The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Abnaki. Properly Wabanaki, "those living at the sunrise," "those living at the east," "easterners." Also called: Alnanbal, own name, meaning "Indians," or "men." Aquannaque, Wabanaki as pronounced by Huron. Bashabas, name given them from a principal chief. Gannon-gageh-ronnons, name given by Mohawk. Moassones, from a name applied to their country; perhaps from Penobscot Maweshenook, "berry place." Narankamigdok epitsik arenanbak, "villages of the Narankamigdog," said to be a collective name for all the Abnaki villages. Natio Luporum, "Wolf Nation." Natsagana, name given by Caughnawaga Iroquois. Onagungees, Onnogonges, Anagonges, or Owenagunges, name given by the Iroquois. Skacewanilom, name given by the Iroquois. Tarrateens, name given by the tribes of southern New England. Connections - The Abnaki belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family, their closest connections with their neighbors to the east and west. Indeed their name has very commonly been extended to include the Malecite, Penobscot, and Pennacook, and even the Micmac, though on the other hand the Sokoki have sometimes been left out. Location - The main body was in western Maine, in the valleys of the Kennebec, Androscoggin, and Saco Rivers and on the neighboring coast, overlapping also into Carroll County, N.H. A single tribe, the Missiassik, was in northwestern Vermont, representing probably a late intrusion. (See also New Hampshire and Vermont.) Subdivisions Amaseconti, on Sandy River, Franklin County. Arosaguntacook, on the lower course of Androscoggin River. Missiassik, in the valley of Missisquoi River, Franklin County, Vt. Norridgewock, on Kennebec River. Ossipee, on Ossipee River and Lake in Maine and New Hampshire. Pequawket, on Lovell's Pond and the headwaters of Saco River, Maine and New Hampshire. Rocameca, on the upper course of Androscoggin River. Sokoki, on Saco River and in the adjacent parts of Cumberland and York Counties. Wawenoc, on the seacoast of Sagadahoc, Lincoln, and Knox Counties. Villages Amaseconti; there were two villages of this tribe, at Farmington Falls and New Sharon, respectively. Aquadocta, westward of Saco. Arosaguntacook town, probably near Lewiston. Cobbosseecontee, a town or band on the stream of that name, which empties into the Kennebec River at Gardiner. Ebenecook, at Ebenecook Harbor, Southport Island. Kennebec, between Augusta and Winslow. Ketangheanycke, near the mouth of Kennebec River. Masherosqueck, near the coast and not certainly Abnaki. Mecadacut, on the coast between Penobscot and Kennebec Rivers. Missiassik, belonging to the Missiassik tribe, on Lake Champlain at the mouth of Missisquoi River, Vt. Moratiggon, probably on the Maine or New Hampshire coast and possibly not Abnaki. Moshoquen, on or near the coast. Muscongus, on the coast and probably near Muscongus Island. Negusset, about the site of Woolwich. Ossaghrage, Iroquois name of an Abnaki village. Ossipee, probably on Ossipee Lake. Ouwerage, probably on Ossipee Lake. Pasharanack, probably on the coast. Pauhuntanuc, probably on the coast. Pemaquid, near Pemaquid, Lincoln County. Pequawket town, about Fryeburg. Pocopassum, probably on the coast. Sabino, at the mouth of the Kennebec River, possibly on the west side. Sagadahoc, at the mouth of the Kennebec River. Satquin, on the coast southwest of the Kennebec River. Segotago, probably identical with Sagadahoc. Sowocatuck, perhaps the chief village of the Sokoki, Saco River. Taconnet, at the falls of the Kennebec near Waterville. Unyjaware, Iroquois name for an Abnaki village. Wacoogo, probably on or near the coast. History - The Abnaki and their neighbors claim to have immigrated into their historic seats from the southwest. Aside from possible Norse visitants in 1000-1010, John Cabot, during his second voyage in 1498, probably brought the first white men within sight of Abnaki territory, but he seems to have had no dealings with the people. From that time on, Breton, Basque, Norman, and English fishermen constantly visited the coast. In 1604 Champlain passed along it from north to south and visited several Abnaki bands, and in 1605 Waymouth penetrated the Wawenoc country. In 1607-08 came an abortive attempt on the part of the Plymouth Company to make a permanent settlement at the mouth of the Kennebec River, but it is probable that English fishermen were on Monhegan Island almost continuously after that date. Pemaquid was also occupied at an early period. The Abnaki were soon afterward missionized from Canada and became attached to the French interest. For a time they were successful in driving the English colonists away but later they suffered several severe defeats- particularly the capture of Norridgewock in 1724 and the defeat of the Pequawket in 1725 -- were much reduced in numbers, and finally withdrew to Canada where they were settled at Becancour and Sillery, and later at St. Francis, along with other refugee tribes from the south. Population - Mooney (1928) estimates this at 3,000 in 1600, including the Penobscot and Passamaquoddy. The St. Francis Indians, including remnants of other New England tribes, numbered 395 in 1903, and 280 in 1924. Connection in which they have become noted - The activities of the missionary Rasles, compilation by him of the Abnaki dictionary, the destruction of Norridgewock, and the defeat of the Pequawket on Lovell Pond, as mentioned above, have made the Abnaki famous. Malecite. They extended into the northeastern part of the State of Maine from Canada (q.v.). Passamaquoddy. Signifying "Those who pursue the pollock," but strictly "pollock-plenty-place" (Eckstorm). Also called: Machias Tribe, applied to some living on Machias River. Quoddy, abbreviation of Passamaquoddy. St. Croix Indians, from one of the rivers they inhabited. Scotuks, from the name of the Sehoodic Lakes. Unchechauge or Unquechauge. Connections - The Passamaquoddy belong to the Algonquian linguistic family, their closest connections being the Malecite, and their more remote relatives the Abnaki, Penobscot, and Pennacook. Location - On Passamaquoddy Bay, St. Croix River, and the Schoodic Lakes. (See also Canada.) Villages Gunasquamekook, on the site of St. Andrews, N.B. Imnarkuan, on the site of Pembroke, Washington County. Sebaik, at Pleasant Point, Passamaquoddy Bay, near Perry, Washington County. Other towns were on Lewis Island and at Calais, in Maine, and on the New Brunswick side of St. Croix River. History - The early history of the Passamaquoddy was identical with that of the Malecite (q.v.). When the territory of the 13 colonies was separated from English rule, the greater part of this tribe was left on the south side of the boundary. They enjoy, jointly with the Penobscot, the privilege of having a representative in the Maine State legislature, though he speaks only on matters of concern to the two tribes. Population - The population of the Passamaquoddy was estimated at about 150 in 1726, 130 in 1804, 379 in 1825, 400-500 in 1859; and was enumerated as 386 in 1910. In 1930, 436 Indians were returned from Washington County, and practically all of these must have belonged to this tribe. Connection in which they have become noted - The Passamaquoddy have given their name to Passamaquoddy Bay, which forms part of the eastern boundary of the State of Maine and are the easternmost body of Indians in the United States. Pennacook. The Aceominta and Newichawanoc of the extreme southwestern part of the State belonged to this tribe. (See New Hampshire.) Penobscot. Meaning "the rocky place," or "the descending ledge place" (Eckstorm), referring to the falls between Oldtown and Bangor. Also called: Pentagouet, from the name of their principal village near Castine. Connections - The Penobscot belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock, their nearest connections being the Abnaki, Passamaquoddy? Malecite, and Pennacook, with whom they were frequently classed under the name of the first mentioned. Location - On both sides of Penobscot Bay and in the entire drainage area of Penobscot River. Subdivisions A body of Penobscot on Moosehead Lake were known as "Moosehead Lake Indians," but their separation from the rest was probably temporary. Villages Agguncia, said to have been a small settlement near Brewer, Penobscot County, from which the fabulous city of "Norumbega" derived its name. Asnela, a settlement on an island of the same name in Penobscot Bay. Catawamtek, at Rockland. Kenduskeag, at Bangor, near the site of the Penobscot Exchange Hotel. Mattawamkeag, about Mattawamkeag Point, Penobscot County. Meecombe, on the lower course of Penobscot River. Negas, in Penobscot County. Olamon, on an island in Penobscot River near Greenbush. Oldtown, the present village on an island of the same name. Passadumkeag, on an island in Penobscot River near the present Passadumkeag. Pentagouet, at or near Castine. Precaute, on the southeast coast of Maine; it may have been a Passamaquoddy town. Segocket, near the mouth of Penobscot River. Wabigganus, probably near the mouth of the Penobscot River. History - Native tradition brings the Penobscot from the southwest. They were encountered by French and English fishermen and explorers early in the sixteenth century, and one of their towns came to have a European reputation as a city of fabulous size and importance under the name of Norumbega. In the seventeenth century their chief, known to the Whites as Bashaba, seems to have extended his authority, probably his moral authority only, over the tribes to the westward as far as the Merrimac. The Penobscot were visited by Champlain in 1604 and by numerous later explorers. They assisted the French against the English until 1749, when they made peace and in consequence did not remove to Canada with the Abnaki. They have remained in their old country to the present day, their principal settlement being on Oldtown Island. Conjointly with the Passamaquoddy, they have a representative at the sessions of the Maine State legislature privileged to speak on tribal affairs only. Population - The following are early estimates of the Penobscot population: 650 in 1726, 1,000 in 1736, 700 in 1753, 400 in 1759, 700 in 1765, 360 in 1786. According to the United States Census of 1910, there were 266, including 13 scattered outside of the State of Maine. The census of 1930 returned 301 Indians from Penobscot County, practically all belonging to this tribe. Connection in which they have become noted - The Penobscot have given their name to a bay, a river, and a county in the State of Maine, to a post village in Hancock County, and a branch post office in Detroit. The title of the chief above mentioned, Bashaba or Besselbes, became the center of a myth among the Whites in which he was elevated to the dignity of a local king or emperor. The widely quoted myth of Norumbega should also be mentioned in this connection. This tribe and the Passamaquoddy constitute the only bodies of Indians of any size remaining in New England.
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Conoy. Probably a synonym of Kanawha, but the meaning is unknown; also spelled Canawese, and Ganawese. Also called: Piscataway, from a village on Piscataway Creek where the Conoy chief resided. Connections - The Conoy belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock and were probably intermediate between the Nanticoke and Powhatan Indians. Location - Between the Potomac River and the western shore of the Chesapeake. Subdivisions Acquintanacsuak, on the west bank of Patuxent River in St. Marys County. Conoy proper or Piscataway, in the southern part of Prince Georges County. Mattapanient, on Patuxent River, probably in St. Marys County. Moyawance, on the West bank of the Potomac River above the Conoy proper. Nacotchtank, on the eastern branch of the Potomac, in the District of Columbia. Pamacocack about the mouth of Mattawoman Creek and the present Pomonkey, Charles County Patuxent, in Calvert County. Potapaco, in the southern and central parts of Charles County. Secowocomoco, on Wicomico River in St. Marys and Charles Counties. Villages The principal settlement of each of the above subdivisions was generally known by the same name. In addition we have the following: Catawissa, at Catanwissa, Columbia County, Pa. Conejoholo, on the east bank of the Susquehanna on or near the site of Bainbridge, Lancaster County, Pa. Conoytown, on Susquehanna River betneen Conejoholo and Shamokin (Sunbury), Pa. Kittamaquindi, at the junction of Tinkers Creek with the Piscataway a few miles above the Potomac, Prince Georges County, the principal village of the colony proper. History - If the name of the Conoy is identical with that of Kanawha River, as appears probable, they must have lived at some period along that stream. They were found by Smith and the Maryland colonists in the location above given and missions were established among them by the Jesuits on the first settlement of Maryland in 1634. They decreased rapidly in numbers and were presently assigned a tract of land on the Potomac, perhaps near the site of Washington. In 1675 they were attacked by the Susquchanna Indians who had been driven from their own territories by the Iroquois, retired up the Potomac River, and then to the Susquehanna, where they were finally assigned lands at Conejoholo near the Nanticoke and Conestoga. Some of them were living with these two tribes at Conestoga in 1742. They gradually made their way northward, stopping successively at Harrisburg, Shamokin, Catawissa, and Wyoming, and in 1765 were in southern New York, at Owego, Chugnut, and Chenango, on the eastern branch of the Susquehanna. They moved west with the Mahican and Delaware and soon became known only as constituting a part of those tribes. They used the Turkey as their signature at a council held in 1793. Population - The number of Conoy was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 2,000 in 1600; in 1765 they numbered only about 150. Connection in which they have become noted - The name Conoy is perpetuated by Conoy, 2 miles north of Falmouth, Lancaster County, Pa., and probably (see above) by the Great and Little Knawha Rivers, Kanawha County, Kanawba Ridge, and several places in West Virginia, besides post villages in Hancock County, Iowa, and Red River County, Tex. Delaware. They probably occupied, or at least hunted over, some territory in the extreme northeastern part of the State. (See New Jersey.) Nanticoke. From Nentego, a variant of Delaware Unechtgo, or Unalachtigo, "Tidewater people," the neighboring division of Delaware being known by the same name. Also called: Doegs, Toags, or Taux, by some early writers, probably shortened from Tawachguans. Canniataratich-rone, Mohawk name. Otayachgo, Tawachguans, Mahican and Delaware name, meaning "Bridge people." Skaniadaradighroonas, "Beyond-the-sea people," Iroquois name. Connection - The Nanticoke belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family, their closest connections probably being with the Unalachtigo Delaware- as the name implies- and also with the Conoy. Location - Although the Nanticoke are frequently more narrowly delimited, it will be convenient to group under this head all of the Indians of the Eastern Shore of Maryland and southern Delaware. Subdivisions Annamessicks. in the southern part of Somerset County. Choptank, on Choptank River. Cuscarawaoc, at the head of Nanticoke River in Maryland and Delaware. Manokin, on Manokin River in the northern part of Somerset County. Nanticoke proper, on the lower course of Nanticoke River. Nause, in the southern end of the present Dorchester County. Ozinies, on the lower course of Chester River; they may have been part of or identical with the Wicomese. Tocwogh, on Sassafras River, in Cecil and Kent Counties. Wicocomoco, on Wicocomoco River in Somerset and Wicocomoco Counties. Wicomese, in Queen Anne's County. Villages Ababco, a subtribe or village of the Choptank on the south side of Choptank River in Dorchester County, near Secretary Creek. Askimimkansen, perhaps Nanticoke, on an upper eastern branch of Pocomoke River, probably in Worcester County. Byengeahtein, probably in Dauphin or Lancaster County, Pa. Chenango, a mixed population on Chenango River about Binghamton, N.Y. Hutsawap, a village or subtribe of the Choptank, in Dorchester County. Locust Necktown, occupied by a band of Nanticoke proper known as Wiwash, on Choptank River, in Dorchester County. Matchcouchtin, consisting of Nanticoke proper, probably in Pennsylvania. Matcheattochousie, Nanticoke proper, probably in Pennsylvania. Natahquois, Nanticoke proper, probably on the eastern shore of Maryland or on the Susquehanna, Pennsylvania. Nause, belonging to the tribe of the same name, on the north bank of Nanticoke River near its mouth. Pekoinoke, Nanticoke proper, still existing in Maryland in 1755. Pohemkomeati, on lower Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania. Teahquois, Nanticoke proper, probably on lower Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania. Tequassimo, a subtribe or village on the Choptank, on the southern shore of Choptank River. Tocwogh, the principal village of the tribe of that name, said to be on the south side of Chester River in Queen Anne County, but, unless this is a later location, probably on the south side of Sassafras River in Kent County. Witichquaom, Nanticoke proper, near Susquehanna River in southern Pennsylvania History - Traditionally, the Nanticoke arc supposed to have come from the west at about the same time as the Delaware, but they were found in the location above given by the earliest white explorers and settlers. They were at war with the Maryland colonists from 1642 to 1678. In 1698 reservations were set aside for them. Soon after 1722 the greater part of them began to move north, stopping for a time on the Susquehanna at its junction with the Juniata. In 1748 the greater part of the tribe went farther up, and, after camping temporarily at a number of places, settled under Iroquois protection at Chenango, Chugnut, and Oswego. In 1753 part of these joined the Iroquois in western New York, and they were still living with them in 1840, but the majority, in company with the remnants of the Mahican and Wappinger, emigrated west about 1784 and joined the Delaware in Ohio and Indiana, with whom they soon became incorporated, disappearing as a distinct tribe. Yet a part did not leave their old country. Some were living in Maryland in 1792 under the name of Wiwash, and some mixed-bloods still occupy a small territory on Indian River, Delaware. The Choptank, or a part of them, also remained in their old country on the south of Choptank River, Dorchester County, where a few of their descendants, their blood much mixed with that of Negroes, were to be found in 1837. Some Wicocomoco must also have stayed about their ancient seats, since a few mongrels are said to retain the name. Population - Mooney (1928) estimated a total Indian population on the eastern shore of Maryland in 1600 of 2,700, including 700 Toewogh and Ozinies, 400 Wicocomoco, and 1,600 Nanticoke and their more immediate neighbors. In 1722 they are said to have numbered about 500 and in 1765 those who had emigrated to New York were supposed to count about 500 more. In 1792 the Nanticoke proper left in Maryland were said to comprise only 30 persons, but in 1911 Speck (1915) estimated their descendants in southern Maryland at 700. Connection in which they have become noted - The name Nanticoke is perpetuated in that of Nanticoke River between Wicomico and Dorchester Counties, and by the town of Nanticoke in the former. There are also places of the name in Broome County, N.Y., and Luzerne County, Pa. Powhatan. The Accohanoc Indians of the panhandle of Virginia, who extended over into Worcester County, were the only representative of the Powhatan Indians in Maryland, though the Conoy were closely related to them. (See Virginia.) Shawnee. Shawnee Indians settled temporarily in western Maryland near the Potomac and in the northeastern part of the State on the Susquehanna. (See Tennessee.) Susquchanna. They lived along and near the Susquehanna River. (See Pennsylvania.)
