The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Acuera. Meaning unknown (acu signifies "and" and also "moon").

        Connections - This tribe belonged to the Timucuan or Timuquanan
        linguistic division of the Muskhogean linguistic family.

        Location - Apparently about the headwaters of the Ocklawaha

        Towns - (See Utina.)

        History - The Acuera were first noted by De Soto in a letter
        written at Tampa Bay to the civil cabildo of Santiago de Cuba.
        According to information transmitted to him by his officer
        Baltazar de Gallegos, Acuera was "a large town . . . where with
        much convenience we might winter," but the Spaniards did not in
        fact pass through it, though, while they were at Ocale, they sent
        to Acuera for corn. The name appears later in Laudonniere's
        narrative of the second French expedition to Florida, 1564-65
        (1586), as a tribe allied with the Utina. It is noted sparingly
        in later Spanish documents but we learn that in 1604 there was an
        encounter between these Indians and Spanish troops and that there
        were two Acuera missions in 1655, San Luis and Santa Lucia, both
        of which had disappeared by 1680. The inland position of the
        Acuera is partly responsible for the few notices of them. The
        remnant was probably gathered into the "Pueblo de Timucua," which
        stood near St. Augustine in 1736, and was finally removed to the
        Mosquito Lagoon and Halifax River in Volusia County, where Tomoka
        River keeps the name alive.

        Population - This is nowhere given by itself. (See Utina.)

        Aguacaleyquen, see Utina.

        Ais. Meaning unknown; there is no basis for Romans' (1775)
        derivation from the Choctaw word "isi" (deer). Also called:

             Jece, form of the name given by Dickenson (1699).

        Connections - Circumstantial evidence, particularly resemblance
        in town names, leads to the conclusion that the Ais language was
        similar to that of the Calusa and the other south Florida tribes.
        (See Calusa.) It is believed that it was connected with the
        Muskhogean stock.

        Location - Along Indian River on the east coast of the peninsula.


        The only village mentioned by explorers and geographers bears
        some form of the tribal name.

        History - Fontaneda (1854) speaks of a Biscayan named Pedro who
        had been held prisoner in Ais, evidently during the sixteenth
        century, and spoke the Ais language fluently. Shortly after the
        Spaniards made their first establishments in the peninsula, a war
        broke out with the Ais, but peace was concluded in 1570. In 1597
        Governor Mendez de Canco, who traveled along the entire east
        coast from the head of the Florida Keys to St. Augustine,
        reported that the Ais chief had more Indians under him than any
        other. A little later the Ais killed a Spaniard and two Indians
        sent to them by Canco for which summary revenge was exacted, and
        still later a difficulty was created by the escape of two Negro
        slaves and their marriage with Ais men. Relations between the
        Floridian government and these Indians were afterward friendly
        but efforts to missionize them uniformly failed. An intimate
        picture of their condition in 1699 is given by the Quaker
        Dickenson (1803), who was ship-wrecked on the coast farther south
        and obliged, with his companions, to travel through their
        territory. They disappear from history after 1703, but the
        remnant may have been among those who, according to Romans
        (1775), passed over to Cuba in 1763, although he speaks of them
        all as Calusa.

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Indians on the
        southeastern coast of Florida in 1650, including this tribe, the
        Tekesta, Guacata, and Jeaga, to have been 1,000. As noted above,
        the Ais were the most important of these and undoubtedly the
        largest. We have no other estimates of population applying to the
        seventeenth century. In 1726, 88 "Costa" Indians were reported in
        a mission farther north and these may have been drawn from the
        southeast coast. In 1728, 52 "Costa" Indians were reported.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The Ais were noted
        as the most important tribe of southeastern Florida, and they
        were probably responsible for the fact that the water course on
        which they dwelt came to be called Indian River.

        Alabama. Early in the eighteenth century the Pawokti, and perhaps
        some other Alabama bands, lived near Apalachicola River, whence
        they were driven in 1708. After the Creek-American War a part
        of the Alabama again entered Florida, but they do not seem to
        have maintained an independent existence for a very long period.
        (See Alabama.)

        Amacano. A tribe or band perhaps connected with the Yamasee,
        placed in a mission on the Apalachee coast in 1674 with two
        others, Chine, and Caparaz (q. v.). The three together had 300

        Amacapiras, see Macapiras.

        Apalachee. Meaning perhaps "people on the other side" (as in
        Hitchiti), or it may be cognate with Choctaw apelachi, "a

        Connections - These Indians belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic
        family, their closest connections having been apparently the
        Hitchiti and Alabama.

        Location - The Apalachee towns, with few exceptions, were
        compactly situated in the neighborhood of the present Florida
        capital, Tallahassee. (See also Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, and


        Aute, 8 or 9 days' journey from the main towns and apparently
        southwest of them.

        Ayubale, 77 leagues from St. Augustine.

        Bacica, probably near the present Waczssa River.

        Bscuica, seemingly somewhat removed from the main group of towns.

        Calahuchi, north of the main group of towns and not certainly

        Cupayca, location uncertain; its name seems to be in Timucua.

        Ibitachuco, 75 leagues from St. Augustine.

        Iniahica, close to the main group of towns, possibly the Timucua
        name for one of the others given, since hica is the Timucua word
        for "town".

        Ochete, on the coast 8 leagues south of Iniahica.

        Ocuia, 84 leagues from St. Augustine.

        Ospalaga, 86 leagues from St. Augustine.

        Pstali, 87 leagues from St. Augustine.

        Talimali, 88 leagues from St. Augustine and very likely identical
        with Iniahica.

        Talpatqui, possibly identical with the preceding.

        Tomoli, 87 leagues from St. Augustine.

        Uzela, on or near Ocilla River.

        Yapalaga, near the main group of towns.

        Ychutafun, on Apalachicola River.

        Yecambi, 90 leagues from St. Augustine.

        A few other names are contained in various writings or placed
        upon sundry charts, but some of these belonged to distinct tribes
        and were located only temporarily among the Apalachee; others are
        not mentioned elsewhere but appear to belong in the same
        category; and still others are simply names of missions and may
        apply to certain of the towns mentioned above. Thus Chacatos
        evidently refers to the Chatot tribe, Tama to the Tamali, and
        Oconi probably to a branch of the Oconee mentioned elsewhere. The
        Chines were a body of Chatot and derived their name from a chief.
        Among names which appear only in Spanish we find Santa Fe. Capola
        and Ilcombe, given on the Popple Map, were probably occupied by
        Guale and Yamasee refugees. A late Apalachee settlement was
        called San Marcos.

        History - The Apalachee seem to appear first in history in the
        chronicles of the Narvaez expedition (Bandelier, 1905). The
        explorers spent nearly a month in an Apalachee town in the year
        1628 but were subjected to constant attacks on the part of the
        warlike natives, who pursued them during their withdrawal to a
        coast town named Aute. In October 1539, De Soto arrived in the
        Apalachee province and remained there the next winter in spite of
        the unceasing hostility of the natives, who well maintained the
        reputation for prowess they had acquired 11 years before.
        Although the province is mentioned from time to time by the first
        French and Spanish colonists of Florida, it did not receive much
        attention until the tribes between it and St. Augustine had been
        pretty well missionized. In a letter written in 1607 we learn
        that the Apalachee had asked for missionaries and, although one
        paid a visit to them the next year, the need is reiterated at
        frequent intervals. It was not until 1633, however, that the work
        was actually begun. In that year two monks entered the country
        and the conversion proceeded very rapidly so that by 1647 there
        were seven churches and convents and eight of the principal
        chiefs had been baptized. In that year, however, a great
        rebellion took place. Three missionaries were killed and all of
        the churches with their sacred objects were destroyed. An
        expedition sent against the insurgents was repulsed, but shortly
        afterward the movement collapsed, apparently through a
        counterrevolution in the tribe itself. After this most of the
        Apalachee sought baptism and there was no further trouble between
        them and the Spaniards except for a brief sympathetic movement at
        the time of the Timucua uprising of 1656. The outstanding
        complaint on the part of the Indians was that some of them were
        regularly commandeered to work on the fortifications of St.
        Augustine. In 1702 a large Apalachee war party was severely
        defeated by Creek Indians assisted by some English traders, and
        in 1704 an expedition from South Carolina under Colonel Moore
        practically destroyed the nation. Moore claims to have carried
        away the people of three towns and the greater part of the
        population of four more and to have left but two towns and part
        of another. Most of these latter appear to have fled to Mobile,
        where, in 1705, they were granted land on which to settle. The
        Apalachee who had been carried off by Moore were established near
        New Windsor, S. C., but when the Yamasee War broke out they
        joined the hostile Indians and retired for a time to the Lower
        Creeks. Shortly afterward the English faction among the Lower
        Creeks became ascendant and the Apalachee returned to Florida,
        some remaining near their old country and others settling close
        to Pensacola to be near their relatives about Mobile. By 1718
        another Apalachee settlement had been organized by the Spaniards
        near San Marcos de Apalache and close to their old country. In
        1728 we hear of two small Apalachee towns in this neighborhood.
        Most of them gravitated finally to the neighborhood of Pensacola.
        In 1764, the year after all French and Spanish possessions east
        of the Mississippi passed into the hands of Great Britain, the
        Apalachee, along with several other tribes, migrated into
        Louisiana, now held by Spain, and settled on Red River, where
        they and the Taensa conjointly occupied 8 miles of land between
        Bayou d'Arro and Bayou Jean de Jean. Most of this land was sold
        in 1803 and the Apalachee, reduced to a small band, appear to
        have moved about in the same general region until they
        disappeared. They are now practically forgotten, though a few
        mixed-blood Apalachee are still said to be in existence. A few
        accompanied the Creeks to Oklahoma.

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimates 7,000 Apalachee Indians in
        1650, a figure which seems to me to be ample. Governor Salazar's
        mission-by-mission estimate in 1675 yielded a total of 6,130,
        and a Spanish memorial dated 1676 gives them a population of
        5,000. At the time of Moore's raid there appear to have been
        about 2,000. The South Carolina Census of 1715 gives 4 Apalachee
        villages, 275 men, and 638 souls. As the Mobile Apalachee were
        shortly afterward reduced to 100 men, the number of the entire
        tribe in 1715 must have been about 1,000 By 1758 they appear to
        have fallen to not much over 100, and in 1814 Sibley reported but
        14 men in the Louisiana band, signifying a total of perhaps 50
        (Sibley, 1832). Morse's estimate (1822) of 150 in 1817 is
        evidently considerably too high.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The Apalachee were
        mentioned repeatedly as a powerful and warlike people, and this
        character was attested by their stout resistance to Narvaez and
        De Soto. Thc sweeping destruction which overtook them at the
        hands of the Creeks and Carolinians mark an epoch in
        Southeastern history. Their name is preserved in Apalachee Bay
        and River, Fla.; Apalachee River, Ga., Apalachee River, Ala.; and
        most prominently of all, in the Appalachian Mountains, and other
        terms derived from them. Tallahassee, the capital of Florida, the
        name of which signifies "Old Town," is on the site of San Luis de
        Talimali, the principal Spanish mission center. There is a post
        village named Apalachee in Morgan County, Ga.

        Apalachicola. At times some of the Apalachicola Indians lived
        south of the present Florida boundary line and they gave their
        name to the great river which runs through the panhandle of that
        State. (See Georgia.)

        Calusa. Said by a Spaniard, Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, who
        was a captive among them for many years, to mean "fierce people,"
        but it is perhaps more probable that, since it often appears in
        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        the form Carlos, it was, as others assert, adopted by the Calusa
        chief from the name of the Emperor Charles V, about whose
        greatness he had learned from Spanish prisoners.

        Connection.- From the place names and the few expressions
        recorded by Fontaneda, I suspect that the Calusa were connected
        linguistically with the Muskhogean stock and particularly with
        that branch of it to which the Apalachee and Choctaw Celonged,
        but no definite conclusion on this point is as yet possible.

        Location.- On the west coast of the Peninsula of Florida
        southward of Tampa Bay and including the Florida Keys. The
        Indians in the interior, about Lake Okeechobee, while forming a
        distinct group, seem also to have been Calusa.


        Unknown, except as indicated above.


        In the following list the letters S and I indicate respectively
        towns belonging to the seacoast division and those of the
        interior division about Lake Okeechobee Beyond this allocation
        the positions of most of the towns may be indicated merely
        in a general manner, by reference to neighboring towns.

        Abir (I), between Neguitun and Cutespa.

        Alcola (or Chosa), location uncertain.

        Apojola Negra, the first word is Timucua; the second seems to be
        Spanish; location unknown.

        Calaobe (S).

        Caragara, between Namuguya and Henhenguepa.

        Casitoa (S), between Muspa and Cotebo.

        Cayovea (S).

        Cayucar, between Tonco and Neguitun.

        Chipi, between Tomcobe and Taguagemae.

        Chosa (see Alcola).

        Comachica (S).

        Cononoguay, between Cutespa and Estegue.

        Cotebo, between Casitoa and Coyobia.

        Coyobia, between Cotebo and Tequemapo.

        Cuchiyaga, said to be southwest from Bahia Honda and 40 leagues
        northeast of Guarungube, probably on Big Pine Key.

        Custavui, south of Jutun.

        Cutespa (I), between Abir and Cononoguay.

        Elafay, location uncertain.

        Enempa (I).

        Estame (S), between Metamapo and Sacaspada.

        Estantapaca, between Yagua and Queyhicha.

        Estegue, between Cononoguay and Tomsobe.

        Excuru, between Janar and Metamapo.

        Guarungube, "on the point of the Martyrs," and thus probably near
        Key West.

        Guevu (S).

        Henhenguepa, between Caragara and Ocapataga.

        Janar, between Ocapataga and Escuru.

        Judyi, between Satucuava and Soco.

        Juestocobaga, between Queyhicha and Sinapa.

        Jutun (S), between Tequemapo and Custavui.

        Metamapo (S), between Escuru and Estame.

        Muspa (S), between Teyo and Casitoa.

        Numuguya, between Taguagemae and Caragara.

        Neguitun, between Cayucar and Abir.

        No or Non (S).

        Ocapataga, between Henhenguepa and Janar.

        Queyhicha, between Estantapaca and Juestocobaga.

        Quisiyove (S).

        Sacaspada (S), between Estame and Satucuava.

        Satucuava, between Sacaspada and Judyi.

        Sinaesta (S).

        Sinapa (S), between Juestocobaga and Tonco.

        Soco, between Judyi and Vuebe.

        Taguagemae, between Chipi and Namuguya.

        Tampa (S), the northernmost town, followed on the south by Yegua,
        and probably on Charlotte Harbor.

        Tatesta (S), between the Tequesta tribe and Cuchiyaga, about 80
        leagues north of the latter, perhaps at the innermost end of the

        Tavaguemue (I).

        Tequemapo (S), between Goyobia and Jutun.

        Teyo, between Vuebe and Muspa.

        Tiquijagua (?).

        Tomo (S).

        Tomsobe (I), between Estegue and Chipi.

        Tonco, between Sinapa and Cayucar.

        Tuchi (S).

        Vuebe, between Soco and Teyo, possibly the same as Guevu.

        Yagua (S), between Tampa and Estantapaca.

        History.- Most early navigators who touched upon the west coast
        of Florida must have encountered the Calusa but the first
        definite appearance of the tribe historically is in connection
        with shipwrecks of Spanish fleets, particularly the periodical
        treasure fleet from Mexico, upon the Calusa coast. These
        catastrophes threw numerous Spanish captives into the hands of
        the natives and along with them a quantity of gold and silver for
        which the Calusa shortly became noted. Ponce de Leon visited them
        in 1513, Miruelo in 1516, Cordova in 1517; and Ponce, during a
        later expedition in 1521, received from them a mortal wound from
        which he died after reaching Cuba. Most of our early information
        regarding the Calusa is obtained from Fontaneda (1854), who was
        held captive in the tribe from about 1561 to 1669. At the time
        when St. Augustine was settled attempts were made to establish a
        post among these Indians and to missionize them, but the post had
        soon to be withdrawn and the missionary attempt proved abortive.
        The Calusa do not seem to have been converted to Christianity
        during the entire period of Spanish control. While their
        treatment of castaways was restrained, in every other respect
        they appear to have continued their former manner of existence,
        except that they resorted more and more to Havana for purposes of
        trade. Outside of a steady diminution in numbers there is little
        to report of them until the close of the Seminole War. The
        Seminole, when hard pressed by the American forces, moved south
        into the Everglade region and there came into contact with what
        was left of the Calusa. Romans (1775) states that the last of the
        Calusa emigrated to Cuba in 1763, but probably the Indians who
        composed this body were from the east coast and were not true
        Calusa. The Calusa themselves appear about this time under the
        name Muspa, which, it will be seen, was the designation of one of
        their towns. On the movement of the Seminole into their country
        they became involved in hostilities with the American troops, and
        a band of Muspa attacked the camp of Colonel Harney in 1839
        killing 18, out of 30 men. July 23 of the same year Harney fell
        upon the Spanish Indians, killed their chief, and hung six of his
        followers,. The same band later killed a botanist named Perrine
        living on Indian Key and committed other depredations. The Calusa
        may have been represented by the "Choctaw band" of Indians, which
        appears among the Seminole shortly after this time. The Seminole
        now in Oklahoma assert that a body of Choctaw came west with them
        when they were moved from Florida, but the only thing certain as
        to the Calusa is that we hear no more about them. Undoubtedly
        some did not go west and either became incorporated with the
        Florida Seminole or crossed to Cuba.

        Population.- Mooney's (1928) estimate of 3,000 Calusa Indians in
        1650 is probably as near the truth as any estimate that could be
        suggested. No census and very few estimates of the population,
        even of the most partial character, are recorded. An expedition
        sent into the Calusa country in 1680 passed through 5 villages
        said to have had a total population of 960, but this figure can
        be accepted only with the understanding that these villages were
        principal centers. In the band that attacked Harney in 1839 there
        were said to be 250 Indians.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- When first
        discovered the Calusa were famous for the power of their chiefs,
        the amount of gold which they had obtained from Spanish treasure
        ships, and for their addiction to human sacrifice. Their name
        persists in that of Caloosahatchee River and probably also in
        that of Charlotte Harbor. Another claim to distinction is the
        adoption by their chief of the name of the great Emperor
        Charles- if that was indeed the case. The only similar instance
        would seem to be in the naming of the Delaware Indians, but that
        was imposed upon the Lenni Lenape, not adopted by them.

        Caparaz. A small tribe or band placed in 1674 in connection with
        a doctrine called San Luis on the Apalachee coast along with two
        other bands called Amacano and Chine. Possibly they may have
        been survivors of the Capachequi encountered by De Soto in 1540.
        The three bands were estimated to contain 300 people.

        Chatot. Meaning unknown, but the forms of this word greatly
        resemble the synonyms of the name Choctaw.

        Connections.- The language spoken by this tribe belonged,
        undoubtedly, to the southern division of the Muskhogean stock.

        Location.- West of Apalachicola River, perhaps near the middle
        course of the Chipola. (See also Georgia, Alabama, and Louisiana).


        From the names of two Spanish missions among them it would appear
        that there were at least two towns in early times, one called
        Chacato, after the name of the tribe, and the other Tolentino.

        History.- The Chatot are first mentioned in a Spanish document
        of 1639 in which the governor of Florida congratulates himself on
        having consummated peace between the Chatot, Apalachicola, and
        Yamasee on one side and the Apalachee on the other. This, he says,
        "is an extraordinary thing, because the aforesaid Chacatos never
        maintained peace with anybody." In 1674 the two missions noted
        above were established among these people, but the following year
        the natives rebelled. The disturbance was soon ended by the Spanish
        officer Florencia, and the Chatot presently settled near the
        Apalachee town of San Luis, mission work among them being
        resumed. In 1695, or shortly before, Lower Creek Indians attacked
        this mission, plundered the church, and carried away 42
        Christianized natives. In 1706 or 1707, following on the
        destruction of the Apalachee towns, the Chatot and several other
        small tribes living near it were attacked and scattered or
        carried off captive, and the Chatot fled to Mobile, where they
        were well received by Bienville and located on the site of the
        present city of Mobile. When Bienville afterward moved the
        seat of his government to this place he assigned to them land on Dog
        River by way of compensation. After Mobile was ceded to the
        English in 1763 the Chatot, along with a number of other small
        tribes near Hak City, moved to Louisiana. They appear to have
        settled first on Bayou Boeuf and later on Sabine River. Nothing
        is heard of them afterward though in 1924 some old Choctaw
        remembered their former presence on the Sabine. The remnant may
        have found their way to Oklahoma.

        Population.- I would estimate a population of 1,200-1,500 for the
        Chatot when they were first missionized (1674). When they were
        settled on the site of Mobile, Bienville (1932, vol 3, p. 536)
        says that they could muster 250 men, which would indicate a
        population of near 900, but in 1725-26 there were but 40 men and
        perhaps a total population of 140. In 1805 they are said to have
        had 30 men or about 100 people. In 1817 a total of 240 is
        returned by Morse (1822), but this figure is probably twice too

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Chatot are noted
        because at one time they occupied the site of Mobile, Ala., and
        because Bayou Chattique, Choctaw Point, and Choctaw Swamp close
        by that city probably preserve their name. The Choctawhatchee,
        which is near their former home, was probably named for them.

        Chiaha. A few Creeks of this tribe emigrated from their former
        towns to Florida before the Creek-American War and after that
        encounter may have been joined by others. In an early list of
        Seminole settlements they are credited with one town on "Beech
        Creek," and this may have been identical with Fulemmy's Town or
        Pinder Town located on Suwanee River in 1817, which was said to
        be occupied by Chiaha Indians. The Mikasuki are reported to have
        branched off from this tribe. (See Georgia.)

        Chilucan. A tribe mentioned in an enumeration of the Indians in
        Florida missions made in 1726. Possibly the name is derived from
        Muskogee chiloki, "people of a different speech," and since one
        of the two missions where they are reported was San Buenaventura
        and elsewhere that mission is said to have been occupied by
        Mocama Indians, that is, seacoast Timucua, a Timucuan connection
        is indicated. In the list mentioned, 70 Chilucan were said to be
        at San Buenaventura and 62 at the mission of Nombre de Dios.

        Chine. A small tribe or band associated with two others called
        Amncano and Caparaz (q.v.) in a doctrine established on the coast
        of the Apalachee country called San Luis. Other evidence suggests
        that Chine may be the name of a Chatot chief. Later they may
        have moved into the Apalachee country, for in a mission list dated
        1680 there appears a mission called San Pedro de los Chines. This
        tribe and the Amacano and Caparaz were said to number 300
        individuals in 1674.

