappo', Siksika name.
             Kangitoka, Yankton Dakota name.
             Ka'-xi, Winnebago name.
             Kihnatsa, Eidatsa name, signifying "they who refused the
        paunch," and referring to the tradition regarding the separation
        of these two tribes.
             Kokokiwak, Fox name.
             Long-haired Indianis, by Sanford (1819).
             O-e'-tun'-i-o, Cheyenne name, signifying "crow people."
             Par-is-ca-oh-pan-ga, Hidntsa name, signifying "crow people"
        (Long, 1823).
             Stemchi, Kalispel name.
             Stemtchi, Salish name.
             Stimk, Okinagan name.
             Yaxka'-a, Wyandot name, signifying "crow."

        Connections.- The Crow belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock
        and were most closely related to the Hidatsa, from whom they
        claim to have separated.

        Location.- On the Yellowstone River and its branches, extending
        as far north as the Musselshell and as far south as Laramie Fork
        on the Platte, but centering particularly on three southern
        tributaries of Yellowstone River, the Powder, Wind, and Big Horn
        Rivers. (See also Wyoming and Canada.)


        There were formerly three local divisions, known to the people
        themselves as Mine'sepere, Dung-on-the-river-banks?, or Black
        Lodges; the A'-c'araho', Many-Lodges; and the Erarapi'o,
        Kicked-in-their-bellies. The first of there is called River Crow
        by some writers and the last two collectively Mountain Crow. They
        were also divided into 12 clans arranged in pairs.

        History.- As stated above, the Crow tribe claims to have
        separated from the Hidatsa, a tradition shared by the Hidatsa. It
        is at least certain that the two are more closely related
        linguistically than is either to any other Siouan group. Their
        separation into bands must have occurred in the first quarter of
        the nineteenth century at latest. In 1804 they were found in
        their historic seats and have been in approximately the same
        region ever since, the reservation to which they were finally
        assigned being on the Big Horn River.

        Population.- Mooney's (1928) estimate for the year 1780 is 4,000
        Crow. In 1804 Lewis and Clark estimated 350 lodges and 3,500
        souls. In 1833 there were said to be 1,200 warriors and a
        population of from 3,250 to 3,560. In 1890 a total population of
        2,287 was reported, and in 1904, 1,826. The census of 1910 gave
        1,799, and the United States Indian Office Report for 1923,
        1,777. The census of 1930, reported 1,674, and the Indian Office
        Report for 1937, 2,173.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The Crow tribe was
        prominent in the early history of the Northwest, though not to
        the extent of the Dakota and Blackfeet. The Indian form of the
        name, Absarokee, is borne by a post village of Stillwater County,
        Mont.; in the form Absaraka it appears as the name of a place in
        Cass County, N. Dak.; and as Absaroka, more prominently, as the
        name of a range of mountains and a National Forest in the
        Yellowstone National Park.

        Dakota. The Dakota entered Montana at times to hunt and fight
        the Crow but were not permanent residents of the State. (See
        South Dakota.)

        Hidatsa. Together with the Arikara and Mandan, in 1869 and 1830
        the Hidatsa took part in treaties ceding territory in
        southeastern Montana to the United States Government. (See North

        Kalispel. This tribe probably visited the westernmost parts of
        Montana at times and most of them finally settled upon the
        Flathead Reservation in that State. Some of them, together with
        the Salish and Kutenai, ceded Montana lands in 1855. (See Idaho.)

        Kiowa. According to tradition, the Kiowa at one time lived in the
        southeastern part of this State. (See Oklahoma.)

        Kutensi. Said to be from a term applied to this tribe by the
        Blackfoot Indians and believed by Turney-High (1937) to have come
        originally from the name of a Kutenai tribe or division called
        Tunaha. Also called:

             Flatbows, the name given often lo the Lower Kutenai, the
        origin of which is unknown.
             Kuspelu, their Nez Perce name, signifying "water people.'
             San'ka or asan'ka, own name, significance unknown.
             Shalsa'ulko, by the Sinkiuse and said to be from a place
        name, but see below.
             Skelsa-ulk, Salish name, signifying "Water People."
             Slender Bows, name sometimes given as an interpretation of
        their own name, but erroneously.

        Connections.- The Kutenai were placed by Powell in a distinct
        stock called Kitunahan, but some linguists regard them as remote
        relatives of the Algonquians and Salishans.

        Location.- On Kootenay River, Kootenay Lake, Arrow Lake, and
        the upper course of the Columbia River, except for the bend
        between Donald and Revelstoke; in southeastern British Columbia;
        northwestern Montana; northeastern Washington; and the northern
        tip of Idaho. In modern times they have settled as far southeast
        as Flathead Lake. (See also Canada.)


