Kansas

 

        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Apache, see Jicarilla.

        Arapaho. The Arapaho ranged at one time over much of the western
        part of this State. (See Wyoming.)

        Cherokee. By the terms of the Treaty of New Echota, the Cherokee
        obtained title to lands in southeastern Eansas, part in one block
        known as the "Neutral land," and the rest in a strip along the
        southern boundary of the State. These were re-ceded to the United
        States Government in 1866. (See Tennessee.)

        Cheyenne. Like the Arapaho they at one time ranged over the
        western part of the State. (See South Dakota.)

        Chippewa. In 1836 two bands of Chippewa living in Michigan and
        known as the Swan Creek and Black River bands were given a tract
        of territory on Osage River, Kans. They arrived in 1839. In
        1866 they agreed to remove to the Cherokee country in what is now
        Oklahoma and to unite with that tribe. A small number of families
        of Chippewa living west of Lake Michigan accompanied the Prairie
        Potawatomi to southwestern Iowa, but they were either absorbed
        by the Potawatomi or subsequently separated from them. (See
        Minnesota.)

        Comanche. They ranged over the western part of the State. (See
        Texas.)

        Delaware. A strip of land in northeastern Kansas was granted to
        the Delaware in 1829 and was again surrendered by treaties made
        in 1854, 1860, and 1886. In 1867 they agreed to take up their
        residence with the Cherokee in Oklahoma. Four sections of land
        were, however, confirmed to a body of Munsee ("Christian
        Indians"), who in turn sold it in 1857. This sale was confirmed
        by the United States Government in 1858, and a new home was found
        for these Indians among the Swan Creek and Black River Chippewa
        whom they accompanied to the Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma in 1866.
        Nevertheless, a few Munsee have remained in the State. (See
        New Jersey.)

        Foxes. The Foxes lived for a time on a reservation in eastern
        Kansas but about 1859 returned to Iowa. (See Wisconsin.)

        Illinois. The remnants of these people were assigned a
        reservation about the present Paola in 1832. In 1867 they removed
        to the northeastern corner of the present Oklahoma, where they
        received lands which had formerly belonged to the Quapaw. (See
        Illinois.)

        Iowa. This tribe was placed on a reservation in northeastern
        Kansas in 1836, and part of them continued in this State and were
        allotted land here in severalty, while the rest went to Oklahoma.
        (See Iowa.)

        Iroquois. Lands were set aside in Kansas in 1838 for some
        Iroquois, part of the Munsee, and remnants of Mahican and
        southern New England Indians but only a few of the Indians
        involved moved to them. They were later declared forfeited, and
        the rights of 32 bona fide Indian settlers were purchased in
        1873. (See Seneca and also New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island,
        and Connecticut.)

        Jicarilla. This was one of the so-called Apache tribes. They
        lived in Colorado and New Mexico and ranged over parts of Texas,
        Oklahoma, and Kansas. (See Colorado.)

        Kansa. Name derived from that of one of the major subdivisions; a
        shortened form Kaw is about equally current. Also called:

             Alaho, Kiowa name.
             Guaes, in Coronado narratives, thought to be this tribe.
             Hutanga, own name
             Mohtawas, Comanche name, meaning "without a lock of hair on
        the forehead."
             Ukase, Fox name.

        Connections - The Kansa belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock
        and constituted, with the Osage, Quapaw, Omaha, and Ponca a
        distinct subgroup called by Dr. J. O. Dorsey (1897) Dhegiha.

        Location - They were usually on some part of the Kansas River,
        which derives its name from them. (See also Nebraska and
        Oklahoma.)

                                 Villages

        Bahekhube, near a mountain south of Kansas River, Kans.

        Cheghulin, 2 villages; (1) on the south side of Kansas River, and
        (2) on a tributary of Kansas River, on the north side east of
        Blue River.

        Djestyedje, on Kansas River near Lawrence.

        Gakhulin, location uncertain.

        Gakhulinulinbe, near the head of a southern tributary of Kansas
        River.

        Igamansabe, on Big Blue River.

        Inchi, on Kansas River.

        Ishtakhechiduba, on Kansas River.

        Manhazitanman, on Kansas River near Lawrence.

        Manhazulin, on Kansas River.

        Manhazulintanman, on Kansas River.

        Manyinkatuhuudje, at the mouth of Big Blue River.

        Neblazhetama, on the west bank of the Mississippi River a few
        miles above the mouth of Missouri River, a few miles above mouth
        of Missouri River, in the present Missouri.

        Niudje, on Kansas River, about 4 miles above the site of Kansas
        City, Mo.

        Padjegndjin, on Kansas River.

        Pasulin, on Kansas River.

        Tanmangile, on Big Blue River.

        Waheheyingetseyabe, location uncertain.

        Wszhazhepa, location uncertain.

        Yuzhemakancheubukhpaye, location uncertain.

        Zandjezhinga, location uncertain.

        Zandzhulin, at Kaw Agency, Indian Territory, in 1882.

        Zhanichi, on Kansas River.

        History - According to tradition, the Kansa and the others of the
        same group originated on Ohio River, the Kansa separating from
        the main body at the mouth of Kansas River. If the Guaes of
        Coronado were the Kansa, the tribe was first heard of by white
        men in 1541. During at least a part of the eighteenth century,
        they were on Missouri River above the mouth of the Kansas, but
        Lewis and Clark met them on the latter stream They occupied
        several villages in succession along Kansas River until they
        settled at Council Grove, on Neosho River, in the present Morris
        County, where a reservation was set aside for them by the United
        States Government in 1846, when they ceded the rest of their
        lands. They remained on this reservation until 1873 when it was
        sold and another reserve purchased for them in Oklahoma next to
        the Osages. Their lands have now been allotted to them in
        severalty.

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimates a Kansa population of 3,000
        in 1780. In 1702 Iberville estimated 1,500 families. Lewis and
        Clark (1804) give 300 men. In 1815 there were supposed to be
        about 1,500 in all, and in 1822, 1,850. In 1829 Porter estimated
        1,200, but the population as given by the United States Indian
        Office for 1843 was 1,588. After this time, however, the tribe
        lost heavily through epidemics and in 1905 was returned at only
        209. The census of 1910 gave 238, but the United States Indian
        Office Report of 1923 gave 420. The census of 1930 returned 318.
        In 1937 the number was given as 515.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The Kansa will be
        remembered particularly from the fact that they have given their
        name to Kansas River and the State of Kansas, and secondarily to
        Kansas City, Mo., and Kansas City, Kans. It is also applied to
        places in Walker County, Ala.; Edgar County, Ill.; Seneca County
        Ohio; Seneca and Delaware Counties, Okla.; and in the form Kaw,
        to a village in Kay County, Okla., and a station out of the
        Kansas City, Mo., P.O. Kansasville is in Racine County, Wis.

        Kickapoo. A reservation was granted this tribe in southeastern
        Kansas in 1832, and though it was progressively reduced in area,
        part of them have continued to live there down to the present
        time. (See Wisconsin.)

        Kiowa. Signifying (in their own language) "principal people."
        Also called:

             Be'shiltcha, Kiowa Apache name.
             Datupa'ta, Hidatsa name, perhaps a form of Wi'tapaha'tu
        below.
             Gahe'wa, Wichita and Kichai name.
             Ko'mpabi'anta, Kiowa name, meaning "large tipi flaps."
             Kwu'da, old name for themselves, meaning "going out."
             Manrhoat, mentioned by La Salle, perhaps this tribe.
             Na'la'ni, Navaho name. including southern plains tribes
        generally, but particularly the Comanche and Kiowa.
             Ni'chihine'na, Arapaho name, meaning "river man."
             Quichuan, given by La Harpe (1831) and probably this tribe.
             Te'pda', ancient name for themselves, meaning "coming out."
             Tepki'nago, own name, meaning "people coming out."
             Tideing Indians, Lewis and Clark (1904-5).
             Vi'tapatui, name used by the Sutaio.
             Wi'tnpahatu, Dakota name, meaning "island butte people."
        (The Cheyenne name was similar.)