        Creeks, see Alabama, Chiaha, Hitchiti, Mikasukee, Muskogee,
        Oconee, Sawokli, Tawasa, and Yuchi.

        Fresh Water ("Agua Dulce") Indians. A name applied to the people
        of seven to nine neighboring towns, and for which there is no
        native equivalent.

        Connections.- The same as Acuera (q.v.).

        Location - In the coast district of eastern Florida between St.
        Augustine and Cape Canaveral.


        The following towns are given in this province extending from
        north to south, but not all of the native names have been

        Anacape, said to have been 20 leagues south of St. Augustine.

        Antonico; another possible narne is Tunsa.

        Equale, location uncertain.

        Filache, location uncertain.

        Maiaca, a few leagues north of Gape Canaveral and on St. Johns

        Moloa, south of the mouth of St. Johns River (omitted from later

        San Julian, location uncertain.

        San Sebastian, on an arm of the sea near St. Augustine, destroyed
        in 1600 by a flood.

        Tocoy, given by one writer as 5 leagues from St. Augustine; by
        another as 24 leagues.

        The names Macaya and Maycoya, which appear in the neighborhood of
        the last of these are probably synonyms or corruptions of Maiaca,
        but there seems to have been a sister town of Maiaca at an early
        date which Fontaneda (1854) calls Mayajuaca or Mayjuaca. In
        addition to the preceding, a number of town names have been
        preserved which perhaps belong to places in this province. Some
        of them may be synonyms of the town names already given,
        especially of towns like Antonico and St. Julian, the native
        names of which are otherwise unknown. These include:

        Cacoroy, 1 1/2 leagues from Nocoroco.

        Caparaca, southwest of Nocoroco.

        Chimaucayo, south of St. Augustine.

        Cicale, 3 leagues south of Nocoroco.

        Colucuchia, several leagues south of Nocoroco.

        Disnica, probably south of St. Augustine, though not necessarily
        in the Fresh Water Province.

        Elanoguc, near Antonico.

        Malaca, south of Nocoroco.

        Mogote, in the region of Nocoroco.

        Nocoroco, one day's journey south of Matanzas Inlet and on a
        river called Nocoroco River, perhaps Halifax River.

        Perqumaland, south of the last mentioned; possibly two towns,
        Perqui and Maland.

        Pia, south of Nocoroco.

        Sabobche, south of Nocoroco.

        Tomeo, apparently near or in the Fresh Water province.

        Tucura, apparently in the same province as the last mentioned.

        Yaocay, near Antonico.

        History - The history of this province differed little from that
        of the other Timucua provinces, tribes, or confederacies. Ponce
        de Leon made his landfall upon this coast in 1613. The French had
        few dealings with the people but undoubtedly met them. Fontaneda
        (1814) heard of the provinces of Maiaca and Mayajuaca, and later
        there were two Spanish missions in this territory, San Antonio de
        Anacape and San Salvador de Maiaca. These appear in the mission
        list of 1655 and in that of 16,80 but from data given with the
        latter it is evident that Yamasee were then settled at Anacape.
        All of these Indians were converted rapidly early in the
        seventeenth century and the population declined with increasing
        celerity. The last body of Timucua were settled in this district
        and have left their name in that of Tomoka Creek. (See Utina.)

        Population - There are no data on which to give a separate and
        full statement of the Timucua population in this district. In
        1602, however, 200 Indians belonging to it had been Christianized
        and 100 more were under instruction. (See Acuera.)

        Guacata. Meaning unknown.

        Connections - On the evidence furnished by place names in this
        section, the tribe is classified with the south Florida peoples.

        Location - On or near Saint Lucie River in Saint Lucie and Palm
        Beach Counties.

        History - The Guacata are first mentioned by Fontaneda (1854),
        who in one place speaks of them as on Lake Mayaimi (Okeechobee)
        but this probably means only that they ranged across to the lake
        from the eastern seacoast. Shortly after his conquest of Florida
        Menendez left 200 men in the Ais country, but the Indians of that
        tribe soon rose against them and they moved to the neighborhood
        of the Guacata, where they were so well treated that they called
        the place Santa Lucia. Next year, however, these Indians rose
        against them and although they were at first defeated the
        Spaniards were so hard pressed that they abandoned the place in
        1568. They were still an independent body in the time of
        Dickenson, in 1699, but not long afterward they evidently united
        with other east coast bands, and they were probably part of those
        who emigrated to Cuba in 1763.

        Population - No separate estimate has ever been made. (See Ais.)

        Guale. In relatively late times many of these Indians were driven
        from their country into Florida. (See Georgia.)

        Hitchiti. The ancient home of the Hitchiti was north of Florida
        but after the destruction of the earlier tribes of the peninsula,
        in which they themselves participated, Hitchiti-speaking peoples
        moved in in great numbers to take their places, so that up to the
        Creek-American War, the Hitchiti language was spoken by the
        greater number of Seminole. The later immigration, as we have
        indicated above, reduced the Hitchiti element to a minority
        position, so that what we now call the Seminole language is
        practically identical with Muskogee. True Hitchiti as
        distinguished from Hitchiti-speaking peoples who bore other
        names, do not appear to have been very active in this early
        movement though Hawkins (1848) mentions them as one of those
        tribes from which the Seminole were made up. The Hitchiti
        settlement of Attapulgas or Atap'halgi and perhaps other of the
        so-called Fowl Towns seem to represent a later immigration into
        the peninsula. (See Georgia.)

        Icafui. Meaning unknown.

        Connections - They were undoubtedly of the Timucuan group though
        they seem to have been confused at times with a tribe called
        Cascangue which may have been related to the Muskogee or
        Hitchiti. On the other hand, Cascangue may have been another name
        of this tribe, possibly one employed by Creeks or Hitchiti.

        Location - On the mainland and probably in southeastern Georgia
        near the border between the Timucua and the strictly Muskhogean


        Seven or eight towns are said to have belonged to this tribe but
        the names of none of them are known with certainty.

        History - Icafui seems to be mentioned first by the Franciscan
        missionaries who occasionally passed through it on their way to
        or from interior peoples. It was a "visita" of the missionary at
        San Pedro (Cumberland Island). Otherwise its history differed in
        no respect from that of the other Timucuan tribes. (See Utina.)

        Population - Separate figures regarding this tribe are wanting.
        (See Utina.)

        Jeags. Meaning unknown.

        Connections - The Jeaga are classed on the basis of place names
        and location with the tribes of south Florida, which were
        perhaps of the Muskhogean division proper.

        Location - On the present Jupiter Inlet, on the east coast of


        Between this tribe and the Tequesta the names of several
        settlements are given which may have belonged to one or both of
        them, viz: Cabista, Custegiyo, Janar, Tavuacio.

        History - The Jeaga tribe is mentioned by Fontaneda (1854) and by
        many later Spanish writers but it was of minor importance. Near
        Jupiter Inlet the Quaker Dickenson (1803), one of our best
        informants regarding the ancient people of the east coast of
        Florida, was cast ashore in 1699. In the eighteenth century, this
        tribe was probably merged with the Ais, Tequesta, and other
        tribes of this coast, and removed with them to Cuba. (See Ais.)

        Population - No separate enumeration is known. (See Ais.)

        Koasati. Appearance of a "Coosada Old Town" on the middle course
        of Choctawhatchee River on a map of 1823 shows that a band of
        Koasati Indians joined the Seminole in Florida, but this is all
        we know of them. (See Alabama.)

        Macapiras, or Amacapiras. Meaning unknown. A small tribe which
        was brought to the St. Augustine missions in 1726 along with some
        Pohoy, and so apparently from the southwest coast. There were
        only 24, part of whom died and the rest returned to their old
        homes before 1728.

        Mikasuki. Meaning unknown.

        Connections - These Indians belonged to the Hitchiti-speaking
        branch of the Muskhogean linguistic family. They are said by some
        to have branched from the true Hitchiti, but those who claim
        that they were originally Chiaha (q. v.) are probably correct.

        Location - Their earliest known home was about Miccosukee Lake in
        Jefferson County. (See also Oklahoma.)


        Alachua Talofa or John Hick'a Town, in the Alachua Plains,
        Alachua County.

        New Mikasuki, near Greenville in Madison County.

        Old Mikasuki, near Miccosukee Lake.

        History - The name Mikasuki appears about 1778 and therefore we
        know that their independent status had been established by that
        date whether they had separated from the Hitchiti or the Chiaha.
        They lived first at Old Mikasuki and then appear to have divided,
        part going to New Mikasuki and part to the Alachua Plains. Some
        writers denounce them as the worst of all Seminole bands, but it
        is quite likely that, as a tribe differing in speech from
        themselves, the Muskogee element blamed them for sins they
        themselves had committed. Old Mikasuki was burned by Andrew
        Jackson in 1817. Most Mikasuki seem to have remained in Florida
        where they still constitute a distinct body, the Big Cypress band
        of Seminole. Those who went to Oklahoma retained a distinct
        Square Ground as late as 1912.

        Population - Morse (1822) quotes a certain Captain Young to the
        effect that there were 1,400 Mikasuki in his time, about 1817.
        This figure is probably somewhat too high though the Mikasuki
        element is known to have been a large one. They form one entire
        band among the Florida Seminole.

        Connection which they have become noted - The Mikasuki attained
        prominence in the Seminole War. In the form Miccosukee their
        name has been applied to a lake in Jefferson and Leon Counties,
        Fla., and a post village in the latter county. In the form
        Mekusuky it has been given to a village in Seminole County, Okla.

        Mococo, or Mucoco. Meaning unknown.

        Connections - They belonged with little doubt to the Timucuan
        division of the Muskhogean linguistic stock.

        Location - About the head of Hillsboro Bay.


        None are mentioned under any other than the tribal name.

        History - The chief of this tribe gave asylum to a Spaniard named
        Juan Ortiz who had come to Florida in connection with the
        expedition of Narvaez. When Do Soto landed near the Mococo town
        its chief sent Ortiz with an escort of warriors to meet him.
        Ortiz afterward became De Soto's principal interpreter until his
        death west of the Mississippi, and the Mococo chief remained on
        good terms with the Spaniards as long as they stayed in the
        neighborhood. There are only one or two later references to the
        tribe. (See Utina.)

        Connection in which they have become noted - The contacts of the
        Mocogo with De Soto and his followers constitute their only claim
        to distinction.

        Muklasa. A small Creek town whose inhabitants were probably
        related by speech to the Alabama and Koasati. They are said
        to have gone to Florida after the Creek War. (See Alabama.)

        Muskogee. The first true Creeks or Muskogee to enter Florida seem
        to have been a body of Eufaula Indians who made a settlement
        called Chuko tcati, Red House, on the west side of the peninsula
        some distance north of Tampa Bay.{1} This was in 1761. Other
        Muskogee drifted into Florida from time to time, but the great
        immigration took place after the Creek-American War. The
        new-comers were from many towns, but more particularly those on
        the Tallapoosa River. They gave the final tone and the
        characteristic language to the Florida emigrants who had before
        been dominantly of Hitchiti connection, and therefore the
        so-called Seminole language is Muskogee, with possibly a few
        minor changes in the vocabulary. (See Alabama.)

        Ocale, or Etocale. Meaning unknown, but perhaps connected with
        Timucua tocala, "it is more than," a comparative verb.

        Connections - (See Acuera.)

        Location - In Marion County or Levy County north of the bend
        of the Withlacoochee River.


        Uqueten (first village approaching from the south), and perhaps

        History - This tribe is first mentioned by the chroniclers of the
        De Soto expedition. He passed through it in 1539 after crossing
        Withlacoochee River. Fontaneda also heard of it, and it seems to
        appear on De Bry's map of 1591. This is the last information that
        has been preserved.

        Population - Unknown. (See Acuera and Utina.)

        Connection in which they have become noted - Within comparatively
        modern times this name was adopted in the form Ocala as that of
        the county seat of Marion County, Fla. There is a place so called
        in Pulaski County, Ky.

        Ocita, see Pohoy.

        Oconee. After leaving the Chattahoochee about 1750 the Oconee
        moved into Florida and established themselves on the Alachua
        Plains in a town which Bartram calls Cuscowilla. They constituted
        the first large band of northern Indians to settle in Florida and
        their chiefs came to be recognized as head chiefs of the
        Seminole. One of these, Mikonopi, was prominent during the
        Seminole War, but the identity of the tribe itself is lost after
        that struggle. Another part of them seem to have settled for a
        time among the Apalachee (q.v.) (See Georgia.)

        Onatheaogua, In the narratives of Laudonniere and Le Moyne this
        appears as one of the two main Timucua tribes in the northwestern
        part of Florida, the other being the Hostaqua (or Yustaga).
        Elsewhere I have suggested that it may have covered the Indians
        afterward gathered into the missions of Santa Cruz de Tarihica,
        San Juan de Guacara, Santa Catalina, and Ajoica, where there were
        230 Indians in 1675, but that is uncertain. (See Utina.)

        Osochi. A Creek division thought to have originated in Florida.
        (See Alabama.)

        Pawokti. Meaning unknown.

        Connections - They were probably affiliated either with the
        Tawasa or the Alabama. In any case there is no reason to doubt
        that they spoke a Muskhogean dialect, using Muskhogean in the
        extended sense.

        Location - The earliest known location of the Pawokti seems to
        have been west of Choctawhatchee River, not far from the shores
        of the Gulf of Mexico. (See also Alabama.)

        History - Lamhatty (in Bushnell, 1908) assigns the Pawokti the
        above location before they were driven away by northern Indians,
        evidently Creeks, in 1706-7. Although the name does not appear in
        any French documents known to me, they probably settled near
        Mobile along with the Tawasa. At any rate we find them on Alabama
        River in 1799 a few miles below the present Montgomery and it is
        assumed they had been there from 1717, when Fort Toulouse was
        established. Their subsequent history is merged in that of the
        Alabama (q.v.).

        Population - (See Alabama.)

        Pensacola. Meaning "hair people," probably from their own tongue,
        which in that case was very close to Choctaw.

        Connections - The name itself, and other bits of circumstantial
        evidence, indicate that the Pensacola belonged to the Muskhogean
        stock and, as above noted, probably spoke a dialect close to

        Location - In the neighborhood of Pensacola Bay. (See also

        History - In 1528 the survivors of the Narvaez expedition had an
        encounter with Indians near Pensacola Bay who probably belonged
        to this tribe. It is also probable that their territory
        constituted the prince of Achuse or Ochus which Maldonado, the
        commander of De Soto's fleet, visited in 1539 and whence he
        brought a remarkably fine "blanket of sable fur." In 1559 a
        Spanish colony under Tristan de Luna landed in a port called "the
        Bay of Ichuse," (or "Ychuse") undoubtedly in the same province,
        but the enterprise was soon given up and the colonists returned
        to Mexico. The Pensacola tribe seems to be mentioned first by
        name in Spanish letters dated 1677. In 1686 we learn they were at
        war with the Mobile Indians. Twelve years afterward, when the
        Spanish post of Pensacola was established, it is claimed that the
        tribe had been exterminated by other peoples, but this is an
        error. It had merely moved farther inland and probably toward the
        west. They are noted from time to time, and in 1725-6 Bienville
        (1932, vol. 3, p. 536) particularly describes the location of
        their village near that of the Biloxi of Pearl River. The last
        mention of them seems to be in an estimate of Indian population
        dated December 1, 1764, in which their name appears along with
        those of six other small tribes. They may have been incorporated
        finally into the Choctaw or have accompanied one of the smaller
        Mobile tribes into Louisiana near the date last mentioned.

        Population - In 1725 (or 1726) Bienville (1932, vol. 3, p. 536)
        says that in the Pensacola village and that of the Biloxi
        together, there were not more than 40 men. The enumeration
        mentioned above, made in 1764, gives the total population of this
        tribe and the Biloxi, Chatot, Capinans, Washa, Chawasha, and
        Pascagoula collectively as 251 men.

        Connection in which they have become noted - Through the adoption
        of their name first for that of Pensacola Bay and secondly for
        the port which grew up upon it, the Pensacola have attained a
        fame entirely disproportionate to the aboriginal importance of
        the tribe. There are places of the name in Yancey County, N. C.,
        and Mayes County, Okla.

        Pohoy, Pooy, or Posoy. Meaning unknown.

        Connections - They were evidently closely connected with the
        Timucuan division of the Muskhogean linguistic stock.
        (See Utina).

        Location - On the south shore of Tampa Bay.

        Towns - (See History.)

        History - This tribe, or a part of the same, appears first in
        history under the names Oc-ta or Ucita as a "province" in the
        territory of which Hernando de Soto landed in 1539. He
        established his headquarters in the town of the head chief on
        June 1, and when he marched inland on July 15 he left a captain
        named Calderon with a hundred men to hold this place pending
        further developments. These were withdrawn at the end of November
        to join the main army in the Apalachee country. In 1612 these
        Indians appear for the first time under the name Pohoy or Pooy in
        the account of an expedition to the southwest coast of Florida
        under an ensign named Cartaya. In 1675 Bishop Calderon speaks of
        the "Pojoy River," and in 1680 there is a passing reference to
        it. Some time before 1726 about 20 Indians of this tribe were
        placed in a mission called Santa Fe, 9 leagues south of St.
        Augustine, but they had already suffered from an epidemic and
        by 1728 the remainder returned to their former homes.
        (See Utina.)

        Population - In 1680 the Pohoy were said to number 300.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The only claim of
        the Pohoy to distinction is derived from their contacts with the
        expedition of De Soto.

        Potano. Meaning unknown.

        Connections - (See Utina.)

        Location - In the territory of the present Alachua County.


        The following places named in the De Soto narratives probably
        belonged to this tribe- Itaraholata or Ytara, Potano,
        Utinamocharra or Utinama,, Cholupaha, and a town they called
        Mala-Paz. A letter dated 1602 mentions five towns, and on and
        after 1606, when missionaries reached the tribe, stations were
        established called San Francisco, San Miguel, Santa Anna, San
        Buenaventura, and San Martin(?). There is mention also of a
        mission station called Apalo.

        History - The name Potano first appears as that of a province
        through which De Soto passed in 1539. In 1564-65 the French
        colonists of Florida found this tribe at war with the Utina and
        assisted the latter to win a victory over them. After the
        Spaniards had supplanted the French, they also supported the
        Utina in wars between them and the Potano. In 1584 a Spanish
        captain sent to invade the Potano country was defeated and slain.
        A second expedition, however, killed many Indians and drove them
        from their town. In 1601 they asked to be allowed to return to it
        and in 1606 missionary work was undertaken among them resulting
        in their conversion along with most of the other Timucua peoples.
        Their mission was known as San Francisco de Potano and it appears
        in the mission lists of 1655 and 1680. In 1656 they took part in
        a general Timucuan uprising which lasted 8 months. In 1672 a
        pestilence carried off many and as the chief of Potano does not
        appear as signatory to a letter written to Charles II by several
        Timucua chiefs in 1688, it is possible their separate identity
        had come to an end by that date. Early in the eighteenth century
        the Timucua along with the rest of the Spanish Indians of Florida
        were decimated rapidly and the remnant of the Potano must have
        shared their fate. (See Utina.)

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimates the number of Potano
        Indians at 3,000 in 1650 and this is probably fairly accurate, as
        the Franciscan missionaries state that they were catechizing
        1,100 persons in the 5 towns belonging to the tribe in 1602. In
        1675 there were about 160 in the 2 Potano missions. (See Acuera
        and Utins.)

        Connection in which they have become noted - The Potano tribe was
        anciently celebrated as, with one or two possible exceptions, the
        most powerful of all the Timucua peoples.

        Saturiwa. Meaning unknown.

        Connections - (See Utina.)

        Location - About the mouth of St. Johns River. Some early
        writers seem to include Cumberland Island in their jurisdiction.


        Laudonniere (1586) says that the chief of this tribe ruled over
        30 subchiefs, but it is uncertain whether these subchiefs
        represented villages belonging to the tribe, allied tribes, or
        both The Spaniards give the following: San Juan del Puerto, the
        main mission for this province under which were Vera Cruz,
        Arratobo, Potayn, San Matheo, San Pablo, Hicnchirico ("Little
        Town"), Chinisca, and Garabay. San Diego de Salamototo, near the
        site of Picolata, on which no villages seem to have depended; and
        Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, 3 leagues from St. Augustine, may be
        classed here somewhat uncertainly.

        History - The Saturiwa were visited by Jean Ribault in 1562 and
        probably by earlier explorers, but they appear first under their
        proper name in the chronicles of the Huguenot settlement of
        Florida of 1564-5. Fort Caroline was built in the territory of
        the Saturiwa and intimate relations continued between the French
        and Indians until the former were dispossessed by Spain. The
        chief, known as Saturiwa at this time, assisted De Gourgues in
        1567 to avenge the destruction of his countrymen. It is perhaps
        for this reason that we find the Spaniards espousing the cause of
        Utina against Saturiwa 10 years later. The tribe soon submitted
        to Spain, however, and was one of the first missionized, its
        principal mission being San Juan del Puerto. There labored
        Francisco de Pareja to whose grammar and religious works we are
        chiefly indebted for our knowledge of the Timucua language
        (Pareja, 1612, 1613, 1866). Like the other Florida Indians,
        they suffered severely from pestilence in 1617 nnd 1672. The name
        of their chief appears among those involved in the Timucua
        rebellion of 1656, and the names of their missions appear in the
        list of Bishop Calderon and in that of 1680. We hear nothing more
        of them, and they evidently suffered the same fate as the other
        tribes of the group.

        Population - No separate figures for the Saturiwa have been
        preserved, except that a missionary states in 1602 that there
        were about 500 Christians among them and in 1675 San Juan del
        Puerto contained "about thirty persons" and Salamototo "about
        forty." (See Utina.)

        Connection in which they have become noted - The prominence of
        the Saturiwa was due to the intimate dealings between them and
        the French colonists. Later the same people, though not under the
        same name, became a main support of the Spanish missionary
        movement among the Florida Indians.

        Sawokli. A division of Creek Indians belonging to the
        Hitchiti-speaking group. Anciently it seems to have lived
        entirely in Florida, but later it moved up into the neighborhood
        of the Lower Creeks. (See Alabama.)

        Seminole. Meaning "one who has camped out from the regular
        towns," and hence sometimes given as "runaway," but there is too
        much onus in this rendering. Prof. H. E. Bolton believes it was
        adopted from Spanish cimarron meaning "wild."