        The Kutenai were separated into two general divisions, the line
        between extending roughly from north to south through Libby,
        Mont. The Upper Kutenai lay to the east on upper Kootenay River
        and depended more upon hunting, especially of the bison, while
        the Lower Kutenai were largely fishermen. Turney-High (1937)
        gives the following bands: (1) Tunaxa, whose original home was on
        the Plains and who have now been destroyed and their descendants
        incorporated with the other bands; (2) Tobacco Plains or People-
        of-the-Place-of-the-Flying-Head, esteemed to be the mother band
        of the tribe (on Kootenay River at the International Boundary
        Line- the Fernie Band was a subdivision); (3) Jennings
        Band (about Jennings, Mont.); (4) Libby Band (at Libby, Mont.);
        (5) Bonner's Ferry Band (at Bonner's Ferry, Idaho); (6) Fort
        Steele Band (at Steele, B. C.); (7) Creston Band (at Creston, B.
        C.); (8) Windermere Band (a very modern band at Windermere, B.
        C.). To these may be added the very modern Dayton-Elmo Band on
        Flathead Lake drawn from the Jennings and Libby bands.

        History.- From information collected by Turney-High (1937).
        it would seem that the Kutenai formerly lived east of the Rocky
        Mountains, extending at least as far as MacLeod, Alberta. Their
        oldest settlement in their present territories would seem to have
        been at Tobacco Plains whence they gradually spread to the north,
        west and south, and in recent times to the southeast. Their
        country was traversed early in the nineteenth century by David
        Thompson (1916) in the interest of the Northwest Company, and
        Kootenai House was established in 1807. With the running of the
        International Boundary, their country was divided between the
        Dominion of Canada and the United States to the considerable
        inconvenience of the tribe. Missionary work among them,
        particularly work among the Upper Kutenai, has been very

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated the Kutenai population to
        be 1,200 in 1780. In 1780 those in the United States were
        estimated at 400 to 500. In 1890 they numbered 554, and those in
        British territory the year preceding were enumerated at 553. The
        census of 1910 gave 538 in the United States. The Report of the
        Canadian Department of Indian Affairs for 1924 returned about
        450, and that of the United States Indian Office only 129 under
        that name. The latter figure is evidently defective, as the
        Census of 1930 returned 287 of whom 185 were in Montana and 101
        in Idaho. In 1937 there were 118 in Idaho.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The Eutenai are
        noted for their peculiar language, which differs from the speech
        of all their neighbors and has been given an independent position
        as the Kitunahan stock. They have given their name to Kootenay or
        Kootenai River, also called the Flat Bow or MacGillivray, which
        flows through British Columbia, Montana, and Idaho; to Kootenay
        Lake in British Columbia; to Kootenai Mountains, and Kootenai
        Falls, Mont.; Kootenai County, Idaho; and to a post village,
        Kootenai, in Bonner County, Idaho.

        Mandan. The Mandan were parties to treaties made in 1869 and 1880
        ceding their claims to land in southeastern Montana. (See North

        Nez Perce. Individuals belonging to this tribe sometimes entered
        the southwestern part of Montana. (See Idaho.)

        Piegan. The Piegan were the southernmost subtribe of the Siksika
        (q. v.).

        Salish, Probably a place name, the last syllable, -ish, "people."
        Also called:

             A-shu'-e-ka-pe, Grow name, signifying, "flatheads."
             A-too-ha-pe, Hidatsa name.
             Flatheads, widely so called because, in contradistinction to
        the tribes west of them, they left their heads in the natural
        condition, flat on top, instead of sloping backward to the crown.
             Ka-ka-i-thi, Arapaho name, signifying, "flathead people."
             Ka-ko'-is-tsi'-a-ta'-ni-o, Cheyenne name, signifying,
        "people who flatten their heads."
             Ko-toh'-spi-tup'-i-o, Siksika name.
             Nebagindibe, Chippewa name, signifying, "flat head."
             Pa O-bde'-ca, Yankton Dakota name, signifying, "heads
        cornered or edged."
             Tetes-Plates, common French term.

        Connections.- The Salish belonged to the interior division of the
        Salishan linguistic family, to which they have given their name.

        Location.- In western Montana originally, extending from the
        Rocky Mountains on the west; south to the Gallatin; east to Crazy
        Mountain and Little Belt Ranges, north to some hilly country
        north of Helena. Later they were centered farther west around
        Flathead Lake. (See also Idaho.)


        It is said that there was a distinct band of Salish Indians on a
        river near Helena, another band near Butte, another somewhere
        east of Butte, and another somewhere in the Big Hole Valley; and
        there are traditions of still others.