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Mahican. The Mahican extended over most of Berkshire County, where they were represented mainly by the Housatonic or Stockbridge Indians. (See New York.) Massachuset. Meaning "at the range of hills," by which is meant the hills of Milton. Connections.- The Massachuset belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock, their tongue being an n-dialect, and formed one group with the Narraganset, Niantic (East and West), and Wampanoag, and probably the Nauset. Location.- In the region of Massachusetts Bay between Salem on the north and Marshfield and Brockton on the south. Later they claimed lands beyond Brockton as far as the Great Cedar Swamp, territories formerly under the control of the Wampanoag. Subdivisions Johnson (1881) says that there were "three kingdoms or sagamoreships having under them seven dukedoms or petty sagamores." Some of these undoubtedly correspond to the divisions recently worked out by Speck (1928) by means of provincial documents. He identifies six main divisions, two of them further subdivided, all called by the names of their chiefs, as follows: (1) Band of Chickataubut (including the later bands of Wampatuck and some other of his heirs and a district and band earlier controlled by Obatinnewat or Obtakiest), all of the Massachuset territory south of Charles River and west of the neighborhood of Ponkapog Pond. (2) Band of Nanepashemet, all the Massachuset territory north of Charles River. Nanepashemet's domain was afterward divided among his three sons: Winnepurkit, owning about Deer Island and in Boston Harbor; Wonohaquaham, owning about Chelsea and Saugus; and Montowampate, owning about Lynn and Marblehead. (3) Band of Manatahqua, about Nahant and Swampscott. (4) Band of Cato, a tract 5 miles square east of Concord River. (5) Band of Nahaton, around Natick. (6) Band of Cutshamakin, Cutshamequin, or Kutchamakin, about Dorchester, Sudbury, and Milton. Villages Conohasset, about Cokasset. Cowate, "Praying Indians," at the Falls of Charles River. Magaehnak, probably "Praying Indians," 6 miles from Sudbury. Massachuset, location uncertain. Mishawum, at Charlestown. Mystic, at Medford. Nahapssumkeck, in the northern part of Plymouth County, probably on the coast. Natick, "Praying Indians," near the present Niatick. Neponset, on Neponset River about Stoughton. Nonantum, on Nonantum hill Newton. Pequimmit, "Praying Indians," near Stoughton. Pocspawmet, on the south shore of Massachusetts Bay. Punkapog, "Praying Indians," near Stoughton. Sagoquas, south of Cohnsset. Saugus, near Lynn. Seccasaw, in the northern part of Plymouth County. Titicut, "Praying Indians," possibly Wampanoag, in Middleborough town. Topeent, on the north coast of Plymouth County. Totant, at or near Boston. Totheet, on the north coast of Plymouth County. Wessagusset, near Weymouth. Winnisimmet, at Chelsea. Wonasquam, near Annisquam, Essex; County, perhaps a later outvillage. History.- The Massachuset were visited by several voyagers, beginning at least as far back as the time of John Cabot but were first particularly noted by Captain John Smith, who coasted their territory in 1614. In 1617 they were much reduced by a pestilence and about the same time they were depleted by wars with their north-eastern neighbors. The Puritans settled in their country in 1629, and mission work was soon begun among them, and was pursued with particular zeal by John Eliot. Tho converts were gathered into separate villages, where they gradually declined in numbers and presently disappeared as distinct bodies, though a few descendants of the Punkapog town people are still living in Canton, Mattapan, and Mansfield. Population.- The number of Massachuset is estimated by Mooney (1928) to have been 3,000 in 1600. In 1631 it was reduced to about 500, and soon considerably below that figure by smallpox. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Massachuset gave their name to Massachusetts Bay and through that to the present Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The Massachuset are also noted as the tribe in which the famous apostle to the Indians, Jolm Eliot, labored, through whom a large part of them were gathered into villages of "Praying Indians." The "Eliot Bible" and other works by him have preserved a knowledge of the Massachuset language to our own day. Crispus Attucks, who was killed in the Boston massacre and is generally regarded as the first victim of the American Revolution, was of mixed Negro-Massachuset ancestry. The marriage of Winnepurkit, a Massachuset chief whose lands were about Boston Harbor, to the daughter of Passaconaway, chief sachem of the Pennacook, was made by Whittier the subject of a poem, "The Bridal of Pennacook." Nauset. Meaning unknown. Also called: Cape Indians, from their situation. Connections.- (See under discussion of the Massachuset.) Location.- All of Cape Cod except the extreme western end. Subdivisions Speck (1928) has identified the following: Iyanough, Wiananno, or Hyannis (centering about Barnstable); Manomoy, or Monomoy (about Chatham); auset (from Easthan- to Truro). Villages Aquetnet, at Skauton Neck, Sandwich, Barnstable County. Ashimut or Ashimuit, at a large spring near the junction of Falmouth, Mashpee, and Sandwich Townships, Barnstable County. Coatuit, near Oslerville, Barnstable County. Codtaumut or Cataumut, in Mashpee Township. Cummaquid, at Cummaquid Harbor. Manamovili, near Chatham. Mashpee, on the coast of Mashpee Township. Mattakees or Mattakeset, in Barnstaible and Yarmouth Townships. Meeshawn, in Provincetown or Truro Township. Nausei, near Eastham. Nemskaket, on or near Nemskaket Creek. Nobsqussit or Nobscussct, near Dennis. Pamet, near Truro. Pawpoesit, near Barnstable. Pispogutt or Pispoqutt, in the western part of Barnstable County, near Buzzards Bay. Poponesset, near Poponesset Bay Potanurnaquut, on Pleasant Bay near Harwich. Punonaknit, at Billingsgate near Wellifleet. Satuit, on Cotuit River near Mashpee. Sawkatuket or Satucket, in Brewster or Harwich. Skauton, near Sandwich, probably on Bazzards Bay. Sokones or Succonessct, near Falmouth. Wakoquet, or Waquoit, near Waquoit or Weequakit, in Barnstable Township. Wessquobs or Weesquobs, near Pocasset. Many of these contained Wampanoag Indians and some Indians of other tribes. History.- From the exposed position of the Nauset on Cape Cod their territory came under the observation of many of the earliest explorers, but actual contact with the people was not so simple a matter. In 1606 Champlain had an encounter with them. In 1614 Hunt carried off 7 Nauset Indians and 20 Patuxet of the Wampanoag tribe whom he sold into slavery. They seem to have escaped the great New England pestilence of 1617. Although they behaved in a hostile manner toward the Pilgrims at their first landing in 1620, they soon became firm friends and even rendered some assistance against King Philip (1675-76). Most of them had been Christianized before this time and collected into churches. In 1710 many died of fever, but the number of Indians in Nauset territory was increased by additions from other tribes driven from their proper territories, so that the population of the principal Indian settlement at Mashpee has not fallen below 200 down to the present day, though a great deal of mixture with other races has taken place. Population.- The number of the Nauset was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 1,200 in 1600. In 1621 they were believed to number 500; in 1674, 462 were reported in the various inhabited centers on Cape Cod, containing Nauset, Wampanoag, and other Indians. In 1698, 515 Indians were reported from Mashpee, mainly Nauset and Wampanoag. In 1767, 292 were reported at the same place and the number has varied between 200 and 300 down to 1930. The United States Census of 1910 reported 206 Indians of this band, all but 5 in Massachusetts. Speck (1928) estimates that there were 230 in 1920, all of whom were mixed-bloods. The census of 1930 returned only 38 Indians from Barnstable County and 54 from Massachusetts, but it may be incomplete. Connection in which they have become noted.- As already remarked, it was in the Nauset temtory and in considerable measure through their blood that the Massachusetts aborigines maintained their existence longest. Nauset Beach, Nauset Harbor, and Nauset Light perpetuate the name. Nipmuc. From Nipmaug, "fresh water fishing place." Connections.- The Nipmuc belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family, their language being an l-dialect. Their nearest relatives were the other tribes of Massachusetts and the tribes of Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the Hudson River Valley. Location.- The Nipmuc occupied the central plateau of Massachusetts, particularly the southern part of Worcester County, but they extended into northern Rhode Island and Connecticut. (See also Connecticut and Rhode Island.) Subdivisions and Villages Acoomemeck, location uncertain. Attawaugan, near Attawaugan in the town of Killingly, Conn. Chabanakongkomun, near Dudley. Chachaubunkkakowok, location uncertain. Coweset, in northern Rhode Island west of Blackstone River. Hassanamesit, at Grafton. Magunkaquog, at Hopkinton. Manchaug, near Oxford. Manexit, near Thompson, Conn. Mashapaug, at Mashapaug Pond in the town of Union, Conn. Medfield, at Medfield, native name unknown. Menemesseg, near New Braintree. Metewemesick, near Sturbridge. Missogkonnog, location uncertain. Muskataquid, location uncertain. Nasbobnh, near Magog Pond, in Littleton. Nichewaug, about Nichewaug, near Petersham. Okommakamesit, near Marlborough. Pakachoog, near Worcester, probably in Millbury. Quabaug, near Brookfield. Quadick, near the present Quadick Reservoir, Thompson County, Conn. Quantisset, on Thompson Hill, near Thompson, Conn. Quinebaug, on Quinebaug River near Quinebaug Station, town of Thompson, Conn. Quinetusset, near Thompson in northeast corner of Connecticut. Segunesit, in northeastern Connecticut. Tatumasket, west of Mendon, in the southern part of Worcester County. Wabaquasset, about 6 miles from Quinebaug River, south of Woodstock, Conn., sometimes regarded as an independent tribe. Wacuntug, on the west side of Blackstone River, near Uxbridge. Wenimesset, at New Braintree. History.- There was no coherence among the people bearing the name of Nipmuc and some of them were from time to time attached to the more powerful tribes in their neighborhood, such as the Massachuset, Wampanoag, Narraganset, and Mohegan. The Whites first met them after Plymouth and the Massachusetts Bay were settled. In 1674 there were seven villages of Christian Indians among the Nipmuc but in 1675 practically all took part with King Philip against the colonists and at its close fled to Canada or to the tribes on Hudson River. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 500 independent Nipmuc in 1600. If we consider as Nipmuc the Indians returned from Worcester County, Mass., and Windham and Tolland Counties, Conn., in 1910, there were then 81. Pennacook. The following bands of Pennacook lived in the northeastern part of Massachusetts: Agawam, Nashua, Naumkeag, Pentucket, Wachuset, Wamesit, and Weshacum. (See New Hampshire.) Pocomtuc. Meaning unknown. Connections.- The Pocomtuc belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family, and spoke an r-dialect, their nearest relatives probably being the Wappinger. Location.- The Pocomtuc home was in the present counties of Franklin, Hampshire, and Hampden, Mass., and in the neighboring parts of Connecticut and Vermont. Subdivisions and Villages Agawam, about Springfield, their principal village of the same name being on Long Hill. Mayawaug, near W. Suffield, town of Suffield, Conn. Nameroke, in the town of Enfield, east of Thompsonville, Conn. Nonotuc, a division and village about Northampton. Pocomtuc, a division in Deerfield River Valley and the adjacent parts of the Connecticut River Valley, the principal town of the same name being near Deerfield. (See also Vermont.) Scitico, near the place of that name in the eastern part of the town of Enfield, Conn. Squawkeag, on both sides of Connecticut River in the northern part of Franklin County, their principal village, of the same name, being near Northfield. History.- The fort of the Pocomtuc proper, on Fort Hill near Deerfield, was destroyed by the Mohawk in 1666. The Pocomtuc combined with the Narraganset and Tunxis in attacks on the Mohegan chief, Uncas, and later joined the hostile Indians under King Philip. At the close of the war they fled to Scaticook on the Hudson, where some of them remained until 1754, going then to St. Francis, Canada. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 1,200 Pocomtuc in 1600. If we count as Pocomtuc the Indians returned from Hampden and Hampshire Counties in 1910, there were then 23 left, but they may have been of quite other origin. Wampanoag. The name has the same meaning as Abnaki, "eastern people." Also called: Massasoits, from the name of their famous chief. Philip's Indians, from King Philip. Connection.- The Wampanoag belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock, speaking an n-dialect like the neighboring Massachuset, Narranganset, Niantic (East and West), and the Nauset. Location.- The Wampanoag occupied Rhode Island east of Narragansett Bay; Bristol County, Mass., the southern part of Plymouth County, below Marshfield and Brockton; and the extreme western part of Barnstable. The Indians of Martha's Vineyard should also be added to them, and it will be convenient to treat under the same head those of Nantucket and the Saconnet, or Sakonnet, of Sakonnet Point, R. I., whose connection was more remote. They controlled Rhode Island in Narragansett Bay until the Narraganset tribe conquered it from them. (See also Rhode Island.) Subdivisions Speck (1928) gives the following mainland subdivisions: (1) Band of Massasoit, in a territory called Sowwams on the east side of Narragansett Bay; the western part of Bristol County, Mass.; all of Bristol County, R. I.; and the eastern part of Providence County, R. I. (2) Band of Annawon, about Squannaconk swamps in Rehoboth Township. (3) Band of Weetamoe, a chieftainess, their territory being called Pocasset, in southeastern Rhode Island, about Tiverton and adjacent parts of Bristol County, Mass. (4) Band of Corbitant or Caunbatant, about Swansea. (5) Band of Tispaquin in or Tuspaquin, lands called Assawampset, about Assawampset Pond. (6) Band of Tyasks or Tyashk, about Rochester and Acushnet. (7) Band of Totoson, in a territory centering about Mattapoisett and Rochester. (8) Band of Coneconarn or Cawnacome, in a territory known as Manomet, extending from Manomet to Woods Hole. (9) Band of Piowant or Piant, between Assonet Bay and Taunton River. There were several vacant tracts not occupied by any of the above. In 1861 there were bands of Wampanoag at Herring Pond, Dartmouth, Mamatakesett Pond, Tumpum Pond, and Watuppa Pond. Speck (1928) gives the following bands on Martha's Vineyard, but the classification applies to a time when Indians from various parts of the mainland had begun to settle there: (1) Band of Nohtooksaet who came from Massachusetts Pay, about Gay Head. (2) Band of Mankutquet (including the bands of Wannamanhut who came from near Boston (Christian town) and Toohtoowee, on the north shore of Chilmark), in the western part of Martha's Vineyard excluding the preceding. (3) Band of Tewanticut (including the bands of Cheesehahchamuk, about Hornes' Hole; Warnpamag, of Sanchakankachet; and Tom Tyler, about Edgartown), in the eastern section of Martha's Vineyard. (4) Band of Pahkepunnasso, on the island of Chappaquiddick. There were two bands on Nantucket, the names of which are unknown, and we must also add the Sakonnet, on Sakonnet Point, R. I., and the Indians of the Elizabeth Islands. Villages Mainland: Acushnet, about Acushnet. Mattapoiset, near Mattapoiset, Agawam, about Wareham. Plymouth County. Assameekg, probably near Munponset, location unknown. Dartmouth. Namasket, about Middleboro. Assawompset, in Middleborough Nasnocomacack, on the coast and Township. probably a few miles north of Assonet, conjectural village Plymouth. near the present Assonet. Nukkehkummees, near Dartmouth. Coaxet, near Little Compton, Pachade, near Middleboro. R. I. Cohannet, about Fowling Pond Patuxet, at Plymouth. near Taunton. Pocasset, near Tiverton, R. I. Comassakumkanit or Herring Pokanoket, on Bristol Pond, Herring Pond, Plymouth Peninsula, R. I. County. Quittaub, in the southwestern part of Plymouth County. Cooxissett, probably in Plymouth County. Cowsumpsit, in Rhode Island. Saltwater Pond, in Plymouth County Jones' River, in Kingston Shawonet, near Somerset. Township. Kitteaumut, near Monument Pond, Wauchimoqut, probably near Plymouth County. Seekonk. Loquasquscit, near Pawtucket, Wawayontat, on Weweantitt River R. I. near Wareham Mattakeset, near Duxbury. Martha's Vineyard: Nantucket- Continued Chaubaqueduck, on the Quays,a district and probably main island or on village. Chappquidick Island. Sasacackeh, a district and probably village. Gay Head, at Gay Head. Nashamoiess, in the southeastern Shaukimmo, a district and part of the island. probably village, south of Nantucket Harbor. Nashanekammuck, at Chilmark. Siasconsit, a district and Nunnepoag, location uncertain. probably village, including the site of the Ohkonkemme, near Tisbury. present Siasconset. Sanchecantacket, near Edgartown. Squam, a district and Seconchqut, location uncertain probably village. Nantucket: Talhanio, location uncertain Tetaukimmo, a district Miacomit, location uncertain. and probably village. Podpis, a district and probably Toikiming, location uncertain. village. History. - With many older writers on the Norse voyages to America, Mount Hope Bay, in the territory of the Wampanoag, was a favorite site for the supposed Icelandic colony (ca. 1000-1010), but the theory is now less popular. In 1602 Gosnold touched at Martha's Vineyard and was kindly treated by the natives. Soon after the Pilgrims had established themselves at Plymouth in 1620 they made a treaty of friendship with the Wampanoag head chief, Massasoit, who played a great part in the early history of the colony. He died in 1662 and was succeeded by two sons in succession, the second of whom, Metacomet or Metacom, is the King Philip of history. Observing the steady influx of White colonists into Indian land, King Philip organized a native confederacy against them and a bloody war followed (1675-76), in which King Philip was killed and the power of the tribes of southern New England finally destroyed. The Wampanoag survivors settled with the Sakonnet, who had remained neutral, and formed towns with the Nauset in the western part of Barnstable County. In 1763 they suffered severely from an epidemic, but a number of bands have preserved their autonomy, in a much mixed condition, to the present day. The Indians of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, like the Sakonnet, had refused to join the confederacy and consequently maintained their numbers relatively intact for a longer period. They continued to decline, however, and in 1764 two-thirds of the Nantucket Indians were destroyed by a fever. Two or three mixed-bloods were left in 1809, and in 1855 Abram Quary, the last of these, died. The Indians of Martha's Vineyard, on the other hand, received considerable accessions from the mainland and have maintained themselves down to our day though, like the mainland Indians, much mixed with other tribes and other races. Population.