        Connections - Though long considered a separate linguistic stock,
        the researches of J.P. Herrington make it evident that the Kiowa
        were connected with the Tanoan stock as the Kiowa-Tanoan stock
        and probably with the Shoshonean stock also.

        Location - The best-known historic location of these people was a
        plot of territory including contiguous parts of Oklahoma, Kansas,
        Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. (See also Montana, Nebraska,
        South Dakota, and Wyoming.)

                                 Subdivisions

        The bands constituting their camp circle, beginning on the east
        and passing round by the south were: Kata, Kogui, Kaigwu, Kingep,
        Semat (i.e., Apache), and Kongtalyui.

        History - According to tradition, the Kiowa at one time lived at
        the head of Missouri River near the present Virginia City. Later
        they moved down from the mountains and formed an alliance with
        the Crows but were gradually forced south by the Arapaho and
        Cheyenne, while the Dakota claim to have driven them from the
        Black Hills. They made peace with the Arapaho and Cheyenne in
        1840 and afterward acted with them. When they reached the
        Arkansas, they found the land south of it claimed by the
        Comanche. These people were at first hostile, but after a time
        peace was made between the two tribes, the Kiowa passed on toward
        the south, and the two ever after acted as allies. Together they
        constantly raided Mexican territory, advancing as far south as
        Durango. The Kiowa were among the most bitter enemies of the
        Americans. They were placed on a reservation in southwestern
        Oklahoma in 1868 along with the Comanche and Kiowa Apache and
        have now been allotted lands in severalty.

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 2,000 in
        1780. In 1905 their population was 1,166; the census of 1910 gave
        it as 1,126, and the United States Indian Office Report for 1923,
        1,679, including the Kiowa Apache. The census of 1930 returned
        1,050, but in 1937 the United States Office of Indian Affairs
        reported 2,263.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The Kiowa were one
        of the leading tribes on the southern Plains and were surpassed
        only by the Comanche and Apache in the raids which they undertook
        into Mexico. The name has become affixed to counties in Colorado
        and Kansas, a creek in Colorado; and small places in Barber
        County, Kans.; Pittsburg County, Okla.; and Elbert County, Colo.

        Kiowa Apache. The name is derived from that of the Kiowa and from
        the circumstance that they spoke a dialect related to those of
        the better-known Apache tribes, though they had no other
        connection with them. Also called:

             Bad-hearts, by Long (1823). (See Kaskaias.)
             Cancey or Kantsi, meaning "liars," applied by the Caddo to
        all Apache of the Plains, but often to the Lipan.
             Essequeta, a name given by the Kiowa and Comanche to the
        Mescalero.
             Apache, sometimes, but improperly, applied to this tribe.
             Gata'ka, Pawnee name.
             Gina's, Wichita name.
             Gu'ta'k, Omaha and Ponca name.
             K'a-patop, Kiowa name, meaning "knife whetters."
             Kaskaias, possibly intended for this tribe, translated "bad
        hearts."
             Kisinahs, Kichai name.
             Mutsiana-taniu, Cheyenne name, meaning "whetstone people."
             Nadiisha-dna, own name, meaning "our people."
             Paeer band of Apache, H. R. Doc.
             Prairie Apaches, common name.
             Sadalsomte-k'iago, Kiowa name, meaning "weasel people."
             Ta'gugala, Jemez name for Apache tribes including Kiowa
        Apache.
             Tagui, an old Kiowa name.
             Tagukerish, Pecos name for all Apache.
             Tashin, Comanche name for all Apache.
             Tha'ka-hine'na, Arapaho name, meaning "saw-fiddle man."
             Yabipais Natage, Garces Diary (1776).

        Connections - The Eiowa Apache belonged to the Athapascan
        linguistic family, their nearest relatives being the Jicarilla
        and Lipan (Hoijer).

        Location - They have been associated with the Kiowa from the
        earliest traditional period. (See also Colorado, New Mexico,
        Oklahoma, and Wyoming.)

        History - The first historical mention of the Kiowa Apache is by
        La Salle in 1681 or 1682, who calls them Gattacka, the term by
        which they are known lo the Pawnee. As intimated above, their
        history was in later times the same as that of the Kiowa, and
        they occupied a definite place in the Kiowa camp circle. For 2
        years only, 1865-67, they were at their own request detached from
        the Eiowa and adjoined to the Cheyenne and Arapaho, on account of
        the unfriendly attitude of the Kiowa toward the Whites.

        Population - Mooney (1928) gives an estimate of 300 Kiown
        Apache as of 1780, adopting the estimate made by Lewis and Clark
        in 1805. In 1891 their population was 325, but like the
        associated tribes they suffered heavily from measles in 1892 and
        in 1905 there were only 155 left. The census of 1910 returned
        139, that of 1930, 184, and in 1937 they appear to have increased
        to 340 but other Apache may be included.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The Eiowa Apache
        are remarkable merely as an example of a tribe incorporated into
        the social organism of another tribe of entirely alien speech and
        origin.

        Miami. In 1832 the Miami subdivisions known as Piankashaw and
        Wea were assigned lands along with the Illinois in Eastern
        Kansas. In 1840 the rest of the Miami were granted lands in the
        immediate neighborhood but just south, and all but one band
        removed there from Indiana. In 1854 they ceded part of this
        territory and in 1867 accompanied the Illinois to the present
        Oklahoma. (See Indiana.)

        Missouri. The remnant of this tribe accompanied the Oto when
        they lived in this State. (See Missouri.)

        Munsee. A band of Munsee or "Christian Indians" owned land in
        Kansas between 1854 and 1859. (See Delaware in New Jersey,
        etc.)

        Osage. The southeastern part of Kansas was claimed by the Osage
        and was ceded by them to the United States Government in
        treaties made in 1825, 1865, and 1870. (See Missouri.)

        Oto. The Oto were on the eastern border of Kansas several times
        during their later history. (See Nebraska.)

        Ottawa. In 1831 two bands of Ottawa were granted lands on Marais
        des Cygnes or Osage River. They relinquished these in 1846 and
        in 1862 agreed to allotment of land in severalty, giving up their
        remaining lands. Further treaties regarding these were made in
        1867 and 1872. A few families of Ottawa accompanied the Prairie
        Potawatomi when they removed from Wisconsin to Iowa, but they
        were soon absorbed or else scattered. Ottawa bands called Ottawa
        of Blanchard's Fork and Ottawa of Roche de Boouf occupied lands
        in Kansas between 1832 and 1865 when they moved to Oklahoma.
        (See Michigan.)

        Pawnee. A part of the Pawnee occupied the valley of the
        Republican Fork of Eansas River. (See Nebraska.)