        History.- According to Teit (1930) the Salish once extended
        farther to the east, and there were related tribes in that region
        which he calls Sematuse and Tunahe. As Turney-High (1937) has
        pointed out, however, the Tunahe were evidently a Eutenai
        division; and the Sematuse, if not mythical, seem to have been an
        alien people in possession of this country before the Salish
        entered it. Teit states that these Salish were driven westward
        out of the Plains by the Blackfoot, particularly after that tribe
        obtained guns. Turney-High, on the other hand, regards the Salish
        as rather late intruders into the Plains from the west. However,
        the pressure of tribes westward by their neighbors to the east as
        soon as the latter obtained guns is such a common story that it
        hardly seems probable that the Salish could have escaped its
        effects. Just how far the Salish retired westward may be a matter
        of argument, nor does it affect the theory of an earlier eastward
        migration if such a movement can be substantiated on other
        grounds. Salish relations with the Whites were always friendly
        and they were successfully missionized by Roman Catholics under
        the lead of the famous Father De Smet. By the treaty of July 16,
        1855, they ceded all of their lands in Montana and Idaho except a
        reserve south of Flathead Lake and a second tract in Bitter Root
        Valley which was to be made into a reserve for them if it were
        considered advisable. It was, however, not 80 considered, and
        acting upon an Act of Congress of June 5, 1872, the Salish were
        removed to the former reservation, where they still live.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 600 Salish
        in 1780, evidently accepting the figure given by Lewis and Clark
        for 1806. Teit (1930) considers this much too low, the data
        collected by him indicating a Salish population of perhaps 3,000,
        but this would seem to err in the opposite direction. The Indian
        Office figure for 1905 is 557 and that for 1909, 598. The census
        of 1910 reported 486, of whom 400 were in Montana, 46 in
        Washington, 27 in Oregon, 6 in Idaho, 6 in Nebraska, and 1 in
        Kansas. The census of 1830 reported 2,036 Interior Salish from
        Montana, but did not give separate figures for the tribe under
        discussion. The United States Office of Indian Affairs reported
        3,085 in 1937.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- It was among the
        Salish Indians that the noted Father De Smet worked as a
        missionary. The large group of languages to which this tribe
        belongs is known to ethnologists as the Salishan linguistic
        family. Flathead or Selish Lake, Flathend Pass, and Flathead
        County, all in Montana, also derive their names from the Salish
        or "Flathead" Indians.

        Sematuse (phonetically Semte'use). Signifying "foolish" according
        to some, derived from an old place name according to others. Teit
        (1930) identified the Semntuse as a former tribe of the Salishan
        stock, closely related to the Salish tribe. According to his
        informants, one band of these people was on Big Blackfoot River,
        another at a place later known as "Big Camas," or "Camas
        Prairie," and some thought that a smaller band had headquarters
        near Deer Lodge, and there may have been one at Phillipsburg.
        Others were said to have been on the Little Blackfoot and Salmon-
        Trout Rivers but may not have constituted a band. Tumey-High
        (1937), however, thinks that this tribe was mythical or else that
        it was the name of a non-Salishan people who preceded the Salish
        in western Montana.

        Shoshoni. Before European weapons reached the eastem tribes,
        bands of Shoshoni ranged over a considerable part of eastern
        Montana as far north as Milk River. (See Idaho.)

        Siksika. A native word signifying "black feet," by which term the
        tribe is best known. By some they are said to be called Blackfeet
        from the discoloration of their moccasins by the ashes of prairie
        fires, but more probably their moccasins were dyed black. Also

             Ah-hi'-tn-pe, former name for themselves, signifying "blood
             Ayatchinini, Chippewa name.
             Ayatchiyiniw, Cree name, signifying "stranger," or "enemy."
             Beaux Hommes, so given by Dobbs (1744).
             Carmeneh, Crow name.
             Choch-Katit, Arikara name.
             Ish-te-pit'-e, Crow name.
             I-tsi-si-pi-sa, Hidatsa name, signifying "black feet."
             Katce, Sarsi name.
             Ka-wi-'na-han, Arapaho name, signifying "black people."
             Makadewana-ssidok, Chippewa name.
             Mamakata'wana-si'ta'-ak, Fox name.
             Mkatewetiteta, Shawnee name.
             Mukkudda Ozitunnug, Ottawa name (Tanner, 1830).
             Netsepoye, sometimes used by the Confederacy and signifying
        "people who speak our language."
             Pah-kee, Shoshoni name.
             Po'-o-mas, Cheyenne name, signifying "blankets whitened with
             Saha'ntla, Kutenai name, signifying "bad people."
             Sawketakix, name sometimes used by themselves, signifying
        "men of the plains."
             S'chkoe, or S'chkoeishin, Kalispel name, from koai, "black."
             Siea'be, Kansa name.
             Si-ha'-sa-pa, Yankton Dakota name, signifying "black feet."
             Skuaisheni, Salish name, signifying "black feet."
             Stxuaixn, Okinagan name, signifying "black."
             Tonkonko, Kiowa name, signifying "black legs."
             Tuhu'vti-omokat, Comanche name.
             Wateni'hte, Arapaho name.