- Of Wampanoag proper Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 2,400 in 1600. They probably suffered severely in the epidemic of 1617, but in 1630 they are said to have had about 30 villages. In 1700 the Sakonnet Indians, including most of the Wampanoag remnants, were estimated at 400. In 1861 a partial census gives 258, and we may suppose that the total was about 300. Martha's Vineyard: The estimates of the Indian population of Martha's Vineyard vary greatly. Mooney (1928) estimated the number of Indians at 1,500 in 1600, perhaps taken from an estimate of 1642, which gives the same figure, while n later writer places their number as "not less than 3,000" (Hare, 1932, p. 44). An estimate made in 1648 gave 1,000. In 1764, 313 were resumed; in 1807, 360, only about 40 of whom were full-bloods. In 1861, 393 were returned, but in 1910 only 147. Nantucket: Mooney estimates the Indian population of Nantucket to have been 1,500 in 1600 and Mayhew (Speck, 1928) gives the same number in 1642. Hare (1932, p. 44) also estimates the Indian population to have been 1,500. In 1763 there were 358; in 1790, 20; in 1809, 2 or 3. An informant of Dr. Speck gives the total number of Indians in Barnstable, Plymouth, and Bristol Counties in 1928 as 450. Connection, in which they have become noted.- The Wampanoag made their mark in history chiefly through the activities of their chiefs, Massasoit and King Philip. One of the two largest bodies of Indians in southern New England to maintain their identity down to the present day were the Wampanoag of Martha's Vineyard.
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Chippewa. At a very early period, Chippewa lived about the Sault St. Marie and on the northern shore of Lake Michigan. (See Minnesota.) Foxes. Since the Sauk are known to have lived in Michigan at an early period, it is probable that the Foxes did also, but this is still uncertain. (See Wisconsin.) Hurons, see Wyandot. Kickapoo. The same probability of an early residence in Michigan applies to the Kickapoo as to the Foxes and for a similar reason. (See Wisconsin.) Menominee. This tribe ceded its claim to a portion of the upper peninsula of Michigan in 1836. (See Wisconsin.) Miami. The Miami, or a portion of them, at one time occupied the valley of St. Joseph River and other parts of the southern Michigan border. (See Indiana.) Neutrals. Bands of the Neutral Nation extended, in the seventeenth century, into what is now southeastern Michigan. (See New York.) Noquet. Meaning probably "bear foot," another name for the Bear gens in Chippewa. The Bear gens may have been prominent in this tribe. Connections - The Noquet are thought to have been related to the Menominee of the Algonquian linguistic family. Location - About Big Bay de Noquet and Little Bay de Noquet and extending across the northern peninsula of Michigan to Lake Superior. (See also Wisconsin.) History - In 1659 the Noquet was one of the tribes attached to the mission of St. Michel. The;y were never prominent and were probably absorbed at a very early date by the Menominee or Chippewa. Population - Unknown. Connetion in which they have become noted - The name Noquet is perpetuated in the two bays above mentioned. Ottawa. From a native word signifying "to trade," because they were noted as middlemen. It occurs shortened to Tawa. Also called: Andatahouats, Ondatawnwat, Huron name Udawak, Penobscot name. Ukua'-yata, Huron name, according to Gatschet (1877). Waganha's, Iroquois name, meaning "stammerers". Watawawininiwok, Chippewa name, meaning "men of the bulrushes", from the many bulrushes in Ottawa River. Wdowo, Abnaki name. Connections - The Ottawa belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock and were related most closely with the Chippewa and Potawatomi. Location - The earliest known home of this tribe was Manitoulin Island and neighboring parts of the north shore of Georgian Bay. Their connection with Michigan came later. (See also Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Wisconsin, and Canada.) Subdivisions and Villages The following four main divisions are given by early writers: The Kishkakon or Bear Gens, the Nassauaketon, or Fork People, the Sable Gens and the Sinago or Gray Squirrel Gens, to which a fifth, the Keinouche or Pickerel Gens, is sometimes added. The Kishkakon, Sinago, and Keinouche were closely associated. Villages: Aegnkotcheising, in Michigan. Anamiewatigong, in Emmet County, lower Michigan. Apontigoumy, probably in Ontario. Machonee, near the mouth Au of Au Vaseau River which flows into Lake St. Clair, in lower Michigan. Manistee, in Michigan, perhaps near the village of Weganakisi on Little Traverse Bay. Menawzbetaunaung, on an island in the Lake of the Woods. Meshkemau, on Maumee Bay, Lucas County, Ohio. Michilimackinac, on Mackinac Island. Middle Village, location unknown. Obidgewong, with Chippewa, on the western shore of Lake Wolseley, Manitoulin Island, Ontario. Oquanoxa, on the west bank of the Little Auglaize, at its mouth, in Paulding County, Ohio. Roche de Boeuf, on the northwestern bank of Maumee River, near Waterville, Lucas County, Ohio. Saint Simon, a mission on Manitoulin Island. Shabawywyagun, apparently on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. Tushquegan, on the south bank of Maumee River opposite Toledo, Ohio. Waganakisi, on the site of Harbor Springs, Emmet County, Mich. Walpole Island, on the island of that name, Ontario. Waugau, near the mouth of Maumee River, in Lucas County, Ohio. Wolf Rapids, on Maumee River, Ohio, about the boundary of Wood and Henry Counties. Additional bands: Maskasinik, position uncertain, mentioned in Jesuit Relation of 1657-58 with Nikikouek and Missisauga. Nikikouek, position uncertain, associated with Missisauga and dwelling east of them on the north shore of Lake Huron. Outaouakamigouk, on the northeast coast of Lake Huron in 1648 probably Ottawa. Sagnitaouigama, in 1640 southeast of Ottawa River, perhaps same as Sinago. History - It is uncertain whether the Ottawa River in Ontario received its name because the Ottawa once lived upon it or because the Ottawa had obtained a monopoly of the trade passing up and down it. When the French actually came among them they were in the region above indicated. After the destruction of their allies, the Hurons, in 1648-49, the Iroquois attacked the Ottawa in turn, who fled to the islands at the entrance of Green Bay, part of them later passing to Keweenaw Bay, while the rest accompanied the Hurons to an island near the entrance of Lake Pepin on the Mississippi. Harassed by the Dakota, the Ottawa settled on Chequamegon Bay but in 1670-71 were induced by the French to return to Manitoulin Island. By 1680 most of them had left Manitoulin Island and joined the Hurons about the mission station at Mackinaw. About 1700 the Hurons removed to Detroit, and a portion of the Ottawa seem to have obtained a foothold on the west shore of Lake Huron between Saginaw Bay and Detroit, but they returned to Mackinaw about 1706. Soon afterward the chief seat of a portion of the tribe was fixed at L'Arbre Croche in Emmett County, whence they spread down the east side of Lake Michigan to St. Joseph River, a few finding their way into Wisconsin and northeastern Illinois. At the same time some of them were living in their old country on Manitoulin Island and about Georgian Bay, and others were scattered along the southern shore of Lake Erie from Detroit to the vicinity of Beaver Creek, Pa. They took part successively against the English and the American colonists in all wars during the latter half of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth until the end of the War of 1812. The famous chief Pontiac was an Ottawa. The Canadian Ottawa are on Manitoulin and Cockburn Islands and the adjacent shores of Lake Huron. In 1831 two bands of Ottawa known as the Ottawa of Blanchard's Fork of Great Auglaize River and the Ottawa of Roche de Boeuf on Maumee River were granted lands on Marais des Cygnes River, Kans., but they re-ceded the greater part of these lands in 1846, and in 1862 they agreed to allotment in severalty and to the relinquishment of their remaining territory. Further treaties regarding the disposal of their lands were made in 1867 and 1872. In 1867 they received a plot of lands in Oklahoma which had been ceded by the Shawnee. A few Ottawa went west with the Prairie Potauatomi but were soon fused with them or scattered to other places. A few others have continued to occupy parts of Kansas down to the present day but after 1888 most of them removed to Oklahoma. A still larger body of Ottawa remained in Michigan, scattered among a number of small villages. Population - Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1600 there were of the combined Algonkin and Ottawa about 6,000. The scattered condition of the tribe during their earlier history prevented their contemporary chroniclers from obtaining satisfactory figures. In 1906 the Chippewa and Ottawa on Manitoulin and Cockburn Islands numbered 1,497, of whom about half were Ottawa; there were 197 under the Seneca School, Okla.; and in Michigan there were 5,587 in 1900 of whom about two-thirds were Ottawa. According to the census of 1910, there were 2,717 Ottawa in the United States, 2,454 being in Michigan, 170 in Oklahoma, and the rest in Wisconsin, Nebraska, Kansas, and Pennsylvania. In 1923 there were 274 in Oklahoma and a much larger number in Michigan and Canada. The United States Census of 1930 gives 1,745, of whom 1,469 were in Michigan, 167 in Oklahoma, and 84 in Wisconsin. In 1937 there were 422 in Oklahoma. Connection in which they have become noted - Although a prominent tribe in early times, the Ottawa will now be especially remembered from the fact that they have given their name to the most important branch of the St. Lawrence River and the city on its banks which became the capital of the Dominion of Canada. Their name is also borne by counties in Kansas, Michigan, and Ohio, and the province of Quebec; by important cities in La Salle County, Ill., and Franklin County, Kans.; and by smaller places and streams in Rockcastle County, Ky.; Waukesha County, Wis.; Le Sueur County, Minn.; Putnam County, Ohio; Boone County, Wis.; Boone County, Va.; and Ottawa Beach in Ottawa County, Mich., and Ottawa Lake in Monroe County in the same State. The tribe will be noted furthermore as that to which belonged the famous Indian patriot, Pontiac. Potawatomi. Meaning "people of the place of the fire," and hence sometimes known as the Fire Nation. Also called: Atsistarhonon, Huron name. Kunu-hayanu, Caddo name, meaning "watermelon people." NdatonSatendi, Undatomatendi, Huron name Peki'neni, Fox name, meaning "grouse people." Tcashtalalgi, Creek name, meaning "watermelon people." Wah-ho'-na-hah, Miami name, meaning "fire makers." Wahiucaxa, Omaha name. Wahiuyaha, Kansa name. Woraxa, Iowa, Oto, and Missouri name. Woraxe, Winnebago name. Connections.- The Potawatorni belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family, being most closely affiliated with the Chippewa and Ottawa. Location.- The ancient home of this tribe was evidently in the lower peninsula of Michigan. (See also Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.) Subdivisions and Villages In the course of their later history, the Potawatomi became separated into several distinct bands but these do not seem to have corresponded to any old, well-determined classification. Villages: Abercronk, not certainly Potawatomi, in northeastern Porter County, Ind. Ashkum's Village, on the north side of Eel River, about Denver, Miami County, Ind. Assiminehkon, probably Potawatomi, in Lee County, Ill. Aubbeenaubbee's Village, in Aubbeenaubbee Township in Fulton County, Ind. Checkawkose's Village, on the south side of Tippecanoe River, about Harrison Township, Kosciusko County, Ind. Chekase's Village, on the west side of Tippecanoe River between Warsaw and Monoquet, Kosciusko, Ind. Chichipe Outipe, near South Bend, St. Joseph County, Ind. Chippoy, on Big Shawnee Creek, in Fountain County, Ind. Comoza's Village, on Tippecanoe River in Fulton County, Ind. Kinkash's Village, on Tippecanoe River, Kosciusko County, Ind. Little Rock Village, on the north bank of Kankakee River about the boundary of Kankakee and Will Counties, Ill. Macon, location unknown. Macousin, on the west bank of St. Joseph River, Berrien County, Mich. Mangachqua, on Peble River in southern Michigan. Maquanago, probably Potawatomi, near Waukesha, in southeastern Wisconsin. Masac's Village, on the west bank of Tippecanoe River in the northeastern part of Fulton County, Ind. Matchebenashshewish's Village, on Kalamazoo River probably in Jackson County, Mich. Maukekose's Village, near the head of Wolf Creek in Marshall County, Ind. Menominee's Village, on the north side of l:win Lakes near the site of Plymouth, Marshall County, Ind. Menoquet's Village, on Cass River, lower Michigan. Mesheketeno's Village, on Kankakee River, a short distance above the present Kankakee in northeastern Illinois. Mesquawbuck's Village, near Oswego, Kosciusko County, Ind. Mickkesawbee, at the site of the present Coldwater, Mich. Milwaukee, with Foxes and Mascouten, at or near the present Milwaukee, Wis. Minemaung's Village, near Grantpark, Kankakee County, Ill. Mota's Village, just north of Tippecanoe River near Atwood, Kosciusko County, Ind. Muskwawasepeotan, near Cedarville, Allen Gounty, Ind. Natowasepe, on St. Joseph River about the present Mendon, St. Joseph County, Mich. Nayonsay's Village, probably Potawatomi, in the northeastern part of Kendall County, Ill. Pierrish's Village, on the north bank of Eel River, just above Laketon, Wabash County, Ind. Pokagon, in Berrien County, near the west bank Of St. Joseph River just north of the Indiana line. Prairie Ronde, about the boundary of Cass and Van Buren Counties, Mich. Rock Village in northeastern Illinois. Rum's Village, about 4 miles south of South Bend, St. Joseph County, Ind. Saint Joseph, a mission on St. Joseph River near the south end of Lake Michigan. Saint Michael, a mission in southern Wisconsin. Sawmehnaug, on Fox River, Ill. Seginsavin's Village, on Rouge River near Detroit, Mich. Shaytee's Village, probably Potawatomi on Fox River, Ill. Shobonier's Village, near the present Shabbona, De Kalb County, Ill. Soldier's Village, in northern Illinois. Tassinong, probably Potawatomi, in Porter County, Ind. Toisa's Village, on the west bank of Tippecanoe River, nearly opposite Bloomingsburg, Fulton County, Ind. Tonguish's Village, near Rouge River in the southern part of Oakland County, or the northern part of Wayne County, Mich. Topenebee's Village, on St. Joseph River opposite Niles, Berrien County, Mich. Waisuskuck's Village, in northeastern, Illinois. Wanatah, in La Porte County, Ind., n short distance east of the present Wanatah. Wimego's Village, on the north bank of Indian Creek, in the northern part of Cass County, Ind. Winamac's Village, near the present Winamac, Pulaski County, Ind. Wonongoseak, probably Potawatomi, between the northern and southern branches of Elkhart River, apparently in Noble County, Ind. History.- Shortly before the Potawatomi were encountered by the French they seem to have been living in the lower peninsula of Michigan. According to native traditions, the Ottawa, Chippewa, and Potawatomi reached the upper end of Lake Huron in company from some region farther east, and the Potawatomi crossed from that point into the peninsula. By 1670 they had been driven to the neighborhood of Green Bay west of Lake Michigan, whence they slowly moved south until by the end of the century they had established themselves on Milwaukee River, at Chicago, and on St. Joseph River. After the conquest of the Illinois Indians about 1765, they took possession of still more of what is now the northern part of the State of Illinois and extended their settlements eastward over southern Michigan as far as Lake Erie. After 1795, against the protests of the Miami, they moved down the Wabask and advanced their occupancy as far as Pine Creek. They sided actively first with the French against the English and then with the English against the Americans until a general peace was brought about in 1815. As White settlers increased in numbers in their neighborhood, the Potawatomi gradually parted with their lands, the greatest cessions being made between 1836 and 1841, and most of them retired beyond tke Mississippi. Part of the Prairie band of Potawatomi returned to Wisconsin, while another band, the Potawatomi of Huron, are in lower Michigan. A few escaped into Canada and are now on Walpole Island in St. Clair County. Part of the Potawatomi living in Wisconsin sold their lands and received in exchange a reservation in southwestern Iowa. These received the name of Prairie Potauatomi. In 1846 they also disposed of their Iowa territory and in 1847-48 passed over into Kansas and established themselves just east of the Potawatomi of the Woods, who had come from Indiana in 1840 to occupy a reserve on Osage River, in Kansas. In 1846, however, the latter re-ceded this and settled the following year between the Shawnee and Delaware Indians in the present Shawnee County, Kans. The Potawatomi of the Prairie remained in Kansas and received allotments there, but the Potawatomi of the Woods went to a new reservation in Oklahoma in 1869-71 near the Kickapoo. A few have accompanied the Kickapoo to Mexico. Population.- Mooney's (1928) estimate for the Potawatomi, as of the year 1650, is 4,000. Estimates made between 1765 and 1843 vary from 1,200 to 3,400, but it would seem that they must have averaged 2,000 to 2,500. In 1908, 2,522 Potawatomi were reported in the United States, distributed as follows: Citizen Potawatomi in Oklahoma, 1,768; Prairie band in Kansas, 676; and Potawatomi of Huron, in Calhoun County, Mich., 78. A few besides these were scattered through their ancient territory and at various other points. Those in Canada are all in the Province of Ontario and number about 220, of whom 176 are living with Chippewa and Ottawa on Walpole Island and the remainder, no longer officially reported, are divided between Caradoc and Riviere aux Sables, where they reside by permission of the Chippewa and Munsee. The United States Census of 1910 returned 2,440, of whom 866 were living in Oklahoma, 619 in Kansas, 461 in Michigan, and 245 in Wisconsin, while the remainder were scattered in 11 other States. The United States and Canadian Indian Office Reports of 1923-24 give 2,227 in Oklahoma, 803 in Kansas, and 170 on Walpole Island, Ontario, but those in Michigan are not separately entered. The United States Census of 1930 returned 1,854, of whom 654 were in Kansas, 636 in Oklahoma, 425 in Wisconsin, and 89 in Michigan. In 1937 there were 142 in Michigan, 311 in Wisconsin, 1,013 in Kansas, and 2,667 in Oklahoma: total 4,133. Connection in which they have become noted.- In the form Pottawatomie the name of this tribe is used as a designation of counties in Kansas and Oklahoma and a post township of Coffey County, Kans., and in the form Pottawattamie as the designation of a county in Iowa. Sauk. At some time shortly before European contact the Sauk lived about Saginaw Bay and the present name of the bay is derived from them. They were probably driven beyond Lake Michigan by the Ottawa allied with the Neutral Nation. (See Wisconsin.) Wyandot. After the disruption of their nation by the Iroquois these people lived for limited periods at several different points in the territory now included in the State of Michigan. They were temporarily at Michilimackinac, Detroit, and other places. (See Ohio.)