        Potawatomi. In 1837 the United States Government entered into a
        treaty with five bands of Potawatomi living in the State of
        Indiana by which it was agreed to convey to them by patent a
        tract of country on Osage River, southwest of the Missouri, in
        the present State of Kansas. This was set apart the same year and
        the Indians, the Potau-atomi of the Woods, moved into it in 1840,
        but they ceded it back in 1846 and were given a reserve between
        the Shawnee and the Delaware, in the present Shawnee County,
        which they occupied in 1847. By a series of treaties, culminating
        in the Treaty of Chicago, 1833, the Potawatomi west of Lake
        Michigan surrendered their lands nnd received a large tract in
        southwestern Iowa. They were accompanied by a few Chippewa and
        Ottawa. In 1846 this reserve was re-ceded to the United States
        Government and in 1847-48 the Indians, now known as the Prairie
        Potawatomi, moved to lands in Kansas just east of the lands of
        the Potawatomi of the Woods. Michigan Potawatomi did not come to
        this place after 1850. About the end of the Civil War some of the
        Prairie band moved back to Wisconsin but the greater part of them
        remained and accepted lands in severalty. In 1869 the Potawatomi
        of the Woods began a movement to secure lands in Oklahoma, and
        by 1871 most of them had gone thither. (See Michigan.)

        Quapaw. Between 1833 and 1867 lands in the southeastern tip of
        Eansas belonged to their reserve in Indian Territory (Oklahoma),
        but in the latter year they coded this back to the Government.
        (See Arkansas.)

        Sauk. After leaving Iowa, the Sauk and Fox Indians occupied a
        reserve in the eastern part of Kansas, but about 1859 the Foxes
        returned to Iowa, and in 1867 the Sauk ceded their Kansas
        territories and moved to Oklahoma. (See Wisconsin.)

        Seneca. Seneca Indians were joint owners with other tribes of
        land in the extreme southwestern part of Kansas. They ceded this
        to the United States Government in 1867. (See New York.)

        Shawnee. In 1825 the Shawnee residing in Missouri received a
        grant of land along the south side of Kansas River, west of the
        boundary of Missouri. In 1831 they were joined by another body of
        Shawnee who had formerly lived at Wapaghkonnetta and on Hog
        Creek, Ohio. In 1854 nearly all of this land was re-ceded to the
        United States Government and the tribe moved to Indian Territory,
        the present Oklahoma. (See Tennessee.)

        Wyandot. The Wyandot purchased land in eastern Kansas on Missouri
        River from the Delaware in 1843 and parted with it again in
        1850. A few Wyandot also held title to land along with other
        tribes on the border of Oklahoma and re-ceded it along with them
        in 1867. (See Ohio.)



        

Kentucky

 - The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Cherokee. The Cherokee claimed some land in southeastern Kentucky
        and traces of culture of Cherokee type are said to be found in
        archeological remains along the upper course of the Cumberland,
        but no permanent Cherokee settlement is known to have existed in
        historic times within this State. (See Tennessee.)

        Chickasaw. The westernmost end of Kentucky was claimed by the
        Chickasaw, and at a very early period they had a settlement on
        the lower course of Tennessee River, either in Kentucky or
        Tennessee. (See Mississippi.)


        Mosopelea. This tribe may have lived within the boundaries of
        Kentucky for a brief time, perhaps at the mouth of the Cumberland
        River, when they were on their way from Ohio to the lower
        Mississippi. (See Ohio, and see also Ofo under Mississippi.)

        Shawnee. The Shawnee had more to do with Kentucky in early times
        than any other tribe, but maintained few villages in the State
        for a long period. Their more permanent settlements were farther
        south about Nashville. At one Shawnee town, located for a short
        time near Lexington, Ky., the noted Shawnee chief, Blackhoof, was
        born. The tribe crossed and recrossed the State several times in
        its history and used it still more frequently as a hunting
        ground. (See Tennessee.)

        Yuchi. According to some early maps, the Yuchi had a town in this
        State on a river which appears to be identical with Green River.
        (See Georgia.)

        Hunting bands of Illinois, Miami, Iroquois, and Delaware at times
        visited Kentucky, but these tribes can hardly be said to have
        played much of a part in Kentucky history. (See New York, New
        Jersey, Indiana, and Illinois.)




        

Louisiana


        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Acolapissa. Meaning "those who listen and see," indicating
        possibly "borderers" or "scouts." Also called:

             Aquelou pissas, by Le Page du Pratz (1758 2: 219).
             Cenepisa, by La Salle (in Margry, 1875-86  564).
             Colapissas, in 1699 by Penicaut (in French, 1869, p. 38).
             Coulapissas, in 1700 by Sauvole (in Margry 1875-86, 4: 462).
             Equinipichas, by Sauvole (in French, 1851, 3: 225).
             Kinipissa, by Tonti (in Margry, 1875-86; 1: 604}.
             Kolapissas, in 1700 by Gravier (in French, 1875, p. 88).

        Connections.- The Acolapissa belonged to the Muskhogean
        linguistic family and evidently spoke a language closely related
        to Choctaw and Chickasaw. They may have been more intimately
        connected with the Napissa who united with the Chickasaw and who
        were perhaps identical with thc Napochi (q. v.) of De Luna, but
        their closest relatives were the Tangipahoa (q. v.).

        Location.- Their earliest known location was on Pearl River about
        11 miles above its mouth. (See also Mississippi.)

                                    Villages

        Iberville was told that they consisted of six villages and that
        the Tangipahos constituted a seventh, but we treat the latter
        separately, and the names of the six are not given.

        History.- The Acolapissa are not mentioned among the tribes that
        came to Iberville in 1699 to form an alliance with him, but after
        his departure for France, Bienville visited them and was well
        received, although at first they were terrified because of a
        slave raid made upon them 2 days before by the English and
        Chickasaw. In 1702 (or 1705) they moved from Pearl River and
        settled on a bayou on the north side of Lake Pontchartrain called
        "Castembayouque" (now Castine Bayou). Six months later the
        Natchitoches Indians (q. v.) descended to the French fort on the
        Mississippi from their town on Red River to ask assistance from
        St. Denis, thc commandant there, because of the ruin of their
        crops. St. Denis sent them under the charge of Penicaut to the
        Acolapissa, who welcomed them and assigned a place for them to
        settle close to their own village. Late in 1713 or early in 1714
        St. Denis, who had received a commission to proceed to Texas to
        examine the Spanish settlements, sent for the Natchitoches
        intending to reestablish them in their former scats, but upon
        hearing, of this protect the Acolapissa fell upon them and killed
        and captured a considerable number. In 1718, according to
        Penicaut, but in any case before 1722, they moved over to the
        Mississippi River and settled on the east side 13 leagues from
        New Orleans. In 1739 they constituted practically one settlement
        with the Bayogoula and Houma, with whom they finally merged.
        Their bitter history is one with that of the Houma (q. v.).

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1650 the population
        of the Acolapissa and the Tangipahoa together was 1,500. My own
        calculation as of 1698 is 1,050, based on La Harpe's (1831)
        estimate of 300 Acolapissa warriors in 1699 and Iberville's
        estimate of 250 families 3 years later. In 1722 Charlevoix states
        that there were 200 warriors and in 1739 there are said to have
        been of thc Acolapissa, Houmn, and Bayogoula together 90 to 100
        warriors and 270 to 300 people exclusive of children.

        Adai. Meaning unknown.

        Connections.- This tribe was at first thought to have constituted
        an independent linguistic stock and the name Adaizan was given to
        it, but later Dr. Gatschet determined that the Adai language was
        a somewhat aberrant Caddo dialect, and it was therefore placed in
        the Caddoan stock.

        Location.- Near the present Robeline in Natchitoches Parish.

        History.- In 1699 Iberville mentions the Adai under the name
        Natao. In 1717 the mission of San Miguel de Linarcs was
        established among them by Spanish Franciscan missionaries. The
        buildings were destroyed in 1719 by a force of French and
        Indians, but they were rebuilt 2 years later as San Miguel de los
        Adaes, and the mission was not finally abandoned until 1773. In
        October 1721 a military post called Nuestra Senora del Pilar de
        los Adaes was located close to the mission and continued until
        the latter was given up. For 50 years this post was the capital
        of Texas in spite of, or because of, the fact that it was on its
        extreme eastern frontier. In 1778 De Mezieres states (in Bolton,
        1914) that the tribe was almost extinct, but in 1805 Sibley
        reported a small Adai settlement on Lake Macdon near an affluent
        of Red River. The survivors probably combined with the other
        Caddoan tribes of thc region and followed their fortunes.