        Connections.- The Siksika belong to the Algonquian linguistic
        stock, forming the most aberrant of all the well-recognized
        tongues of that family except Arapaho and Atsina.

        Location.- In the territory stretching from North Saskatchewan
        River, Canada, to the southern headstreams of the Missouri in
        Montana, and from about longitude 105 W. to the base of the
        Rocky Mountains.


        The Siksika are divided into the following subtribes: The Siksika
        or Blackfeet proper, occupying the northern part of the above
        territory; the Kainah or Bloods south of the preceding, and the
        Piegan, south of the Kainah, the one best represented in the
        United States.

        Each of the above divisions was subdivided into bands as follows:

        Siksika bands:           Istsikainah.
         Aisikstukiks.           Mameoya.
         Apikaiyiks.             Nitikskiks.
         Emitahpahksaiyiks.      Saksinahmahyiks.
         Motahtosiks.            Siksshpuniks.
         Puhksinahmahyiks.       Siksinokaks.
         Saiyiks.             Piegan bands:
         Siksinokaks.                Ahahpitape.
         Tsiniktsistsoyiks.          Ahkaiyikokakiniks.
        Kainah or Blood bands:       Apikaiyiks.
           Ahkaiksumiks.             Esksinaitupiks.
           Ahkaipokaks.              Inuksikahkopwaiks.
           Ahkotashiks.              Inuksiks.
           Ahkwonistsists.           Ipoksimaiks.
           Anepo.                    Kahmitniks.
           Apikaiyiks.               Kiyis.
           Aputosikainah.            Kutaiimiks.
           Inuhksoyistamiks.         Kutaisotsiman.
           Isisokasimiks.            Miahwahpitsiks.

           Miawkinaiyiks.            Nitotsiksisstanis.
           Mokumiks.                 Sikokitsimiks.
           Motahtosiks.              Sikopoksimaiks.
           Motwainaiks.              Sikutsipumaiks.
           Nitakoskitsipupiks.       Susksoyiks (Hayden, 1862).
           Nitawyiks.                Tsiniksistsoyiks.

        History.- According to certain traditions, the Siksika moved
        into their present territory from the northeast, and it is at
        least evident that they had gravitated westward, their movement
        probably accelerated by the acquisition of horses. They were at
        war with nearly all of their neighbors except the Athapascan
        Sarsi and the Atsina; both of these tribes usually acted with
        them. They were on relatively friendly terms with the English of
        the Hudson's Bay posts in Canada, upon whom they depended for
        guns and ammunition, but were hostile to the Whites on the
        American side, in large measure because through them their
        enemies received the same kind of supplies. They were several
        times decimated by smallpox but suffered less than many tribes
        not so far removed from White influences, and have never been
        forced to undergo removal from their home country. They are now
        gathered under agencies on both sides of the International
        Boundary and are slowly adapting themselves to White
        modes of life.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1780 there were
        15,000 Blackfeet. Mackenzie (1801) gave 2,250 to 2,500 warriors
        for 1790, which would reduce Mooney's (1928) figures by about
        one-half, but in the meantime the smallpox epidemic of 1780-81
        had occurred. The official Indian Report for 1858 gave 7,300 and
        another estimate of about the same period, said by Hayden (1862)
        to have been made "under the most favorable circumstances,"
        reported 6,720. In 1909 the official enumeration of those in the
        United States was 2,195, and of those in Canada 2,440, a total of
        4,630. The census of 1910 gave 2,367 in the United States, all
        but 99 of whom were Piegan. The United States Indian Office
        Report for 1923 gives 3,124 Blackfeet and the Report of the
        Canadian Department of Indian Affairs for 1924, 2,236; total,
        5,360. The United States census of 1930 reported 3,145. In 1937
        the Office of Indian Affairs reported 4,242.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The Siksika were
        peculiar (1) as one of the largest and most warlike tribes of
        the northern Plains, next to the Dakota alone in prominence; (2)
        as speaking one of three highly specialized languages of the
        Algonquian stock; (3) as among the bitterest opponents of
        explorers and traders on the American side of the International
        Boundary; and (4) as having given the name Blackfoot to a
        considerable town in Idaho, capital of Bingham County, to a creek
        in the same county, to mountains in Idaho and Alberta, to a river
        in Montana, and to a village in Glacier County, in the same

        Spokan. Some Spokan probably entered western Montana at times
        and, in 1910, 134 were reported as residents of the State.
        (See Washington.)

        Tunahe (Tuna'se). Given by Teit (1930) as the name of an extinct
        Salishan tribe living in west central Montana, but identified by
        Turney-High (1937) as a former eastern or plains band of the
        Eutenai Indians, that band, in fact, from which the name Kutenai
        is derived.

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