             Ikanafaskslgi, "people of the point," a Creek name.
             Ikanihksalgi, "peninsula people," own name.
             Isti seminole, "Seminole people."
             Lower Creeks, so called by Bartram (1792).
             Ungiayo-rono "peninsula people," Huron name.

        Connections - As implied above, the Seminole removed from the
        Creek towns and constituted just before the last Seminole War a
        fair representation of the population of those towns: perhaps
        two-thirds Creek proper or Muskogee, and the remaining third
        Indians of the Hitchiti-speaking towns, Alabama, Yamasee, and
        besides a band of Yuchi, latterly a few of the original Indian
        inhabitants of southern Florida.

        Location - The Seminole towns were first planted about
        Apalachicola River, in and near the old Apalachee country and in
        the Alachua country in the central part of the State, although a
        few were scattered about Tampa Bay and even well down the east
        coast as far south as Miami. They did not enter the Everglade
        section of the State until toward the end of the last Seminole
        War. As a result of that war, the greater part were removed to
        the territory now constituting Seminole County, Okla. A few
        remained in the old territory and their descendants are there


        Ahnpopka, near the head of Ocklawaha River.

        Ahosulga, 5 miles south of New Mikasuki, perhaps in Jefferson

        Alachua, near Ledwiths Lake.

        Alafiers, probably a synonym for some other town name, perhaps
        McQueen's Village, near Alafia River.

        Alapaha, probably on the west side of the Suwannee just above its
        junction with the Allapaha.

        Alligator, said to be a settlement in Suwannee County.

        Alouko, on the east side of St. Marks River 20 miles north of St.

        Apukasasoche, 20 miles west of the head of St. Johns River.

        Attapulgas first Iwation, west of Apalachicola River in Jackson
        or Calhoun Counties; second location inland in Gadsden County.

        Beech Creek, exact location unknown.

        Big Cypress Swamp, in the "Devil's Garden" on the northern edge

        of Big Cypress Swamp, 15 to 20 miles southwest of Lake

        Big Hammock, north of Tampa Bay.

        Bowlegs' Town, chief's name, on Suwannee River and probably known
        usually under another name.

        Bucker Woman's Town, on Long Swamp east of Big Hammocok.

        Burges' Town, probably on or near Flint or St. Marys River,
        southwestern Georgia.

        Calusahatchee, on the river of the same name and probably
        occupied by Calusa Indians.

        Capola, east of St. Marks River.

        Catfish Lake, on a small lake in Polk County nearly midway
        between Lake Pierce and Lake Rosalie, toward the headwaters of
        Kissimmee River.

        Chefixico's Old Town, on the south side of Old Tallahassee Lake,
        5 miles east of Tallahassee.

        Chetuckota, on the west bank of Pease Creek, below Pease Lake,
        west central Florida.

        Choconikla, on the west side of Apalachicola River, probably in
        Jackson County.

        Chohalaboohulka, probably identical with Alapaha.

        Chukochati, near the hammock of the same name.

        Cohowofooche, 23 miles northwest of St. Marks.

        Cow Creek, on a stream about 15 miles northeast of the entrance
        of Kissimmee River.

        Cuscowilla (see Alachua).

        Etanie, west of St. Johns River and east of Black Creek.

        Etotulga, 10 miles east of Old Mikasuki.

        Fish-eating Creek, F, miles from a creek emptying into Lake

        Fulemmy's Town, perhaps identical with Beech Creek, Suwannee

        EIatchcalamocha, near Drum Swamp, 18 miles west of New Mikasuki.

        Hiamonee, on the east bank of Ockiocknee River, probably on Lake

        Hitchapuksassi, about 20 miles from the head of Tampa Bay and 20
        miles south-east of Chukochati.

        Homosassa, probably on Homosassa River.

        Iolee, 60 miles above the mouth of Apalachicola River on the west
        bank at or near Blountstown.

        John Hicks' Town, west of Payne's Savannah.

        King Heijah's Town, or Koe Hadjo's Town, consisted of Negro
        slaves, probably in Alachua County.

        Lochchiocha, 60 miles east of Apalaohicola River and near
        Ocklocknee River.

        Loksachumpa, at the head of St. Johns River.

        Lowwalta (probably for Liwahali), location unknown.

        McQueen's Village, on the east side of Tampa Bay, perhaps
        identical with Alafiers.

        Miami River, about 10 miles north of the site of Fort Dallas, not
        far from Biscayne Bay, on Little Miami River.

        Mulatto Girl's Town, south of Tuscawilla Lake.

        Negro Town, near Withlacoochee River, probably occupied largely
        by runaway slaves.

        New Mikasuki, 30 miles west of Suwannee River, probably in
        Madison County.

        Notasulgar, location unknown.

        Ochisi, at a bluff so called on the east side of Apalachicola

        Ochupocrassa, near Miami.

        Ocilla, at the mouth of Aucilla River on the east side.

        Oclackonayahe, above Tampa Bay.

        Oclawaha, on Ocklawaha River, probably in Putnam County.

        Oithlakutci, on Little River 40 miles east of Apalachicola River.

        Okehumpkee, 60 miles southwest from Volusia.

        Oktahatki, 7 miles northeast of Sampala.

        Old Mikasuki, near Miccosukee in Leon County.

        Oponays, "back of Tampa Bay," probably in Hillsboro or Polk

        Owassissas, on an eastern branch of St. Marks River and probably
        near its head.

        Payne's Town, near Koe Hadjo's Town, occupied by Negroes.

        Picolata, on the east bank of St. Johns River west of St.

        Pilaklikaha, about 120 miles south of Alachua.

        Pilatka, on or near the site of Palatka, probably the site of a
        Seminole town and of an earlier town as well.

        Red Town, at Tampa Bay.

        Sampala, 26 miles above the forks of the Apalachicola on the west
        bank, in Jackson County, or in Houston County, Ala.

        Santa Fe, on the river of the same name, perhaps identical with

        Sarasota, at or near Sarasota.

        Seleuxa, at the head of Aucilla River.

        Sitarky, evidently named after a chief, between Camp Izard and
        Fort King, West Florida.

        Spanawalka, a miles below Iolee and on the west bank of
        Apalaehicola River.

        Suwannee, on the west bank of Suwannee River in Lafayette County.

        Talakhacha, on the west side of Cape Florida on the seacoast.

        Tallahassee, on the site of present Tallahassee.

        Tallahassee or Spring Gardens, 10 miles from Volusia, occupied by

        Talofa Okhase, about 30 miles west southwest from the upper part
        of Lake George.

        Taluschapkoapopka, a short distance west of upper St. Johns
        River, probably at the present Apopka.

        Tocktoethla, 10 miles above the junction of Chattahoochee and
        Flint Rivers.

        Tohopki lagi, probably near Miami.

        Topananaulka, 3 miles west of New Mikasuki.

        Topkegalga, on the east side of Ocklocknee River near

        Totstalahoeetska, on the west side of Tampa Bay.

        Tuckagulga, on the east side of Ocklocknee River between it and

        Tuslalahockaka, 10 miles west of Walalecooche.

        Wacahoota, location unknown.

        Wachitokha, on the east side of Suwannee River between Suwannee
        and Santa Fe Rivers.

        Wakasassa, on the coast east of the mouth of Suwannee River.

        Wasupa, 2 miles from St. Marks River and 18 miles from St. Marks

        Wechotookme, location unknown.

        Weliks, 4 miles east of the Tallahassee town.

        Wewoka, at Wewoka, Okla.

        Willanoucha, at the head of St. Marks River, perhaps identical
        with Alouko.

        Withlacoochee, on Withlacoochee River, probably in Citrus or
        Sumter County.

        Withlako, 4 miles from Clinch's battle ground.

        Yalacasooche, at the mouth of Ocklawaha River.

        Yulaka, on the west side of St. Johns River, 35 miles from
        Volusia or Dexter.

        Yumersee, at the head of St. Marks River, 2 miles north of St.
        Marks, a settlement of Yamasee. (See Georgia.)

        History - The origin of the Seminole has already been given. The
        nucleus of the nation was constituted by a part of the Oconee,
        who moved into Florida about 1750 and were gradually followed by
        other tribes, principally of the Hitchiti connection. The
        first true Muskogee to enter the peninsula were some of the
        Indians of Lower Eufaula, who came in 1767 but these were mixed
        with Hitchiti and others. There was a second Muskogee immigration
        in 1778, but after the Creek-American War of 1813-14 a much
        greater immigration occurred from the Creek Nation, mainly from
        the Upper Towns, and as the great majority of the newcomers were
        Muskogee, the Seminole became prevailingly a Muskogee people,
        what is now called the Seminole language being almost pure
        Muskogee. Later there were two wars with the Whites; the first
        from 1817-18 in which Andrew Jackson lead the American forces;
        and the second, from 1835 to 1842, a long and bitter contest in
        which the Indinns demonstrated to its fullest capacity the
        possibilities of guerrilla warfare in a semitropical, swampy
        country. Toward the end of the struggle the Indians were forced
        from northern and central Florida into the Everglade section of
        tke State. This contest is particularly noteworthy on account of
        the personality of Osceola, the brains of Seminole resistance,
        whose capture by treachery is an ineffaceable blot upon all who
        were connected with it and incidentally upon the record of the
        American Army. Diplomacy finally accomplished what force had
        failed to effect -- the policy put in practice by Worth at the
        suggestion of General E.A. Hitchcock. The greater part of the
        hostile Indians surrendered and were sent to Oklahoma, where they
        were later granted a reservation of their own in the western part
        of the Creek Nation. Both the emigrants, who have now been
        allotted, and the small number who stayed behind in Florida have
        since had an uneventful history, except for their gradual
        absorption into the mass of the population, an absorption long
        delayed in the case of the Florida Seminole, but nonetheless

        Population - Before the Creek-American war the number of Seminole
        was probably about 2,000; after that date the best estimates give
        about 5,000. Exclusive of one census which seems clearly too high,
        figures taken after the Seminole war indicate a gradual reduction
        of Seminole in Oklahoma from considerably under 4!000 to 2,500 in
        1851. A new census, in 1857, gave 1,907, and after that time
        little change is indicated though actually the amount of Indian
        blood was probably declining steadily. In Florida the figures
        were: 370 in 1847, 348 in 1850, 450 in 1893, 565 in 1895, 358 in
        1901, 446 in 1911, 600 in 1913, 562 in 1914, 573 in 1919, 586 in
        1937. In 1930 there were 1,789 in Oklahoma, 227 in Florida, and
        32 scattered in other States.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The chief claim of
        this tribal confederation to distinction will always be the
        remarkable war which they sustained against the American Nation,
        the losses in men and money which they occasioned having been out
        of all proportion to the number of Indians concerned. The county
        in Oklahoma where most of the Seminole were sent at the end of
        the great war bears their name, as does a county in Florida, and
        it will always be associated with the Everglade country, where
        they made their last stand. Towns or post villages of the name
        are in Baldwin County, Ala.; Seminole County, Okla.; Armstrong
        County, Pa.; and Gaines County, Tex.

        Surruque. Meaning unknown.

        Connections - Somewhat doubtful, but they were probably of the
        Timucuan linguistic group. (See Utina.)

        Location - At or very close to Cape Canaveral.

        History - The Surruque appear first in history as the "Sorrochos"
        of Le Moyne's map (1875), and his "Lake Sarrope" also probably
        derived its name from them. About the end of the same century,
        the sixteenth, trouble arose between them and the Spaniards, in
        consequence of which the Spanish governor fell upon a Surruque
        town, killed 60 persons and captured 54. Later they probably
        united with the Timucua people and shared their fortunes.

        Population - No estimate is possible. (See Utina.)

        Tacstacuru. The meaning is unknown, though it seems to have
        something to do with "fire" (taca).

        Connection - (See Utina.)

        Location - On Cumberland Island to which the name Tacatacuru was


        It is probable that the same name was used for its chief town,
        which was missionized by the Spaniards under the name of San
        Pedro Mocama. Under this mission were those of Santo Domingo and
        Santa Maria de Sena.

        History - The chief of Tacatacuru (now Cumberland Island), or of
        the neighboring mainland, met Jean Ribault in 1562 and seems to
        have remained on good terms with the French during their
        occupancy of Fort Caroline in 1564-65. He, or a successor, is
        mentioned among those who joined De Gourgues in his attack upon
        the Spaniards in 1567, but soon afterward they made peace with
        Spain and one chief, Don Juan, was of great assistance to the
        white men in many ways, particularly in driving back the Guale
        Indians after their rising in 1597. This chief died in 1600, and
        was succeeded by his niece. The church built by these Indians was
        said to be as big as that in St. Augustine. The good relations
        which subsisted between the Tacatacuru Indians and the Spaniards
        do not appear to have been broken by the Timucua rebellion of
        1656. By 1675 the tribe had abandoned Cumberland Island and it
        was occupied by Yamnsee. The mission of San Pedro Mocama
        consequently does not appear in the mission list of 1680,
        although it is in that of 1655.{2} The tribe was subsequently
        amalgamated with the other Timucua peoples and shared their
        fortunes. (See Utina.)

        Population - There is no estimate of the number of Tacatacuru
        distinct from that of the other Timucua. The missionary stationed
        among them in 1602 notes that there were then 8 settlements and
        792 Christianized Indians in his province, but this province may
        not have been confined to the tribe. In that year Santo Domingo
        served 180 Christians and Santa Maria de Sena 112.

        Tawasa. Meaning unknown.

        Connections - They spoke a dialect belonging to the Timucuan
        division of the Muskhogean linguistic family, intermediate
        between Timucua proper and Choctaw, Hitchiti, Alabama, and

        Location - In 1706-7 in west Florida about the latitude of the
        junction of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers; at an earlier
        time and again later they were on the Alabama near the present
        Montgomery. (See also Louisiana.)


        They usually occupied only one town at Autauga on Autauga Creek
        in the southeastern part of Autnuga County, Ala., is said to have
        belonged to them.

        History - De Soto found the Tawasa near the Montgomery site in
        1540. Some time during the next century and a half they moved to
        the neighborhood of Apalachicola River, but in 1707 they were
        attacked by the Creeks, who captured some of them, while the
        greater part fled to the French and were by them given lands near
        the present Mobile. They occupied several different sites in that
        neighborhood but in 1717 they moved back to the region where
        De Soto found them, their main village being in the northwestern
        suburbs of the present Montgomery. After the Treaty of Fort
        Jackson in 1814, they were compelled to abandon this place and
        move into the Creek territories between the Coosa and Talapoosa
        Rivers, where they remained until the main migration beyond the
        Mississippi. Previous to this, some of them had gone with other
        Alabama into Louisiana and they followed their fortunes. The name
        was remembered by Alabama in Polk County, Tex., until within a
        few years.

        Population - The French census of 1760 returned 40 Tawasa men
        and the Georgia census of 1792 "about 60." The census of 1832-33
        gives 321 Indians in towns called Tawasa and Autauga, but all of
        these were quite certainly not Tawasa Indians in the strict
        application of that term. (See Alabama.)

        Connection in which they have become noted - The Tawasa tribe
        will be remembered ethnologically on account of the rescue of so
        much important information regarding the early history of
        themselves and their neighbors through the captive Indian
        Lamhatty (in Bushnell, 1908), who made his way into Virginia in
        1708, and on account of the still more important vocabulary
        obtained from him.

        Tekesta or Tequesta. Meaning unknown.

        Connections - The language of this tribe was probably connected
        with the languages of the other peoples of the southeast coast
        of Florida and with that of the Calusa, and may have been

        Location - In the neighborhood of Miami.


        Besides Tekesta proper, the main town, four villages are
        mentioned between that and the next tribe to the north, the
        Jeagn, to whom some of the villages may have belonged. These
        were, in order from south to north: Tavuacio, Janar, Cabista, and

        History - The Tekesta do not appear in history much before the
        time of Fontaneda, who was a captive among the Calusa from 1551
        to 1569. In 1566 we learn that they protected certain Spaniards
        from the Calusa chief, although the latter is sometimes regarded
        as their overlord. A post was established in their country in
        1566 but abandoned 4 years later. Attempts made to convert them
        to Christianity at that time were without success. In 1573 they
        are said to have been converted by Pedro Menendez Marques, but
        later they returned to their primitive beliefs. It was these
        Indians who, according to Romans (1775), went to Cuba in 1763
        along with some others from this coast.

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1650 there were
        1,000 Indians on the southeast coast of Florida. According to
        Romans those who went to Cuba in 1763 had 30 men. Adair (1775)
        says there were 80 families.

        Connection in which they have become noted - Although the name
        has found no topographical lodgement, the Tekesta may be
        remembered as the earliest known body of people to occupy the
        site of Miami.

        Tocobaga. Meaning unknown, though toco means in Timucua "to
        come out," "to proceed from."

        Connections - (See Utina.)

        Location - About Old Tampa Bay.


        The main town was at or near Safety Harbor at the head of Old
        Tampa Bay.

        History - Narvaez probably landed in the territory of this tribe
        in 1528, but his chroniclers speak of meeting very few Indians.
        Eleven years later De Soto's expedition disembarked just south in
        Tampa Bay but came into little contact with this tribe. Two years
        after driving the French from St. Johns River in 1565, Menendez
        visited Tocobaga, and left a captain and 30 soldiers among them,
        all of whom were wiped out the year following. In 1612 a Spanish
        expedition was sent to punish the chiefs of Pohoy and Tocobaga
        because they had attacked Christian Indians, but spent little
        time in the latter province. There is no assured reference to a
        mission nearer than Acuera, nor do the Tocobaga appear among the
        tribes which participated in the great Timucua revolt of 1656.
        Ultimately it is probable that they joined the other Timucua and
        disappeared with them, though they may have united with the
        Calusa. It is also possible that they are the "Tompacuas" who
        appear later in the Apalachee country, and if so they may have
        been the Indians placed in 1726 in a mission near St. Augustine
        called San Buenaventura under the name "Macapiras" or
        "Amacapiras." (See Utina.)

        Population - Unknown. (See Utina.)

        Connection in which they have become noted - The principal claim
        to notoriety on the part of the Tocobaga is the fact that Narvaez
        landed in their country in 1528.

        Ucita, see Pohoy.

        Utina or Timucua. The first name, which probably refers to the
        chief and means "powerful," is perhaps originally from uti,
        "earth," while the second name, Timucua, is that from which the
        linguistic stock, or rather this Muskhogean subdivision of it,
        has received its name.

        Connections - As given above.

        Location - The territory of the Utina seems to have extended from
        the Suwanneo to the St. Johns and even eastward of the latter,
        though some of the subdivisions given should be rated as
        independent tribes. (See Timocua under Georgia.)


        Laudonniere (1586) states that there were more than 40 under the
        Utina chief, but among them he includes "Acquera" (Acuera) and
        Moquoso far to the south and entirely independent, so that we are
        uncertain regarding the status of the others he gives, which are
        as follows. Cadechn, Calnnay, Chilili, Eclauou, Molona,
        Omittaqua, and Onachaquara.

        As the Utina, with the possible exception of the Potano, was the
        leading Timucua division and gave its name to the whole, and as
        the particular tribe to which each town mentioned in the
        documents belonged cannot be given, it will be well to enter all
        here, although those that can be placed more accurately will be
        inserted in their proper places.

        In De Soto's time Aguacaleyquen or Caliquen seems to have been
        the principal town. In the mission period we are told that the
        chief lived at Ayaocuto.

        Acassa, a town inland from Tampa Bay.

        Aguacaleyquen, a town in the province of Utina between Suwannee
        and Santa Fe Rivers.

        Ahoica, probably near the Santa Fe River.

        Alachepoyo, inland from Tampa Bay.

        Alatico, probably on Cumberland Island.

        Albino, 40 leagues or 4 days inland from St. Augustine and within
        1 1/2 to 2 leagues of two others called Tucuro and Utiaca.

        Alimacani, on an island of the same name not far north of the
        mouth of St. Johns River.

        Amaca, inland from Tampa Bay.

        Anacapa, in the Fresh Water Province 20 leagues south of St.

        Anacharaqua, location unknown.

        Antonico, in the Fresh Water Province.

        Apalu, in the province of Yustaga.

        Arapaja, 70 leagues from St. Augustine, Probably on Alapaha

        Araya, south of the Withlacoochee River.

        Archaha, location unknown.

        Assile, on or near Aucilla River.

        Astina, location unknown.

        Atuluteca, probably near San Pedro or Cumberland Island.

        Ayacamale, location unknown.

        Ayaocute, in the Utina country 34 leagues from St. Augustine.

        Ayotore, inland from Cumberland Island and probably southwest.

        Beca, location unknown.

        Becao, location unknown.

        Bejesi, location unknown, perhaps the Apalachee town of Wacissa.

        Cachipile, 70 leagues west of St. Augustine.

        Cacoroy, south of St. Augustine and 1 1/2 leagues from Nocoroco,
        probably in the Fresh Water Province.

        Cadecha, allied with Utina.

        Calany, allied with Utina.

        Caparaca, south of St. Augustine, southwest of nocoroco and
        probably in the Fresh Water Province.

        Casti, location unknown.

        Cayuco, near Tampa Bay.

        Chamini, 70 leagues west of St. Augustine.

        Chimaucayo, south of St. Augustine.

        Chinica, 70 leagues from St. Augustine.

        Cholupaha, south of Aguacaleyquen in the Potano Province.

        Chuaquin, 60 leagues west of St. Augustine.

        Cicale, south of St. Augustine and 3 leagues south of Nocoroco,
        perhaps in the Fresh Water Province.

        Cilili, said to be a Utina town.

        Colucuchia, several leagues south of Nocoroco.

        Coya, location unknown.

        Disnica, south of St. Augustine, perhaps should be Tisnica.

        Ecalamototo, on the site of Picolata.

        Ecita, near Tampa Bay, possibly a variant of Ocita.

        Eclsuou, location unknown.

        Edelano, on an island of the same name in St. Johns River.

        Elajay, location unknown, perhaps Calusa.

        Elanogue, in the Fresh Water Province near Antonico.

        Emola, location unknown.

        Enecaque, location unknown.

        Equale, in the Fresh Water Province.

        Ereze, inland from Tampa Bay.

        Esquega, a town or tribe on the west coast.

        Exangue, near Cumberland Island.

        Filache, in the Fresh Water Province.

        Guacara, on Suwannee River in northwestern Florida.

        Guacoco, probably a town on a plain so called in the Urriparacoxi

        Heliocopile, location unknown.

        Helmacape, location unknown.

        Hicachirico ("Little town"), one league from the mission of San
        Juan del Puerto, which was probably at the mouth of St. Johns
        River in the Saturiwa Province.

        Hiocaia, the probable name of a town giving its name to a chief,
        location unknown.