        Population.- Bienville reported 50 warriors among them in 1700
        but twice as many in 1718. When thc mission of San Miguel was
        rebuilt it is said to have served 400 Indians. In 1805 the Adai
        village contained only 20 men but the number of women was much
        greater. The total Adai population in 1825 was 27. My own
        estimate for 169 is about 400.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Adai were
        peculiar in having spoken a dialect so diverse from the other
        Caddo forms of speech that, as already stated, Powell (1891) at
        first gave them an independent status as constituting the Adaizan
        linguistic family. Historically, the Adai Indian and White
        settlement was noted as the eastern-most outpost of the Spaniards
        and of the Franeiscan Spanish missions, and it was the capital of
        the Province of Texas for 50 years.

        Alabama. Some of this tribe moved to Louisiana shortly after the
        territory east of the Mississippi was abandoned by the French.
        Most of them finally passed on into Texas, but a few are still
        settled in the southwestern part of the State. (See Alabama.)

        Apalachee. A band of Apalachee Indians moved from the
        neighborhood of Mobile to Louisiana in 1764, remained for a short
        time on the Mississippi River and then moved up to Red River,
        where they obtained a grant of land along with the Taensa. Later
        they sold this land and part of them probably removed to
        Oklahoma, but others remained in Louisiana and amalgamated with
        other tribes.
        (See Florida.)

        Atakapa. Meaning in Choctaw and Mobilian, "man eater," because
        they and some of the Indians west of them at times ate the flesh
        of their enemies.

        Skunnemoke, the name of a chief, extended to the whole people.

        Tuk-pa'-han-ya-di, Biloxi name.

        Yuk'hiti ishak, own name.

        Connections.- The Atakapa were originally placed in an
        independent linguistic stock, including also the Bidai, Deadose,
        and probably the Opelousa, but it has now been determined that
        they belonged to one family with the Chitimacha, their eastern
        neighbors, and probably the Tunican group on the Mississippi, the
        whole being called the Tunican stock.

        Location.- Atakapa bands extended along the coast of Louisiana
        and Texas from Vermillion Bayou to and including Trinity Bay.
        (See Akokisa under Texas.)

                          Subdivisions and Villages

        The Atakapa about Trinity Bay and the lower course of Trinity
        River were called Akokisa by the Spaniards, but they differed in
        no respect from the Atnkapa of Lake Charles. There was, however,
        an eastern Atakapa dialect which was distinctly different from
        the one current in the Lake Charles and Trinity Bay sections and
        was spoken by two different bands, one about Vermillion Bay and
        one on the Mermentou River. There were a number of small villages
        but their names are unknown.

        History.- In 1528 Cabeza de Vaca learned of the existence of some
        of these Indians, calling them Han. The portion of the Atakapa
        living in Louisiana came to the attention of the French after the
        latter had established themselves on the Mississippi River, but
        it so happened that they had more dealings with the people of
        Trinity Bay, the Akokisa. This was owing in the first place to
        the romantic adventures of a French officer, Simars de Belle-
        Isle, left upon this coast in 1719. In 1721 Bernard de la Harpe
        and Captain Beranger accompanied by Belle-Isle visited the bay
        and carried some Indians off with them to New Orleans.
        Fortunately for us, Beranger recorded a number of words in their
        language which prove it to have been almost identical with the
        Atakapa of Lake Charles. The Indians subsequently escaped and are
        reported to have reached their own country. In 1779 the band of
        Atakapa on Vermillion Bayou furnished 60 men and the Mermentou
        band 120 men to Galvez for his expedition against the British
        forts on the Mississippi. In the latter part of the eighteenth
        century numerous plots of land were sold to French Creoles by the
        Atakapa Indians, but the last village of the easternmost band was
        not abandoned until early in the nineteenth century. The last
        village of the Atakapa who spoke the eastern dialect was on the
        Mermentou and Indians are said to have lived there down to 1836.
        The Calcasieu band held together for a longer period, so that in
        1908 a few persons were living who once made their homes in the
        last native village on Indian Lake or Lake Prien. It was from two
        of these that Dr. Gatchet, in January 1885, obtained his Atakapa
        linguistic material. (See Gatschet and Swanton, 1932.) Although
        in 1907 and 1908 I found a few Indians who knew something of the
        old tongue, it is today practically extinct. (See also J. O.
        Dyer, 1917.) As early as 1747 a Spanish mission was proposed for
        the Akokisa Indians, and in 1766, or about that time, it was
        established on the left bank of Trinity River, a short distance
        below the present Liberty. It was named Nuestra Senora de la Luz,
        and near it was the presidio of San Agustin de Ahumada erected
        the same year. Before 1772 both of these had been abandoned. In
        1805 the principal Akokisa village was on the west side of
        Colorado River about 200 miles southwest of Nacogdoches, but
        there was another between the Neches and the Sabine. The ultimate
        fate of the tribe is unknown.

        Population.- Exclusive of the Akokisa, Mooney (1928) estimates a
        population of 1,500 Atakapa in 1660, which the Akokisa would
        perhaps swell to 2,000. In 1747 a Spanish report gives 300
        Akokisa families, a figure which is probably too high. In 1779
        the Bayou Vermillion and Mermentou bands had 180 warriors. Sibley
        (1832) states that in 1805 there were 80 warriors in the only
        Atakapa town remaining but that 30 of these were Houma and
        Tunica. The same writer adds that in 1760-70 the Akokisa numbered
        80 men.

        Connection, in which they have become noted.- The traditional
        fame of the Atakapa rests upon the sinister reputation it had
        acquired as a body of cannibals. After the French began to settle
        southwestern Louisiana, they distinguished as the Atakapas
        district a section of southern Louisiana including the parishes
        of St. Mary, Iberia, Vermillion, St. Martin, and Lafayette, a
        usage which continues in commercial reports to the present day.
        The capital of this district, the modern St. Martinville, was
        known as the Atakapas Post. In Spartanburg County, S. C., is a
        place called Tucapau, the name of which may have been taken from
        this tribe.

        Avoyel. The name signifies probably "people of the rocks,"
        referring to flint and very likely applied because they were
        middlemen in supplying the Gulf coast tribes with flint. Also
        called:

             Little Taensa, so-called from their relationship to the
        Taensa (q.v.).

             Tassenocogoula, name in the Mobilian trade language, meaning
        "flint people."

        Connections.- The testimony of early writers and circumstantial
        evidence render it almost certain that the Avoyel spoke a dialect
        of the Natchez group of the Muskhogean linguistic family.

        Location.- In the neighborhood of the present Marksville, La.

        History.- The Avoyel are mentioned first by Iberville in the
        account of his first expedition to Louisiana in 1699, where they
        appear under the Mobilian form of their name, Tassenocogoula. He
        did not meet any of the people, however, until the year following
        when he calls them "Little Taensas." They were encountered by La
        Harpe in 1714, and Le Page du Pratz (1758) gives a short notice
        of them from which it appears that they acted as middlemen in
        disposing to the French of horses and cattle plundered from
        Spanish settlements. In 1764 they took part in an attack upon a
        British regiment ascending


        the Mississippi (see Ofo), and they are mentioned by some later
        writers, but Sibley (1832) says they were extinct in 1805 except
        for two or three women "who did live among the French inhabitants
        of Washita." In 1930 one of thc Tunica Indians still claimed
        descent from this tribe.