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Arapaho. There are traditions that they once lived along Red River, in the present North Dakota and Minnesota, (See Wyoming.) Cheyenne. The earliest known home of this tribe was in that part of Minnesota bounded roughly by the Mississippi, Minnesota, and upper Red Rivers. From here they moved to the Sheyenne branch of Red River, North Dakota. (See South Dakota.) Chippewa or Ojibwa. Traditional significance of name in their own language, "to roast until puckered up," referring to the puckered seam in their moccasins. Also called: An-ish-in-aub-ag, another native term meaning "spontaneous men." Axshissaye-runu, Wyandot name. Bawichtigouek, name in Jesuit Relations. Bedzaqetcha, Tsattine name, meaning "long hairs." Bedzietcho, Kawchodinne name. Bungees, so called by Hudson Bay traders. Cabellos realzados, the Spanish translation of French Cheveux-releves. De-wa-ka-nha, Mohawk name. Dshipowe-haga, Caughnawaga name. Dwa-ka-nen, Onondaga name. Eskiaeronnon, Huron name, meaning "people of the falls." Hahatonwan, Dakota name. Hahatonway, Hidatsa name, meaning "leapers." Jumpers, incorrect rendering of Saulteurs. Kutaki, Fox name. Leapers, same as Jumpers. Ne-a-ya-og, Cree name, meaning "those speaking the same language." Ne-ga-tce, Winnebago name. Nwa'-ka, Tuscarora name. Ostiagahoroones, Iroquois name. Paouichtigouin, name in Jesuit Relations. Saulteurs, or Saulteaux, given to part of the tribe from the falls at Sault Ste. Marie. Sotoes, Anglicization of above. Wah-kah-towah, Assiniboin name, according to Tanner. Connections.- The Chippewa are the type tribe of one of the two largest divisions of the Algonquian linguistic stock. Location.- The earliest accounts of the Chippewa associate them particularly with the region of Sault Ste. Marie, but they came in time to extend over the entire northern shore of Lake Huron and both shores of Lake Superior, besides well into the northern interior and as far west as the Turtle Mountains of North Dakota. (See also Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Montana, North Dakota, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Canada.) Subdivisions There were a number of major and numerous minor divisions of this tribe. According to Warren, there were 10 major divisions, as follows: Betonukeengainubejig, in northern Wisconsin. Kechegummewininewug, on the south shore of Lake Superior. Kechesebewininewug, on the upper Mississippi in Minnesota. Kojejewininewug, on Rainy Lake and River, about the northern boundary of Minnesota. Mukmeduawininewug, or Pillagers, on Leech Lake, Minn. Munominikasheenhug, at the headwaters of St. Croix River in Wisconsin and Minnesota. Ottawa Lake Men, on Lac Courte Oreilles, Wis. Sugwaundugahwininewug, north of Lake Superior. Wahsuahgunewininewug, at the head of Wisconsin River. Wazhush, on the northwest side of Lake Superior at the Canadian border. Villages and Small Bands Amikwa, on the north shore of Lake Huron, opposite Manitoulin Island. Angwassag, near St. Charles, Saginaw County, Mich. Anibiminanisibiwininiwak, a band, on Pembina River in the extreme northern part of Minnesota and the adjacent part of Manitoba. Bagoache, a band, about the northern shore of Lake Superior. Bay du Noc, perhaps Chippewa, probably on Noquet Bay in upper Michigan. Beaver Island Indians, on the Beaver Islands of Lake Michigan, at the outlet. Big Rock, the location of a reservation in lower Michigan. Blackbird, on Tittibawassee River, Saginaw County, Mich. Burnt Woods, Chippewa, on Bois Brule River near the west end of Lake Superior, northern Wisconsin. Chetac Lake, on the lake of the same name in Sawyer County, Wis. Crow Wing River, at the mouth of Crow Wing River in north central Minnesota. Doki's Band, at the head of French River where it leaves Lake Nipissing, Ont. Epinette, on the north shore of Lake Superior, east of Michipicoton River, Ont. Flying Post, about the post of that name in Ontario. Fond du Lac, on St. Louis River near Fond du Lac, Minn. Gamiskwakokawininiwak, about Cass Lake, near the head of the Mississippi, in Minn. Gasakaskuatchimmekak, location uncertain. Gatagetegauning, on Lac (Vieux) Desert or Gatagetegauning on the Michigan-Wisconsin State line. Gawababiganikak, about White Earth Lake, Minn. Grand Portage, at Grand Portage on the northern shore of Lake Superior in Minn. Gull Lake Band, on Gull Lake on the upper Mississippi, in Cass County, Minn. Kahmetahwungaguma, on Sandy Lake, Cass County, Minn. Kawkawling, location uncertain. Kechepukwaiwah, on the lake of the same name near Chippewa River, Wis. Ketchenaundaugenink, on Shiawassee River on the trail between Detroit and Saginaw Bay, Mich. Kishkawbawee, on Flint River in lower Michigan. Knife Lake, location uncertaim Lac Courte Oreilles, on the lake of the same name at the headwaters of Chippewa River, in Sawyer County, Wis. Little Forks, a reservation on Tittibawassee River, in lower Michigan. Long Lake, on Long Lake north of Lake Superior, between Nipigon and Pic River, Ont. Matawachkirini, Matachewan, about Fort Matachewan, Ont. Mattagami, about Mattagami Lake. Mekadewagamitigweyawininiwak, on Black River, Mich. Menitegow, on the east bank of Saginaw River in lower Michigan. Menoquet's Village, on Cass River, lower Michigan. Michilimackinac, on Mackinac Island, Mich. Michipicoten, a band on Michipicoten River, Ont. Midinakwadshiwininiwak, a band in the Turtle Mountain region, N. Dak. Misisagaikaoiwininiwak, a band on Mille Lacs, Minn. Miskwagamiwisagaigan, a band about Red Lake River, Minn. Nabobish, at the mouth of Saginaw River, Mich. Nagonabe, in lower Michigan. Nameuilni, a band northwest of Lake Superior, between Rainy Lake and Lake Nipigon in Algoma, Ont. Nibowisibiwininiwak, in Saakatchewan north of Lake Winnipeg. Nipissing, about Lake Nipissing. Obidgewong, with Ottawa, on the west shore of Lake Wolseley, Manitoulin Island, Ont. Ommunise, or Ottawa, on Carp River, Mich. Onepowesepewenenewak, in Minnesota. Ontonagon, a band on Ontonagon River in upper Michigan. Oschekkamegawenenewak, 2 bands: (1) near Rainy Lake (1753); (2) east of Mille Lacs. Ouasouarini, on Georgian Bay, Ont. Oueschekgagamiouilimy, the Caribou gens of Rainy River, Minn. Outchougai, on the east side of Georgian Bay and probably south of French River, connected with the Amikwa. Otusson, on upper Huron River in Sanilac County, Mich. Pawating, at Sault Ste. Marie, on the south bank of St. Mary's River, Chippewa County, Mich. Pic River, at the mouth of Pic River on the north shore of Lake Superior, Ont. Pokegama, on Pokegama Lake, Pine County, Minn. Portage du Prairie, in Manitoba. Rabbit Lake Chippewa, a band on Rabbit Lake, Minn. Reaum's Village, in Flint River, Mich., about the boundary of Genesee and Saginaw Counties. Red Cedar Lake, on Red Cedar Lake, Barron County, Wis. Red Cliff, near the west end of Lake Superior, in Wisconsin or Minnesota. Rice Lake Band, on Rice Lake, Barron County, Wis. Saginaw, with Ottawa, near Saginaw, Mich. Saint Francis Xavier, a mission, on Mille Lacs, Aitkin County, Minn. Shabwasing, a band, probably in lower Michigan. Shsugawaumikong, on Long Island, on the west coast of Lake Superior, in Ashland County, Wis. Sukaauguning, on Pelican Lake, Oneida County, Wis. Thunder Bay, Chippewa or Ottawa, a band on Thunder Bay, Alpena County, Mich. Timagimi, about Lake Timagimi. Trout Lake, location uncertain. Turtle Portage, in Wisconsin. Wabasemowenenewak, near a white rock perhaps in Minnesota. Walpole Island, with other tribes, Ontario. Wanamakewajejenik, near the Lake of the Woods. Wapisiwisibiwininiwak, a band, on Swan Greek, near Lake St. Clair, Mich. Wauswagiming, on Lac du Flambeau, Lac du Flambeau Reservation, Wisconsin. Wequadong, near L'Anse at the head of Keweenaw Bay, Baraga County, Mich. Whitefish, on Sturgeon River. Wiaquahhechegumeeng, at the head of Lake Superior in Douglass County, Wis. Winnebegoshishiwininewak, a band on Lake Winnibigashish, Minn. Yellow Lake, on Yellow Lake, Burnett County, Wis. History - According to tradition, the Chippewa were part of a large body of Indians which came from the east -- how much east of their later homes is uncertain- and after reaching Mackinaw separated into the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi. The Chippewa afterward pushed their way west along both shores of Lake Superior, and in the eighteenth century, assisted by the adoption of firearms, drove the Dakota from Mille Lacs, and spread over the northern part of Minnesota and southern Manitoba as far as the Turtle Mountains. They also flowed back around Lake Huron. During the nineteenth century they were gradually gathered into reservations on both sides of the International Boundary, but none were ever removed from their original country except two small bands and some scattered families which went to Kansas early in 1839, and in 1866 agreed to settle among the Cherokee in Oklahoma. Population - Mooney (1928) considered that there were 35,000 Chippewa in 1650. The tribe was so large and has so many ramifications that few early estimates are very close to the truth. The principal are: In 1764, about 25,000; in 1783 and 1794, about 15,000; in 1843, about 30,000; in 1851, about 28,000. In 1884 there were in Dakota 914; in Minnesota, 5,885; in Wisconsin, 3,666; in Michigan, 3,500 returned separately and 6,000 combined Chippewa and Ottawa, of whom perhaps one-third were Chippewa; in Kansas, 76 Chippewa and Munsee. In Canada the Chippewa of Ontario, including the Nipissing, numbered at the same time about 9,000, while in Manitoba and the Northwest Territories there were 17,129 Chippewa and Cree on reservations under the same agencies. The census of 1910 gave 20,214 in the United States, of whom 8,234 were in Minnesota, 4,299 in Wisconsin, 3,725 in Michigan, 2,966 in North Dakota, and the balance scattered among 18 States. The United States Indian Office Report for 1923 gave 22,599. In Canada there were probably somewhat less than 25,000, giving a total for the tribe of about 45,000. It must, however, be remembered that the present population of Chippewa includes thousands of mixed-bloods, partly representing mixtures with other tribes and partly mixtures with Whites. The United States Census of 1930 gives 21,549, including 9,495 in Minnesota, 4,437 in Wisconsin, 3,827 in North Dakota, 1,865 in Michigan, and 1,549 in Montana. In 1937, 16,160 were returned from Minnesota, 4,303 from Wisconsin, 6,613 from North Dakota, and 481 from Montana; a total in the United States of 26,457. Connection in which they have become noted - From early times the Chippewa were one of those tribes most prominent in the minds of writers on American Indians. This fact they owed in the first place to their numbers and the extent of country covered by their bands; secondly, to their central position and the many White men who became acquainted with them; and, thirdly, to the popularization given them by Henry M. Schoolcraft (1851-57), and the still wider popularity which they and their myths attained through the use of Schoolcraft's material by Longfellow in his famous poem of Hiawatha, for while the name Hiawatha is drawn from Iroquois sources, the stories are nearly all Chippewa. The name is preserved by streams in Wisconsin, Ohio, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ontario; by counties in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota; by various places in Pennsylvania, New York, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, and Ontario; and by Chippewa Bay, St. Lawrence County, N. Y.; Chippewa Falls, Chippewa County, Wis.; Chippewa Lake, Mecosta County, Mich.; Chippewa Lake, Medina County, Ohio; and Ojibwa in Sawyer County, Wis. Dakota. When first known to Europeans the Dakota were mainly in southern Minnesota. They gradually moved westward but did not cede all of their lands in Minnesota until 1863, and even then retained rights to the famous Red Pipestone Quarry. (See South Dakota.) Foxes. In 1830 representatives of this tribe were a party to a treaty ceding Minnesota lands to the Whites. (See Wisconsin.) Iowa. According to tradition, this tribe lived for a time near the famous Red Pipestone Quarry in southwestern Minnesota, and were at the mouth of Minnesota River when the Dakota reached that country. They appear to have been near the mouth of Blue Earth River just before Le Sueur arrived there in 1701. Dakota informed him that Blue Earth River belonged to the Dakota of the West, the Iowa, and the Oto. (See Iowa.) Missouri. Representatives of this tribe were a party to the treaty of 1830, ceding Minnesota lands to the Whites. (See Missouri.) Omaha. At one time the Omaha lived about the Red Pipestone Quarry in Minnesota. (See Nebraska.) Oto. As noted above (under Iowa), the Oto are reported to have shared at one time the ownership of Blue Earth River with the Iowa and the Western Dakota. (See Nebraska.) Ottawa. A band of Ottawa, in company with some Wyandot, once wintered on Lake Pepin. (See Michigan.) Ponca. This tribe was probably in southwestern Minnesota at the same time as the Omaha. (See Nebraska.) Sauk. In 1830 Sauk representatives were a party to a treaty ceding Minnesota lands to the Whites. (See Wisconsin.) Winnebago. A part of the Winnebago lived in Minnesota from 1848 to 1862 after surrendering their reservation in Iowa Territory. (See Wisconsin.) Wyandot. This tribe visited the borders of Minnesota for a short period in company with the Ottawa (see Ottawa, above, and Ohio).
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Acolapissa. When first known to Europeans, this tribe lived on Pearl River, partly in what is now Mississippi, partly in Louisiana, but they were more closely associated with Louisiana in later times and will be treated among the tribes of that State. (See Louisiana.) Biloxi. Apparently a corruption of their own name Taneks anya, "first people," filtered over the tongues of other Indians. Also called: Ananis, Anaxis, Annocchy, early French spellings intended for Taneks. Polu'ksalgi, Creek name. Connections.- They belonged to the Siouan linguistic family. Location.- Their earliest historical location was on the lower course of Pascagoula River. (See also Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.) Villages None are known except those bearing the name of the tribe, unless we assume the "Moctobi" or "Capinans" to be a part of them. These, however, may have been merely synonyms of the tribal name. History.- It is possible that the Biloxi are the Capitanesses who appear west of Susquehanna River on early Dutch charts. On the De Crenay map of 1733, a Biloxi town site appears on the right bank of the Alabama River, a little above the present Clifton in Wilcox County, Ala. This was probably occupied by the Biloxi during their immigration from the north. Individuals belonging to the tribe were met by Iberville on his first expedition to Louisiana in 1699, and in June of the same year his brother Bienville visited them. In 1700 Iberville found their town abandoned and does not mention encountering the people them- selves, though they may have been sharing the Pascagoula village at which he made a short stop. A few years later, Penicaut says (1702-23), St. Denis persuaded the Biloxi to abandon their village and settle on a small bayou near New Orleans but by 1722 they had returned a considerable distance toward their old home and were established on the former terrain of the Acolapissa Indians on Pearl River. They continued in this neighborhood and close to the Pascagoula until 1763, when French government east of the Mississippi came to an end. Soon afterward, although we do not know the exact date, they moved to Louisiana and settled not far from Marksville. They soon moved farther up Red River and still later to Bayou Boeuf. Early in the nineteenth century they sold their lands, and, while part of them remained on the river, a large body migrated to Texas and settled on Biloxi Bayou, in Angelina County. All of these afterward left, either to return to Louisiana or to settle in Oklahoma. A few Biloxi are still living in Rapides Parish, La., and there are said to be some in the Choctaw Nation, but the tribe is now practically extinct. In 1886 the Siouan relationship of their language was established by Dr. Gatschot of the Bureau of American Ethnology, and a considerable record of it was obtained by Mr. James D. Dorsey of the same institution in 1892-93. (See Dorsey and Swanton, 1912.) Population.- On the basis of the imperfect records available, I have made the following estimates of Biloxi population at different periods: 420 in 1698, 175 in 1720, 105 in 1805, 65 in 1829, 6-8 in 1908. Mooney (1928) estimated that this tribe, the Pascagoula, and the "Moctobi" might number 1,000 in 1650. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Biloxi are remarkable (1) as having spoken a Siouan dialect unlike all of their neighbors with one possible exception; (2) as the tribe first met by Iberville when he reached the coast of Louisiana and established the French colony of that name; (3) as having furnished the names of the first two capitals of Louisiana, Old and New Biloxi; that of the present Biloxi, Miss.; and the name of Biloxi Bay. Capinans. The name of a body of Indians connected in French references with the Biloxi and Pascagoula and probably a branch of one of them. Chakchiuma. Proper spelling Shatci homma, meaning "Red Crawfish [People]." Connections.