        Huara, inland from Cumberland Island.

        Itaraholata, south of Potano, Potano Province.

        Juraya, a rancheria, apparently in the Timucua territory.

        Laca, another name for Ecalamototo.

        Lamale, inland from Cumberland Island.

        Luca, between Tampa Bay and the Withlacoochee River in the
        Urriparacoxi country.

        Machaba, 64 leagues from St. Augustine, near the northern border
        of the Timucua country inland.

        Maiaca, the town of the Fresh Water Province most distant from
        St. Augustine, a few leagues north of Cape Canaveral and on St.
        Johns River.

        Malaca, south of Nocoroco.

        Marracou, location unknown.

        Mathiaqua, location unknown.

        Mayajuaca, near Maiaca.

        Mayaru, on lower St. Johns River.

        Mocama, possibly a town on Cumberland Island, province of
        Tacatacuru, but probably a province.

        Mogote, south of St. Augustine in the region of Nocoroco.

        Moloa, on the south side of St. Johns River near its mouth,
        province of Saturiwa.

        Napa, on an island one league from Cumberland Island.

        Napituca, north of Aguacaleyquen, province of Utina.

        Natobo, a mission station and probably native town 2 1/2 leagues
        from San Juan del Puerto at the mouth of St. Johns River,
        province of Saturiwa.

        Nocoroeo, at the mouth of a river, perhaps Halifax River, one
        day's journey south of Matanzas Inlet, Fresh Water Province.

        Ocale, in a province of the same name in the neighborhood of the
        present Ocala.

        Ocita, probably on Terra Ceia Island, on Hillsborough Bay.

        Onathaqua, a town or tribe near Cape Canaveral.

        Osigubede, a chief and probably town on the west coast.

        Panara, inland from Cumberland Island.

        Parca, location unknown.

        Patica, on the seacoast 8 leagues south of the mouth of St. Johns

        Patica, on the west bank of St. Johns River in the Utina

        Pebe, a chief and probably a town on the west coast.

        Pentoaya, at the head of Indian River.

        Perquymaland, south of Nocoroco; possibly the names of two towns,
        Perqui and Maland, run together.

        Pia, on the east coast south of Nocoroco.

        Pitano, a mission station and probably a native town a league and
        a half from Puturiba.

        Pohoy, a town or province, or both, at Tampa Bay, and perhaps a
        synonym of Ocita.

        Potano, the principal town of the Potano tribe, on the Alachua

        Potaya, 4 leagues from San Juan del Puerto at the mouth of St.
        Johns River.

        Puala, near Cumberland Island.

        Punhuri, inland from Cumberland Island.

        Puturiba, probably near the northern end of Cumberland Island,
        province of Tacatacuru. There was another town of the same name
        west of the Suwannee River.

        Sabobche, near the coast south of Nocoroco.

        Saint Julian, in the Fresh Water Province.

        San Mateo, about 2 leagues from San Juan del Puerto at the mouth
        of St. Johns River, province of Saturiwa.

        San Pablo, about 1 1/2 leagues from San Juan del Puerto, province
        of Saturiwa.

        San Sebastian, on an arm of the sea near St. Augustine.

        Sarauahi, a quarter of a league from San Juan del Puerto.

        Sena, on an "inlet" north of the mouth of St. Johns River,
        perhaps Amelia River.

        Siyagueche, near Cape Canaveral.

        Socochuno, location unknown.

        Soloy, not far from St. Augustine and probably on the river
        called Seloy by the French.

        Surruque, a town or tribe near Cape Canaveral.

        Tacatacuru, the name of Cumberland Island and Province, and
        perhaps of the chief town, on the mainland side of the island
        near the southern end, 2 leagues from the Barra de San Pedro.

        Tafocole, inland from Tampa Bay.

        Tahupa, inland from Cumberland Island.

        Tanpacaste, a chief and perhaps town north of Pohoy, i. e., north
        of Tampa Bay.

        Tarihica, 54 leagues from St. Augustine, and perhaps in the
        Onatheaqua Province.

        Tocaste, on a large lake south of the Withlacoochee River,
        province of Urriparacoxi.

        Tocoaya, very near Cumberland Island.

        Tocobaga, the chief town of the province so called, in Safety

        Harbor, Tampa Bay.

        Tocoy, in the Fresh Water Province 5 leagues south of St.

        Tolapatafi, probably toward the west coast of the peninsula of
        Florida near Aucilla River.

        Toloco, location unknown.

        Tomeo, near the Fresh Water Province.

        Tucura, near the Fresh Water Province.

        Tucuro, see Abino.

        Tunsa, possibly a synonym of Antonico.

        Ucachile, a town or tribe in the Yustaga Province, perhaps the
        mother town of the Osochi.

        Uqueten, the southernmost village of the province of Ocale on
        Withlacoochee River entered by De Soto.

        Urica, 60 leagues from St. Augustine.

        Uriutina, just north of the river of Aguacaleyquen, perhaps at
        Lake City.

        Urubia, near Cape Canaveral and 1 1/2 leagues from the town of

        Utayne, inland from Cumberland Island.

        Utiaca, see Abino.

        Utichini, inland from Cumberland Island and within a league and a
        half of Puturiba.

        Utinamocharra, 1 day's journey north of Poiano, Potano Province.

        Vera Cruz, half a league from San Juan del Puerto, province of

        Vicela, a short distance south of Withlacoochee River, province
        of Urriparacoxi.

        Xapuica, near the Guale country, perhaps a synonym of Caparaca.

        Xatalalnno, inland from Cumberland Island.

        Yaocay, near Antonico in the Fresh Water Province.

        Yeapalano, inland from Cumberland Island and probably within half
        a league or a league of Puturiba.

        Yufera, inland and probably northwest from Cumberland Island.

        History - The Utina were evidently those Indians occupying the
        province called Aguacaleyquen which De Soto passed through in
        1539. In 1564 the French came in contact with them after the
        establishment of Fort Caroline. On one occasion they sent a
        contingent to help them defeat the neighboring Potano. After the
        Spaniards had supplanted the French, the Timucua allied
        themselves with the former and in 1576 or 1577 a body of soldiers
        was sent to support them against several neighboring tribes. They
        were missionized at a comparatively early date, and afterward
        followed the fortunes of the rest of the Timucua.

        Following is a brief over-all sketch of the history of the tribes
        constituting the Timucuan group. They first came into contact
        with Europeans during Ponce de Leon's initial expedition in 1513
        when the peninsula and subsequently the State received its name.
        Narvaez in 1525 and De Soto in 1539 passed through the country of
        the western tribes. Ribault visited those on and near St. Johns
        River in 1562, and the French settlers of Fort Caroline on that
        river in 1564-65 were in close contact with them. A considerable
        part of our knowledge regarding these Indians is contained in the
        records of that colony. The Spaniards supplanted the French in
        1565 and gradually conquered the Timucua tribes while the
        Franciscans missionized them. Our knowledge of the Timucua
        language is derived mainly from religious works by the
        missionaries Pareja and Mouilla and a grammar compiled by the
        former. During the early half of the seventeenth century the
        missions were in a flourishing condition but a general rebellion
        in 1656 occasioned some losses by death and exile. They also
        suffered severely from pestilences which raged in the missions in
        1613-17, 1649-50, and 1672. It is probable that some decline in
        population took place even before the great rebellion but that
        and the epidemics occasioned considerable losses. Toward the end
        of the seventeenth century, however, all the Florida Indians
        began to suffer from the invasion of Creek and Yuchi Indians to
        the northward, and this was accentuated after the break-up of the
        Apalachee in 1704 by the expedition under Moore. Most of the
        remaining Timucua were then concentrated into missions near St.
        Augustine, but this did not secure immunity against further
        attacks by the English and their Indian allies. Sometime after
        1736 the remnants of these people seem to have removed to a
        stream in the present Volusia County which in the form Tomoka
        bears their name. Here they disappear from history, and it is
        probable that they were swallowed up by the invading Seminole.

        Population - The Timucua, in the wide extent of the term, are
        estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 13,000 in 1650
        including 3,000 Potano, 1,000 Hostaqua, 8,000 Timucua proper and
        their allies, and 1,000 Tocobaga. In a letter dated February 2,
        1635, it is asserted that 30,000 Christian Indians were connected
        with the 44 missions then maintained in the Guale and Timucua
        provinces. While this figure is probably too high, it tends to
        confirm Mooney's (1928) estimate. In 1675 Bishop Calderon of
        Cuba states that he confirmed 13,152 in the four provinces of
        Timucua, Guale, Apalache, and Apalachicoli, but Governor Salazar
        estimates only 1,400 in the Timucua missions that year. Later,
        pestilences decimated the Timucua very rapidly, and their ruin
        was completed by attacks of the English and the northern Indians,
        so that by 1728 the single town which seems to have contained
        most of the survivors had but 15 men and 20 women. Eight years
        later 17 men were reported there. Not long after this time the
        tribe disappears entirely, though it is highly probable that
        numbers of individuals who had belonged to it had made their
        homes with other Indians.

        As to the Utina tribe by itself, we have a missionary letter
        dated 1602 which estimates its population as 1,500, in this case
        probably an understatement.

        Connection in which they have become noted - This tribe, known as
        the Utina or Timucua, is noteworthy (1) for having given its name
        to the peoples of the Timucuan or Timuquanan stock now regarded
        as part of the Muskogean family, and (2) as having been, next
        perhaps to the Potano, the most powerful tribe constituting that

        The Timucuan group has left its name in that of the river above

        Yamasee. Some tribes affiliated with the Yamasee settled in the
        Apalachee country in the latter part of the seventeenth century.
        The great body came to Florida from South Carolina after their
        war with the English colonists in 1715, and most of them remained
        in the northeastern part of the peninsula. Their final appearance
        is as the Ocklawaha band of Seminole. Part of them moved west,
        however, and settled near Mobile, and either this or a third
        party lived among the Creeks for a time, after which they seem to
        have returned to west Florida, where they were represented by the
        "Yumersee" town of the Seminole. A considerable number of them
        were captured by the Creek Indians and incorporated with them.
        (See Georgia.)

        Yuchi. In the seventeenth century a body of Yuchi established
        themselves west of Apalachicola River, but moved north to join
        the Upper Creeks before 1761. At a much later date a body of
        eastern Yuchi joined the Seminole and in 1823 had a settlement
        called Tallahassee or Spring Gardens 10 miles from Volusia. They
        probably moved to Oklahoma at the end of the last Seminole war.
        (See Georgia.)

        Yufera. This is the name of a town or group of towns reported as
        located somewhere inland from Cumberland Island, nnd perhaps in
        the present territory of Georgia. The name is derived through
        Timucua informants but it may have referred to a part of the
        Muskogee tribe called Eufaula.

        Yui. Meaning unknown.

        Connections - (See Utina.)

        Location - On the mainland 14 leagues inland from Cumberland
        Island and probably in the southeastern part of the present state
        of Georgia.


        They had five villages but the names of these are either unknown
        or unidentifiable.

        History - The name of the Yui appears first in Spanish documents.
        They were visited by tbe missionary at San Pedro (Cumberland
        Island) and appear to have been Christianized early in the
        seventeenth century. No individual mission bore their name and
        they are soon lost sight of, their history becoming that of the
        other Timucua tribes.

        Population - The missionaries estimated more than 1,000 Indians
        in this province in 1602. (See Utins.)

        Yustags. Meaning unknown.

        Connections - No words of the Yustaga language have been
        preserved but circumstantial evidence indicates they belonged to
        the Timucuan branch of the Muskhogean linguistic stock, although
        occasionally the provinces of Timucua and Yustaga are spoken of
        as if distinct.

        Location - Approximately between Aucilla and Suwannee Rivers
        somewhat toward the coast.


        The Yustaga villages cannot be satisfactorily identified though
        the missions of Asile, San Marcos, Maohaba, and San Pedro seem to
        have belonged to it.

        History - The Yustaga are first mentioned by Biedma (in Bourne,
        1904), one of the chroniclers of De Soto, who gives the title to
        a "province" through which the Spaniards marched just before
        coming to Apalachee. While the French Huguenots were on St. Johns
        River, some of them visited this tribe, and later it is again
        mentioned by the Spaniards but no mission bears the name. Its
        history is soon merged in that of the Timucuan peoples generally.
        The last mention of the name appears to be in 1659. It is of
        particular interest as the province from which the Osochi Indians
        who settled among the Lower Creeks probably emigrated in 1656 or
        shortly afterward.

        Population - In 1675, 40 Indians were reported in the mission of
        Asile and 300 in each of the others, giving a total very close to
        Mooney's (1928) estimate of 1,000 as of the year 1600.


        {1} A possible exception to this statement was the temporary
        entrance of a small body of Coweta Indians under Secoffee, or the

        {2} I have stated else where that the name of the mission was
        wanting in the list drawn up in 1655. I should have given the
        date as 1680.




        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Apalachee. After the English and Creeks destroyed the Apalachee
        towns in Florida in 1,704, they established a part of the tribe
        in a village not far below the present Augusta. In 1715, when the
        Yamasee War broke out, these Apalachee joined the hostile Indians
        and went to the Chattahoochee to live near that faction of the
        Lower Creeks which was favorable to Spain. Soon afterward,
        however, the English faction gained the ascendancy among the
        Creeks, and the Apalachee returned to Florida (See Florida.)

        Apalachicola. From Hitchiti "Apalachicoli" or Muskogee
        "palachicolo," signifying apparently "People of the other side,"
        with reference probably to the Apalachicola River or some nearby
        stream. Also called:

             Talwa lako or Italwa lako, "big town," name given by the
        Muskogee Indians.
             Palachicola or Parachukla, contractions of Apslachicola.

        Connections.- This was one of those tribes of the Muskhogean
        linguistic stock which spoke the Atsik-hata or Hitchiti language,
        and which included in addition the Hitchiti, Okmulgee, Oconee,
        Sawokli, Tamali, Mikasuki, Chiaha, and possibly the Osochi (but
        see Osochi).

        Location.- The earliest known home of the Apalachicola was near
        the river which bears their name in the center of the Lower Creek
        country. Later they lived for a considerable period at the point
        where it comes into existence through the junction of the
        Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers. (See also Alabama and Florida.)

                         Subdivisions and Villages

        The following names of towns or tribes were given by a Tawasa
        Indian, Lamhatty, to Robert Beverley (1722) and may well have
        belonged to the Apalachicola:

        Auledley, Ephippick, Sonepah, and perhaps Socsooky (or Socsosky).
        The census of 1832 returned two distinct bodies of Indians under
        the synonyms Apalaechicola and Talwa lako.

        History.- According to Muskogee legend, the ancestors of the
        Muskogee encountered the Apalachicola in the region above
        indicated when they entered the country, and they were at first
        disposed to fight with them but soon made peace. According to one
        legend the Creek Confederacy came into existence as a result of
        this treaty. Spanish documents of the seventeenth century are the
        earliest in which the name appears. It is there used both as the
        name of a town (as early as 1675) and, in an extended sense, for
        all of the Lower Creeks. This fact, Muskogee tradition, and the
        name Talwa lako all show the early importance of the people. They
        were on more friendly terms with the Spaniards than the Muskogoe
        generally and hence were fallen upon by the Indian allies of the
        English and carried off, either in 1706 or 1707. They were
        settled on Savannah River opposite Mount Pleasant, at a place
        which long bore their name, but in 1716, just after the Yarnasee
        War, they retired into their old country and established them-
        selves at the junction of Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers. Later
        they moved higher up the Chattahoochce and lived in Russell
        County, Ala., remaining in the general neighborhood until they
        removed to new homes in the present Oklahoma in 1836-40. There
        they established themselves in the northern part of the Creek
        Reservation but presently gave up their ceremonial ground and
        were gradually absorbed in the mass of Indians about them.

        Population.- In 1715 just before the outbreak of the Yamasee War,
        there were said to be 2 settlements of this tribe with 64
        warriors and a total population of 214. A Spanish census of 1738
        also gave 2 settlements with 60 warriors in one and 45 in the
        other; a French census of 1750, more than 30 warriors; a British
        enumeration of 1760, 60; one of 1761, 20; an American estimate of
        1792, 100 (including the Chiaha); and the United States Census of
        1832, a total population of 239 in 2 settlements.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Apalachicola River,
        Apalachicola Bay, and the name of the county seat of Franklin
        County, Fla., are derived from this tribe. The Spaniards applied
        their name to the Lower Creeks generally, and they were also
        noted as one of the tribes responsible for the formation of the

        Chatot. Some of these Indians lived at times in the southwest
        corner of this State. (See Florida.)

        Ckerokee. From early times the Cherokee occupied the northern and
        northeastern parts of Georgia, though from certain place names it
        seems probable that they had been preceded in that territory by
        Creeks. (See Tennessee.)

        Chiaha. Meaning unknown though it may contain a reference to
        mountains or highlands. (Cf. Choctaw and Alabama tcaha, Hitchiti
        tcaihi, "high.") Also called:

             Tolameco or Solameco, which probably signifies "big town," a
        name reported by the Spaniards.

        Connections.- The Chiaha belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic
        stock and in later times spoke the Muskogee tongue, but there is
        every reason to class them in the Hitchiti group. (See

        Location.- In later historic times the Chiaha were on the middle
        course of Chattahoochee River, but at the earliest period at
        which we have any knowledge of them they seem to have been
        divided into two bands, one on Burns Island, in the present State
        of Tennessee, the other in eastern Georgia near the coast. (See
        also South Carolina and Florida.)


        The Mikasuki of northern Florida are said to have separated from
        these people.


        Hawkins (1848) gives the following:

        Aumucculle, on a creek of the same name which enters Flint River
        "45 miles below Timothy Barnard's."

        Chiahutci, Little Chiaha, a mile and a half west of the Hitchiti
        town, near Auhegee Creek.

        Hotalgihuyana, occupied jointly with the Osochi, on the right
        bank of Flint River 6 miles below Kinchafoonee.

        History.- Some confusion regarding this tribe has been occasioned
        by the fact that in the sixteenth century there appear to have
        been two divisions. The name first appears in the De Soto
        narratives applied to a "province" on an island in Tennessee
        River which J. Y. Brame has identified in a very satisfactory
        manner with Burns Island close to the Tennessee-Alabama line.
        They were said to be "subject to a chief of Coca," from which it
        may perhaps be inferred that the Creek Confederacy was already in
        existence. Early in 1567 Boyano, Juan Pardo's lieutenant, reached
        this town with a small body of soldiers and constructed a fort,
        Pardo joining him in September. When Pardo returned to Santa
        Elena shortly afterward he left a small garrison here which was
        later destroyed by the Indians. Possibly Chehawhaw Creek, an
        eastern affluent of the Coosa indicates a later location of this
        band. The only remaining reference which might apply to them
        occurs in the names of two bodies of Creeks called "Chehaw" and
        "Chearhaw" which appear in the census rolls of 1832-33, but they
        may have gotten their designations from former residences on or
        near the creek so called. In 1727 there was a tradition among the
        Cherokee that the Yamasee Indians were formerly Cherokee driven
        out by the Tomahitans, i. e., the Yuchi, and in this there may be
        some reminiscence of the fate of the Chiaha.

             In the Pardo narratives the name "Lameco or Solameco" is
        given as a synonym for the northern Chiaha, and this may have
        been intended for Tolameco, which would be a Creek term meaning
        "Chief Town." This was also the name of a large abandoned
        settlement near Cofitachequi on the middle course of Savannah
        River visited by De Soto in 1540. Since we know that Chiaha were
        also in this region, it is a fair supposition that this town had
        been occupied by people of this connection. There is a Chehaw
        River on the South Carolina coast between the Edisto and
        Combahee, and as "Chiaha" is used once as an equivalent for
        Kiawa, possibly the Cusabo tribe of that name may have been
        related. Moreover, we are informed (S. C. Docs.) that the Chiaha
        had their homes formerly among the Yamasee. In 1715 they withdrew
        to the Chattahoochee with other upper Creek towns, probably from
        a temporary abode on Ocmulgee River. After the Creeks moved to
        Oklahoma the Chiaha settled in the northeastern corner of the
        Creek Reservation and maintained a square ground there until
        after the Civil War, but they have now practically lost their
        identity. Some of them went to Florida and the Mikasuki are said
        by some Indians to have branched off from them. In the country of
        the western Seminole there was a square ground as late as 1929
        which bore their name.

        Population.- There are no figures for the northern band of Chiaha
        unless they could have been represented in the two towns of the
        1832-33 census given above, which had total populations of 126
        and 306 respectively. For the southern division a Spanish census
        of 1738 gives 120 warriors but this included also the Osochi and
        Okmulgee. In 1750 only 20 were reported, but in 1760, 160, though
        an estimate the following year reduces this to 120. In 1792
        Marbury gives 100 Chiaha and Apalachicola, and the census of
        1832-33 returned 381 of the former. In 1799 Hawkins states that
        there were 20 Indian families in Hotalgi-huyana, a town occupied
        jointly by this tribe and the Osochi, but in 1821 Young raises
        this to 210. He gives 670 for the Chiaha proper.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Chiaha tribe is
        of some note on account of the prominence given to one branch of
        it in the De Soto narratives. As above mentioned, its name,
        spelled Chehawhaw, is applied to a stream in the northern part of
        Talladega County, Ala.; it is given in the form Chehaw to a post
        hamlet of Macon County, Ala.; to a stream in Colleton County, S.
        C.; and also to a small place in Seminole County, Okla.

        Ckickasaw. A band of Chickasaw lived near Augusta from about 1723
        to the opening of the American Revolution, and later they were
        for some time among the Lower Creeks. (See Mississippi and South

        Creeks. A part, and perhaps a large part, of the Indians who
        afterward constituted the Creek Confederacy were living in the
        sixteenth century in what the Spaniards called the province of
        Guale on the present Georgia coast. Some of them moved inland in
        consequence of difficulties with the Whites, and in the latter
        half of the seventeenth century most of those afterward known as
        Lower Creeks were upon Chattahoochee and Ocmulgee Rivers, the
        latter river being then called Ocheese Creek, from the Hitchiti
        name given to the Indians living on it. After the Yamasee War
        (1715) all assembled upon Chattahoochee River and continued
        there, part on the Georgia side of the river, part on the Alabama
        side, until they removed to the present Oklahoma early in the
        nineteenth century (see Creek Confederacy and Muskogee under

        Guale. Meaning unknown, though it resembles Muskogee wnhali, "the
        south," but it was originally applied to St. Catherines Island,
        or possibly to a chief living there. Also called:

        Ouade, a French form of Guale.