        Population.- I have estimated an Avoyel population of about 280
        in 1698. Iberville and Bienville state that they had about 40
        warriors shortly after this period. (See Taensa.)

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name of the
        Avoyel is perpetuated in that of Avoyelles Parish, La.

        Bayogoula. Meaning "bayou people," either from their location or
        from the fact that their tribal emblem was the alligator.

        Connections.- Their language was of the southern Mushkogean
        division, not far removed from Houma and Choctaw.

        Location.- Near the present Bayou Goula, in Iberville Parish.

        History.- Unless this tribe was the Pishenoa encountered by Tonti
        in 1686 and not mentioned subsequently, it was first visited by
        Iberville in 1699. It then occupied one town with the Mugulasha
        (q. v.). In the winter of 1699-1700 thc Bayogoula suffered
        severely from a surprise attack of the Houma. In the spring of
        1700, for what cause we know not, the Bayogoula attacked their
        fellow townsmen, the Mugulasha, and destroyed them, but in 1706
        they suffered a similar fate at thc hands of the Taensa who had
        sought refuge with them. The remnant of the Bayogoula was given a
        place near New Orleans, but some time later they moved up the
        river to the present Ascension Parish, where they were found in
        1739 between the Houma and Acolapissa. Yet our informant states
        that thc three tribes were virtually one and thc same, the
        distinction being kept up merely because the chief of each band
        was descended from the tribe mentioned. Thc subsequent history of
        the Bayogoula is identical with that of the Houma. (See Houma
        under Mississippi.)

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1650 there were
        1,500 of the Bayogoula, Quinipissa, and Mugulasha together. My
        own estimate for the same tribes, as of 1698, is 875. In 1699
        Iberville gave about 100 cabins and 200-250 warriors, and the
        Journal of his companion ship, Le Marin, has 400-500 people. In
        1700, after the destruction of the Mugulasha, Gravier gives a
        population of 200, and about 1715 they are said to have had 40
        warriors. For their numbers in 1739, see Houma under Mississippi.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- This tribe shared
        with the Washa the distinction of having been the first Indians
        within the limits of the present State of Louisiana to meet
        Iberville in the year in which the French colony of Louisiana was
        founded. The name is preserved in the post village of Bayou
        Goula, Iberville Parish, La., which seems to be close to the
        location of the original Indian town.

        Biloxi. Tho Biloxi settled in Louisiana about 1764, and a very
        few are still living there. (See Mississippi.)

        Caddo. The Caddo Indians are given under five different heads:
        the Adai and the Natchitoches Confederacy in Louisiana; the
        Eyeish, the Hasinai Confederacy, and the Kadohadacho Confederacy
        in Texas.

        Chatot. The Chatot entered Louisiana about 1764, lived for a
        while on Bayou Bocuf, and later moved to Sabine River, after
        which nothing more is hoard of them. (See Florida.)

        Chawasha. Meaning unknown, though possibly "raccoon place
        (people)."

        Connections.- A reference to this tribe and thc Washa by
        Bienville places them in the Chitimacha division of the Tunican
        linguistic stock. I had erroneously concluded at an earlier
        period, on slender circumstantial evidence, that they were
        Muskhogeans.

        Location.- On Bayou La Fourche and eastward to thc Gulf of Mexico
        and across the Mississippi.

        History.- After the relics of De Soto's army had escaped to the
        mouth of the Mississippi River and while their brigantines were
        riding at anchor there, they were attacked by Indians, some of
        whom had "staves, having very sharp heads of fish-bone." (See
        Bourne 1904, vol. 2, p. 202.) These may have belonged to the
        Chawasha and Washa tribes. The same two tribes are said, on
        doubtful authority, to have attempted to attack an English sea
        captain who ascended the Mississippi in 1699, but they were
        usually friendly to the French. In 1712 they were moved to the
        Mississippi by Bienville and established themselves on the west
        side, just below the English Turn. In 1713 (or more probably
        1715) they were attacked by a party of Chickasaw, Yazoo, and
        Natchez, who killed the head chief and many of his family, and
        carried off 11 persons as prisoners. Before 1722 they had crossed
        to the east side of the river, half a league lower down. In 1730,
        in order to allay the panic in New Orleans following on the
        Natchez uprising of 1729 which resulted in the massacre of the
        Whites at Natchez, Governor Perrier allowed a band of Negro
        slaves to attack the Chawasha, and it is commonly reported that
        they were then destroyed. The French writer Dumont (1753) is
        probably right, however, when he states that only seven or eight
        adult males were killed. At any rate they are mentioned as living
        with the Washa at Les Allemands on the west side of the
        Mississippi above New Orleans in 1739, and in 1758 they appear as
        constituting one village with the Washa. Except for one uncertain
        reference, this is the last we hear of them, but they may have
        continued for a considerable period longer before disappearing as
        a distinct body.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) gives an estimate of 1,400 for the
        Washa, Chawasha, and Opelousa together in the year 1650. My own
        estimate for the first two and the Okelousa, as of 1698, is 700.
        This is based on Beaurain's (La Harpe's) estimate (1831) of 200
        warriors for the 3 tribes. About 1715 there are said to have been
        40 Chawasha warriors; in 1739, 30 warriors of the Washa and
        Chawasha together; and in 1758, 10 to 12.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Chawasha
        attained temporary notoriety on account of the massacre
        perpetrated upon them in the manner above mentioned.

        Chitimacha. Perhaps derived from the name of Grand River in the
        native tongue, which was Sheti, though Gatschet (1883) interprets
        it through the Choctaw maguage as meaning "those who have pots."

        Connections.- The Chitimacha have given their name to a group of
        languages under the Tunican linguistic stock, including also the
        Chawasha and Washa.

        Location.- On Grand River, Grand Lake, and the lower course of
        Bayou La Teche.

                           Subdivisions and Villages

        The earliest French writers couple with this tribe the narne of n
        tribe or supposed tribe called Yakna-Chitto, "Big Earth," but it
        is not known whether they were a part of the Chitimacha or an
        entirely independent people. In later times the Chitimaeha were
        drawn into two unnamed subdivisions, one near the upper end of
        Bayou La Fourche and the other on Grand Lake. Following are the
        known villages:

        Ama'tpan na'mu, two villages: (1) 3 miles east of Charenton on
        Bayou Teche (2) on the east side of Grand Lake opposite
        Charenton.


        Grosse Tete na'mu, 2 miles from the village at Plaquemine.

        Hi'pinimsh na'mu, at the Fausse Pointe in the western part of
        Crand Lake, near Bayou Gosselin.

        Ka'me naksh teat na'mu, at Bayou du Plomb, near Bayou Chene, 18
        miles north of Charenton.

        Ku'shuh na'mu, on Lake Mingaluak, near Bayou Chene.

        Na'mu ka'tsi, the Bayou Chene village, St. Martin's Parish.

        Ne'kun tsi'snis, opposite Ile aux Oiscaux, in the Lac de la
        Fausse Pointe.

        Ne Pinu'nsh, on Bayou Teche, 2 miles west of Charenton.

        Oku'nkiskin, probably at some sharp bend on Bayou La Teche
        judging from their name.

        Shatshnish, at Jeanerette.

        She'ti na'mu, on Grand River west of Plaquemine.

        Sho'ktangi ha'ne hetci'nsh, on the south side of Graine a Voice
        Inlet, Grand Lake.

        Tca'ti kuti'ngi na'mu, at the junction of Bayou Teche with the
        Atchafalaya Bayou.