- They spoke a dialect closely related to Choctaw and Chickasaw. Their nearest relatives were the Houma (q. v.), who evidently separated from them in very recent times. Location.- In the eighteenth century on Yalobusha River where it empties into the Yazoo but at an early period extending to the head of the Yalobusha and eastward between the territories of the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes as far as West Point. Subdivisions A French map dated about 1697 seems to call that section of the tribe on Yazoo River, Sabougla, though these may have been a Branch of the Sawokli. (See Georgia.) History.- According to tradition, this tribe came from the west at the same time as thc Chickasaw and Choctaw and settled between them. When De Soto was among the Chickasaw, an expedition was directed against the Chakchiuma "who the [Chickasaw] Cacique said had rebelled," but their town was abandoned and on fire. It was claimed that they had planned treachery against the Spaniards. The chief of the tribe at this time was Miko Lusa (Black Chief). After the French settlement of Louisiana a missionary was killed by these people and in revenge the French stirred up the neighboring tribes to attack them. They are said to have been reduced very considerably in consequence. Afterward, they remained closely allied with the French, assisted them after the Natchez outbreak, and their chief was appointed leader of the Indian auxiliaries in the contemplated attack upon the Chickasaw in 1739. The animosity thus excited probably resulted in their destruction by the Chickasaw and absorption into the Chickasaw and Choctaw tribes. From De Crenay's map it appears that a part had gone to live with the Chickasaw by 1733. The rest may have gone to the Choctaw, for a band bearing their name constituted an important division of that nation. Tradition states that they were destroyed by the united efforts of the Chickasaw and Choctaw, but the latter were uniformly allied with the French and hostile to the Chickasaw when this alliance is supposed to have been in existence. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates 1,200 souls among the Chakchiuma, Ibitoupa, Taposa, and Tiou in 1650; exclusive of the Tiou, my own would be 750. In 1699 they are said to have occupied 70 cabins. In 1702 it is claimed that there were 400 families, which in 1704 had been reduced to 80, but probably the first figure is an exaggeration. About 1718-30 where were 50 Chakchiuma cabins and in 1722 the total population is placed at 150. Chickasaw. Meaning unknown, though the ending suggests that it might have been a place name. Also called: Ani'-Tsi'ksu, Cherokee name. Kasaha unun, Yuchi name. Tchaktchan, Arapaho name. Tchikasa, Creek name. Tci'-ka-sa', Kansa name. Ti-ka'-ja, Quapaw name. Tsi'-ka-ce, Osage name. Connections.- Linguistically the Chickasaw were closely connected with the Choctaw and one of the principal tribes of the Muskhogean group. Location.- In northern Mississippi, principally in Pontotoc and Union Counties. (See South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Tennessee.) Subdivisions Aside from some incorporated tribes such as the Napochi and Chakchiuma, no major subdivisions other than towns are mentioned until late in Chickasaw history when we hear of three such subdivisions: those of Tishomingo, Sealy, and McGilvery, named after their chiefs. These, however, were probnbly superficial and temporary. Villages Ackia. Alaoute, mentioned only by Iberville. Amalahta. Apeonne. Apile faplimengo (Iberville). Ashukhuma. Ayebisto (Iberville). Chatelaw. Chinica (Iberville). Chucalissa. Chukafalaa. Coui loussa, (French Memoir of 1755). Eatcha Hoa, on Latcha Hoa Run, an affluent of Ahoola Ihalchubba, a western tributary of Tombigbee River, northeastern Mississippi. Etoukouma (De Batz). Falatchao. Gouytola (Iberville). Ogoula-Tchetoka (Do Batz). Onthaba atchosa (Iberville). Ooe-asa, in Creek Nation near Sylacauga. Oucahata (Iberville). Oucthambolo (Iberville). Outanquatle (French Memoir of 1756). Tanyachilca (Iberville). Thanbolo (Iberville). Tuckahaw. Tuskawillao. Yaneka. All of the above, with one or two exceptions noted, were close to one another in the general location given above. History.- Like most of the other Muskhogean peoples, the Chickasaw believed they had come from the west. They thought that they had settled for a time at a spot in northern Alabama on the north side of the Tennessee River long known as Chickasaw Old Fields. There is little doubt that Chickasaw had once lived at that place whether or not the whole tribe was so located. The first Europeans to become acquainted with the tribe were the Spaniards under De Soto, who spent the months of January, February, and March 1541, in the Chickasaw country, nnd in the latter month were attacked by the tribe with such fury that they were nearly destroyed. Little is heard of the Chickasaw from this time until French explorers and colonists arrived, at the end of the seventeenth century They found the tribe in approximately the position in which De Soto had encountered them, and they found them as warlike as before. Although the French tried to make peace with them, English traders had effected establishments in their country even before the settlement of Louisiana, and they remained consistent allies of England while England and France were fighting for the possession of North America. In the south their alliance meant much the same to the English as Iroquois friendship meant to them in the north. As practically all of the surrounding peoples were devoted to the French, and the Chickasaw were not numerous, they were obliged to maintain a very unequal struggle until the final victory of England in 1763, and they suffered severely in consequence. They supported the Natchez when they revolted in (1729) and when French expeditions from the north and south were hurled upon them simultaneously in 1736, they beat both off with heavy losses. In 1740 a gigantic attempt was made to conquer them, but the greater part of the force assembled dissolved without accomplishing anything. A small French expedition under Celoron succeeded in obtaining a treaty of peace advantageous to the French but this soon became a dead letter, and French communications up and down the Mississippi River were constantly threatened and French voyageurs constantly attacked in the period following. In 1752 and 1753 the French commanders Benoist and Reggio were defeated by the Chickasaw. At an earlier period, shortly before 1715, they and the Cherokee together drove the Shawnee from their settlements on the Cumberland, and in 1745 they expelled another Shawnee band from the same region. In 1769 they utterly routed the Cherokee on the site of the Chickasaw Old Fields. In 1793-95 war broke out with the Creeks, who invaded their territories with 1,000 men, but while they were attacking a small stockade, a band of about 200 Chickasaw fell upon them, whereupon an unaccountable terror took possession of the invaders, and they fled precipitately. There was at one time a detached body of Chickasaw on the lower Tennessee not far from its mouth. They also had a town among the Upper Creeks for a brief period (Ooe-asa), and a settlement near Augusta, Ga., from about 1723 to the opening of thc American Revolution. Thc Chickasaw maintained friendship with the American Government after its establishment, but, being pressed upon by white settlers, parted with their lands by treaties made in 1805, 1816, 1818, and 1832. The actual migration to new homes in what is now Oklahoma began in 1837 and extended to 1847. The Chickasaw and Choctaw mingled rather indiscriminately at first but their lands were separated in 1855 and the Chickasaw set up an independent government modeled on that of the United States which lasted until merged in the new State of Oklahoma. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were about 8,000 in 1600. In 1702 Iberville estimated that there were 2,000 families of Chickasaw, but in 1715 a rather careful enumeration made by the colony of South Carolina, gave 6 villages, 700 men, and a population of 1,900. In 1761, a North Carolina estimate gives about 400 men; in 1766, about 350. Most of the subsequent estimates of the number of warriors made during the eighteenth century vary between 250 and 800. In 1817 Morse (1822) places the total population at 3,625; in 1829 General Peter B. Porter estimates 3,600 (in Schoolcraft, 1851-57, vol. 3); and a more accurate report in Schoolcraft gives 4,715 in 18,33. The figures of the United States Indian Office between 1836 and the present time vary from 4,500 for 1865 to 1870 to nearly 11,000 in 1923, but this latter figure includes more than 5,000 freedmen and persons intermarried in the tribe, and, when we allow for mixed bloods, we shall find that the Chickasaw population proper has usually stood at between 4,500 and 5,500 during the entire period. There has probably been a slow decline in the absolute amount of Chickasaw blood owing to constant intermixture with other peoples. The 1910 census returned 4,204 Chickasaw and that of 1930, 4,745. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Chickasaw were noted (1) as one of the most warlike tribes of the Gulf area, (2) as the tribe of all those encountered by the Spaniards who came nearest putting an end to De Soto's army, (3) as the constant allies of the English without whom the control of the Gulf region by the latter would many times have been jeopardized. There are post villages of the name in Mobile County, Ala., and Mercer County, Ohio, and Chickasha, a variant form, is the name of the county seat of Grady County, Okla. Choctaw. Meaning unknown, though Halbert (1901) has suggested that they received their name from Pearl River, "Hachha". Also called: Ani'-Tsa'ta, Cherokee name. Flat Heads, from their custom of flattening the heads of infants. Henne'sh, Arapaho name. Nabuggindehaig, probably the Chippewa name for this tribes signifying "flat heads." Pans falaya, "Long Hairs," given by Adair. Sanaklwa, Cheyenne name, meaning "feathers sticking up above the ears." Ta-qta, Quapaw name. Tca-qta an-ya-di, or Tca-qta han-ya, Biloxi name. Tca-ta, Kansa name. Tetes Plates, French equivalent of "Flat Heads." Tsah-tu, Creek name. Connections.- This was the largest tribe belonging to the southern Muskhogean branch. Linguistically, but not physically, it was most closely allied with the Chickasaw and after them with thc Alabama. Location.- Nearly all of the Choctaw towns were in the southeastern part of Mississippi though they controlled the adjoining territory in the present State of Alabama. The small tribes of Mobile were sometimes called Choctaw. (See also Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, Alabama, and Arkansas.) Subdivisions and Villages From the earliest times of which we have any knowledge the Choctaw villages were distributed into three divisions: a southern, a northeastern, and a western, though a central group may also be distinguished. The southern division is fairly well defined by our several informants, but there is considerable disagreement with reference to the others. One authority gives but two divisions, an eastern and a western, and even cuts up the southern group between them. The following locations were established largely by Mr. H. S. Halbert (1901): Southern or Sixtown Division: Bishkun, in the northern part of Jasper County. Bissasha, on the west side of Little Roek Creek, in Newton County, sect. 23, tp. 8, range 12, east. Boktoloksi, on Boguetuluksi Creek, a southwest affluent of Chickasawhay River. Chickasawhay, on Chickasawhay River about 3 miles south of Enterprise, Clarke County. Chinakbf, on the site of Garlandville, in Jasper County. Chiskilikbacha, probably in Jasper County. Coatraw, 4 miles southwest of the town of Newton in sect. 17, tp. 5, range 11, east, Newton County. Inkillis tamaha, in the northeastern part of Jasper County. Nashobawenya, in the southwestern part of Jasper County. Okatalaia, in the eastern part of Smith County or the western part of Jasper County. Oktak chito tamaha, location unknown. Oskelagna, probably in Jasper County. Puskustakali, in the southwest corner of Kemper County or the proximate part of Neshoba County. Siniasha, location uncertain. Tala, in the southern part of Newton County, between Tarlow and Bogue Felamma Creeks. Talahoka, in Jasper County. Yowani, on the east side of Chickasawhay River, in the southern part of Clarke County. Western Division: Abissa, location uncertain. Atlantchitou, location unknown. Ayoutakale, location unknown. Bok chito, probably on Bogue Chitto, in Neshoba and Kemper Counties. Bokfalaia, location uncertain. Bokfoka, location unknown. Boktokolo, location unknown. Cabea Hoola, location unknown. Chunky, on the site of Union, Newton County. Chunky chito, on the west bank of Chunky Creek, about half a mile below the confluence of that creek with Talasha Creek- later this belonged to the southern district. East Kunshak chito, near Moscow, in Kemper County. Filitamon, location unknown. Halunlawi asha, on the site of Philadelphia, in Neshoba County. Hashuk chuka, location unknown. Hashuk homa, location unknown. Imokasha, on the headwaters of Talasha Creek, in Neshoba County, in sections 4, 9, and 16, tp. 9, range 13, east. Iyanabi, on Yannubbee Creek, about 8 miles southwest of De Ealb, in Kemper County. Itichipota, between the headwaters of Chickasawhay and Tombigbee Rivers. Kafitalaia, on Owl Creek, in section 21, tp. 11, range 13, east, in Neshoba County. Kashtasha, on the south side of Custusha Creek, about 3 miles a little south of West Yazoo Town. Konshak osapa, somewhere west of West Imoklasha. Koweh chito, northwest of De Kalb, in Kemper County. Kushak, on Lost Horse Creek, 4 miles southeast of Lazelia, Lauderdale County. Kunshak bolukta, in the southwestern part of Kemper County some 2 miles from Nieshoba County line and 1 1/2 miles from the Lauderdale County line. Kunshak chito, on or near the upper course of Oktibbeha River. Lushapa, perhaps on Lussalaka Creek, a tributary of Kentarcky Creek, in Neshoba County. Oka Chippo, location unknown. Oka Coopoly, on Ocobly Creek, in Neshoba County. Oka hullo, probably on or near the mouth of Sanoote Creek, which empties into Petickfa Creek in Kemper County. Oka Kapassa, about Pinckney Mill, in sect. 23, tp. 8, range 11, east, in Newton County- possibly in the southern section. Okalusa, in Romans' time on White's Branch, Kemper County. Okapoola, location unknown. Okehanea tamaha, location unknown. Oklabalbaha, location unknown. Oklatanap, location unknown. Oony, south of Piuckney Mill, in Newton County- possibly in the southern division. Osak talaia, near the line between Neshoba and Kemper Counties. Osapa chito, on the site of Dixon Post Office, in Neshoba County. Otuk falaia, location unknown. Pante, at the head of Ponta Creek, in Lauderdale County. Shinuk Kaha, about 7 miles a little north or east of Philadelphia, in Neshoba County. Shumotakali, in Kemper County, between the two head prongs of Black Water Creek. Tiwaele, location unknown. Tonicahaw, location unknown. Utapacha, location unknown. Watonlula, location uncertain. West Abeka, location unknown. West Kunshak chito, in Neshoba County, near the headwaters of Oktibbeha Creek. Wiatakali, about 1 mile south of the De Kalb and Jackson road, in Neshoba County. Yazoo, or West Yazoo, in Neshoba County, near the headwaters of Oktibbeha Creek, in sections 13 and 24, tp. 10, range 13, east. Northeastern Division: Alamucha, 10 miles from Sukenatcha Creek, in Kemper County. Athlepele, location unknown. Bolitokolo chito, at the confluence of Running Tiger and Sukenatcha Creeks, about 4 miles northwest of De Kalb. Chichatalys, location unknown. Chuka hullo, on the north side of Sukenatcha Creek, somewhere between the mouths of Running Tiger and Straight Creeks, in Kemper County. Chuka lusa, location unknown. Cutha Aimethaw, location unknown. Cuthi Uckehaca, probably on or near the rnouth of Parker's Creek, which empties into Petickfa, in sect. 30, tp. 10, range 17, east. East Abeka, at the junction of Straight Creek with the Sukenatcha, in Kemper County. Escooba, perhaps on or near Petickfa Creek, in Kemper County. Hankha Ula, on a flat-topped ridge between the Petickfa and Blaok Wate Creeks, in Kemper County. Holihta asha, on the site of De Kalb, in Kemper County. Ibetap okla chito, perhaps on Straight Creek, in Kemper County. Ibetap okla iskitini, at the head of the main prong of Yazoo Creek, in Kemper County. Imoklasha iskitini, on Flat Creek, the eastern prong of Yazoo Creek, in Kemper County. Itokchako, near East Abeka, in Kemper County. Kunshaktikpi, on Coonshark Creek, a tributary of Kentarky Creek, in Neshoba County. Lukfata, on the headwaters of one of the prongs of Sukenatcha River. Oka Altakala, probably at the confluence of Petickfa and Yannubbee Creek, in Kemper County. Osapa issa, on the north side of Blackwater Creek, in Hemper County. Pachanucha, location unknown. Skanapa, probably on Running Tiger Creek, in Kemper County. Yagna Shoogawa, perhaps on Indian branch of Running Tiger Creek. Yanatoe, probably in southwest Kemper County. Yazoo iskitini, on both sides of Yazoo Creek. The following were outside the original town cluster: Bayou Chicot, south of Cheneyville, St. Landry Parish, La. Boutte Station, in St. Charles Parish, La. Cahawba Old Towns, in Perry County, Ala., and probably on Cahawba River. Cheponta's Village, on the west bank of the Tombigbee River in the extreme southeastern part of Choctaw County, Ala. Chisha Foka, on the site of Jackson. Coila, in Carroll County, probably occupied by Choctaw. Heitotowa, at the site of the later Sculleyville, Choctaw Nation, Okla. Shukhata, on the site of Columbus, Ala. Teeakhaily Ekutapa, on the lower Tombigbee River. Tombigbee, on or near Tombigbee River. A few other names of towns placed in the old Choctaw country appear on various maps, but most of these are probably intended for some of the villages given above. History.