        Ybaha, Yguaja, Ibaja, Iguaja, Yupaha, Timucua name.

        Connections.- The names of villages and the title "mico" applied
        to chiefs leave little doubt that these Indians belonged to the
        Muskhogean linguistic family. Part of them were probably true
        Creeks or Muskogee. (See Alabama). Their nearest, connections
        otherwise appear to have been with the Cusabo Indians. (See South

        Location.- the Georgia coast between St. Andrews Sound and
        Savannah River, though the section between St. Catherines Sound
        and Savannah seems to have been little occupied. (See also


        Three rough divisions appear to be indicated by Governor Ibarra
        of Florida, but this is very uncertain (See below under


        So far as they can be made out, the villages in each of the three
        groups mentioned above were as follows:

        Northern group:

             Asopo, apparently a form of Ossabaw but stated to have been
        on St. Catherines Island.
             Couexis, given in the French narratives as near St.
             Guale, not, it appears, on the island of that name but "on
        an arm of a river which is a branch of another on the north bank
        of the aforesaid port in Santa Elena in 32 degrees N. lat.,"
        probably on Ossabaw Island.
             Otaxe (Otashe).
             Posache, "in the island of Guale."
             Tolomato, said to have been on the mainland 2 leagues from
        St. Catherines Island and near the bar of Sapello.
             Uchilape, "near Tolomato."
             Yfusinique, evidently on the mainland.
             Yoa, said to have been 2 leagues up a river emptying into an
        arm of the sea back of Sapello and St. Catherines Sound.

        Central group:

             Aleguifa, near Tulufina.
             Chucalagaite, near Tulufina.
             Epogache, near Espogue.
             Espogue, not more than 6 leagues from Talaxe.
             Fasquiche, near Espogue.
             Sapala, evidently on or near Sapello Island.
             Tulufina, probably on the mainland.
             Tupiqui, probably the original of the name Tybee, but this
        town was very much farther south.

        Southern group:

             Asao, probably on St. Simons Island.
             Cascangue, which seems to have been reckoned as Timucua at
        times and hence may have been near the Timucua border.
             Fuloplata, possibly a man's name.
             Talaxe, probably on St. Simons Island or on the Altamaha
        River, both of which were known by the name Talaxe.

        To the above must be added the following town names which cannot
        be allocated in any of the preceding divisions:

             Olatachahane, perhaps a chief's name.
             Olatapotoque, given as a town, but perhaps a chief's name
             Olataylitaba, perhaps two names run together, Olata and

        History.- The last settlement of the Ayllon colony in 1526 was on
        or near the Guale country, as the name Gualdape suggests. When
        the French Huguenot colony was at Port Royal, S. C., in 1562,
        they heard of a chief called Ouade and visited him several times
        for provisions. After the Spaniards had driven the French from
        Florida, they continued north to Guale and the Cusnbo territory
        to expel several Frenchmen who had taken refuge there. In 1569
        missionary work was undertaken by the Jesuits simultaneously
        among the Cusabo and Guale Indians and one of the missionaries,
        Domingo Augustin, wrote a grammar of the Guale language. But the
        spiritual labors of the missionaries proved unavailing, and they
        soon abandoned the country. In 1573 missionary work was resumed
        by the Franciscans and was increasingly successful when in 1597
        there was a general insurrection in which all of the missionaries
        but one were killed. The governor of Florida shortly afterward
        burned very many of the Guale towns with their granaries, thereby
        reducing most of the Indians to submission, and by 1601 the
        rebellion was over. Missionary work was resumed soon afterward
        and continued uninterruptedly, in spite of sporadic insurrections
        in 1608 and 1645 and attacks of northern Indians in 1661, 1680,
        nnd even earlier. However, as a result of these attacks those of
        the Guale Indians who did not escape inland moved, or were moved,
        in 1686, to the islands of San Pedro, Santa Maria, and San Juan
        north of St. Augustine. Later another island called Santa Cruz
        was substituted for San Pedro. The Quaker, Dickenson, who was
        shipwrecked on the east coast of Florida in 1699, visited these
        missions on his way north. At the time of the removal some Guale
        Indians appear to have gone to South Carolina, and in 1702 a
        general insurrection of the remainder took place, and they joined
        their kinsmen on the outskirts of that colony under the
        leadership of the Yamasee. A few may have remained in Florida. In
        any event, all except those who had fled to the Creeks were
        united after the outbreak of the Yamasee in 1715 and continued to
        live in the neighborhood of St. Augustine until their virtual
        extinction. In 1726 there were two missions near St. Augustine
        occupied by Indians of the "Iguaja nation," i. e., Guale, but
        that is the last we hear of them under any name but that of the
        Yamasee (q. v.).

        Population.- Mooney (1928), who was not aware of the distinction
        to be drawn between the Guale Indians and the Yamasee, gives an
        estimate of 2,000 Guale in the year 1650. For the two tribes this
        is probably too low. The Guale alone, before they had been
        depleted by White contact and Indian invasions from the north,
        might well have numbered 4,000, but some of these were later added
        to the Creeks. In 1602 the missionaries claimed that there were
        more than 1,200 Christians in the Guale province, and in 1670 the
        English estimated that the Spanish missions contained about 700
        men. The first accurate census of the Yamasee and Gunle Indians
        together, made in 1715, perhaps omitting some few of the latter
        still in Florida, gives 413 men and a total population of 1,215.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Aside from the
        abortive missionary undertakings of The friars who accompanied
        Coronado, and a short missionary experience among the Calusa, the
        provinces of Guale and Orista (Cusabo) were the first north of
        Mexico in which regular missionary work was undertaken, and the
        grammar of the Guale language by Domingo Augustin was the first
        of any language in that region to be compiled.

        Hitchiti. Perhaps from Atcik-hata, a term formerly applied to all
        of the Indians who spoke the Hitchiti language, and is said to
        refer to the heap of white ashes piled up close to the ceremonial
        ground. Also called:

             At-pasha-shliha, Koasati name, meaning "mean people."

        Connections.- The Hitchiti belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic
        family and were considered the mother town of the Atcik-hata
        group. (See Apalachicola.)

        Location.- The Hitchiti are often associated with a location
        in the present Chattahoochee County, Ga., but at an earlier
        period were on the lower course of the Ocmulgee River. (See also
        Florida and Oklahoma.)


        Hihnje, location unknown.

        Hitchitoochee, on Flint River below its junction with
        Kinchafoonee Creek.

        Tuttallosee, on a creek of the same name, 20 miles west from

        History.- The Hitchiti are identifiable with the Ocute of De
        Soto's chroniclers, who were on or near the Ocmulgee River. Early
        English maps show their town on the site of the present Macon,
        Ga., but after 1715 they moved to the Chattahoochee, settling
        first in Henry County, Ala., but later at the site above
        mentioned in Chattahoochee County, Ga. From this place they moved
        to Oklahoma, where they gradually merged with the rest of the
        Indians of the Creek Confederacy.

        Population.- The population of the Hitchiti is usually given in
        conjunction with that of the other confederate tribes. The
        following separate estimates of the effective male Hitchiti
        population are recorded: 1738, 60; 1750, 15; 1760, 50; 1761, 40;
        1772, 90; in 1832 the entire population was 381.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- In early days, as
        above mentioned, the Hitchiti were prominent as the leaders in
        that group of tribes or towns among the Lower Creeks speaking a
        language distinct from Muskogee. Hichita, McIntosh County, Okla.,
        preserves the name.

        Kasihta. One of the most important divisions of the Muskogee,
        possibly identical with the Cofitachequi of the De Soto
        narratives. (See Muskogee under Alabama.)

        Oconee. Significance unknown.

        Connections.- The Oconee belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic
        stock, and the Atcik-hata group. (See Apalachicola.)

        Location.- Just below the Rock Landing on Oconee River, Ga. (But
        see also Florida.)

        History.- Early documents reveal at least two bodies of Indians
        bearing the name Oconee and probably related. One was on or near
        the coast of Georgia and seems later to have moved into the
        Apalachee country and to have become fused with the Apalachee
        tribe before the end of the seventeenth century. The other was at
        the point above indicated, on Oconee River. About 1685 they were
        on Chattahoochee River, whence they moved to the Rock Landing. A
        more northerly location for at least part of the tribe may be
        indicated in the name of a Cherokee town, though that may have
        been derived from a Cherokee word as Mooney supposed. About 1716
        they moved to the east bank of the Chattahoochee in Stewart
        County, Ga., and a few years later part went to the Alachua
        Plains, in the present Alachua County, Fla., where they became
        the nucleus of the Seminole Nation and furnished the chief to
        that people until the end of the Seminole war. Most of them were
        then taken to Oklahoma, but they had already lost their identity.

        Population.- The following estimates of effective Oconee men in
        the Creek Nation are preserved: 1738, 50; 1750, 30; 1760, 50;
        1761, 50. In 1675 there were about 200 Indians at the Apalachee
        Mission of San Francisco de Oconi.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name Oconee is
        perpetuated in the Oconee River, the town of Oconee, Oconee
        Mills, and Oconee Siding, all in Georgia, but not necessarily in
        the name of Oconee County, S. C., which is of Cherokee origin,
        although there may be some more remote relationship. There is a
        place of the name in Shelby County, Ill.

        Okmulgee. Signifying in the Hitchiti language, "where water boils
        up" and referring probably to the big springs in Butts County,
        Ga., called Indian Springs. Also called:

             Waiki lako, "Big Spring," Muskogee name.

        Connections.- The Okmulgee belonged to the Muskhogean linguistic
        stock and the Atsik-hata group. (See Apalachicola under Georgia.)

        Location.- In the great bend of the Chattahoochee River, Russell
        County, Ala.; earlier, about the present Macon, Ga. (See also
        Alabama and Oklahoma.)

        History.- The Okmulgee probably separated from the Hitchiti or
        one of their cognate towns when these towns were on Ocmulgee
        River and settled at the point above indicated, where they became
        closely associated with the Chiaha and Osochi. They went west
        with the other Creeks and reestablished themselves in the most
        northeastern part of the allotted territory, where they gradually
        lost their identity. Although small in numbers, they gave the
        prominent Perryman family to the Creek Nation and its well-known
        head chief, Pleasant Porter.

        Population.- A French census of about 1750 states that there were
        rather more than 20 effective men among the Okmulgee, and the
        British census of 1760 gives 30. Young, quoted by Morse,
        estimates a total population of 220 in 1822. There are few other
        enumerations separate from the general census of the Creeks.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The name of the city
        of Okmulgee and that of Ocmulgee River were derived independently
        from the springs above mentioned. The name Okmulgee given to the
        later capital of the Creek Nation in what is now Oklahoma was,
        however, taken from the tribe under consideration. It has now
        become a flourishing oil city.

        Osochi. A division of the Lower Creeks which lived for a time in
        southwestern Georgia. (See Alabama.)

        Sawokli. A division of the Creeks belonging to the group of towns
        that spoke the Hitchiti language. (See Alabama.)

        Shawnee. The Shawnee band which settled near Augusta concerns
        South Carolina and Georgia almost equally. Their history has
        already been given in treating the tribes of the former State.
        (See also Tennessee.)

        Tamathli. The name is possibly related to that of a Creek clan
        with the Hitchiti plural ending, in which case it would refer to
        "flying creatures," such as birds.

        Connections.- Tamathli belonged to the Atsik-hata group in the
        Creek Confederation.

        Location.- The historic seats of the Tamathli were in
        southwestern Georgia and neighboring parts of Florida.

        History.- It is believed that we have our first mention of the
        Tamathli in the Toa or Toalli of the De Soto narratives. When De
        Soto passed through Georgia in 1540, it is believed that this
        tribe was living at Pine Island in Daugherty County. They may
        have been connected with the Altamaha Yamasee living between
        Ocmulgee and Oconee Rivers whose name sometimes appears in the
        form Tama. They afterward drifted into Florida and were
        established in a mission called La Purificacion de la Tama on
        January 27, 1675, by Bishop Calderon of Cuba, in the Apalachee
        country 1 league from San Luis. In a mission list dated 1680
        appears the name of another mission, Nuestra Sehora de la
        Candelaria de la Tama. The Tamathli suffered the same fate as the
        Apalachee in general when the latter were attacked by Moore in
        1704. At least part of these Indians afterward moved to the
        neighborhood of St. Augustine, where another mission was
        established for them, but this was attacked by the Creeks on
        November 1, 1725, while mass was being celebrated. Many Indians
        were killed and the remainder moved to other missions. In 1738 we
        hear of a "Tamaxle nuevo," as the northernmost Lower Creek
        settlement and a southern division called "Old Tamathle," and are
        informed that "in the town of Tamasle in Apalachee [i. e., Old
        Tamathle] there were some Catholic and pagan families." We hear
        again of these Tamathli Indians from Benjamin Hawkins (1848),
        writing in 1799, who sets them down as one of the tribes entering
        into the formation of the Florida Seminole. A town of the same
        name also appears in the Cherokee country "on Valley River, a few
        miles above Murphy, about the present Tomatola, in Cherokee
        County, N.C." The name cannot be interpreted in Cherokee and
        there may once have been a northern division of the Tamathli.

        Population.- The Spanish census dated 1738 enters Old Tamathli,
        with 12 men, and New Tamathli with 26, but the latter probably
        was in the main a Sawokli settlement. The French estimate of 1750
        entered only the former town with 10 men. In Young's enumeration
        of Seminole towns (in Morse, 1822) this is given a total
        population of 220.

        Timucua. One contact between the Timucua Indians and Georgia is
        mentioned later in connection with the Osochi. When the Spaniards
        first came in contact with them, the Timucua occupied not merely
        northern and central Florida but Cumberland Island and a part of
        the adjacent mainland. The Timucua evidently withdrew from this
        territory as a result of pressure exerted by northern Indians in
        the latter part of the seventeenth century or the very beginning
        of the eighteenth. (See Utina under Florida.)

        Yamasee. Meaning unknown, though it has been interpreted by
        Muskogee yamasi, "gentle." The form given in some early writings,
        Yamiscaron, may have been derived from a Siouan dialect or from

        Connections.- The Yamasee town and chief names indicate plainly
        that they spoke a Muskhogean dialect and tradition affirms that
        it was connected most closely with Hitchiti, a contention which
        may be considered probable.

        Location.- The earliest references that we have place the Yamasee
        on Ocmulgee River not far above its junction with the Oconee.
        They seem to have ranged or extended northeastward of these
        rivers to or even slightly beyond the Savannah, but always
        inland. (See also Florida, Alabama, South Carolina.)

                           Subdivisions and Villages

        Immediately before the outbreak of the Yamasee War there were the

        Upper Towns:

             Huspaw, near Huspaw Creek between Combahee River and the
        Whale Branch.
             Pocotaligo, near Pocotaligo River.
             Sadkeche, probably near Salkehatchie, a hamlet at the
        Atlantic Coast Line crossing of the Combahee River.
             Tomatly, in the neighborhood of Tomatly, Beaufort County, S.C.
             Yoa, near Huspaw.

        Lower Towns:

             Altamaha, location unknown.
             Chasee, location unknown.
             Oketee, probably near one of the places so called on New
        River, in Jasper and
             Beaufort Counties, S.C.
             Tulafina (?), perhaps near Tulsfinny Creek, an estuary of
        the Coosawhatchie River in Jasper County.

        Other possible Yamasee settlements were Dawfuskee, Ilcombe, and

        History.- The first reference to the Yamasee appears to be a
        mention of their name in the form Yamiscaron as that of a
        province with which Francisco of Chicora was acquainted in 1521.
        The "Province of Altamaha" mentioned by De Soto's chronicler
        Ranjel in 1540 probably included at least a part of the Yamasee
        people. For a hundred years afterward the tribe remained
        practically unnoticed except for a brief visit by a Spanish
        soldier and two missionaries in 1597, but in 1633 they are
        reported to have asked for missionaries, and in 1639 peace is
        said to have been made between the allied Chatot, Lower Creeks,
        and Yamasee and the Apalachee. In 1675 Bishop Calderon of Cuba
        founded two missions in the Apalachee country which were occupied
        by Yamasee or their near relatives. The same year there were
        three Yamasee missions on the Atlantic coast but one of these may
        have been occupied by Tamathli. Later they moved nearer St.
        Augustine but in the winter of 1684-85 some act of the Spanish
        governor offended them and they removed to South Carolina, where
        the English gave them lands on the west side of Savannah River
        near its mouth. Some of these Indians were probably from the old
        Guale province, but the Yamasee now took the lead. Eighty-seven
        warriors of this nation took part in Barnwell's expedition
        against the Tuscarora (see North Carolina). In 1715 they rose in
        rebellion against the English and killed two or three hundred
        settlers but were defeated by Governor Craven and took refuge in
        Florida, where, until the cession of Florida to Great Britain.
        the Yamasee continued as allies of the Spaniards. Meanwhile their
        numbers fell off steadily. Some remained in the neighborhood of
        the St. Johns River until the outbreak of the Seminole War.

             The Oklawaha band of Seminole is said to have been descended
        from them. Another band accompanied the Apalachee to Pensacola
        and Mobile, and we find them located near those two places on
        various charts. They may be identical with those who, shortly
        afterward, appear among the Upper Creeks on certain maps, though
        this is the only testimony we have of their presence there. At
        any rate, these latter are probably the Yamasee found among the
        Lower Creeks in the nineteenth century and last heard of among
        the Seminole of west Florida. Of some historical importance is a
        small band of these Indians who seem to have lived with the
        Apalachicola for a time, after the Yamasee War, and in 1730
        settled on the site of what is now Savannah under the name of
        Yamacraw. There the Georgia colonists found them three years
        later, and the relations between the two peoples were most
        amicable. The name Yamacraw was probably derived from that of a
        Florida mission, Nombre de Dios de Amacarisse, where some of the
        Yamnsee once lived. Ultimately these Yamacraw are believed to
        have retired among the Creeks and later may have gone to Florida.

        Population.- It is impossible to separate distinctly the true
        Yamasee from the Guale Indians. Mooney (1928) gives an estimate
        of 2,000 in 1650, probably too low. A mission list compiled by
        Gov. Salazar of Florida in 1675 gives 1,190 Yamasee and Tama. In
        1708 the two tribes, united under the name Yamasee, were thought
        to have 500 men capable of bearing arms. In 1715 a rather careful
        census gives 413 men and a total population of 1,215. Lists
        dating from 1726 and 1728 give 313 and 144 respectively in the
        missions about St. Augustine. A fairly satisfactory Spanish
        census, taken in 1736, indicates that there were then in the
        neighborhood of St. Augustine more than 360 Yamasee and Indians
        of Guale. This does not include the Yamasee near Pensacola and
        Mobile, those in the Creek Nation, or the Yamacraw. In 1761 a
        body of Yamasee containing 20 men was living near St. Augustine,
        but by that time the tribe had probably scattered widely. In 1821
        the "Emusas" on Chattahoochee River numbered 20 souls.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Yamasee are
        famous particularly on account of the Yamasee War, which marked
        an epoch in Indian and White history in the Southeast. At the end
        of the seventeenth century a certain stroke was used in paddling
        canoes along the coast of Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida,
        which was called the "Yamasee stroke." A small town in Beaufort
        County, S. C., is called "Yemasee," a variant of this name.

        Yuch. Significance unknown, but perhaps, as suggested by Speck
        (1909), from a native word meaning "those far away," or "at a
        distance," though it is also possible that it is a variant of
        Ochesee or Ocheese, which was applied by the Hitchiti and their
        allies to Indians speaking languages different from their own.
        Also called:

             Ani'-Yu'tsi, Cherokee name.
             Chiska, probably a Muskogee translation of the name of one
        of their bands.
             Hughchee, an early synonym.
             Round town people, a name given by the early English
             Rickohockans, signifying "cavelanders" (Hewitt, in Hodge,
        1907), perhaps an early name for a part of them.
             Tahogalewi, abbreviated to Hogologe, name given them by the
        Delaware and other Algonquian people.
             Tamahita, so called by some Indians, perhaps some of the
        eastern Siouans.
             Tsoyaha, "People of the sun," their own name, or at least
        the name of one band.
             Westo, perhaps a name applied to them by the Cusabo Indians
        of South Carolina though the identification is not beyond

        Connections.- The Yuchi constituted a linguistic stock, the
        Uchean, distinct from all others, though structurally their
        speech bears a certain resemblance to the languages of the
        Muskhogean and Siouan families.

        Location.- The earliest known location of the Yuchi was in
        eastern Tennessee, perhaps near Manchester, but some of them
        extended still farther east, while others were as far west as
        Muscle Shoals. On archeological grounds Prof. T. M. N. Lewis
        believes that one main center of the Yuchi was on Hiwassee River.
        We find settlements laid down on the maps as far north as Green
        River, Kentucky. In later times a part settled in West Florida,
        near the present Eucheeanna, and another part on Savannah and
        Ogeechee Rivers. (See also Alabama, Florida, Oklahoma, Tennessee,
        and South Carolina.)


        There appear to have been three principal bands in historic
        times: one on Tennessee River, one in West Florida, and one on
        Savannah River, but only a suggestion of native band names has
        survived. Recently Wagner has heard of at least three
        subdivisional names, including the Tsoyaha, or "Sun People" and
        the Root People.


        Most of their settlements are given the name of the tribe, Yuchi,
        or one of its synonyms. In early times they occupied a town in
        eastern Tennessee called by the Cherokee Tsistu'yl, "Rabbit
        place," on the north bank of Hiwassee River at the entrance of
        Chestua Creek in Polk County, Tenn., and at one time also that of
        Hiwassee, or Euphasee, at the Savannah Ford of Hiwassee River.
        The Savannah River band had villages at Mount Pleasant, probably
        in Screven County, Ga., near the mouth of Brier Creek, 2 miles
        below Silver Bluff on Savannah River in Barnwell County; and one
        on Ogeechee River bearing the name of that stream, though that
        was itself perhaps one form of the name Yuchi. Hawkins (1848)
        mentions former villages at Ponpon and Saltketchers in South
        Carolina, but these probably belonged to the Yamasee. The
        following Yuchi settlements were established after the tribe
        united with the Lower Creeks:

        Arkansaw River, in Oklahoma.

        Big Pond Town, Polecat Creek, and Sand Creek, in and near Creek
        County, Okla.

        Blackjack Town.

        Deep Fork Creek, Okla.

        Duck Creek Town.

        Intatchkalgi, on Opilthlako Creek 28 miles above its junction
        with Flint River, probably in Schley County, Ga.

        Padshilaika, at the junction of Patchilaika Creek with Flint
        River, Macon County, Ga.