        Tcat kasi'tunshki, on the site of Charenton.

        Tsa'htsinshup na'mu, the Plaquemine village, on Bayou des
        Plaquemines near Grand River.

        Waitinimsh, at Irish Bend near Franklin.

        There are said to have been others at the shell bank on the shore
        of Grand Lake, close to Charenton, and at a place called
        "Bitlarouges."

        History.- Iberville made an alliance with the Chitimacha in 1699,
        shortly after his arrival in the present Louisiana. In August
        1706, the Taensa captured some Chitimacha by treachery and
        enslaved them, and later the same year a Chitimacha war partly
        killed St. Cosme, missionary to the Natchez, and three other
        Frenchmen encamped with him. War followed between the Chitimacha
        on one hand and the French and their Indian allies on the other,
        which dragged along until 1718. The Chitimacha suffered severely
        during these 12 years and this war was responsible for the fact
        that in the early days of the Louisiana colony the greater part
        of the Indian slaves were Chitimacha. By the terms of the peace
        concluded in 1718, the Chitimacha agreed to settle at a
        designated spot upon the Mississippi, not far from the present
        Plaquemine. This, they or rather the eastern portion of them, did
        in 1719. In 1739 they seem to have been farther down, near the
        head of Bayou La Fourche. In 1784 one village is reported on
        Bayou La Fourche and two on the Teche. By 1881 the only survivors
        were near Charenton, where they occupied a small part of what had
        once been a considerable reservation. In that year and the year
        following Dr. A. S. Gatschct of the Bureau of American Ethnology
        collected from them a considerable body of linguistic material
        and some ethnological information. (See Gatschet, 1883.)
        Descendants of the tribe, mostly mixed-bloods, occupy the same
        section at the present time, but the Plaquemine band has
        disappeared.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1650 the Chitimacha
        numbered 3,000 souls. The present writer allowed 750 warriors to
        the tribe in 1698, based on Beaurain's estimate of 700-800 in
        1699, which would mean about 2,625 souls. In 1758 the Mississippi
        band counted only about 80 warriors and in 1784 Hutchins gives
        27. The size of the western band is nowhere indicated separately
        but the census of 1910 gives 69 for the entire tribe, 19 of whom
        were then at school in Pennsylvania. In 1930, 51 were returned.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Chitimacha were
        the most powerful tribe of the northern Gulf coast west of
        Florida in United States territory. They also attained prominence
        in early Louisiana history on account of their long war with the
        French and the number of Chitimacha slaves in colonial families
        arising from that fact. Tho survivors are noteworthy as the best
        basket makers in the whole Gulf region.

        Choctaw. Choetaw began moving into Louisiana not long after the
        settlement of New Orleans, at first temporarily, but later for
        permanent occupancy, especially after the territory east of the
        Mississippi had been ceded to Great Britain. Some settled on the
        northern shores of Lake Pontchartrain, where a few still remain,
        while other bands established themselves on the Nezpigue, Red
        River, Bayou Boeuf, and elsewhere. Most of these drifted in time
        to the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, but a few families are still
        scattered about the State of Louisiana. (See Mississippi.)

        Doustioni. A small tribe of the Natchitoches Confederacy
        (q.v.).

        Houma. When first encountered by Europeans, the Houma lived near
        the present boundary line between Mississippi and Louisiana, if
        not actually on the Louisiana side. In 1706 or shortly afterward
        they moved altogether within the limits of Louisiana, where their
        descendants have remained to the present day. (See Mississippi.)

        Koasati. Part of this tribe entered Louisiana near thc end of the
        eighteenth century and lived on Red River and in the western part
        of the State. At the present day, the largest single band of
        Koasati in existence is northeast of Kinder, La. (See Alabama.)

        Koroa. The Koroa camped, hunted, nnd had at times more permanent
        settlements in northeastern Louisiana. (See Mississippi.)

        Mugulasha. This was a tribe which formerly lived in the same town
        as the Bayogoula on the lower course of the Mississippi. Some
        early writers state that they were identical with thc Quinipissa
        and they will be treated in connection with that tribe.

        Muskogee. The true Muskogee were represented by one band, a part
        of the Pakana tribe, which moved into the colony about 1764. They
        were settled upon Calcasieu River in 1805. Later they seem to
        have united with the Alabama now living in Polk County, Tex., but
        there are no known survivors at the present day. (See Alabama.)

        Natchez. When this tribe was attacked by the French after they
        had destroyed the Natchez post, they escaped into Louisiana and
        fortified themselves at Sicily Island, from which most of them
        again escaped. A part under the chief of the Flour Village
        attacked the French post at Natchitoches in the fall of 1731,
        drove the Natchitoches from their town, and entrenched themselves
        in it. St. Denis, commander of that post, attacked them, however,
        having been previously reinforced by some Caddo and Atakapa, and
        inflicted upon them a severe defeat. After this no considerable
        number of Natchez seem to have remained in Louisiana. (See
        Mississippi.)

        Natchitoches Confederacy. The word "Natchitoches" is generally
        supposed to be derived from "nashitosh", the native word for
        pawpaw but an early Spanish writer, Jose Antonio Pichardo, was
        told that it was from a native word "nacicit" signifying "a place
        where the soil is the color of red ochre," and that it was
        applied originally to a small creek in their neighborhood running
        through red soil. The following are synonyms:

        Nachittoos, Yoakum, 1855-56, vol. 1 p. 392.

        Nachtichoukas, Jefferys, 1761, pt. 1, p. 164.

        Nacitos, Binares (1700) in Margry, 1875-86, vol. 6, p. 217.

        Nactythos, Iberville (1699) in Margry, 1850, 1875-86, vol. 4, p.
        178.

        Nadchito, Bienville (1700), in Margry, 1875-86, vol. 4, p. 434.

        Naketosh, Gatschet, Caddo and Yatassi MS., p. 77, B. A. E.

        Napgitache, McKenney and Hall, 1854, vol. 3, p. 82.

        Naquitoches, Belle-Isle (1721), in Margry, 1875-86, vol. 6, p.
        341.

        Nashi'tosh, Mooney, 1896, p. 1092.

        Nasitti, Joutel (1687) in Margry, 1875-89-6, vol. 3, p. 409.

        Natsytos, Iberville (1699) in Margry, 1875-86, vol 4, p. 178.

        Notchitoches, Carver, 1778, map.

        Yatchitcohes, Lewis and Clark, 1840, p. 142.

        As part of the Caddo, the same terms were applied to them as
        appear under Kadohadacho (q. v.).

        Connections.- They belonged to the Caddo division of the Caddoan
        linguistic stock, their nearest relatives being the Indians of
        the Kadohadacho and Hasinai Confederacies.

        Location.- In northwestern Louisiana.

                                  Subdivisions

        Doustioni, appearing sometimes as Souchitioni, a small tribe near
        the present Natchitoches.

        Natchitoches, close to the present site of Natchitoches.

        Ouachita, on Ouachita River not far from the present Columbia.

        Yatasi, on Red River near Shreveport.

        A tribe called Capiche is mentioned by Tonti, but it is otherwise
        never referred to. Another called Nakasa, Nakase, Natches or
        Natache was probably a part of the Yatasi, and Tonti mentions a
        tribe called Choye, probably the Chaye of Joutel (1713), as a
        people associated with the Yatasi. At a relatively late date part
        of the Yatasi went to live with the Indians of the Kadohadacho
        Confederation while the rest settled close to the Natchitoches.

        History.- Moscoso, De Soto's successor, perhaps encountered some
        of the tribes of this group though his route lay farther north
        and west. On February 17, 1690, Tonti reached the villages of
        these Indians coming from the Taensa on Lake St. Joseph, nnd went
        on up the river to the Kadohadacho, visiting the Yatasi on the
        way.