- After leaving the ruins of Mabila, De Soto and his followers, according to the Gentleman of Elvas (see Robertson, 1933), reached a province called Pafallaya, but, according to Ranjel, to a chief river called Apafalaya. Halbert is undoubtedly right in believing that in these words we have the old name of the Choctaw, Pansfalaya, "Long Hairs," and this is the first appearance of the Choctaw tribe in history. We hear of them again, in Spanish Florida documents of the latter part of the seventeenth century, and from this time on they occupied the geographical position always associated with them until their removal beyond the Mississippi. The French of necessity had intimate dealings with them from the time when Louisiana was first colonized, and the relations between the two peoples were almost invariably friendly. At one time an English party was formed among the Choctaw, partly because the prices charged by the Carolina traders were lower than those placed upon French goods. This was led by a noted chief named Red Shoes and lasted for a considerable time, one of the principal Choctaw towns being burned before it came to an end with the defeat of the British party in 1750. In 1763,, after French Government had given way to that of the English east of the Mississippi, relations between the latter and the Choctaw were peaceful though many small bands of Indians of this tribe crossed the Mississippi into Louisiana. The American Revolution did not alter conditions essentially, and, though Tecumseh and his emissaries endeavored to enlist the Choctaw in his favor, only about 30 individuals joined the hostile Creeks. The abstinence of the tribe as a whole was due very largely to the personal influence of the native statesman, Pushmataha, whose remains lie in the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, surmounted by an impressive monument. Meanwhile bands of Choctaw continued moving across the Mississippi, but the great migration occurred after the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit, September 30, 1830, by which tke tribe ceded their old lands. However, a considerable body of Choctaw did not leave at this time. Many followed, it is true, at the time of the allotment in Oklahoma, but upward of a thousand still remain, principally in the neighborhood of Philadelphia, Miss. The western Choctaw established a government on the model of those of the other civilized tribes and that of the United States, and it was not given up until merged in the State of Oklahoma early in the present century. Population.- Estimates of the number of Choctaw warriors between 1702 and 1814 vary between 700 and 16,000. A North Carolina estimate made in 1761 says they numbered at least 5,000 men. Common estimates are between 4,000 and 5,000, but even these figures may be a trifle low since the first reliable census, that of Armstrong, in 1831, gave 19,554. However, there may have been a slight increase in population after the beginning of the nineteenth century, when an end was put to intertribal wars. Figures returned by the Indian Office since that time show a rather unusual constancy. They go as low as 12,600, and at the other extreme reach 22,707, but the average 13 from 18,000 to 20,000. The census of 1910 gave 15,917, including 1,162 in Mississippi, 14,551 in Oklahoma, 115 in Louisiana, 57 in Alabama, and 32 in other States, but the United States Indian Office Report for 1923 has 17,488 Choctaw by blood in Oklahoma, 1,600 "Mississippi Choctaw" in Oklahoma, and 1,439 in the State of Mississippi, not counting about 200 in Louisiana, Alabama, and elsewhere. A few small tribes were gathered into this nation, but only a few. The census of 1930 returned 17,757, of whom 16,641 were in Oklahoma, 624 in Mississippi, 190 in Louisiana, and the rest in more than 14 other States. In 1937 the Mississippi Choctaw numbered 1,908, from which it seems that many of the Mississippi Choctaw were missed in 1930 unless the "Mississippi Choctaw" already in Oklahoma are included. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Choctaw were noted (1) as the most numerous tribe in the Southeast next to the Cherokee, (2) as depending more than most other tribes in the region on agriculture, (3) for certain peculiar customs such as head deformation, extensive use of ossuaries for the dead, and the male custom of wearing the hair long, (4) as faithful allies of the French against the English but always at peace with the United States Government, (5) as having furnished the names to counties in Alabama, Mississippi, and Oklahoma, and settlements in the same States, and in Van Buren County, Ark. Choula. Bernard de La lIarpe gives this as the name of a small tribe of 40 individuals on the Yazoo River. There is some reason to think it was applied to a part of the Ibitoupa tribe (q. v.). The name means "fox" in Chicliasaw and Choctaw. Grigra. Said to have been given them from the frequent occurrence of these two syllables in their speech. They sometimes appear as the "Gray Village" of the Natchez. Connections.- The fact that the language of this tribe contained an r suggests a probable relationship with the tribes of the Tunican group. Location.- When first known to us, is formed one of the Natchez villages on St. Catherines Creek, Miss. Villages Only one village is mentioned called by A shorter form of the name given to the tribe, Gris or Gras. History.- The Grigra had been adopted by the Natchez at an earlier period than the Tiou (q. v.) and, like them, may once have resided on Yazoo River, but there is no absolute proof of this. They are mentioned as one of three Natchez tribes belonging to the anti-French faction. Other vise their history is identical with that of the Natchez. Population.- One estimate made about 1720-25 gives about 60 warriors. Houma. Literally "red," but evidently an abbreviation of saktci homma, "red crawfish." Connections.- They spoke a Muskhogean language very close to Choctaw, and it is practically certain from the fact that their emblem was the red crawfish that they had separated from the Chakchiumn (q. v.). Location.- The earliest known location of the Houma was on the east side of the Mississippi River some miles inland and close to the Mississippi-Louisiana boundary line, perhaps near the present Pinckney, Miss. (See also Louisiana.) Villages At one time the people of this tribe were distributed between a Little Houma village 2 leagues below the head of Bayou La Fourche and a Great Houma village half a league inland from it. This was after they had moved from their earlier home. History.- La Salle heard of the Houma in 1682, but he did not visit them. Tonti made an alliance with them 4 years later, and in 1699 their village was the highest on the Mississippi reached by Iberville before returning to his ships. In 1700 Iberville visited them again and left a missionary among them to build a church, which was an accomplished fact when Gravier reached the tribe in November of the same year. A few years later the Tunica, who had been impelled to leave their old town, were hospitably received hy this tribe, but in 1708 they rose upon their hosts, destroyed part of them, and drove the rest down the Mississippi. These reestablished themselves on Bayou St. John near New Orleans, but not long afterward they re-ascended the river to the present Ascension Parish and remained there for a considerable period. In 1776 they sold a part at least of their lands to two French Creoles but seem to have remained in the neighborhood until some years after the purchase of Louisiana by the United States. By 1805 some had gone to live with thc Atakapa near Lake Charles. Most of the remainder appear to have drifted slowly across to the coast districts of Terrebonne and La Fourche Parishes, where their descendants, with Creole and some Negro admixture, still live. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates a Houma population in 1650 of 1,000. In 1699 Iberville gives 140 cabins and about 350 warriors, while the Journal of the second vessel in this expedition gives a population of 600-700. In 1718, after the tribe had suffered from both pestilence and massacre, La Harpe estimates 60 cabins and 200 warriors. In 1739 a French officer who passed their town rates the number of their warriors at 90 - 100 and the whole population at 270-300. In 1758 there is an estimate of 60 warriors and in 1784 one of 25 while, in 1803, the total Houma population is placed at 60. In 1907 the native estimate of mixed-blood population calling itself Houma was 800 - 900, but the census of 1910 returned only 120 Indians from Terrebonne. To these there should probably be added some from La Fourche but not a number sufficient to account for the discrepancy. In 1920, 639 were returned and in 1930, 936 from Terrebonne besides 11 from La Fourche. Speck estimates double the number. Connection in which they have become noted.- Houma, the capital of Terrebonne Parish, preserves the name. Ibitoupa. Meaning probably, people "at the source of" a stream or river. Connections.- No words of this language are known unless the tribal name itself is native, but from this and Le Page du Pratz's (1758) statement that their language, unlike that of the Tunica group, was without an r, there is every reason to class it as Muskhogean and closely related to Chackchiuma, Chickasaw, and Choctaw. Location.- On Yazoo River in the present Holmes County, perhaps between Abyatche and Chicopa Creeks. Villages Only one village is known, and that called by the tribal name, though it is possible that the Choula, (q. v.) mentioned by La Harpe were an offshoot. History. - The Ibitoupa are mentioned in 1899 by Iberville, and in Coxe's Carolana (1705). Before 1722 they had moved higher up and were 3 leagues above the Chalkchiuma (q.v.), who were then probably at the mouth of the Yalobusha. They probably united with the Chickasaw soon after the Natchez War, though they may first have combined with the Chakchiuma and Taposa. They were perhaps related to the people of the Choctaw towns called Ibetap okla. Population. - All that we know of the population of the Ibitoupa is that in 1722 it occupied 6 cabins; in the same year there are said to have been 40 Choula, a possible offshoot. Connection in which their name has become noted.- It seems to have been the original of the name of Tippo Bayou, Miss. Koasati. A band of Koasati moved from Alabama to Tombigbee River in 1763 but returned to their old country a few years later impelled by the hostilities of their new neighbors. (See Alabama.) Koroa. Meaning unknown. Also called: Kulua, Choctau name, the Muskhogcan people being unable to pronounce r readily. Connections.- The name and associations, together with Le Page du Pratz's (1758) statement that their language possessed an r sound, are practically conclusive proof that this tribe belonged to the Tunican linguistic group. Location.- The Eoroa appear often in association with the Yazoo on the lower course of Yazoo River, but at the very earliest period they were on the banks of the Mississippi or in the interior of what is now Louisiana on the other side of that river. (See also Louisiana.) Villages None are known under any other name. History.- In the De Soto narratives a people is mentioned called Coligua and Colima which may be the one under discussion. If not, the first appearance of the Koroa in history is on Marquette's map applying to 1673, though they are there misplaced. The La Salle narratives introduce us, apparently, to two tribes of the name, one on Yazoo River, the other below Natchez, but there arc reasons for thinking that the latter was the tribe elsewhere called Tiou. In Tonti's account of his expedition overland to the Red River in 1690 we learn of a Koroa town west of the Mississippi, and also of a Koroa River. In 1700 Bienville also learned of a trans-Mississippi Koroa settlement. From the time of Tonti's expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi in 1686 there seems to have been a Koroa town on or near the lower Yazoo, as mentioned above. When the Natchez out-break occurred, this tribe and the Yazoo joined them and destroyed the French post on Yazoo River, but they suffered severely from Indians allied with the French and probably retired soon afterward to the Chickasaw, though part, and perhaps all of them, ultimately settled among the Choctaw. The Choctaw chief Allen Wright claimed to be of Koroa descent. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 2,000 Koroa, Yazoo, Tunica, and Ofo in 1650. Le Page du Pratz places the number of Koroa cabins in his time at 40. In 1722 the total population of the Koroa. Yazoo nnd Ofo is given as 250, and in 1730 the last estimate of the Koroa and Yazoo together gives 40 warriors, or perhaps 100 souls. Moctobi. This name appears in the narratives of the first settlement of Louisiana, in 1699, applied to a tribe living with or near the Biloxi and Pascagoula. It is perhaps the name of the latter in the Biloxi language, or a subdivision of the Biloxi themselves, and is best treated in connection with the latter. Natchez. Meaning unknown (the z should not be pronounced). Also called: Ani'-Na'tsi, Cherokee name. Sunset Indians, given by Swan (in Schoolcraft (1851-57)). Theloel or Thecoel, name used by the Natchez but seemingly derived from that of a town. Connections.- The Natchez were the largest of three tribes speaking closely related dialects, the other two being Taensa and Avoyel, and this group was remotely related to thc great Muskhogcan family. Location.- The historic scat of the Natchez Indians was along St. Catherines Creek, and a little east of the present city of Natchez. (See also Alabama, Louisiana, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Tennessee.) Villages Iberville gives the following list of Natchez villages- "Natches, Pochougoula, Ousagoucoulas, Cogoucoulas, Yatanocas, Ymacachas, Thoucoue, Tougoulas, and Achougoulas." This list was obtained through the medium of the Mobilian trade language and part of the names are undoubtedly translated into it. Thus we find the Mobilian and Choetaw word for people, okla, "ougoula," or "oucoula," in five of these. The term Tougoulas probably designates the town of the Tiou (q. v.), an adopted tribe, and one of the others is perhaps a designation for the adopted tribe of Grigrn (q. v.). Later writers usually speak of but five settlements, including that of the Grigra. One of these, the town of the "walnuts," is evidently the Ousagoucoulas of Iberville's informants, meaning, in reality, the town of the Hickories. The Great Village was probably the town called Naches or Natchez, and Poehougoula, the Flour Village, but the others mentioned, Jenzenaque or Jensenac and the White Apple or Apple Village cannot be identified. A White-earth village is mentioned by one writer, probably intended for the White Apple village. The Natchez among the Cherokee lived for a time at a town called Guhlaniyi. History.- Undoubtedly tribes of the Natchez group were encountered by De Soto and his companions in 1541-43, and it is highly probable that the chief Quigaltanqui, who figures 60 prominently in the pursuit of the Spaniards when they took to the Mississippi, was leader of the tribe in question or of one of its divisions. The name Natchez appears first, however, in the narratives of La Salle's descent of the Mississippi in 1682. Relations between the French and Natchez were at first hostile, but peace was soon made and in 1699 a missionary visited the latter with a view to permanent residence. The next year Iberville, who had stopped short of the Natchez in his earlier ascent of the Mississippi, opened negotiations with the Natchez chief. A missionary was left among them at this time and the mission was maintained until 1706. In 1713 a trading post was established. The next year four Canadians, on their way north, were killed by some Natchez Indians and this resulted in a war which Bienville promptly ended. Immediately afterward a stockaded fort was built on a lofty bluff by the Mississippi and named Fort Rosalie. Several concessions were granted in the neighborhood and settlers flowed in until this was one of the most flourishing parts of the new colony. Between 1722 and 1724 there were slight disturbances in the good relations which had prevailed between the settlers and Indians, but they were soon smoothed over and harmony prevailed until a new commandant named Chepart, who seems to have been utterly unfit for his position, was sent to take command of Fort Rosalie. In consequence of his mismanagement a conspiracy was formed against the French and on November 28, 1729, the Indians rose and destroyed both post and settlement, about 200 Whites being slain. Next year the French and their Choctaw allies attacked the forts into which the Natchez had retired and liberated most of their captives but accomplished little else, and one night their enemies escaped across the Mississippi, where they established themselves in other forts in the marshy regions of northeastern Louisiana. There they were again attacked and about 400 were induced to surrender, but the greater part escaped during a stormy night and withdrew to the Chickasaw, who had been secretly aiding them. Later they divided into two bands, one of which settled among the Upper Creeks while the other went to live with the Cherokee. Afterward each followed the fate of their hosts and moved west of the Mississippi with them. Those who had lived with the Creeks established themselves not far from Eufaula, Okla., where the last who was able to speak the old tongue died about 1890. The Cherokee Natchez preserved their language longer, and a few are able to converse in it at the present day (1925). Population.- Mooney's (1928) estimate of Natchcz population in 1650 is 4,500; my own, as of 1698, 3,500. In 1731, after the losses suffered by them during their war with the French, Perrier estimated that they had 300 warriors. In 1735, 180 warriors were reported among the Chickasaw alone. During the latter half of the eighteenth century estimates of the warriors in the Creek band of Natchez vary from 20 to 150, and in 1836 Gallatin conjectures that its numbers over all were 300, which is probably above the fact. There are no figures whatever for the Cherokee band of Natchez. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Natchez have become famous in a number of ways: (1) because they were the largest and strongest tribe on the lower Mississippi when Louisiana was settled by the French, (2) on account of their monarchical government and the peculiar institution of the Sun caste, (3) on account of the custom of destroying relatives and companions of a dead member of the Sun caste to accompany hum or her into the world of spirits, (4) for the massacre of the French post at Natchez and the bitter war which succeeded it, (5) from the name of the city of Natchez, Miss., adopted from them. The name is also borne by post villages in Monroe County, Ala.; and Natchitoches Parish, La.; and a post hamlet in Martin County, Ind. Ofo, or Ofogoula, see Mosopelea under Ohio. Okelousa. A tribe living at one time in northem Mississippi. (See Louisiana.) Pascagoula. "Bread people." Also called: Miskigula, Biloxi name. Connections.- They were probably Muskhogeans although closely associated with the Siouan Biloxi. Location.- Their earliest known location was on the river which still bears their name, about 16 French leagues from its mouth. (See also Louisiana and Texas.) Villages Unknown, but see Biloxi. History.- Iberville heard of the Pascagoula in 1699 when he made the first permanent settlement in Louisiana. That summer his brother Bienville visited them, and the following winter another brother, Sauvolle, who had been left in charge of the post, received several Pascagoula visitors. Some Frenchmen visited the Pascagoula town the next spring and Penicaut (in Margry) 1875-85, vol. 5) has left an interesting account of them. In Le Page du Pratz's time (early eighteenth century) they were on the coast, but they did not move far from this region as long as France retained possession of the country. When French rule ended the Pascagoula passed over to Louisiana and settled first on the Mississippi River and later on Red River at its junction with the Rigolet du Bon Dieu. In 1795 they moved to Bayou Boeuf and established themselves between a band of Choctaw and the Biloxi. Early in the nineteenth century all three tribes sold these lands. A part of the Pasengoula remained in Louisiana for a considerable period, Morse mentioning two distinct bands, but a third group accompanied some Biloxi to Texas and lived for a time on what came to be called Biloxi Bayou, 15 miles above its junction with the Neches. I have been able to find no Indians in Louisiana claiming Pascagoula descent, but in 1914 there were two among the Alabama who stated that their mother was of this tribe, their father having been a Biloxi. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1650 there were 1,000 all told of the Biloxi, Pascagoula, and Moctobi. My own estimate for about the year 1698 is 875 of whom I should allow 455 to the Pascagoula. In 1700 Iberville states that there were 20 families, which would mean that they occupied the same number of cabins, but Le Page du Pratz raises this to 30. In 1758 the Pascagoula, Biloxi, and Chatot are estimated to have had about 100 warriors. In 1805 Sibley (1832) gives 25 among the Pascagoula alone. Morse (1822) estimates a total Pascagoula population of 240, and Schoolcraft (1851-57) cites authority for 111 Pascagoula in 1829. This is the last statement we have bearing upon the point. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Pasengoula tribe is of some note as a constant companion of the Siouan Biloxi, and from the fact that it has bequeathed its name to Pascagoula River, Pascagoula Bay, and Pascagoula Port, Miss. Pensacola. This tribe moved inland from Pensacola Bay near the end of the seventeenth century and in 1725-26 had established themselves near the Biloxi on Pearl River. (See Florida.) Quapaw. When the French discovered this tribe in 1673 one town was on the east side of the Mississippi, but before 1700 it moved to the western bank. (See Arkansas.) Taposa. Meaning unknown. Connections.- As this tribe is said to have been allied with the Chickasaw and, unlike the Tunica and Tiou, did not have an r sound in their language, there is every reason to suppose that they belonged to the Muskhogean stock. Probably they were most closely affiliated with their neighbors, the Chakchiuma and Chickasaw. Location.- Their earliest known location was on Yazoo River a few miles above the Chakchiuma. History.- The Taposa are first mentioned by Iberville and the missionary De Montigny, in 1699. On the De Crenay map of 1733 (1910) their village is placed very close to that of the Chakchiuma, whose fortunes they probably followed. Population.- The only hint as to the size of this tribe is given by Le Page du Pratz who says that the Taposa had about 25 cabins, half the number he assigns to the Chakchiuma. Other writers usually include them with the Chakchiuma (q. v.). Tiou. Meaning unknown. The name has occasionally been misprinted "Sioux," thus causing confusion with the famous Sioux or Dakota of Minnesota and the Dakotas. Connections.- The Tiou are proved by a statement of Diron d'Artaguiette (1916) to have belonged to the Tunica linguistic group of the Tunican family. Location.- Their earliest location was near the upper course of Yazoo River; later they lived a little south of the Natchez and then among them. History.- Shortly before 1697 the Tiou appear to have been in the locality first mentioned, and a map of that date seems to give two towns of Tiou, one above the Tunica and one below them. By 1699 part had settled among the Natchez, having been driven from their former homes, according to Le Page du Pratz (1758), by the Chickasaw. Before establishing themselves finally with the Natchez, they seem to have lived for a time a short distance below them on the Mississippi River, where La Salle and his companions speak of them as Koroa. Part of the tribe appears to have remained on the Yazoo for some years after the rest had left. At a later period the Bayogoula called in Tiou and Acolapissa to take the places of the Mugulasha with whom they had formerly lived and whom they had destroyed. Soon after Fort Rosalie had been built, the Tiou sold the lands upon which they had settled to the Sieur Roussin and moved elsewhere. After the Natchez massacre the hostile Indians sent them to the Tunica in a vain endeavor to induce thc latter to declare against the French. In 1731, if we may trust a statement by Charlevoix, they were utterly cut off by the Quapaw, and while the completeness of this destruction may well be doubted, we hear nothing of them afterward. Population.- No estimate of Tiou population separate from that of the Natchez is known. Tunica. Meaning "the people," or "those who are the people." Also called: Yoron, their own name. Connections.- They were the leading tribe of the Tunica group of the Tunican stock, the latter including also the Chitimacha and Atakapa. Location.- On the lower course of Yazoo River, on the south side about 4 French leagues from its mouth. (See also Arkansas.) History.- There is evidence that tribes belonging to the Tunica group were encountered by De Soto west of the Mississippi and very probably the name of the tribe is preserved in that of the town of Tanico mentioned by Elvas (in Robertson, 1933), where people made salt, for in later years we find the Tunica engaged in the making and selling of this commodity. An early location for them on the eastern side of the Mississippi is indicated by the "Tunica Oldfields" near Friar Point, not many miles below Helena, Ark. Thc name appears on Marquette's map (1673) but there they are wrongly placed. In 1682 La Salle and his companions learned of this tribe, than located as given above, but neither he nor his lieutenant Tonti visited them on this or any subsequent expedition, though they learned of Tunica villages in the salt-making region of northeastern Louisiana. The Yazoo town of the tribe was first seen, apparently, by three missionary priests from Canada, one of whom, Father Davion, established himself among them in 1699. In 1702 he fled from his charges, but two or three years later was induced by them to return, and he remained among them for about 15 years more. In 1706 this tribe left the Yazoo and were received into the Houma town nearly opposite the mouth of Red River, but later, according to La Harpe (1831), they rose upon their hosts and killed more than half of them, and for a long period they continued to live in the region they had thus appropriated. They were firm friends of the French and rendered them invaluable service in all difficulties with thc tribes higher up, and particularly against the Natchez, but in 1719 or 1720 Davion was so much discouraged at the meager results of his efforts that he left them. The anger excited against them by their support of the French resulted in an attack by a largo party of Natchez and their allies in 1731 in which both sides suffered severely and the head chief of the Tunica was killed. The Tunica remained in the same region until some time between 1784 and 1803, when they moved up Red River and settled close to the present Marksville, La., on the land of the Avoyel Indian village which they claimed to have bought from the Avoyel tribe. Before this event took place, in company with the Ofo, Avoyel, and some Choctaw, they attacked the pirogues of a British expedition ascending the Mississippi, killed six men, wounded seven, and compelled the rest to turn back. A few families descended from the Tunica are still settled on the site just mentioned, which forms a small reservation. Sibley (1832) says that in his time Tunica had settled among the Atakapa, and it was perhaps some of their descendants of whom Dr. Gatsehet heard as living near Beaumont, Tex., about 1886. Mooney (1928) learned of some Tunica families in the southern part of the Choctaw Nation, Okla., but they had lost their old language. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1650 the total population of the Tunica, Yazoo, Koroa, and Ofo was 2,000, and this very figure, except that it does not include the Koroa, is given by the missionary De Montigny in 1699. My own figure for the same date is somewhat higher, 2,450, out of which I estimate about 1,575 were Tunica. In 1719 the number of Tunica was conjectured to be 460 and in 1803, 50 to 60, though a second statement of about the same period gives 25 warriors. Morse (1822) reports 30 Tunica in Louisiana. The census of 1910 gives 43 Tunica in all, but among these are included some Indians of other tribes and there were many mixed-bloods. The census of 1930 gives only 1, he being the only one who could speak the old language. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Tunica were prominent in history (1) from the fact that their language was the principal dialect of a stock on the lower Mississippi which received its name from them, (2) for their sedentary character, (3) for their devotion to the French interest and their part in the Natchez wars, (4) from the perpetuation of their name in Tunica County, and Tunica Oldfields, Miss., and & post village of the name in West Feliciana Parish, La. Yazoo. Meaning unknown. Connections.- The associations of this tribe with the Koroa and the fact that their language contained an r sound make it reasonably certain that they belonged to the Tunican group and stock. Location.- On the south side of Yazoo River about 4 French leagues above its mouth. (See also Arkansas.) History.- The Yazoo appear to have been the first of the tribes living on the lower part of the Yazoo River to have established themselves there, and hence it was from them that the stream received its name. They are mentioned by La Salle and his companions in connection with their voyage to the mouth of the Mississippi in 1682. A French post was established near them in 1718, and in 1727 a Jesuit missionary, Father Seuel, settled nearby. In 1729, however, the Yazoo joined the Natchez in their uprising, murdered the missionary, and massacred the French garrison. Their subsequent fortunes were identical with those of the Koroa, and they were probably absorbed into the Chickasaw or Choctaw. It is not improbable that there is some connection between the name of this tribe and that of two of the Yazoo towns among the Choctaw, but if so it goes back beyond recorded history. Population.- I have estimated that in 1698 there were somewhat more than 600 Yazoo and Koroa together. In 1700 Gravier reported 30 Yazoo cabins, but a quarter of a century later Le Page du Pratz (1758) estimated 100. In 1722 the Yazoo, Koroa, and Ofo together are said to have numbered 260. In 1730, however, the number of Yazoo and Koroa warriors is placed at 40. Connection in which they have become noted.- The Yazoo are noted principally from the fact that they have transmitted their name to Yazoo River, Miss., and secondarily to Yazoo County and its capital city, in the same State.
The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton Arapaho. The Arapaho proper occupied, or camped in, parts of southeastern Montana at various periods of their history. (See Wyoming.) Arikara. Some Arikara hunted in eastern Montana. In 1869 and 1880, together with the Hidatsa and Mandan, they relinquished rights to land in the southeastern part of the State. (See North Dakota.) Assiniboin. From a Chippewa term signifying "one who cooks by the use of stones." E-tans-ke-pa-se-qua, Hidatsa name, from a word signifying "long arrows" (Long, 1823). Guerriers de pierre, French nnme. Hohe, Dakota name, signifying "rebels." Sioux of the Rocks, English name. Stonies, or Stone Indians, English name translated from the Indian. Tlu'tlama'eka, Kutenai name, signifying "cutthroats," the usual term for Dakota derived from the sign language. Weepers, given by Henry (1809). Connections - The Assiniboin belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, and were a branch of the Dakota (see South Dakota), having sprung traditionally from the Yanktonai whose dialect they spoke. Location - The Assiniboin were most prominently associated historically with the valleys of the Saskatchewan and Assiniboin Rivers, Canada. In the United States they occupied the territory north of the Milk and Missouri Rivers as far east as the White Earth. (See also North Dakota.) Subdivisions The latest list is that given by Professor Lowie (1939). He states that, anciently, there were three principal tribal divisions, viz: Ho'ke (Like-Big-Fish),Tu-wan'hudan (Looking-like-Ghosts), and Sitcon'-ski (Trieksters, lit. " Wrinkled-Ankles"). Lowie obtained the names of the following smaller bands: Tcanxta'dan, Unska'ha (Roamers), Wazl'a wintca'cta, (Northern People), Wato'paxna-on wan or Wato'paxnatun, Tcan'xe wintca'cta (People of the Woods), Tanin'ta bin (Buffalo-Hip), Hu'deca'bine (Red-Butt), Waci'azi hyabin (Fat-Smokers), Witci'-abin, In'yanton'wanbin (Rock People), Wato'pabin (Paddlers), Cuntce'bi (Canum Mentulae), Cahi'a iye'skabin (Speakers of Cree (Half-Crees)), Xe'natonwan (Mountain People), Xe'bina (Mountain People), Icna'umbisa, (Those-who-stay-alone), and Ini'na u'mbi. Hayden (1862) mentions a band called Min'-i-shi-nak'-a-to, or Lake People, which does not seem to be identifiable with any of the above. This last may be the band called by Henry (1809) Those-who-have-water-for- themselves-only. The following bands cited by Henry are wholly unidentifiable: Red River, Rabbit, Eagle Hills, Saskatchewan, Foot, and Swampy Ground Assiniboin. History - According to tradition, this tribe separated from the Wazikute band of Yanktonai. The separation evidently took place before contact with the Whites, but there is evidence that when Europeans first heard of the tribe they were south of their later habitat, probably in the vicinity of the Lake of the Woods and Lake Nipigon. Thence they moved northwest toward Lake Winnipeg and later to the banks of the Assiniboin and Saskatchewan Rivers. In the mean time they had allied themselves with the Cree and had become enemies of their own southern relatives with whom they were afterward almost constantly at war. This northward movement and alliance with the Cree was due in large measure to the establishment of British posts on Hudson Bay and the desire of the Assiniboin Indians to have access to them and thus supply themselves with firearms and other European articles. The Assiniboin in the United States were gathered under the Fort Belknap and Fort Peck agencies; those in Canada under the Battleford, Edmonton, and Assiniboin agencies, at Moose Mountain, and on Stoney Reservation. Population - Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 10,000 Assiniboin in 1780. In 1829 Porter gave 8,000, and Drake (in Church, 1826) thought that there were 10,000 before the smallpox epidemic of 1836, when 4,000 died. The United States Indian Office Report of 1843 gave 7,000; in 1890 they numbered 3,008; and in 1904, 1,234 in the United States, and 1,371 in Canada, a total of 2,605. The census of 1910 gave 1,235 in the United States, and the United States Indian Office Report for 1923 gave 1,400, while there was an approximately equal number in Canada. The United States Census of 1930 gave 1,581. In 1937, 2,232 were returned in the United States. Connections in which they have become noted - The Assiniboin attained prominence during the dealings of explorers and traders with the Indians along the upper Missouri. The Assiniboin or Assiniboine, the name has been adopted for an important affluent of the Red River of the North in Manitoba and Saskatchewan Provinces. Mount Assiniboin is in the Rocky Mountains near the boundary between British Columbia and Alberta, about 20 miles south of Banff. Atsina. Probably from Blackfoot at-se'-na, supposed to mean "gut people." Also called: Acapatos, by Duflot de Mofras (1844). A-re-tear-o-pan-ga, Hidatsa name. Bahwetego-weninnewug, Chippewa name, signifying "fall people." Bot-k'in'ago, signifying "belly men." Fall Indians, common early name. Gros Ventres des Plaines, derived from an incorrect interpretation of the tribal sign and the qualifying phrase "des Plaines" to distinguish them from the Hidatsa, the Gros Ventres de la Riviere. Haaninin or Aa'ninena, own name, said to signify "white-clay people," "lime-men," or "chalk-men." His-tu-i'-ta-ni-o, Chevenne name. Hitunena, Arapaho name, signifying "beggars" or "spongers." Minnetarees of the Plains, Minnetarees of the Prairies, so called to avoid confusion with the Hidatsa (q. v. under North Dakota). Rapid Indians, from Harmon (1820). Sa'paui, Shoshoni name, signifying "bellies." Sku'tani, Dakota name. Connections - The Atsina were a part of the Arapaho, of which tribe they are sometimes reckoned a division, and both belong to the Algonquian linguistic family. Location - On Milk River and adjacent parts of the Missouri, in what is now Montana, ranging northward to the Saskatchewan. (See also Canada.) Subdivisions Kroeber (1908 b) has recorded the following names of bands or clans, some of which may, however, be duplications: Names of clans whose position in the camp circle is known, beginning at the south side of the opening at the east: Frozen or Plumes, "Those-who-water-their-horses-once-a-day"; Tendons, "Those-who-do-not-give-away," or "Buffalo-humps"; Opposite (or Middle) Assiniboin, "Ugly-ones or Tent-poles worn smooth [from travel]"; Bloods, "Fighting-alone." Other clan names: Berry-eaters, Breech-cloths, Coffee, Dusty-ones, Gray-ones or Ash-colored, Kanhutyi (the name of a chief), Night-hawks, Poor-ones, Torn-trousers, Weasel-skin headdress. History - If the Arapaho once lived in the Red River country, the Atsina were probably with them. At least, the languages of both point to the region of the Algonquian tribes northeast of the Plains for their origin. At the same time Kroeber (1900 b) thinks that they must have been separated for at least 200 years. According to Hayden (1860), they were south of the Saskatchewan about 1800. In 1818 they joined the Arapaho and remained with them until 1823 when they returned to the location given above in the neighborhood of Milk River. For a long time they maintained an alliance with the Blackfeet but later joined the Crow against them and in the course of the ensuing war, in 1867, suffered a severe defeat. Later they were placed on Fort Belknap Reservation, Mont., with the Assiniboin. Population - Mooney (1928) estimates that the Atsina numbered 3,000 in 1780. In 1904 there were 535. The census of 1910 reported 510, and the United States Office of Indian Affairs in 1923 reported 586; 631 were reported by the census of 1930, and 809 in 1937. Bannock. The Bannock ranged into the western part of the State. (See Idaho.) Cheyenne. The Cheyenne frequently entered the eastern part of Montana and the Northern Cheyenne were ultimately assigned a reservation within the State. (See South Dakota.) Chippewa. The Chippewa had little contact with the region now included in Montana until very recent times when a considerable number came to live there, 486 according to the census of 1910. (See Minnesota.) Cree. The original homes of the Cree were north of the present United States, though their war parties frequently came into the territory now occupied by this country to fight the Dakota, Blackfoot, and other tribes. In comparatively late times a number, given by the census of 1910 as 309, settled in Montana, and others were reported from Washington (91), Michigan, Oregon, North Dakota, Idaho, Kansas, and Minnesota. (See also Canada.) Crow. A translation, through the French gens des corbeaux, of their own name Absaroke, "crow-, sparrowhawk-, or bird-people." Also called: Hahderuka, Mandan name. Haideroka, Hidatsa name. Hounena, Arapaho name, signifying "crow men." Issappo', Siksika name. Kangitoka, Yankton Dakota name. Ka'-xi, Winnebago name. Kihnatsa, Eidatsa name, signifying "they who refused the paunch," and referring to the tradition regarding the separation of these two tribes. Kokokiwak, Fox name. Long-haired Indianis, by Sanford (1819). O-e'-tun'-i-o, Cheyenne name, signifying "crow people." Par-is-ca-oh-pan-ga, Hidntsa name, signifying "crow people" (Long, 1823). Stemchi, Kalispel name. Stemtchi, Salish name. Stimk, Okinagan name. Yaxka'-a, Wyandot name, signifying "crow." Connections.