        Red Fork, location uncertain.

        Snake Creek, location uncertain.

        Spring Garden Town, above Lake George, Fla.

        Tokogalgi, on Kinchafoonee Creek, an affluent of Flint River, Ga.

        History.- The chroniclers of the De Soto expedition mention the
        Yuchi under the name Chisca, at one or more points in what is now
        Tennessee. In 1567 Boyano, an officer under Juan Pardo, had two
        desperate encounters with these Indians somewhere in the
        highlands of Tennessee or North Carolina, and, according to his
        own story, destroyed great numbers of them. In 1670 Lederer
        (1912) heard of people called Rickohockans living in the
        mountains who may have been Yuchi, and two white men sent from
        Virginia by Abraham Wood visited a Yuchi town on a head stream of
        the Tennessee in 1674. About this time also, English explorers
        and settlers in South Carolina were told of a warlike tribe
        called Westo (probably a division of Yuchi) who had struck terror
        into all of the coast Indians, and hostilities later broke out
        between them and the colonists. At this juncture, however, a band
        of Shawnee made war upon the Westo and drove them from the
        Savannah. For a time they seem to have given themselves up to a
        roving life, and some of them went so far inland that they
        encountered La Salle and settled near Fort St. Louis, near the
        present Utica, Ill. Later some were located among the Creeks on
        Ocmulgee River, and they removed with them to the Chattahoochee
        in 1715. Another band of Yuchi came to live on Savannah River
        about 20 miles above Augusta, probably after the expulsion of the
        Westo. They were often called Hogologe. In 1716 they also moved
        to the Chattahoochee but for a time occupied a town distinct from
        that of the other Yuchi. It was probably this band which settled
        near the Shawnee on Tallapoosa River and finally united with
        them. Still later occurred a third influx of Yuchi who occupied
        the Savannah between Silver Bluff and Ebenezer Creek. In 1729 a
        Kasihta chief named Captain Ellick married three Yuchi women and
        persuaded some of the Yuchi Indians to move over among the Lower
        Creeks, but Governor Oglethorpe of Georgia guaranteed them their
        rights to their old land until after 1740, and the final removal
        did not, in fact, take place until 1751.

             A still earlier invasion of southern territories by Yuchi is
        noted by one of the governors of Florida in a letter dated 1639.
        These invaders proved a constant source of annoyance to the
        Spaniards. Finally they established themselves in West Florida
        not far from the Choctawhatchee River, where they were attacked
        by an allied Spanish and Apalachee expedition in 1677 and
        suffered severely. They continued to live in the same region,
        however, until some time before 1761 when they moved to the Upper
        Creeks and settled near the Tukabahchee. Eucheeanna in Walton
        County, Fla. seems to preserve their name.

             A certain number of Yuchi remained in the neighborhood of
        Tennessee River, and at one time they were about Muscle Shoals.
        They also occupied a town in the Cherokee country, called by the
        latter tribe Tsistu'yl, and Hiwassee at Savannah Ford. In 1714,
        the former was cut off by the Cherokee in revenge for the murder
        of a member of their tribe, instigated by two English traders.
        Later tradition affirms that the surviving Yuchi fled to Florida,
        but many of them certainly remained in the Cherokee country for a
        long time afterward, and probably eventually migrated west with
        their hosts.

             A small band of Yuchi joined the Seminole just before the
        outbreak of the Seminole War. They appear first in West Florida,
        near the Mikasuki but later had a town at Spring Garden in
        Volusia County. Their presence is indicated down to the end of
        the war in the Peninsula, when they appear to have gone west,
        probably reuniting with the remainder of the tribe.

             The Yuchi who stayed with the Creeks accompanied them west
        and settled in one body in the northwestern part of the old Creek
        Nation, in Creek County, Okla.

        Population.- For the year 1650 Mooney (1928) makes an estimate of
        1,500 for the Yuchi in Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee, but this
        does not include the "Westo," for whom, with the Stono, he allows
        1,600. The colonial census of 1715 gives 2 Yuchi towns with 130
        men and 400 souls, but this probably takes into consideration
        only I band out of 3 or 4. In 1730 the band still on Tennessee
        River was supposed to contain about 150 men. In 1760, 50 men are
        reported in the Lower Creek town and 15 in one among the Upper
        Creeks. In 1777 Bartram (1792) estimated the number of Yuchi
        warriors in the lower town at 500 and their total population as
        between 1,000 and 1,500. In 1792 Marburg (1792) reports 300 men,
        or a population of over 1,000, and Hawkins in 1799 says the Lower
        Creek Yuchi claimed 250 men. According to the census of 1832-33
        there were 1,139 in 2 towns known to have been occupied by
        Indians of this connection. In 1909 Speck stated that the whole
        number of Yuchi could "hardly exceed five hundred," but the
        official report for 1910 gives only 78. That, however, must have
        been an underestimate as the census of 1930 reported 216. Owing
        to the number of Yuchi bands, their frequent changes in location,
        and the various terms applied to them, an exact estimate of their
        numbers at any period is very difficult. In the first half of the
        sixteenth century they may well have numbered more than 5,000.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Yuchi have
        attained an altogether false reputation as the supposed
        aborigines of the Gulf region. They were also noted for the
        uniqueness of their language among the Southeastern tongues. The
        name is preserved in Euchee, a posthamlet of Meigs County, Tenn.;
        Eucheeanna, a post village of Walton County, Fla.; Euchee (or
        Uchee) Creek, Russell County, Ala.; Uchee, a post station of
        Russell County, Ala.; Uchee Creek, Columbia County, Ga.; and an
        island in Savannah River near the mouth of the latter.

        Yufera. (See Florida.)



        The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Bannock. From their own name Bana'kwut. Also called:

             Diggers, by many writers.
             Ogoize, by the Kalispel.
             Panai'ti, form of name given by Hoffman (1886).
             Pun-nush, by the Shoshoni.
             Robber Indians, by Ross (1855).
             Ush-ke-we-ah, by the Crow Indians.

        Connection.- The Bannock belonged to the Shoshonean branch of
        the Uto-Aztecan linguistic stock, being a detached branch of the
        Northern Paiute.

        Location.- In historic times their main center was in
        southeastern Idaho, ranging into western Wyoming, betneen
        latitude 42 and 45 North and from longitude 113 West eastward to
        the main chain of the Rocky Mountains. At times they spread well
        down Snake River, and some were scattered as far north as Salmon
        River and even into southern Montana. (See also Colorado, Oregon,
        and Utah.)


        A few local group names have been preserved, such as the
        Kutsshundika or Buffalo-eaters, Penointikara or Honey-eaters, and
        Shohopanaiti or Cottonwood Bannock, but these are not well

        History.- Bridger met the Bannock Indians in the country above
        indicated as early as 1829, but contacts between them and the
        Whites became much more intimate with the establishment of Fort
        Hall in 1834. In 1869 Fort Hall Reservation was set aside for
        them and the Shoshoni, but they were in the habit of wandering
        widely and it was a long time before they were gathered into it.
        They claimed the territory in southwestern Montana in which are
        situated Virginia City and Bozeman, and it is probable that they
        were driven across the mountains into the Salmon River Valley at
        a comparatively recent period. Before 1853 they were decimated by
        the smallpox and were finally gathered under the Lemhi and Fort
        Hall agencies. Loss of their lands, failure of the herds of
        buffalo, and lack of prompt relief on the part of the Government
        occasioned an uprising of the tribe in 1878, which was suppressed
        by General O.O. Howard.

        Population.- Bridger, in 1829, stated that the Bannock had 1,200
        lodges, or a population of about 8,000, but he evidently included
        the neighboring Shoshoni. Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1845
        there were about 1,000, but Forney, in 1858 (p. 213) gave only
        400 to 500. In 1870 Jones estimated 600 and Mann 800 "Northern
        Bannocks." In 1901 they numbered 513 but were so intermixed with
        Shoshoni that the figure is uncertain. The census of 1910
        reported 413, all but 50 of whom were in Idaho, and the census of
        1930 gave 415, including 313 in Idaho. In 1937, 342 were

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The only prominence
        attained by the Bannock was for a brief period during the Bannock
        War. The name is perpetuated by a river, a range of mountains,
        and a county. There is also a place named Bannock in Belmont
        County, Ohio, and another in Butler County, Ky., but these are
        probably not connected with the tribe.

        Kalispel. From a native term said to mean "Camas"; they were
        given the name Pend d'Oreilles, because when they were first met
        by Europeans nearly all of them wore large shell earrings. Also

             Ak-min'-e-shu'-me, by the Crow and meaning "the tribe that
        uses canoes".
             Camas People, a translation of Kalispel.
             Earring People, an English translation of Pend d'Oreilles.
        Hanging Ears, English translation of Pend d'Oreilles.
             Ni-he-ta-te-tup'i-o, Siksika name.
             Papshpun'lema, Yakima name, signifying "people of the great
        fir trees."

        Connections.- The Kalispel belonged to the interior division of
        the great Salishan family.

        Loction.- On Pend Orville River and Lake, Priest Lake, and the
        lower course of Clark's Fork. They were said to have extended
        eastward to Thompson Lake and Horse Plains and to have hunted
        over some of the Salmon River country, Canada, and were formerly
        said to have extended to Flathead Lake and Missoula. (See also
        Montana and Washington.)


        (1) Upper Kalispel or Upper Pend d'Oreilles (in Montana from
        Flathead Lake and Flathead River to about Thompson Falls on Clark
        Fork of the Pend Oreille River, including the Little Bitterroot,
        southward about to Missoula and northward to the International
        Boundary), with bands at Flathead Lake, near Kalispel, at or near
        Dayton, near Polson at the foot of the lake, and possibly one at
        Columbia Falls; some wintered on the Bitterroot and a large band
        at St. Ignatius.

        (2) Lower Kalispel or Lower Pend d'Oreilles or Kalispel proper
        (from Thompson Falls down Clark Fork, Pend Oreille Lake, Priest
        Lake, and Pend Oreille River nearly to the International Boundary
        and hunting territories along Salmon River, British Columbia).

        (3) The Chewelah (in the country west of the Calispell or
        Chewelah Mountains in the upper part of the Colville Valley).

        The Lower Kalispel also included several minor bands, the
        Chewelah apparently two. The Chewelah subdivision spoke a
        slightly different dialect and was sometimes regarded as an
        independent tribe.

        History.- The Kalispel were visited by Lewis and Clark in 1805,
        and in 1809 a post was established on Pend Oreille Lake by the
        Northwest Company and another on Clark Fork the same year
        called Salish Eouse. Emissaries of the American Fur Company
        reached them later, and in 1844 they were missionized by the
        Roman Catholic Church. July 16, 1855, the Upper Kalispel,
        Kutenai, and Salish surrendered all of their lands except an area
        about Flathead Lake which became the Jocko Reservation. The
        greater part of the Kalispel settled here, but part of the Lower
        Kalispel were gathered on Colville Reservation with the Okanagon,
        Colville, and a number of other tribes.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that the Kalispel numbered
        1,200 in 1780, but Teit (1930) considered that the prehistoric
        population must have been between 5,000 and 6,500, an estimate
        which would seem to be excessive. In 1805 Lewis and Clark
        estimated that there were 30 lodges of these people and a
        population of 1,600. In 1905 there were 640 Upper and 197 Lower
        Pend d'Oreilles under the Flathead Agency (Jocko Reservation) and
        98 under the Colville Agency. The census of 1910 reported 386
        from Montana, 157 from Washington, 15 from Idaho, and 6 from
        three other States They were not separately enumerated in 1930,
        but the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported 97 in

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The name Kalispel
        is preserved in that of the banking city of Kalispell, county
        seat of Flathead County, Mont., by Calispell Lake, and by the
        Calispell Mountains. The name Pend d'Oreilles is preserved in
        Pend Oreille Lake in northern Idaho and in Pend Oreille River in
        Montana, Idaho, and Washington.

        Kutenai. This tribe occupied the extreme northern part of Idaho.
        (See Montana.)

        Nez Perce. A French appellation signifying "pierced noses." Also

             A'dal-k'ato'igo, Kiowa name, signifying "people with hair
        cut across the forehead."
             Aniporspi, Calapooya name.
             A-pa-o-pa, Atsina name (Long, 1823).
             A-pu-pe', Crow name, signifying "to paddle," "paddles."
             Blue Muds, name applied by traders.
             Chopunnish, Lewis and Clark.
             Green Wood Indians, Elenry-Thompson Journal.
             I'-na-cpe, Quapaw name.
             Kamiu'inu, own name.
             Ko-mun'-i-tup'-i-o, Siksika name.
             Mikadeshitchisi, Kiowa Apache name.
             Nimipu, own name, signifying "the people."
             Pa ka'-san-tse, Osage name, signifying "plaited hair over
        the forehead."
             Pe ga'-zan-de, Kansa name.
             Pierced Noses, English translation of name.
             Po'-ge-hdo-ke, Dakota name.
             Sa-aptin, Okanagon name.
             Shi'wanish, Tenino name for this tribe and the Cayuse,
        signifying "strangers from up the river."
             Tchaxsukush, Caddo name.
             Thoig'a-rik-kah, Shoshoni name, signifying "louse
             Tsuharukats, Pawnee name.
             Tsutpeli, own name.

        Connections.- The Nez Perce Indians were the best known tribe of
        the Shahnptian division of the Shapwailutan linguistic stock, to
        which they gave the name commonly applied to them by Salish

        Location.- The Nez Perce occupied a large part of central Idaho,
        and sections of southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon.
        (See also Montana and Oklahoma.)


        The following bands are given by Spinden (1908):

        Alpowe'ma, on Alpaha (Alpowa) Creek.

        Atskaaiwawixpu, at the mouth of the northern fork of Clearwater

        Esnime, Slate Creek Band, the Upper Salmon River Indians.

        Hasotino, at Hasutin, opposite Asotin City, Wash.

        Hatweme, on Hatweh Creek.

        Hesweiwewipu, at the month of Asotin Creek.

        Hinsepu, at Hansens Ferry on the Grande Ronde.

        Imnama, on Imnaha River.

        Inantoinu, at the mouth of Joseph Creek.

        Isawisnemepu, near Zindels, on the Grande Ronde.

        IwatoInu, at Kendrick on Potlatch Creek.

        Kamiaxpu, at Kamiah, at the mouth of Lawyer's Creek; this band
        also called Uyame.

        Lamtama, on Salmon River.

        Lapweme, on Lapwai and Sweetwater Creeks.

        Makapu, on Cottonwood or Maka Creek.

        Painima, near Peck, on Clearwater River.

        Pipu'Inimu, on Big Cahon Creek.

        Saiksaikinpu, on the upper portion of the Southern Fork of
        Clearwater River.

        Sakanma, between the mouth of Salmon River and the mouth of

        Grande Ronde.

        Salwepu, on the Middle Fork of Clearwater River, about 5 miles
        above Kooskia, Idaho.

        Saxsano, about 4 miles above Asotin City, Wash., on the east side
        of Snake River.

        Siminekempu, at Lewiston, Idaho.

        Taksehepu, at Agatha on Clearwater River.

        Temnnmu, at the mouth of Salmon River.

        Tewepu, at the mouth of Oro Fiuo Creek.

        Toiknimapu, above Joseph Creek on the north side of the Grande

        Tsokolaikiinma, between Lewiston and Alpowa Creek.

        Tuke'liklikespu, at Big Eddy.

        Tukpame, on the lower portion of the South Fork of Clearwater

        Tunehepu, at Juliaetta on Potlatch Creek.

        Walwama, in Willowa Valley.

        Wewi'me, at the mouth of the Grande Ronde.

        Witkispu, about 3 miles below Alpowa Creek, on the east side of
        Snake River.

        Yakto'inu, at the mouth of Potlatch Creek.

        Yatoinu, on Pine Creek.

        The Nuksiwepu, Sahatpu, Wawawipu, Almotipu, Pinewewewixpu,
        Tokalatoinu, and other bands extended about 80 miles down Snake
        River from Lewiston.

        History.- In 1805 Lewis and Clark passed through the territory of
        the Nez Perce Indians. The first friction between this tribe and
        the Whites followed upon the discovery of gold in the West and
        the consequent influx of miners and settlers. By treaties
        concluded in 1855 and 1863 they ceded all of their lands to the
        United States Government with the exception of one large
        reservation. The occupants of Wallowa Valley refused to agree to
        the final cessions, and the Nez Perce war of 1877 resulted,
        distinguished by the masterly retreat of Chief Joseph toward the
        Canadian line, which was almost attained by him before he was
        overtaken. Joseph and his followers to the number of 460 were
        sent to Oklahoma, but they lost so heavily from disease that in
        1885 they were removed to the Colville Reservation, Wash., where
        a few still live.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates a population of 4,000
        Nez Perce in 1780. In 1805 Lewis and Clark computed the total
        number at 6,000, if we deduct the estimated population of the two
        tribes later reckoned as distinct. Wilkes (1849) gives 3,000 and
        Gibbs (1877) estimates more than 1,700 in 1853. In 1885 the
        official figure was 1,437. In 1906 there were 1,534 on Lapwai
        Reservation and 83 on Colville Reservation, Wash. The census of
        1910 reported 1,259, of whom 1,035 were in Idaho. The Report of
        The United States Indian Office for 1923 gave 1,415 and the
        report for 1937, 1,426. In 1930 the Shahaptinn division of the
        Shapwailutan stock numbered 4,119.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The Nez Perce have
        claims to remembrance, (1) as the largest and most powerful tribe
        of the Shapwailutan stock, (2) as having given a name applied to
        them to the principal division of the formerly independent
        Shahaptian family. From this tribe Nez Perce County, Idaho, and
        the post village of Nez Perce in Lewis County derive their names.

        Paiute, Northern. Indians of this group entered the southwestern
        part of Idaho at times. (See Nevada.)

        Palouse. This tribe extended up the Palouse River into Idaho.

        Salish, or Flathead. The present State of Idaho was visited to
        some extent by Indians of this tribe. (See Montana.)

        Shoshoni, Northern. Significance of the word Shoshoni is unknown.
        Also called:

             Aliatan, a name taken originally from that of the Ute and
        subsequently applied to many Shoshoni tribes, including the
        Shoshoni proper.
             Bik-ta'-she, Crow name, signifying "grass lodges."
             E-wu-h'a'-wu-si, Arapaho name, signifying "people that use
        grass or bark for their houses or huts."
             Gens du Serpent, by the French.
             Ginebigonini, Chippewa name, signifying "snake men."
             Kinebikowininiwak, Algonkin name, signifying "serpents."
             Ma-buc-sho-roch-pan-ga, Hidatsa name.
             Mika-ati, Hidatsa name, signifying "grass lodges."
             Mi'kyashe, Crow name, signifying "grass lodges."
             Pezhi'-wokeyotila, Teton Dakota name, signifying
        "grass-thatch dwellers."
             Pi-ci'-kse-ni-tup'i-o, Siksika name.
             Sin-te'-hda wi-ca-sa, Yankton Dakota name, signifying
        "rattlesnake Indians."
             Sisfzhanin, Atsina name signifying "rattlesnake men."
             Snake Indians, common English name.
             Snoa, Okanagon name.
             Wakidohika-numak, Mandan name, signifying "snake man."
             Wes'anikacinga, Omaha and Ponca name, signifying "snake
             Zuzeca wicasa, Teton Dakota name, signifying "snake people."

        Connections.- The Northern Shoshoni belonged to the
        Shoshoni-Comanche dialectic group of the Shoshonean division
        of the Uto-Aztecan linguistic family.

        Location.- The Northern Shoshoni occupied eastern Idaho, except
        the territory held by She Bannock; western Wyoming; and
        northeastern Utah.


        Their only subdivisions were a number of bands headed by popular
        chiefs, the make up of which was constantly shifting.


        Lemhi and Central Idaho:

             Bohodai, near the junction of Middle Fork with the Salmon,
        and an unnamed site on upper Salmon River where a few families
        from Sohodai sometimes wintered.
             Guembeduka, about 7 miles north of the town of Salmon.
             Padai, scattered along Lemhi River about Salmon.
             Pagadut, on Red Rock Creek, about Lima, Mont.; possibly a
        few families lived near Dillon, Mont.
             Pasasigwana, at a warm spring in the mountains north of
             Paimadai, on Upper Salmon River.
             Sohodai, on the upper middle Fork of Salmon River, near
        Three Rivers.

        Fort Hall Shoshoni:

             No band names given.

        Baunock Creek (Kamduka) Shoshoni (Pocatello's Band):

             Biagamugep, the principal village, near Kelton.

        Cache Valley (Pangwiduka) Kwagunogwai:

             Along the Logan River above its junction with the Little
        Bear River.

        Salt Lake Valley:

        There are said to have been bands in the Ogden, Weber, and Salt
        Lake Valleys, but their names have not been preserved; they are
        sometimes called Ute, but Steward is certain that they were
        affiliated with the Shoshoni.

        History.- At one time the Northern Shoshoni extended farther
        eastward into the Plains but there is no reason to suppose that
        they did not at the same time retain the mountain territories
        later held by them. They were affected only indirectly by the
        Spanish settlements to the south and southwest. In 1805 they were
        met by Lewis and Clark who were guided by a famous woman of their
        nation, Sacagawea, and from that time on contact with the
        Americans became fairly common. The Northern Shoshoni,
        particularly those under the famous chief Washakie, were
        unusually friendly to the Whites. They were finally gathered upon
        the Lemhi and Fort Fall Reservations in Idaho and the Wind River
        Reservation in Wyoming. By the Treaty of Fort Bridger, July 3,
        1868, the eastern bands of the Shoshoni and Bannock ceded all
        rights to their territories in Wyoming and Idaho except the Wind
        River Reservation in the former state for the Shoshoni and a
        reservation to be set apart for the Bannock whenever they
        desired it. On July 30, 1869, Fort Hall Reservation was set aside
        for the Bannock but subsequently occupied in part by the
        Shoshoni. February 12, 1875, the Lemhi Reservation was
        established for these two tribes and the Sheepeater band of
        Western Shoshoni.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated 4,500 in the year 1845,
        including the Western Shoshoni. The United States Census of 1910
        gave 3,840 "Shoshoni," of which number about 2,000 appear to have
        belonged to this division. The Report of the Office for Indian
        Affairs of 1917 indicated about 2,200. The census of 1930
        reported 3,994 for the Northern and Western Shoshoni combined,
        but in 1937 the United States Office of Indian Affairs reported
        3,650 Northern Shoshoni alone.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- The Northern
        Shoshoni are the most prominent and strongest tribe of the upper
        plateau. They were also distinguished by the fact that their name
        was employed by Gallatin (1936) and later adopted by Powell
        (1891) for application to a linguistic stock, a stock now
        considered a branch of a much larger group, the Uto-Aztecan. The
        Shoshoni came into prominence in the last century (1) because
        Sacagawea or Bird Woman, the famous guide nnd interpreter of
        Lewis and Clark in their expedition to the Pacific, was a number
        of this tribe; and (2) because of the ability of chief Washakie
        and his constant friendship for the Whites. The name Shoshone has
        been applied to rivers and mountains in Wyoming and Nevada; to a
        lake in Yellowstone National Park; to the Shoshone Falls of Snake
        River; to a county in Idaho; and to places in Inyo County,
        Calif.; Lincoln County, Idaho; White Pine County, Nev.; and
        Fremont County, Wyo.