        In March 1700 Bienville followed the same route from the Taensa
        and reached the Natchitoches Indians in April, stopping at the
        Ouachita town en route. He went up Red River as far as the Yatasi
        and then returned to Biloxi. In 1702 the Natchitoches tribe,
        having lost their crops, descended the Red River and the
        Mississippi to the French fort near the mouth of the latter, then
        commanded by Louis Juchereau de St. Denis, who received them
        kindly and sent them to live with the Acolapissa Indians on Lake
        Pontchartrain. A few years later St. Denis visited the
        Natchitoches country himself. In 1707 four Indians of this tribe
        took part in an expedition against the Chitimacha to avenge the
        death of the missionary St. Cosme. In 1713-14 St. Denis sent for
        the Natchitoches Indians in order to take them back to their old
        country, where he had planned to establish a post. On learning of
        the intentions of their neighbors, the Acolapissa Indians fell
        upon them, killed 17 and captured 50 women and girls, but the
        latter were apparently recovered soon afterward and all were
        returned to their old town, where the post was established
        according to plan in 1714. From this time until his death St.
        Denis' career was intimately bound up with this post and the
        Indians about it, though he was frequently engaged in expeditions
        into and across Texas. He was formally appointed commandant of
        the post July 1, 1720, and retained it until his death in June
        1744. In 1731, with the assistance of his Indians and a
        detachment of soldiers from the Spanish post of Adai, he won a
        signal victory over a large body of Natchez Indians, the only
        clear-cut advantage which the French gained in the Natchcz War.
        In the meantime Natchitoches had become the center of a
        flourishing trade with the Indians extending far to the north and
        west, and when St. Denis died his son, Louis de St. Denis
        continued to enjoy the advantages of it and to share the prestige
        of his father. During all of this time, however, the Natchitoches
        Indians seem to have been decreasing, and toward the end of the
        eighteenth century they parted with most of their lands to French
        Creoles, though their relations with the latter seem to have been
        uniformly cordial. Part of them remained in their old country
        permanently and either died out or mixed with the newcomers,
        while the rest joined their relatives of the Kadohadacho and
        Hasinai Confederations and followed their fortunes.

        Population.- In 1700 Bienville estimated that there were 400-450
        warriors in the Natchitoches Confederacy, but in 1718 he reported
        that the number had fallen to 80, while La Harpe {1831} reported
        a total population of 150-200. In 1805 Sibley (1832) reported 52
        warriors and for the Natchitoches tribe by itself, 32, and 20
        years later a total population of 61 was returned. An estimate of
        1,000 for all of these tribes before White contact would probably
        be ample.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The city of
        Natchitoches, La., is named after this group of tribes and is
        noteworthy as the oldest permanent settlement in the State. The
        victory which they enabled St. Denis to win over the Natchez
        Indians occupies a noteworthy place in the history of the
        section.

        Ofo. This tribe entered Louisiana some time in the latter half of
        the eighteenth century and finally united with the Tunica,
        settling with them at Marksville. (See the article Mosopelea
        under Ohio and Tunica under Mississippi.)

        Okelousa. Meaning "black water."

        Connections.- The associations of this tribe were mainly with
        Muskhogean peoples and this fact, coupled with the Muskhogean
        name, indicates their linguistic affiliations with a fair degree
        of certainty.

        Location.- The Okelousa moved about considerably. The best-
        determined location is the one mentioned by Le Page du Pratz
        (1758), on the west side of the Mississippi back of and above
        Pointe Coupee. (See History below.) (See also .Mississippi.)

        History.- After De Soto reached the principal Chickasaw town, the
        head chief came to him, January 3, 1541, "and promptly gave the
        Christians guides and interpreters to go to Caluca, a place of
        much repute among the Indians. Caluca is a province of more than
        90 villages not subject to anyone, with a savage population, very
        warlike and much dreaded, and the soil is fertile in that
        section." (See Bourne, 1904, 1922, vol. 2, p. 132.) There is
        every reason to think that Caluca is a shortened form of Okalousa
        and it is rather likely that the later Okelousa were descended
        from these people, but if so either De Soto's informants had very
        much exaggerated their numbers or they suffered immense losses
        before we hear of them again. The name in De Soto's time may,
        however, have been applied to a geographical region. Nicolas de
        la Salle, writing in 1682, quotes native informants to the effect
        that this tribe, in alliance with the Houma, had destroyed a
        third. La Harpe (1831) mentions them as allied with the Washa and
        Chawasha and wandering near the seacoast, a statement which led
        me to the erroneous conclusion that the three tribes thus
        associated were related. The notice of them by Le Page du Pratz
        has been mentioned above. They finally united with the Houma, the
        Acolapissa, or some other Muskhogean band on the lower
        Mississippi.

        Population.- Unknown, but for an estimate, see Chawasha.

        Opelousa. - Probably from Mobilian and Choctaw Aba lusa, "black
        above," and meaning "black headed" or "black haired."

        Connections.- No words of the Opelousa language have survived,
        but the greater number of the earlier references to them speak as
        if they were allied with the Atakapa, and it is probable that
        they belonged to the Atakapan group of tribes.

        Location.- In the neighborhood of the present Opelousas.

        History.- The Opelousa seem to have been mentioned first by
        Bienville in an unpublished report on the Indians of the
        Mississippi and Gulf regions. They were few in numbers and led a
        wandering life. They maintained some sort of distinct tribal
        existence into the nineteenth century but disappeared by the end
        of the first quarter of it.

        Population.- About 1715 this tribe was estimated to have 130
        warriors; in 1805 they are said to have had 40, and in 1814 the
        total population of the tribe is placed at 20.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Opelousa gave
        their name to an important post and the district depending upon
        it.

        Ouachita. A tribe of the Natchitoches Confederacy (q. v.).

        Pascagoula. This tribe entered Louisiana about 1764 and lived on
        Red River and Bayou Boeuf. Their subsequent history is wrapped in
        uncertainty. (See Mississippi.)

        Quapaw. From 1823 to 1833 the Quapaw lived with the Kadohadacho on
        a southern affluent of Red River. (See Arkansas.)

        Quinipissa. Signifying "those who see," perhaps meaning "scouts,"
        or "outpost."

        Connections.- The Quinipissa belonged to the southern division of
        the Muskhogean stock, and probably were very closely related to
        the Choctaw.

        Location.- On the west bank of the Mississippi River and some
        distance above New Orleans.

        History.- There may have been a connection between this tribe,
        the Acolapissa (q. v.) and the Napissa or Napochi. (See
        Mississippi.) They were met first by La Salle and his companions
        when the latter were on their way to the Gulf of Mexico in 1682.
        They treated the explorers in a hostile manner but made peace
        with Tonti in 1686. When Iberville ascended the river in 1699, no
        tribe of the name was to be found, but later it was learned that
        the chief of the Mugulasha tribe, then forming one village with
        the Bayogoula, was the same Quinipissa chief who had had dealings
        with La Salle and Tonti. According to some writers, the Mugulasha
        were identical with the Quinipissa; according to others, the
        Mugulasha had absorbed the remains of the Quinipissa. In May
        1700, the Bayogoula rose against the Mugulasha and destroyed them
        as a tribe, though they probably adopted many of them as
        individuals. We hear nothing further regarding them.

        Population.- There is no separate estimate of the number of the
        Quinipissa. (See Bayogoula.)

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Quinipissa are
        noted only for thc encounter, ultimately hostile, which La Salle
        had with them in 1682 when he descended to the mouth of the
        Mississippi.