- The Crow belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock and were most closely related to the Hidatsa, from whom they claim to have separated. Location.- On the Yellowstone River and its branches, extending as far north as the Musselshell and as far south as Laramie Fork on the Platte, but centering particularly on three southern tributaries of Yellowstone River, the Powder, Wind, and Big Horn Rivers. (See also Wyoming and Canada.) Subdivisions There were formerly three local divisions, known to the people themselves as Mine'sepere, Dung-on-the-river-banks?, or Black Lodges; the A'-c'araho', Many-Lodges; and the Erarapi'o, Kicked-in-their-bellies. The first of there is called River Crow by some writers and the last two collectively Mountain Crow. They were also divided into 12 clans arranged in pairs. History.- As stated above, the Crow tribe claims to have separated from the Hidatsa, a tradition shared by the Hidatsa. It is at least certain that the two are more closely related linguistically than is either to any other Siouan group. Their separation into bands must have occurred in the first quarter of the nineteenth century at latest. In 1804 they were found in their historic seats and have been in approximately the same region ever since, the reservation to which they were finally assigned being on the Big Horn River. Population.- Mooney's (1928) estimate for the year 1780 is 4,000 Crow. In 1804 Lewis and Clark estimated 350 lodges and 3,500 souls. In 1833 there were said to be 1,200 warriors and a population of from 3,250 to 3,560. In 1890 a total population of 2,287 was reported, and in 1904, 1,826. The census of 1910 gave 1,799, and the United States Indian Office Report for 1923, 1,777. The census of 1930, reported 1,674, and the Indian Office Report for 1937, 2,173. Connections in which they have become noted.- The Crow tribe was prominent in the early history of the Northwest, though not to the extent of the Dakota and Blackfeet. The Indian form of the name, Absarokee, is borne by a post village of Stillwater County, Mont.; in the form Absaraka it appears as the name of a place in Cass County, N. Dak.; and as Absaroka, more prominently, as the name of a range of mountains and a National Forest in the Yellowstone National Park. Dakota. The Dakota entered Montana at times to hunt and fight the Crow but were not permanent residents of the State. (See South Dakota.) Hidatsa. Together with the Arikara and Mandan, in 1869 and 1830 the Hidatsa took part in treaties ceding territory in southeastern Montana to the United States Government. (See North Dakota.) Kalispel. This tribe probably visited the westernmost parts of Montana at times and most of them finally settled upon the Flathead Reservation in that State. Some of them, together with the Salish and Kutenai, ceded Montana lands in 1855. (See Idaho.) Kiowa. According to tradition, the Kiowa at one time lived in the southeastern part of this State. (See Oklahoma.) Kutensi. Said to be from a term applied to this tribe by the Blackfoot Indians and believed by Turney-High (1937) to have come originally from the name of a Kutenai tribe or division called Tunaha. Also called: Flatbows, the name given often lo the Lower Kutenai, the origin of which is unknown. Kuspelu, their Nez Perce name, signifying "water people.' San'ka or asan'ka, own name, significance unknown. Shalsa'ulko, by the Sinkiuse and said to be from a place name, but see below. Skelsa-ulk, Salish name, signifying "Water People." Slender Bows, name sometimes given as an interpretation of their own name, but erroneously. Connections.- The Kutenai were placed by Powell in a distinct stock called Kitunahan, but some linguists regard them as remote relatives of the Algonquians and Salishans. Location.- On Kootenay River, Kootenay Lake, Arrow Lake, and the upper course of the Columbia River, except for the bend between Donald and Revelstoke; in southeastern British Columbia; northwestern Montana; northeastern Washington; and the northern tip of Idaho. In modern times they have settled as far southeast as Flathead Lake. (See also Canada.) Subdivisions The Kutenai were separated into two general divisions, the line between extending roughly from north to south through Libby, Mont. The Upper Kutenai lay to the east on upper Kootenay River and depended more upon hunting, especially of the bison, while the Lower Kutenai were largely fishermen. Turney-High (1937) gives the following bands: (1) Tunaxa, whose original home was on the Plains and who have now been destroyed and their descendants incorporated with the other bands; (2) Tobacco Plains or People- of-the-Place-of-the-Flying-Head, esteemed to be the mother band of the tribe (on Kootenay River at the International Boundary Line- the Fernie Band was a subdivision); (3) Jennings Band (about Jennings, Mont.); (4) Libby Band (at Libby, Mont.); (5) Bonner's Ferry Band (at Bonner's Ferry, Idaho); (6) Fort Steele Band (at Steele, B. C.); (7) Creston Band (at Creston, B. C.); (8) Windermere Band (a very modern band at Windermere, B. C.). To these may be added the very modern Dayton-Elmo Band on Flathead Lake drawn from the Jennings and Libby bands. History.- From information collected by Turney-High (1937). it would seem that the Kutenai formerly lived east of the Rocky Mountains, extending at least as far as MacLeod, Alberta. Their oldest settlement in their present territories would seem to have been at Tobacco Plains whence they gradually spread to the north, west and south, and in recent times to the southeast. Their country was traversed early in the nineteenth century by David Thompson (1916) in the interest of the Northwest Company, and Kootenai House was established in 1807. With the running of the International Boundary, their country was divided between the Dominion of Canada and the United States to the considerable inconvenience of the tribe. Missionary work among them, particularly work among the Upper Kutenai, has been very successful. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated the Kutenai population to be 1,200 in 1780. In 1780 those in the United States were estimated at 400 to 500. In 1890 they numbered 554, and those in British territory the year preceding were enumerated at 553. The census of 1910 gave 538 in the United States. The Report of the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs for 1924 returned about 450, and that of the United States Indian Office only 129 under that name. The latter figure is evidently defective, as the Census of 1930 returned 287 of whom 185 were in Montana and 101 in Idaho. In 1937 there were 118 in Idaho. Connections in which they have become noted.- The Eutenai are noted for their peculiar language, which differs from the speech of all their neighbors and has been given an independent position as the Kitunahan stock. They have given their name to Kootenay or Kootenai River, also called the Flat Bow or MacGillivray, which flows through British Columbia, Montana, and Idaho; to Kootenay Lake in British Columbia; to Kootenai Mountains, and Kootenai Falls, Mont.; Kootenai County, Idaho; and to a post village, Kootenai, in Bonner County, Idaho. Mandan. The Mandan were parties to treaties made in 1869 and 1880 ceding their claims to land in southeastern Montana. (See North Dakota.) Nez Perce. Individuals belonging to this tribe sometimes entered the southwestern part of Montana. (See Idaho.) Piegan. The Piegan were the southernmost subtribe of the Siksika (q. v.). Salish, Probably a place name, the last syllable, -ish, "people." Also called: A-shu'-e-ka-pe, Grow name, signifying, "flatheads." A-too-ha-pe, Hidatsa name. Flatheads, widely so called because, in contradistinction to the tribes west of them, they left their heads in the natural condition, flat on top, instead of sloping backward to the crown. Ka-ka-i-thi, Arapaho name, signifying, "flathead people." Ka-ko'-is-tsi'-a-ta'-ni-o, Cheyenne name, signifying, "people who flatten their heads." Ko-toh'-spi-tup'-i-o, Siksika name. Nebagindibe, Chippewa name, signifying, "flat head." Pa O-bde'-ca, Yankton Dakota name, signifying, "heads cornered or edged." Tetes-Plates, common French term. Connections.- The Salish belonged to the interior division of the Salishan linguistic family, to which they have given their name. Location.- In western Montana originally, extending from the Rocky Mountains on the west; south to the Gallatin; east to Crazy Mountain and Little Belt Ranges, north to some hilly country north of Helena. Later they were centered farther west around Flathead Lake. (See also Idaho.) Subdivisions It is said that there was a distinct band of Salish Indians on a river near Helena, another band near Butte, another somewhere east of Butte, and another somewhere in the Big Hole Valley; and there are traditions of still others. History.- According to Teit (1930) the Salish once extended farther to the east, and there were related tribes in that region which he calls Sematuse and Tunahe. As Turney-High (1937) has pointed out, however, the Tunahe were evidently a Eutenai division; and the Sematuse, if not mythical, seem to have been an alien people in possession of this country before the Salish entered it. Teit states that these Salish were driven westward out of the Plains by the Blackfoot, particularly after that tribe obtained guns. Turney-High, on the other hand, regards the Salish as rather late intruders into the Plains from the west. However, the pressure of tribes westward by their neighbors to the east as soon as the latter obtained guns is such a common story that it hardly seems probable that the Salish could have escaped its effects. Just how far the Salish retired westward may be a matter of argument, nor does it affect the theory of an earlier eastward migration if such a movement can be substantiated on other grounds. Salish relations with the Whites were always friendly and they were successfully missionized by Roman Catholics under the lead of the famous Father De Smet. By the treaty of July 16, 1855, they ceded all of their lands in Montana and Idaho except a reserve south of Flathead Lake and a second tract in Bitter Root Valley which was to be made into a reserve for them if it were considered advisable. It was, however, not 80 considered, and acting upon an Act of Congress of June 5, 1872, the Salish were removed to the former reservation, where they still live. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that there were 600 Salish in 1780, evidently accepting the figure given by Lewis and Clark for 1806. Teit (1930) considers this much too low, the data collected by him indicating a Salish population of perhaps 3,000, but this would seem to err in the opposite direction. The Indian Office figure for 1905 is 557 and that for 1909, 598. The census of 1910 reported 486, of whom 400 were in Montana, 46 in Washington, 27 in Oregon, 6 in Idaho, 6 in Nebraska, and 1 in Kansas. The census of 1830 reported 2,036 Interior Salish from Montana, but did not give separate figures for the tribe under discussion. The United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 3,085 in 1937. Connections in which they have become noted.- It was among the Salish Indians that the noted Father De Smet worked as a missionary. The large group of languages to which this tribe belongs is known to ethnologists as the Salishan linguistic family. Flathead or Selish Lake, Flathend Pass, and Flathead County, all in Montana, also derive their names from the Salish or "Flathead" Indians. Sematuse (phonetically Semte'use). Signifying "foolish" according to some, derived from an old place name according to others. Teit (1930) identified the Semntuse as a former tribe of the Salishan stock, closely related to the Salish tribe. According to his informants, one band of these people was on Big Blackfoot River, another at a place later known as "Big Camas," or "Camas Prairie," and some thought that a smaller band had headquarters near Deer Lodge, and there may have been one at Phillipsburg. Others were said to have been on the Little Blackfoot and Salmon- Trout Rivers but may not have constituted a band. Tumey-High (1937), however, thinks that this tribe was mythical or else that it was the name of a non-Salishan people who preceded the Salish in western Montana. Shoshoni. Before European weapons reached the eastem tribes, bands of Shoshoni ranged over a considerable part of eastern Montana as far north as Milk River. (See Idaho.) Siksika. A native word signifying "black feet," by which term the tribe is best known. By some they are said to be called Blackfeet from the discoloration of their moccasins by the ashes of prairie fires, but more probably their moccasins were dyed black. Also called: Ah-hi'-tn-pe, former name for themselves, signifying "blood people." Ayatchinini, Chippewa name. Ayatchiyiniw, Cree name, signifying "stranger," or "enemy." Beaux Hommes, so given by Dobbs (1744). Carmeneh, Crow name. Choch-Katit, Arikara name. Ish-te-pit'-e, Crow name. I-tsi-si-pi-sa, Hidatsa name, signifying "black feet." Katce, Sarsi name. Ka-wi-'na-han, Arapaho name, signifying "black people." Makadewana-ssidok, Chippewa name. Mamakata'wana-si'ta'-ak, Fox name. Mkatewetiteta, Shawnee name. Mukkudda Ozitunnug, Ottawa name (Tanner, 1830). Netsepoye, sometimes used by the Confederacy and signifying "people who speak our language." Pah-kee, Shoshoni name. Po'-o-mas, Cheyenne name, signifying "blankets whitened with earth." Saha'ntla, Kutenai name, signifying "bad people." Sawketakix, name sometimes used by themselves, signifying "men of the plains." S'chkoe, or S'chkoeishin, Kalispel name, from koai, "black." Siea'be, Kansa name. Si-ha'-sa-pa, Yankton Dakota name, signifying "black feet." Skuaisheni, Salish name, signifying "black feet." Stxuaixn, Okinagan name, signifying "black." Tonkonko, Kiowa name, signifying "black legs." Tuhu'vti-omokat, Comanche name. Wateni'hte, Arapaho name. Connections.- The Siksika belong to the Algonquian linguistic stock, forming the most aberrant of all the well-recognized tongues of that family except Arapaho and Atsina. Location.- In the territory stretching from North Saskatchewan River, Canada, to the southern headstreams of the Missouri in Montana, and from about longitude 105 W. to the base of the Rocky Mountains. Subdivisions The Siksika are divided into the following subtribes: The Siksika or Blackfeet proper, occupying the northern part of the above territory; the Kainah or Bloods south of the preceding, and the Piegan, south of the Kainah, the one best represented in the United States. Each of the above divisions was subdivided into bands as follows: Siksika bands: Istsikainah. Aisikstukiks. Mameoya. Apikaiyiks. Nitikskiks. Emitahpahksaiyiks. Saksinahmahyiks. Motahtosiks. Siksshpuniks. Puhksinahmahyiks. Siksinokaks. Saiyiks. Piegan bands: Siksinokaks. Ahahpitape. Tsiniktsistsoyiks. Ahkaiyikokakiniks. Kainah or Blood bands: Apikaiyiks. Ahkaiksumiks. Esksinaitupiks. Ahkaipokaks. Inuksikahkopwaiks. Ahkotashiks. Inuksiks. Ahkwonistsists. Ipoksimaiks. Anepo. Kahmitniks. Apikaiyiks. Kiyis. Aputosikainah. Kutaiimiks. Inuhksoyistamiks. Kutaisotsiman. Isisokasimiks. Miahwahpitsiks. Miawkinaiyiks. Nitotsiksisstanis. Mokumiks. Sikokitsimiks. Motahtosiks. Sikopoksimaiks. Motwainaiks. Sikutsipumaiks. Nitakoskitsipupiks. Susksoyiks (Hayden, 1862). Nitawyiks. Tsiniksistsoyiks. Nitikskiks. History.- According to certain traditions, the Siksika moved into their present territory from the northeast, and it is at least evident that they had gravitated westward, their movement probably accelerated by the acquisition of horses. They were at war with nearly all of their neighbors except the Athapascan Sarsi and the Atsina; both of these tribes usually acted with them. They were on relatively friendly terms with the English of the Hudson's Bay posts in Canada, upon whom they depended for guns and ammunition, but were hostile to the Whites on the American side, in large measure because through them their enemies received the same kind of supplies. They were several times decimated by smallpox but suffered less than many tribes not so far removed from White influences, and have never been forced to undergo removal from their home country. They are now gathered under agencies on both sides of the International Boundary and are slowly adapting themselves to White modes of life. Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1780 there were 15,000 Blackfeet. Mackenzie (1801) gave 2,250 to 2,500 warriors for 1790, which would reduce Mooney's (1928) figures by about one-half, but in the meantime the smallpox epidemic of 1780-81 had occurred. The official Indian Report for 1858 gave 7,300 and another estimate of about the same period, said by Hayden (1862) to have been made "under the most favorable circumstances," reported 6,720. In 1909 the official enumeration of those in the United States was 2,195, and of those in Canada 2,440, a total of 4,630. The census of 1910 gave 2,367 in the United States, all but 99 of whom were Piegan. The United States Indian Office Report for 1923 gives 3,124 Blackfeet and the Report of the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs for 1924, 2,236; total, 5,360. The United States census of 1930 reported 3,145. In 1937 the Office of Indian Affairs reported 4,242. Connections in which they have become noted.- The Siksika were peculiar (1) as one of the largest and most warlike tribes of the northern Plains, next to the Dakota alone in prominence; (2) as speaking one of three highly specialized languages of the Algonquian stock; (3) as among the bitterest opponents of explorers and traders on the American side of the International Boundary; and (4) as having given the name Blackfoot to a considerable town in Idaho, capital of Bingham County, to a creek in the same county, to mountains in Idaho and Alberta, to a river in Montana, and to a village in Glacier County, in the same State. Spokan. Some Spokan probably entered western Montana at times and, in 1910, 134 were reported as residents of the State. (See Washington.) Tunahe (Tuna'se). Given by Teit (1930) as the name of an extinct Salishan tribe living in west central Montana, but identified by Turney-High (1937) as a former eastern or plains band of the Eutenai Indians, that band, in fact, from which the name Kutenai is derived.