        Shoshoni, Western. Significance of the word Shoshoni is unknown.

        Connections.- The same as for the Northern Shoshoni.

        Location.- Central and western Idaho, northwestern Utah, central
        and northeastern Nevada, and a small territory in California north
        of and about Death and Panamint Valleys.


        The names of a great many local groups have been recorded,
        usually signifying that they were "eaters" of certain kinds of
        food, but most of these seem to have belonged to territories
        rather than people, the "eaters" in each being subject to change.
        A few of these have, however, acquired special interest and some
        measure of permanence as, for instance, the Tukuarika, Tukuaduka,
        or Sheep Eaters, extending from the Yellowstone National Park to
        the middle course of Salmon River; the Gosiute of northern Utah
        and eastern Nevada and the Panamint or Koso, the Californian
        representatives of the division.


        Steward (1938) gives the following villages under the several
        natural areas occupied by these Indians:

        Lida and vicinity:

             Clayton Valley.
             Kamuva, or Wipa, several miles east of Goldfield.
             Old Camp, on the north side of Gold Mountain.
             Pauwaha' (Lida).
             Tumbasai'uwi, at Stonewall Mountain.

        Eastern California:

             Saline Valley:
             Isha'mba (Waucoba Spring).
             Ko (Saline Valley).
             Navadu, at the Springs in Cottonwood Canyon which runs west
        from Death Valley.
             Tuhu, at Goldbelt Spring.

        Little Lake and Koso Mountains:

             Mua'ta (Coso Hot Springs).
             Pagunda (Little Lake).
             Pakwa'si (at Alancha).
             Uyuwu'mba, about 5 miles south of Darwin.

        Panamint Valley:

             No villages given.

        Northern Death Valley:

             Mahunu (springs in Grapevine Canyon and probably Grapevine

             Ohyu, at Surveyor's Well.
             Panuga (Mesquite Springs).

        Central and Southern Death Valley:

             Tumbica, at the several springs at Furnace Creek.
             Village (perhaps) some 15 miles south of Furnace Creek.

        Beatty and Belted Mountains (camps): (in order of location, not

             Howell Ranch, near Springdale.
             Hunusu, at Burn's Ranch.
             Indian Camp, at the head of Oasis Valley.
             Mutsi, in the vicinity of the water holes marked merely
        "Tanks" on the U. S. Ceol. Surv. map.
             Sivahwa, a few miles north of the last.
             Tunava, at Whiterock Springs.
             Takanaws, at Hick's Hot Springs.
             Sakaifiaga, at the mouth of Beatty Wash on the Amagrosa
             Panavadu, somewhere near the last.
             Wuniakuda, 2 or 3 miles east of the Ammonia Tanks.
             Wiva, at Oaksprings.
             Kuikun (Captain Jack Spring).
             Tupipa, at Tippipah Springs.
             Pokopa, at Topopah Spring.
             Pagambuhan (Cane Spring).

        Ione Valley, Reese River, and Smith Creek Valley:
        Reese River Valley (camps): (in order of location)

             Wiyunutuahunupi, at the first creek south of Austin.
             Angasikigada, 1 mile from the last.
             Tutumbihunupi, 1 1/2 miles from the last.
             Ohaogwaihunupi, 1 mile from the last.
             Bambishpahunupi, about 2 miles from last.
             Songwatumbihun, about 1 1/2 miles from the last.
             Gunuvijep, about 1 1/2 miles from the last.
             Biahunupi, at Big Creek, west of Kingston.
             Mezaguahunupi, 2 miles from the last.
             Oapihunupi, 2 miles from the last.
             Tudupihunupi, 1 1/2 miles from the last.
             Yudigivoihunupi, 2 miles from the last.
             Aihyuhunupi, about 2 miles from the last.
             Navahodava, 3 miles from the last.
             Guvadakuahunupi, 2 miles from the last or about halfway
        between Austin and Bell's Ranch.
             Baiambasahunupi, about 1 mile from the last.
             Kwinahunupi, 2 miles from the last.
             Tosakuahunupi, 3 miles from the last.
             Asunguahunupi, 1 mile from the last.
             Wakaihunupi, 1 mile from the last.
             Boyuwihunupi, 3 miles from the last.
             Yumbahunupi, 3 miles from the last.
             Onihunupi, about 2 1/2 miles from the last.
             Adumbihunupi, about 2 1/2 miles from the last.
             Bukwiyohunupi, about 4 miles from the last and a little
        south of Bell's Ranch.

        Reese River Valley (winter sites):

             Sunungoi, about 10 miles northwest of Austin and sligbtly
        north of Mount Airy.
             Sova, a spring near the summit of Mount Airy.
             Tuosava, 2 or 3 miles south of the last.
             Yutombn, 1 mile from the last.
             Evimba, 3 or 4 miles from the last.
             Dumboi, 2 or 3 miles from the last.
             Hukumba, about 2 miles from the last.
             Kosiva, 3 miles from the last.
             Wupayagahunupi, 3 miles from the last.
             Dawishiwuhunupi, 2 miles from the last.
             Kunuvidumbihunupi, about 1 1/2 miles from the last.
             Pazuyohoi, 4 miles from the last.
             Wangodusikihunupi, 2 miles from the last.
             Ava, 2 miles from the last.
             Bohoba, a spring 3 miles from the last.
             Dongwishava, slightly south of Ione, west of the Bell Ranch.
             There is also a camp southwest of Berlin Peak at a spring
        called Wanzi awa.

        Great Smoky Valley and Monitor Valley:

             No villages given.

        Kawich Mountains (winter camps):

             Breen Creek.
             Hot Creek, about 10 miles north of Tybo.
             Hot Springs, to the south, had several winter encampments.
             Hugnapagwa (Longstreet Canyon or Horse Canyon).
             Kunugiba (Tybo Creek).
             Reveille Mill.
             Tuava (Rose Spring).

        Little Smoky Valley and vicinity:

             Little Smoky Valley.
             Dzishava (Moore Station).
             Indian Greek (Bagumbush?), 6-7 miles north ot Kwadumba.
             Kwadumba (Snowball), 8 miles north of Sapava.
             Kwatsugu (Fish Creek).
             Sapava (Hick's Station), 12 miles north of Morey.
             Tutoya, nt a spring 4 or 5 miles south of Morey, on the west
        side of the valley.

        Fish Springs Valley:

             Butler's Place, about 20 miles north of Wongodoya.
             Udulfa (Hot Creek).
             Wongodoya, at a spring in the hills west of Fish Springs.

        Railroad Valley (camps in north end of valley):

             Akamba, or probably also Watoya, at a spring west of Mount
             Bambasa, on the west side of Mount Hamilton.
             Bauduin (Warm Spring).
             Bawazivi (Currant Creek).
             Biadoyava, at Blue Eagle Springs.
             Nyala, native name unknown.
                Suhuva (Duckwater).
             Wongodupijugo, southeast of Green Spring.

        Steptoe Valley:

             "There were . . . villages at Ely, on Duck Creek, about 8
        miles northnrest of McGill, and at Warm Spring, Schellbourne,
        Egan Canyon, and Cherry Creek."

        Spring, Snake, and Antelope Valleys:

          Spring Valley:

                Aidumba, at a spring west of Aurun.
                Basambat slightly up the hill west of Sogowosugu.
                Basiamba, in vicinity of Oceola.
                Basawinuba, either 3 or 4 miles northwest of Aurun.
                Basawinuba (Mud Springs), about 7 miles south of Aurun.
                Basonip, about 7 miles (?) south of Cleveland Ranch.
                Bauumba, near Shoshone.
                Biabauwundu, at Cleveland Ranch.
                Haiva, about 6 miles north of Cleveland or two canyons
        south of Wongovitwuninogwap.
                Sogowosugu, at Aurun.
                Supuva, at Anderson's Ranch.
                Taiwudu, on west slope of Snake Mountains.
                Toziup, on west slope of Mount Moriah.
                Tuhuva, between Yellen's and Cleveland Ranches.
                Tupa, about 7 miles north of Anderson's Ranch.
                Wongov,itwuninogwap, on Valley Creek, about 10 miles
        north of Cleveland

          Antelope Valley:

                Bohoba, at Mike Springs south of the villages in Antelope
                Hugapa, at Chinn Creek.
                Kwadumba, at a spring about 3 miles south of Tippetts.
                Suhuva, at a spring near Kwadumba.
                Toiva, at a spring at north end of valley.
                Wadoya, at a spring 15 miles north of Toiva.

          Snake Valley:

                Bauwunoida, at the present Baker.
                Biaba, at Big Spring.
                Tosakowaip, at Silver Creek.
                Tunkahniva, near a cave near Lehman Cave in the canyon
        west of Baker.

        Cave Valley, south of Steptoe Valley:


        Gosiute Shoshoni:

                A cave on the north end of the Skull Valley Mountains a
        short distance from the present highway.
                Haiyashawiyep, near present town called Iosepa.
                Iowiba, in mountains just east of Skull Valley
                Ongwove, a few miles south of Orr's Ranch.
                Suhudaosa, at the present Orr's Ranch (?).
                Tiava, on present reservation.
                Tozava, at a spring on west side of Lakeside Range.
                Tutiwunupa, on west slope of the Cedar Mountains, just
        east of Clive.
                Utcipa, south of Tutiwunupa on west slope of Cedar
                Wanapo'ogwaipi, at Indian Springs, south of Ongwove.

        Pine Creek and Diamond Valley:

                Bauwiyoi, a group of at least 6 encampments at the foot
        of the Roberts Mountains.
                Todzagadu, on the west side of the Sulphur Spring
                Tupagadu, west of the Alkali flat in Diamond Valley.

        Ruby Valley and Vicinity:

                A settlement on south side of Spruce Mountains.
                A village on the east slope of the Pequop Mountains.
                Baguwa, in the flats near Overland.
                Butte Valley, at north end on a canyon called
                Medicine Spring, on the west slope of the Cedar
        Mountains, east of Franklin Lake.
                Suhuwia, on the headwaters of Franklin River.
                Toyagadzu (Clover Valley).
                Waihamuta, on the creek against the hills, west of the
        Neff Ranch.
                Wongogadu, on north side of Spruce Mountains.
                Yuogumba or Sihuba (Long Valley).

        Humboldt River (districts):

                A village in a valley a little south of Elko.
                A village somewhere on upper Huntington Creek.
                Banadia, scattered along both sides of Lamoille Creek.
                Badukoi, village about 3 miles below Carlin.
                Elko, preferred site for village being at the mouth of
        the South Fork.
                Independence Valley, in the valley of what is called
        Magpie or Maggie Creek.
                Kinome, 5 miles north of Huntington.
                Palisade, people lived near here along Humboldt River.
                Sahoogep, at Lee.
                The valley of North Fork.
                Toyagadzu, at Wells.
                Tukwampandai, at Deetk.

        Battle Mountain and Vicinity:

                There was a concentration of population between Battle
        Mountain and Iron Point.

        Snake River (three villages between Hagerman and Bruneau):

                Ototumb, near Bliss.
                Pazintumb, about 8 miles below Hagerman.
                Saihunupi, about 4 miles below Hagerman.

        Boise River and Vicinity:

                No village names recorded.

        Grouse Creek:

                Kuiva, on Raft River, probably near Lynn and Yost.
                O'o or Podongoe, a little southwest of Lucin.
                Paduyavavadizop (Dove (?) Creek).
                Tusaid or Angapuni (Grouse Creek).

        Promontory Point (Hukundu''ka):

                Nagwituwep, on Blue Creek, north of the old railroad.
                Nanavadzi, near Little Mountain, east of Promontory
                Sudotsa, scattered along valley of Bear River from near
        Bear River City to Deweyville.
                Tongishavo, on the west side of Promontory Point near
        Mount Tarpey.

        The following names, derived from various sources may be

             Kaidatoiabie (with 6 subbands), in northeastern Nevada.
             Nahaego, in Reese River Valley, and about Austin, Nev.
             Pagantso (with 3 subbands), in Ruby Valley, Nev.
             Sunananahogwa, on Reese River, Nev.
             Temoksee, in Reese River VaDey, Nev.
             Toquimas, in lower Reese River Valley, Nev.

        History.- The history of the Western Shoshoni was practically
        identical with that of the Northern Shoshoni and Northem Paiute,
        except that their territory was somewhat more remote from the
        paths followed by American explorers in the north and Spaniards
        in the south. In 1825 Jedidiah Smith made several journeys across
        Nevada and may have been preceded by Old Greenwood. In 1847 the
        Mormons settled Nevada and came in contact with some of the
        eastern representatives of this Shoshonean division. Narratives
        of explorers generally waste few words on these Indians or the
        neighboring Paiute, classing them indiscriminately as "diggers"
        and dismissing them all with a few contemptuous words. They were
        affected materially by the discovery of the Comstock Lode.
        Although it was not in their territory, prospectors penetrated
        everywhere, stock was introduced which sorely affected the food
        supplies of the natives, and the resulting friction affected
        first the Northern Paiute and somewhat later the Shoshoni.
        Steward says:

        By 1865, Shoshoni of Battle Mountain and Austin were involved.
        Meanwhile south of the Great Salt Lake in Utah and in eastern
        California, Shoshoni, especially those known as Gosiute, were
        committing depredations against immigrants, raiding the pony
        express and attacking the stage line which ran through this
        territory ... For protection, Fort Ruby in Ruby Valley was built
        in 1862 ... An army unit massacred a large number of Shoshoni in
        Steptoe Valley in 1862, but by 1865 the strife was ended. In 1869
        the railroad across the continent was completed and the native
        period was at an end. Shoshoni of central Nevada and of the more
        remote valleys seem to have kept pretty well out of the conflict.
        The treaty of 1863 included all the Shoshoni of northern Nevada.
        They were given the Western Shoshone or Duck Valley Reservation
        in 1877 (by Executive Order of April 16), but by no means all
        Shoshoni went to it. A few of the more westerly Shoshoni joined
        Paiute or- reservations in western Nevada, but most Shoshoni
        remained near their native haunts, gradually abandoning their
        native economy and attaching themselves to ranches or mining
        towns. (Steward, 1938, p. 7.)

        The Carlin Farms Reservation northwest of Elko was set aside by
        Executive Order of May 10, 1877, but restored to the public
        domain by Executive Order of January 16, 1879.

        Population.- Mooney (1938) estimated that there were 4,500
        Northern and Western Shoshoni together in 1845. The United States
        Census of 1910 gave 3,840, a figure which included about 1,800
        Western Shoshoni. The United States Indian Office Report for 1917
        indicated perhaps 1,500. The census of 1930 raised this figure
        into the neighborhood of 2,000, but in 1937 the Indian Office
        returned only 1,201.

        Skitswish. From their own name; significance unknown. Also

             Coeur d'Alene, a French appellation meaning "awl heart,"
        said to have been used originally by a chief to indicate the size
        of a trader's heart.
             Q'ma'shpal, Yakima name, meaning "camas people."
             Pointed Hearts, derived from the word Goeur d'Alene.

        Connections.- The Skitswish belonged to the inland division of
        the Salishan stock, their closest relatives being the Kalispel or
        Pend d'Oreilles, and other eastern tribes.

        Location.- On the headwaters of Spokane River from a little above
        Spokane Falls to the sources, including Coeur d'Alene Lake and
        all its tributaries, and the head of the Clearwater.

                          Subdivisions and Villages

        Teit (1930) reports the following divisions and villages, noting
        that the last in reality may have included two sections, the
        Coeur d'Alene Lake Division and the Spokane River Division:

        St. Joe River Division:

                Ntcaamtsen (.ntcaa'mtsen), at the confluence of the St.
        Joe and St. Maries Rivers.
                Stiktakeshen (.sti'qutakecen?), near the mouth of St. Joe
        River, on the river, or nearby on the lake.
                Stotseawes (stotseawes), on St. Joe River, at the place
        now called Fish Trap by the Whites.
                Takolks (ta'xolks) (?), on upper Hangman's River, at a
        spring near the foot of the hill just south of De Smet.
                Tcatowashalgs (tcat'owacalgs), on St. Joe River a little
        above Stotseawes.
                Tcetishtasheshen (tceti'ctacecen). probably on the lake,
        near the Stiktakeshen, on the north or east side, not far from
        the mouth of the river.

        Coeur d'Alene River Division:

                Athlkwarit (alqwarit), at Harrison.
                Gwalit (gwa'lit), near the lake and close to Harrison.
                Hinsalut (hinsa'lut), on Coeur d'Alene River a little
        above Smakegen.
                Kokolshtelps (qoqolc'telps), a little above Nestagwast.
                Nalstkathlkwen (nalstqa'lxwen), a little above
                Neatskstem (ne'atsxstem), on Coeur d'Alene River a little
        above Athlkwarit.
                Nestagwast (nest'a'gwast), at Black Lake, at a tributary
        river and lake here.
                Senshalemants (senca'lemants), a little above Hinsalut.
                Smakegen (sma'qegen), at Medimont.
                Skwato (sk'wat'o'), at old mission.
                Tclatcalk (tcla'tcalxw), on Coeur d'Alene Lake, close to
        the mouth of Coeur d'Alene River.

        Coeur d'Alene Lake and Spokane River Division:

                Ntaken (nt'a'q'en) Hayden Lake), north of Coeur d'Alene
                Tcelatcelitcemen (tcelatcelitcemen), halfway down Coeur
        d'Alene Lake, on the east side.
                Ntcemkainkwa (ntc'emqa'inqwa), at Coeur d'Alene City.
                Smethlethlena (smelele'na), near the last on the same
                Tpoenethlpem, very near the preceding, on the same side.
                Nsharept (nca'rept), a little below the next to the last.
                Stcatkwei (stcatkwa'i) a littlo below the last.
                Kamilen (q'ami'len), at Post Falls
                Hinsaketpens (hinsaq'a'tpens), about one mile above the
        Spokane bridge.
                Newashnlks (ne'ewa'calqs), a little below the preceding.
                Ntsetsawolsako (ntsetsakwolsa'ko?), on Tamarack Creek,
        toward the mountains.
                Neshwahwe (nesxwa'xxwe), on the river a little below the
        last two.
                Nesthlihum (nesli'xum), a little below the last.
                Tcanokwaken (tcanokwa'ken?), a little below the last.
        Mulsh (mu'lc), at Green Acres.
                Tcatenwahetpem (tcatenwa'xetpem), a ahort distance below
        Green Acres, and about 20 miles above Spokane City.

        History.- There is no tradition of any Skitswish migrations. Like
        so many other tribes in the region, the Skitswish were first
        brought clearly to the attention of Whites by Lewis and Clark.
        Although suffering the usual heavy losses following contact with
        Europeans, they continued to live in the same country and were
        finally allotted a reservation there bearing their name.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that the Skitswish may have
        numbered 1,000 in 1780, but Teit (1930) raises this to from
        3,000 to 4,000. In 1905 the United States Indian Office returned
        494, all on the one reservation. The census of 1910 gave 293,
        probably below the true figure, as the United States Indian
        Office reported 601 on the reservation, including probably some
        Spokane, and in 1937 it returned 608.

        Connections in which they have become noted.- Coeur d'Alene Lake
        in northern Idaho and a town on its shores preserve the memory of
        the Skitswish, as they bear the name given this tribe by the

        Snakes, see Paiute, Northern.

        Spokan. The Spokan extended a few miles into this State along its
        western boundary. (See Washington.)


Illinois -

 The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Chippewa. Representatives of this tribe appear in treaties made
        in 1795, 1816,1829, and 1833 relinquishing Illinois land to the
        Whites. (See Minnesota.)

        Delaware. While they were being slowly crowded west by the
        Whites, the Delaware passed across Illinois, and their connection
        with the State was transitory in both senses of the term. (See
        New Jersey.)

        Foxes. This tribe, together with the Sauk, drove the Illinois
        Indians from the northwestern part of the State of Illinois in
        the latter part of the eighteenth century and took their places,
        but ceded the territory to the United States Government by a
        treaty signed November 3, 1804. (See Wisconsin.)

        Illinois. A native word signifying "men," "people." Also called:

             Chicktaghicks, Geghdageghroano, or Kighetawkigh Roanu, by
        the koquois.
             Oudataouatouat, applied by the Wyandot to the Ottawa and
        later to the Illinois.
             Witishaxtanu, the Huron name for the Illinois and Miami,
        from Ushaxtano, "Illinois River."

        Connections - The Illinois belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        family, and were more closely connected with the Chippewa than
        with any other Algonquian tribe, except the Miami.

        Location - In historic times they lived principally along the
        Illinois and Mississippi Rivers, one division, the Michigamea,
        being as far south as northeastern Arkansas (q. v.). (See also
        Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.)

                           Subdivisions and Villages

        The Illinois were in reality a group of related tribes, of which
        the best known are the following:

        Cahokia, later home about Cahokia, Ill.

        Kaskaskia, before 1700 near the present Ulica, La Salle County,
        later at or near Kaskaskia, Ill.

        Michigamea, probably on Big Lake, between the St. Francis and
        Mississippi Rivers, Ark.

        Moingwena, in Iowa near the mouth of Des Moines River.

        Peoria, their early location probably in northeastern Iowa, later
        near the present Peoria.

        Tamaroa, on both sides of Mississippi River about the mouths of
        the Illinois and Missouri.

             The following were perhaps minor Illinois tribes:

        Albivi, given by only one writer and it is doubtful whether this
        was a true Illinois band.

        Amonokoa, mentioned by Hennepin, 1680.

        Chepoussa, probably a band from Kaskaskia River connected with
        the Michigamea.

        Chinko, mentioned by Allouez and La Salle.

        Coiracoentanon, mentioned by La Salle.

        Espeminkia, mentioned by La Salle.

        Tapouaro, mentioned by La Salle.