        Souchitioni, see Natchitoches Confederacy.

        Taensa. Meaning unknown, but the name is evidently derived from
        that of one of the tribes constituent towns.

        Connections.- They were one of the three known tribes of the
        Natchez division of the Muskhogean stock.

        Location.- At the western end of Lake St. Joseph, in Tensas
        Parish. (See also Alabama.)

                                  Villages

        The only list of Taensa villages preserved was obtained by
        Iberville through the medium of the Mobilian trade language and
        it is uncertain how much of each name is a Mobilian translation.
        In four of them we recognize the Mobilian word for people, Okla.
        These villages are: Taensas, Ohytoucoulas, Nyhougoulas,
        Couthaougoula, Conchayon, Talaspa, and Chaoucoula. Gatschet has
        endeavored to interpret all but one of them; Taensas by reference
        to tan'tci, "corn"; Ohytoucoulas from u'ti, "chestnut";
        Couthaougoula from uk'ha'tax, "lake"; Conchayon from ko'nshak,
        "reed"; Talaspa from ta'`lapi, "five" or ta'`lepa, "hundred";
        Chaoucoula from issi, "deer" or ha'tche, "river." most of these
        seem in the highest degree doubtful. All of the towns were
        situated close together in the place above indicated.

        History.- It is altogether probable that thc Spaniards under De
        Soto encountered the Taensa or bands afterward affiliated with
        them, and the probability is strengthened by the fact that La
        Salle in 1682 was shown some objects of Spanish origin by the
        chief of the Tacnsa. However, La Salle and his companions are the
        first Europeans known to have met them. The French were treated
        with great kindness and no war ever took place between the two
        peoples. The Taensa were subsequently visited by Tonti and by
        Iberville. When the latter was in their town in 1700 the temple
        was destroyed by fire, whereupon five infants were thrown into
        the flames to appease the supposedly offended deity. De Montigny
        undertook missionary work among them for a brief period but soon
        went to the Natchez as presenting a larger field and his place
        was never filled. In 1706 the Taensa abandoned their villages on
        account of the threatening attitude of the Yazoo and Chickasaw
        and settled in the town of the Bayogoula whom they afterward
        destroyed or drove away in the tragic manner above described.
        (See Bayogoula.) The Taensa appear to have moved shortly to a
        spot in the vicinity of Edgard, St. John Baptist Parish, and
        later to the Manchac. In 1715 they left this latter place and
        moved to Mobile, where they were assigned a townsite 2 leagues
        from the French post, at a place formerly occupied by the Tawasa.
        Before 1744 they had crossed the Tensaw River, to which they gave
        their name, and made a near settlement which they retained until
        Mobile was surrendered to the British in 1763. Soon after that
        event, they moved to Red River. In April 1764, they asked
        permission to establish themselves on the Mississippi River at
        the upper end of Bayou La Fourcho, but they seem never to have
        gone there. For more than 40 years they occupied a tract of land
        on Red River adjoining that of the Apalachee. Early in thc
        nineteenth century both tribes sold their lands and moved to
        Bayou Boeuf. Still later the Taensa seem to have moved farther
        south to a small bayou at the head of Grand Lake which still
        bears their name, where they intermarried with the Chitimacha,
        Alabama, and Atakapa. Some taensa blood is known to run in the
        veins of certain Chitimacha, but as a tribe they are entirely
        extinct.

        Population.- Mooney's estimate (1928) for the Taensa and Avoyel
        in 1650 is 800, and my own for 1698 slightly greater or nearly
        the same, although De Montigny (in Shea, 1861), writing in 1699,
        gives only 700. In 1700 Iberville estimated 120 cabins and 300
        warriors, but in 1702 allows them 150 families. Somewhat later Le
        Page du Pratz (1758) says they had about 100 cabins. In 1764 this
        tribe, with the Apalachee and Pakana Creeks, counted about 200
        all told. Sibley (1832) places the number of Taensa warriors in
        1805 at 25.

        Connection in which they become noted.- The Taensa were noted for
        (1) the peculiarity of their customs, which were like those of
        the Natchez, (2) the tragic destruction of their temple in 1700
        and the human sacrifices which followed, (3) the perpetuation of
        their name in Tensas Parish, Tensas River, and Tensas Bayou, La.,
        and the Tensaw River and Tensaw Village in Baldwin County, Ala.

        Tangipahoa. Meaning probably "corncob gatherers," or "corncob
        people."

        Connections.- The name of this tribe and its affiliations with
        the Acolapissa indicate that it belonged to the southern division
        of the Muskhogean stock.

        Location.- Probably on the present Tangipahoa River, Tangipahoa
        Parish.

        History.- The original home of the Tangipahoa seems to have been
        as given above, and their relations with the Acolapissa must have
        been very close, for Iberville was informed by some Indians that
        they constituted a seventh Acolapissa town. In 1682 La Salle's
        party discovered a town on the eastern side of the Mississippi, 2
        leagues below the settlement of the Quinipissa, which had
        recently been destroyed, and one of his companions calls this
        "Tangibao," while others speak of it as hlaheouala or
        Mahehoualaima. The last two terms may refer to the name of the
        town and the first to that of the tribe which occupied it.
        Probably a part of the Tangipahoa only settled here, but, as we
        hear little of them after this period, we must assume that they
        had been absorbed by some other people, most likely the
        Acolapissa.

        Population.- (See Acolapissa.)

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Tangipalloa Parish,
        Tangipahoa River, in Amite and Pike Counties, Miss., and
        Tangipahoa Parish, La., and the post town of Tangipahoa preserve
        the name of the Tangipahoa.

        Tawasa. Some Tawasa accompanied the Alabama to Louisiana but not
        until after the separate existence of the tribe had been ended.
        (See Alabama.)

        Washa. Appearing often in literature in the French form
        Ouacha, meaning unknown.

        Connection.- The nearest relations of the Washa were the Chawasha
        (q.v.) and both belonged to the Chitimachan branch of the
        Tunican linguistic family.

        Location.- Their earliest known location was on Bayou La Fourche,
        perhaps in the neighborhood of the present Labadieville,
        Assumption Parish.

                                   Villages

        None are known under any but the tribal name.

        History.- As stated in treating the Chawasha, this tribe and the
        one just mentioned may have been those which attacked Moscoso's
        flotilla at the mouth of the Mississippi. Shortly after Iberville
        reached America in 1699, the Washa and three other tribes west of
        the Mississippi came to make an alliance with him and a little
        later, on his way up the great river, he fell in with some of
        them. He calls Bayou La Fourche "the River of the Washas." In
        July 1699, Bienville made a vain attempt to establish friendly
        relations with them, but we hear little more of them until
        1715{1} when Bienville moved them to the Mississippi and settled
        them 2 leagues above New Orleans on the south side of the
        Mississippi. In 1739 the Washa and Chawasha were found living
        together at Les Allemands, and they probably continued in the
        same neighborhood until a considerably later period. Sibley
        (1832) says the tribe in 1805 was reduced to 5 persons (2 men and
        3 women) scattered in French families.

        Population.- A memoir attributed to Bienville states that in 1715
        the Washa numbered 50 warriors, having been reduced from 200.
        This is the only separate estimate of them. (See Chawasha for the
        combined population of the two tribes for other periods.)

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Washa is
        preserved in Washa Lake, near the seacoast of Terrebonne Parish,
        La., and it was formerly given to Lake Salvador, southeast of New
        Orleans.

        Yatasi. A tribe of the Natchitoches Confederacy (q.v.).

                                NOTE

        {1} So stated In a ms. by Blenville, In Swanton (1911) this date
        was given erroneously as 1718 on other authority.



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