             The villages noted in history are:

        Cahokia, near the present Cahokia.

        Immaculate Conception, a mission among the Kaskaskia, near

        Kaskaskia, as given above.

        Matchinkoa, 30 leagues from Fort Crevecoeur, near the present

        Moingwena, as given above.

        Peoria, as given above.

        Pimitoui, on Illinois River near the mouth of Fox River in La
        Salle County.

        History - In 1667 the French priest Allouez met a party of
        Illinois Indians who had come to La Pointe on Lake Superior to
        trade. In 1673 Marquette, while descending the Mississippi, found
        the, Peoria and Moirgwena west of the river near the mouth of the
        Des Moines, but before his return they had moved to the
        neighborhood of the present Peoria, and most of the other
        Illinois tribes, except the Mitchigamea, were then on Illinois
        River. In 1700 the Kaskaskia moved to southern Illinois and
        settled on Kaskaskia River. About the time of La Salle's visit in
        1682 the Illinois were at war with a number of neighboring
        peoples, and the Iroquois, who were then just beginning raids
        against them, caused them heavy losses in the succeeding years.
        The murder of Pontiac by a Kaskaskia Indian set the northern
        tribes in motion against the Illinois and in the ensuing wars the
        latter were reduced to a fraction of their former strength and
        the Sauk, Foxes, Kickapoo, and Potawatomi dispossessed them of
        the greater part of their territories. The remnant settled near
        the French at Kaskaskia, where they continued to decline in
        numbers until, in 1800, only about 150 were left. In 1832 the
        survivors sold their lands and removed west of the Mississippi,
        to the present Kansas, whence they removed again in 1867 and
        became consolidated with the Wea and Piankashaw in the
        northeastern corner of the present State of Oklahoma.

        Population - Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1650 the Illinois
        numbered about 8,000. About 1680 Hennepin gives 400 houses and
        1,800 warriors. Rasles estimated 300 cabins of 4 fires each,
        indicating a population of 9,000, which is probably excessive.
        About the year 1750 there were supposed to be from 1,500 to 2,000
        souls. In 1778 the Kaskaskia numbered 210 and the Peoria and
        Michigamea together 170. In 1800 all these were reduced to 160.
        In 1885 the mixed-blood remnant in Indian territory, including
        the Wea and Piankashaw, numbered 149, and in 1905, 195. The
        census of 1910 gave 128, of whom 114 were in Oklahoma, and the
        census of 1930, 284 Illinois and Miami. In 1937 there were 370
        "Peoria" in Oklahoma.

        Connection in which they have become noted - The chief claim of
        the Illinois to distinction is the adoption of its name for an
        important branch of the Mississippi and more particularly its
        later adoption as the name of the State of Illinois. The name is
        also given geographical application in Arkansas, Texas, Oregon,
        and Oklahoma. The name appears in Illinois Bend, Montague County,
        Tex.; Illinois City, Rock Island County, Ill.; and Illiopolis,
        Sangamon County, Ill.

        Kickapoo. This tribe, after helping destroy the Illinois, settled
        on Vermilion River and extended its territories to Illinois
        River. It ceded this land to the United States Government July
        30, 1819. (See Wisconsin.)

        Miami. In very early times the Miami had a town where now stands
        Chicago, and later their territorial claims covered parts of the
        eastern sections of the State. (See Indiana.)

        Ottawa. Some Ottawa worked down to the northernmost part of the
        State in the eighteenth century. (See Michigan.)

        Potawatomi. This tribe succeeded the Miami in the region of
        Chicago, and, after the destruction of the Illinois, occupied
        still more territory in the northeastern part of the State. (See

        Sauk. The Sauk assisted their relatives the Foxes in expelling
        the Illinois tribes from the Rock River region, and they occupied
        it with them until the lands were ceded to the Whites and they
        moved farther west. (See Wisconsin.)

        Shawnee. There were Shawnee for a while in the southern part of
        Illinois. (See Tennessee.)

        Winnebago. Representatives of this tribe were parties to an
        Illinois land cession in 1829. (See Wisconsin.)

        Wyandot. Some Wyandot were parties to the Greenville Treaty in
        1795 relinquishing land in Illinois to the Whites. (See Ohio.)


Indiana -

 The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Chippewa. Representatives of this tribe appear as parties to the
        Treaty of Greenville in 1795 and treaties made in 1817 and 1821
        by which lands in Indiana were relinquished to the Whites. (See

        Delaware. About 1770 the Delaware, most of whom were then living
        in Ohio, received permission from the Miami and Piankashaw to
        occupy that part of Indiana between the Ohio and White Rivers,
        where at one period they had six villages. In course of time, all
        moved west of the Mississippi to Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma.
        (See New Jersey.)

        Erie. Erie tribal territory may once have extended into the
        northeastern part of the State, but this tribe played but little
        part in the known history of the region covered by it. (See

        Illinois. Representatives of this tribe appear as parties to the
        Treaty of Greenville in 1795, relinquishing land in Indiana to
        the Whites. (See Illinois.)

        Iroquois. The earlier Indian occupants of Indiana were largely
        driven out by the Iroquois, particularly by the western-most of
        the Iroquois tribes, the Seneca, yet they seem to have had few
        settlements in the State. (See New York.)

        Kickapoo. When the Kickapoo were on Vermilion River, Ill., they
        undoubtedly occupied some of western Indiana for brief periods.
        (See Wisconsin.)

        Miami. Thc name is thought to be derived from the Chippewa word
        Omaumeg, signifying "people on the peninsula," but according to
        their own traditions, it came from the word for pigeon. The name
        used by themselves, as recorded and often used by early writers,
        is Twightwees, derived from the cry of a crane. Also called:

             Naked Indians, a common appellation used by the colonists,
        from a confusion of twanh, twanh, the cry of a crane, with tawa,
             Pkiwi-leni, by the Shawnee, meaning "dust or ashes people."
             Sanshkia-a-runu, by the Wyandot, meaning "people dressing
        finely, or fantastically."
             Tawatawas, meaning "naked." (See Naked Indians above.)
             Wa-ya-ta-no'-ke, cited by Morgan (1851).

        Connection.- The Miami belonged to the Algonquian linguistic
        stock, their nearest immediate connections being with the

        Location.- For territory occupied in Indiana, see History. (See
        also Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.)

                            Subdivisions and  Villages

        French writers divided the Miami into the following five bands:
        Piankashaw, Wea, Atchatchakangouen, Kilatika, Mengakonkia, and
        Pepicokia. The first two later became recognized as independent
        tribes, the last may have been absorbed by the Piankashaw but
        this and the other three divisions are no longer recognized. The
        following villages are mentioned:

        Chicago, on the site of the present city, probably occupied by

        Chippekawkay (Piankashaw), perhaps Containing originally the
        Pepicokia band, on the site of Vincennes, Knox County, Ind.

        Choppntee's Village, on the west bank of St. Joseph River, a few
        miles from Fort Wayne, Allen County, Ind.

        Flat Belly's Village (see Papakeecha).

        Kekionga, on the east bank of St. Joseph River, in Allen County,
        Ind., Opposite Fort Wayne.

        Kenapacomaqua, a Wea village on the West bank of Eel River, near
        its mouth 6 miles above Logansport, Cass County, Ind.

        Kokomo, on the site of the present Kokomo, Ind.

        Kowasikka or Thorntown, on Sugar Creek near the present Thornton,
        Boone County, Ind.

        Little Turtle's Village, on Eel River, Ind., about 20 miles
        northwest of Fort Wayne.

        Meshingomesia, on a reservation on the northeastern side of
        Mississinewa River, in Liberty Township, Wabash County, Ind.

        Missinquimeschan, probably Piankashaw, near the site of
        Washington, Daviess County, Ind.

        Mississinewa, on the east side of Mississinewa River at its
        junction with the Wabash in Miami County, Ind.

        Osaga, location uncertain.

        Papakeecha, named from its chief, east of Turkey Lake at the
        present Indian village, Noble County, Ind.

        Piankashaw, occupied by Piankashaw, on Wabash River at the
        junction of the Vermilion.

        Pickawillanee, on Miami River at the site of the present Piqua,
        Miami County, Ohio.

        Saint Francis Xavier, mission for Miami and Mascouten on Fox
        River, Wis., near De Pere, Brown County.

        Seek's Village, on Eel River about 3 miles from Columbia City, in
        Whitley County, Ind.

        Thornton (see Kowasikka).

        White Raecoon's Village, near the present Aboite, Allen County,

        History.- Miami were living in the neighborhood of Green Bay,
        Wis., when knowledge of the tribe first came to Europeans shortly
        after the middle of the seventeenth century. In 1670 they were at
        the headwaters of Fox River, but soon afterward they formed new
        settlements at the southern end of Lake Michigan and on
        Kalamazoo River, Mich. It is quite possible that bands of this
        tribe had moved from Wisconsin at a still earlier period and were
        in northern Indiana. Their first settlements at the lower end of
        Lake Michigan were at Chicago and on St. Joseph River. In 1703
        there was a Miami village at Detroit, but the greater part of the
        tribe continued to live on St. Joseph River for a considerable
        period. By 1711 they had reached the Wabash, and presently they
        were forced from St. Joseph River by the otawatomi, Kickapoo, and
        other northern tribes. In consequence they moved farther south
        and also eastward to Miami River, and perhaps as far as the
        Scioto. After the peace of 1763, they abandoned these eastern
        territories to the Shawnee and retired to Indiana. They took a
        prominent part in all subsequent wars in this section, but soon
        after the War of 1812 began to dispose of their lands and by 1838
        had parted with most of them, the United States Government
        agreeing to provide them with new lands west of the Mississippi.
        In 1840 all of their remaining territories were ceded except one
        tract reserved for a part of the tribe called Meshingomesia's
        band, which had chosen to remain in their old country. In 1867
        the rest accompanied the Illinois to Oklahoma, where they were
        given a reservation in the northeastern corner of the State.
        Their lands now have been allotted in severalty, and they are
        citizens of the State of Oklahoma. The lands of Meshingomesia's
        band in Indiana were divided among the survivors in 1872 and
        their descendants arc citizens of Indiana.

        Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated 4,500 Miami, including the
        Wea and Piankashaw, in the year 1660. An estimate of 1764 gives
        them 1,750, but a year later another substracts 500 from this
        figure. In 1825 the Miami, Wea, and Piankashaw, entered as
        tribes, were supposed to total about 1,400, of whom 327 were Wea.
        In 1885 only 57 Miami proper were officially recognized in Indian
        Territory, while the Wea and Piankashaw were enumerated with the
        Illinois, the whole numbering 149. These last had increased to
        191 in 1903. In 1905 the total number of Miami in Indian
        Territory was 124. In 1900 the Miami in Indiana, including many
        White-Indian mixed-bloods, numbered 243. The census of 1910
        returned 226 Miami, of whom 123 were in Oklahoma and 90 in
        Indiana. The United States Indian Office Report of 1923 gave 125
        Indians in Indiana, most of whom certainly belonged to this
        tribe. The census of 1930 returned 284 Miami and Illinois; the 47
        reported from Indiana were, of course, all Miami. In 1937, 287
        were reported from Oklahoma.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- Historically the
        Miami were noted as one of those tribes which offered steady
        resistance to the westward movement of White population in the
        eighteenth century. Their name has been given to three Ohio
        rivers of some importance, the Great Miami, Little Miami, and
        Maumee; counties in Ohio, Indiana, and Kansas; and to places in
        California, Indiana, Oklahoma, Missouri, Ohio, Texas, and
        Manitoba, Canada; also to a creek in Missouri. There are places
        of the name in Gila County, Ariz.; Miami County, Ind.; Saline
        County, Mo.; Colfax County, N. Mex., Ottawa County, Okla.;
        Roberts County, Tex.; Kanawha County, W. Va. Miamisburg is in
        Montgomery County, Miamitown in Hamilton County, and Miamiville
        in Clermont County, all in Ohio; and Miami Station is in Carroll
        County, Mo. The name of Miami, Fla., and the derived Miami Beach
        and Miami Springs, Fla., have a different origin. The Miami tribe
        had a famous chief, Little Turtle, whose name often appears in
        historical narratives.

        Mosopelea. Before this tribe left its former territory north of
        the Ohio, it probably extended into the extreme southeastern part
        of Indiana. (See Ohio.)

        Neutrals. The Neutral Nation may have extended slightly into the
        northeastern portion of this State, though this is uncertain.
        (See New York.)

        Ottawa. Representatives of the Ottawa appear as parties to the
        Treaty of Greenville in 1795, relinquishing Indiana land to the
        Whites, and as parties to similar treaties in 1817 and 1821. (See

        Potawatonii. The Potawatomi pushed into the northern part of
        Indiana during the eighteenth century and were in occupancy until
        they ceded their lands to the United States Government in the
        first half of the nineteenth century. (See Michigan.)

        Seneca, see Iroquois.

        Shawnee. There areas an ancient Shawnee town in Posey County,
        Ind., at the junction of the Wabash and Ohio. At a later period
        the tribe had settlements along the southern and eastern borders,
        and the soil of Indiana was the scene of the activities of the
        Shawnee prophet and his brother Tecumseh until after Gen.
        Harrison's victory at Tippecanoe. (See Tennessee.)

        Wyandot. Representatives of this tribe appear as parties to the
        Treaty of Greenville in 1795, relinquishing land in Indiana to
        the Whites. (See Wisconsin and Ohio.)


Iowa -

 The Indian Tribes of North America by John R. Swanton

        Chippewa. Part of the Chippewa, together with the Potawatomi and
        Ottawa, ceded lands in this State in 1848. (See Minnesota.)

        Dakota. After the Iowa Indians moved from the northern part of
        the present State of Iowa, the Dakota occupied much of the
        territory they had abandoned until the Sauk and Fox settled in
        their neigborhood shortly before and immediately after the Black
        Hawk War of 1832 and harassed them so constantly that they with-
        drew. (See South Dakota.)

        Foxes. This tribe began moving into Iowa sometime after 1804 and
        by the end of the Black Hawk War all were gathered there. In 1842
        they parted with their Iowa lands and most of them removed to
        Kansas with the Sauk, but shortly after the middle of the
        nineteenth century some began to return to the State and by 1859
        nearly all had come back. They bought a tract of land near Tama
        City to which they added from time to time and where they have
        lived ever since. (See Wisconsin.)

        Illinois. Franquelin (1688) seems to locate the Peoria on the
        upper Iowa River, but Marquette, on his descent of the
        Mississippi in 1673, found that tribe and the Moingwena near the
        mouth of the Des Moines. When he returned he found that they had
        moved to the neighborhood of Peoria, Ill. The name Des Moines is
        derived from that of the Moingwena. (See Illinois.)

        Iowa. Apparently borrowed by the French from Ayuhwa, the Dakota
        term applied to them, which, according to Riggs, signifies
        "sleepy ones." Skinner (1926) states that Iowa is their own name,
        but I feel sure that it has been borrowed in later years. Also

             Nadouessioux Maskoutens, Algonkin name meaning "Dakota of
        thc Prairies."
             Nez Perces, a traders' nickname.
             Pahodja, own name, meaning "dusty noses." Skinner (1926)
        gives a different translation, but I am inclined to accept that
        furnished by J. O. Dorsey.
             Pashohan, Pawnee name.
             Pierced Noses, traders' name.
             Wa-otc', Winnebago name.

        Connections.- The Iowa were a tribe of the Siouan linguistic
        stock and of the Chiwere subdivision, which included also the
        Oto, and Missouri.

        Location.- The Iowa moved about a great deal but mainly within
        the boundaries of the State which bears their name. (See also
        Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.)

                            Subdivisions and Villages

        The only subdivisions mentioned are those of the moieties and
        gentes. But one village, the Wolf village, appears in the
        historical narratives.

        History.- In the earliest historical period the Iowa were living
        on a western affluent of the Mississippi conjectured by Mott
        (1938) to have been the Upper Iowa. Later they moved into the
        northwestern part of the present State of Iowa about the Okoboji
        Lakes and probably extended into southwestern Minnesota to the
        neighborhood of the Red Pipestone Quarry and to the Big Sioux
        River. In the latter part of the eighteenth century they passed
        over to the Missouri and settled south of the spot where Council
        Bluffs now stands and on the east side of the river. About 1760
        they moved east and came to live along the Mississippi between
        the Iowa and Des Moines Rivers. Their principal town was on the
        Des Moines River and for a long time at a spot in the
        northwestern part of Van Buren County. Early in the nineteenth
        century part of them seem to have moved farther up the Des Moines
        while others established themselves on Grand and Platte Rivers,
        Mo. At this time they seem to have come into contact with the
        Dakota and to have suffered considerably in consequence. There is
        a tradition that they were defeated by Black Hawk in 1821. In
        1814 they were allotted lands in what was known as "the Platte
        Purchase" extending from the Platte River of Missouri through
        western Iowa even to the Dakota country. By treaties signed
        August 4, 1824, July 15, 1830, September 17, 1836, and November
        23, 1837, they ceded all of their claims to lands in Missouri and
        Iowa, and by that of Prairie du Chien, signed August 19, 1825,
        they surrendered all claims to land in Minnesota. The treaty of
        1836 assigned part of them a reservation along Great Nemaha
        River, in the present Richardson County, Nebr., and Brovn County,
        Kans., but it was considerably reduced by treaties of May 17,
        1854, and March 6, 1861. Later part removed to Oklahoma to find
        homes in the present Lincoln and Noble Counties.

             Tradition assigns to this tribe a single origin with the
        Winnebago, Oto, and Missouri, and it is borne out by the close
        linguistic relationship between them. Rather specific migration
        legends have been preserved giving an account of the movements of
        this tribal complex and the time and circumstances of the
        separation. If we are to believe these traditions, after
        separation from the Winnebago, the Iowa-Oto-Missouri mother tribe
        moved first to Rock River, Ill., near its junction with the
        Mississippi, and thence to the Des Moines River some distance
        above its mouth, after separating at the Iowa River into two
        bands, the one which became the Iowa moving to the northwest
        while the Oto-Missouri went on to the mouth of Grand River, where
        part remained becoming the Missouri while the rest, the Oto, went
        on westward up the Missouri. The historical documents do not
        bring the Iowa so far south and they also seem to link the Oto
        and Iowa closely together. We should, therefore, be inclined to
        dismiss the native traditions altogether were it not that we have
        to account for the Missouri who are not mentioned in early times
        in close conjunction with the other two but had reached the mouth
        of Grand River as early as 1687. It is, of course, possible that
        the Missouri separated from the Iowa-Oto or Iowa at Upper Iowa
        River instead of Iowa River, but it is also possible that the
        entire tribal complex moved somewhat farther south before their
        separation. The later stages of Iowa history given in the
        tradition already noted conform sufficiently well with the known
        historical facts to give us some confidence regarding the rest of
        the story though it varies in details. According to this, the
        Iowa went from the neighborhood of the Red Pipestone Quarry to
        the mouth of the Platte, and then in succession to the headwaters
        of the Little Platte River, Mo., to the west bank of the
        Mississippi slightly above the mouth of the Des Moines, to a
        point a little higher up on the same side of the Mississippi,
        southwestwardly to Salt River and up it to its extreme
        headwaters, to the upper part of Chariton River, to Grand River,
        and thence to Missouri River opposite Fort Leavenworth, where
        they lived in 1848 at the time when this narrative was related
        and the map accompanying it drawn.

             By agreement, the Oklahoma tract held by the Iowa was
        granted to its occupants in severalty.

        Population.- In 1702 Iberville estimated that the war power of
        the Iowa was about 300 "good men." In 1736 Chauvignerie placed it
        as low as 80. An estimate made in 1760 gives the total population
        as 1,100 souls. In 1777 Cruzat reported that there were 250
        warriors, and Lewis and Clark, in 1804, 200 warriors and a total
        population of 800. In 1829 we find an estimate of 1,000, and in
        1832 Catlin gives one of the highest, 1,400. In 1836, however, an
        attempted census returned 992 but only 7 years later the United
        States Indian Office reported only 470. In 1885 there were 138 in
        Kansas, and 88 in Oklahoma. In 1905 the figures were 225 and 89
        respectively. The census of 1910 returned 244 of whom 124 were in
        Kansas, 79 in Oklahoma, and 38 in Nebraska. The United States
        Indian Office Report of 1923 gave 338 in Kansas and 82 in
        Oklahoma, a total of 420. The census of 1930 returned 10 in Brown
        County, Kans.; 83 in Richardson County, Nebr.; 32 in Lincoln
        County, Okla.; 24 in Noble County, Okla.; and 5 in other States,
        or a total of 154. In 1937 there were 112 in Oklahoma. Although
        we have estimates of Iowa population higher than any above given,
        in one case as high as 8,000, it is evident that the figure
        suggested by Mooney (1928) as giving the probable population in
        1780, i. e., 1,200, is nearer thc truth- too high if anything.

        Connection in which they have become noted.- The Iowa were
        relatively inconspicuous in the early days, but their name will
        always be prominent because it was adopted as that of one of the
        great agricultural States of the Middle West. Iowa City, two
        rivers, a county, and several smaller places in the same State
        bear the name. There is also a county so designated in Wisconsin
        and villages in Kansas and California.

             There is a place of the name in Calcasieu Parish, La.; Iowa
        Falls in Hardin County, Iowa; Iowa Colony in Brazoria County,
        Tex.; Iowa Park in Wichita County in the same State, and Iowa
        Hill in Placer County, Calif.

        Missouri. This tribe is said to have had the same origin as the
        Iowa and to have moved with them and the Oto to Iowa River, where
        the Iowa remained while the others continued on to the Missouri.
        (See Missouri.)

        Moingwena. (See Illinois above.)

        Omaha. While the Omaha usually lived west of the Missouri, they
        wandered for a time in western Iowa before moving over into
        Nebraska. (See Nebraska.)

        Oto, see Missouri above, and Missouri.

        Ottawa. Representatives of this tribe were a party to a treaty
        made in 1846, ceding Iowa lands to the Whites. (See Michigan.)

        Peoria. (See Illinois above.)

        Ponca. The Ponca accompanied the Omaha while they were in western
        Iowa. (See Nebraska.)

        Potawatomi. The Prairie Potawatomi settled in western Iowa before
        removing to Kansas. They ceded their lands in 1946. (See

        Sauk. The Sauk moved into Iowa after the Black Hawk War and from
        there to Kansas in 1842. (See Wisconsin.)

        Winnebago. In 1840 this tribe went to the Neutral Ground in Iowa
        assigned to them by treaty of September 15, 1832, whence they
        removed in 1848 to Minnesota. (See Wisconsin.)

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